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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
PATIENT DOSE FOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY EXAMINATION: DOSE REFERENCE LEVELS AND EFFECTIVE DOSES BASED ON A NATIONAL SURVEY OF 2013 IN KOREA.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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14 620 sets of patient dose data were obtained for 31 different models of computed tomography (CT) equipment (total 73) with 18 types of CT examination in Korea. Specific diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for this study in terms of third quartile volumetric CT dose index in mGy [and dose-length product (DLP) in mGy.cm] are as follows: head, 53 (910); neck, 20 (770); chest, 14 (710); abdomen, 14 (1000); stomach, 14 (1000); liver, 14 (1700); pancreas, 14 (1700); kidney, 14 (2100); cervical spine, 30 (600); lumbar spine, 25 (760); hip, 17 (600); cardiac CT angiography, 45 (1250); head CT angiography, 43 (1900); liver CT angiography, 14 (1400) and thoraco-abdominal CT angiography, 16 (2000). In the present study, DRLs in terms of volumetric CT dose index were below previously published reference levels, partly because the newer CT equipments have improved technology that facilitates lower patient dose. Meanwhile, DRLs in terms of DLP were higher, because multi-phase scanning protocols with prolonged scan coverage have been widely used.
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CBX7 inhibits breast tumorigenicity through DKK-1-mediated suppression of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Polycomb protein chromobox homolog 7 (CBX7) is involved in several biologic processes including stem cell regulation and cancer development, but its roles in breast cancer remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CBX7 negatively regulates breast tumor initiation. CD44(+)/CD24(-)/ESA(+) breast stem-like cells showed diminished CBX7 expression. Furthermore, small hairpin RNA-mediated CBX7 knockdown in breast epithelial and cancer cells increased the CD44(+)/CD24(-)/ESA(+) cell population and reinforced in vitro self-renewal and in vivo tumor-initiating ability. Similarly, CBX7 overexpression repressed these effects. We also found that CBX7 inhibits the Wnt/?-catenin/T cell factor pathway by enhancing the expression of Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), a Wnt antagonist. In particular, CBX7 increased DKK-1 transcription by cooperating with p300 acetyltransferase and subsequently enhancing the histone acetylation of the DKK-1 promoter. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of DKK-1 in CBX7-overexpressing cells showed recovery of Wnt signaling and consequent rescue of the CD44(+)/CD24(-)/ESA(+) cell population. Taken together, these findings indicate that CBX7-mediated epigenetic induction of DKK-1 is crucial for the inhibition of breast tumorigenicity, suggesting that CBX7 could be a potential tumor suppressor in human breast cancer.-Kim, H. -Y., Park, J.-H., Won, H.-Y., Lee, J.-Y., Kong, G. CBX7 inhibits breast tumorigenicity through DKK-1-mediated suppression of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway.
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THE IMPACT OF TIMING OF DIALYSIS INITIATION ON MORTALITY IN PATIENTS WITH PERITONEAL DIALYSIS.
Perit Dial Int
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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? Background: The impact of timing of dialysis initiation on mortality is controversial in patients with peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study, we analyzed the impact of timing of dialysis initiation on mortality in the incident PD population. ? Methods: Incident patients with PD were selected from the Clinical Research Center (CRC) registry for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a prospective cohort study on dialysis in Korea. Patients were categorized into 3 groups according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the initiation of PD using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. Group A was defined as eGFR <5mL/min/1.73m(2), group B as eGFR 5 - 10 mL/min/1.73m(2), and group C as eGFR > 10 mL/min/1.73m(2). Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of mortality with group B as the reference. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. ? Results: A total of 495 incident PD patients were included. The number of patients in group A was 109, group B was 279, and group C was 107. The median follow-up period was 23 months. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that group A had a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality compared with group B (HR 4.13, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 - 11.03, p = 0.005) after adjustment for age, gender, cause of ESRD, serum albumin level, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. There was no significant difference in mortality between group C and group B (HR 1.50, 95% CI, 0.59 - 3.80, p = 0.398) after adjustment for clinical variables. ? Conclusion: An eGFR < 5 mL/min/1.73m(2) at the initiation of PD was a significant risk factor for death, while an eGFR >10 mL/min/1.73m(2) at the initiation of PD was not associated with improved survival compared with an eGFR of 5 - 10 mL/min/1.73m(2) at the initiation of PD.
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Obesity modifies the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and insulin resistance in Korean general population without increased fasting glucose levels.
Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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The inverse relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and insulin resistance (IR) has been reported, but many interventional studies failed to reduce IR with 25(OH)D supplementation. In addition, there has been a paucity of literature on the interaction between 25(OH)D status and IR according to the degree of obesity in Asian subjects. We therefore evaluated the association between 25(OH)D status and IR according to the degree of obesity. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-2010 were analyzed. The study subjects comprised 10,629 participants aged ?20 years with fasting glucose<100 mg/dL. IR was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). We found an inverse linear association between 25(OH)D and loge(HOMA-IR) in multiple linear regression analysis; namely, 10 ng/mL increase of 25(OH)D was associated with 0.018 decrease of loge(HOMA-IR) (p<0.0001). In the subgroup analysis, we identified a distinct trend that the inverse linear association between 25(OH)D and loge(HOMA-IR) became more prominent with the progression of body mass index, waist circumference, or fat mass quartile (Q): -0.009, -0.004, -0.029 and -0.037 in Q1-Q4 of body mass index, -0.004, -0.014, -0.02 and -0.038 in Q1-Q4 of waist circumference, and -0.002, -0.001, -0.017 and -0.025 in Q1-Q4 of fat mass. Thus, the IR-lowering effect of 25(OH)D became more evident with the progression of obesity in an adult Korean population without increased fasting glucose levels. We suggest that proper supplementation of vitamin D might be beneficial in obese Korean adults.
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Population pharmacogenetic pharmacokinetic modeling for flip-flop phenomenon of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium in kidney transplant recipients.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) is effective and safe in preventing rejection after transplantation and is mainly transported by ABCs and OATPs and metabolized by UGTs. The genetic polymorphisms affect the inter-individual variation in drug disposition and elimination. The aims of this study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model and to evaluate the influence of genetic and clinical factors on the PK of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in Korean renal transplant recipients.
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Effect of dialysis initiation timing on clinical outcomes: a propensity-matched analysis of a prospective cohort study in Korea.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Controversy persists regarding the appropriate initiation timing of renal replacement therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease. We evaluated the effect of dialysis initiation timing on clinical outcomes. Initiation times were classified according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
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The condensin component NCAPG2 regulates microtubule-kinetochore attachment through recruitment of Polo-like kinase 1 to kinetochores.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The early event of microtubule-kinetochore attachment is a critical stage for precise chromosome segregation. Here we report that NCAPG2, which is a component of the condensin II complex, mediates chromosome segregation through microtubule-kinetochore attachment by recruiting PLK1 to prometaphase kinetochores. NCAPG2 colocalizes with PLK1 at prometaphase kinetochores and directly interacts with the polo-box domain (PBD) of PLK1 via its highly conserved C-terminal region. In both humans and Caenorhabditis elegans, when NCAPG2 is depleted, the attachment of the spindle to the kinetochore is loosened and misoriented. This is caused by the disruption of PLK1 localization to the kinetochore and by the decreased phosphorylation of its kinetochore substrate, BubR1. In addition, the crystal structure of the PBD of PLK1, in complex with the C-terminal region of NCAPG2, (1007)VLS-pT-L(1011), exhibits structural conservation of PBD-phosphopeptides, suggesting that the regulation of NCAPG2 function is phosphorylation-dependent. These findings suggest that NCAPG2 plays an important role in regulating proper chromosome segregation through a functional interaction with PLK1 during mitosis.
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Sulfated Chitosan Oligosaccharides Suppress LPS-Induced NO Production via JNK and NF-?B Inactivation.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Various biological effects have been reported for sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides, but the molecular mechanisms of action of their anti-inflammatory effects are still unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides and to elucidate the possible mechanisms of action. The results showed that pretreated low molecular weight sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-? in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. The sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides also suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), phosphorylation of JNK and translocation of p65, a subunit of NF-?B, into the nucleus by inhibiting degradation of I?B-?. Our investigation suggests sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides inhibit IL-6/TNF-? in LPS-induced macrophages, regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways dependent on NF-?B activation.
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Antioxidant activity and protective effect of extract of Celosia cristata L. flower on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant potential and protective effects of Celosia cristata L. (Family: Amaranthaceae) flower (CCF) extracts on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in the hepatocytes of Chang cells and rat livers. In vitro, CCF extracts exhibited protective effect through their radical scavenging ability to enhance cell viability, prevent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and inhibit mitochondrial membrane depolarisation in t-BHP-induced hepatotoxicity in Chang cells. In vivo, oral feeding of CCF (100mg and 500mg/kg of body weight) to rats for five consecutive days before a single dose of t-BHP (2mmol/kg, i.p.) showed a significant (p<0.05) protective effect by lowering serum levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT). The extract decreased the hepatic levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and serum level of triglyceride (TG) against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. These results indicate that CCF extract prevented oxidative stress-induced liver injury by enhancing hepatocyte antioxidant abilities.
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Control of fluid balance guided by body composition monitoring in patients on peritoneal dialysis (COMPASS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The clinical benefits of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)-guided fluid management in patients on hemodialysis have been widely demonstrated. However, no previous reports have evaluated the effect of regular and serial BIS-guided fluid management on the residual renal function (RRF) in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Therefore, we will evaluate the clinical efficacy of BIS-guided fluid management for preserving RRF and protecting cardiovascular events in patients on PD.
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Expression of metabolism-related proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma: comparison to invasive ductal carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the difference in expression of metabolism-related proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) compared to those of the invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Tissue microarray was manufactured for 114 cases of ILC and 692 cases of IDC. Immunohistochemical stains were performed as follows: glycolysis (Glut-1, hexokinase II, CAIX, MCT4), glutaminolysis (GLS1, GDH, ASCT2), mitochondria (ATP synthase, SDHA, SDHB), and serine/glycine metabolism (PHGDH, PSAT1, PSPH, SHMT1, GLDC) related proteins. Pleomorphic type (n?=?12) of ILC revealed higher expression in hexokinase II, SDHB, and GLDC than classic type (n?=?102) (p?
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The impact of high-flux dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis patients.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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The effect of high-flux (HF) dialysis on mortality rates could vary with the duration of dialysis. We evaluated the effects of HF dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients.
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The clinical association of the blood pressure variability with the target organ damage in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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It is known that blood pressure variability (BPV) can independently affect target organ damage (TOD), even with normal blood pressure. There have been few studieson chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We evaluated the relationship between BPV and TOD in a cross-sectional, multicenter study on hypertensive CKD patients. We evaluated 1,173 patients using 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. BPV was defined as the average real variability, with a mean value of the absolute differences between consecutive readings of systolic blood pressure. TOD was defined as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (by the Romhilt-Estes score ?4 in electrocardiography) and kidney injury (as determined from an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]<30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and proteinuria).The mean BPV of the subjects was 15.9±4.63 mmHg. BPV displayed a positive relationship with LVH in a univariate analysis and after adjustment for multi-variables (odds ratio per 1 mmHg increase in BPV: 1.053, P=0.006). In contrast, BPV had no relationship with kidney injury. These data suggest that BPV may be positively associated with LVH in hypertensive CKD patients.
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Perianal Paget's Disease.
Ann Coloproctol
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The incidence of extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is very low. An 84-year-old Korean man was treated with topical and oral medications at a local dermatologic clinic for a year, but the symptoms did not improve. He visited Severance Hospital and underwent a perianal skin biopsy and was finally diagnosed with EMPD. The authors performed a wide local excision according to a 1-cm margin around the lesion. For the skin and the soft tissue defects, bilateral inferior gluteal artery perforator flap transpositions were performed. The size of the lesion was 14 cm(2) × 9 cm(2), and the lateral and the basal margins were all disease free.
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Non-linear association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with urinary albumin excretion rate in normoalbuminuric subjects.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Vitamin D deficiencies and increases in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) are both important and potentially related health problems; however, the nature of their relationship has not been established in normoalbuminuric subjects.
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Curcumin Enhances Docetaxel-Induced Apoptosis of 8505C Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans, and its progression is poorly controlled by existing therapeutic methods. Curcumin has been shown to suppress inflammation and angiogenesis. In this study, we evaluated whether curcumin could augment docetaxel-induced apoptosis of ATC cells. We also analyzed changes in nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression levels to delineate possible mechanisms of their combined action.
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Dose selection method for pharmacokinetic study in hemodialysis patients using a subpharmacological dose: oseltamivir as a model drug.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Dose selection is an important step in pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of hemodialysis patients. We propose a simulation-based dose-selection method for PK studies of hemodialysis patients using a subpharmacological dose of oseltamivir as a model drug.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of extract from Haliotis discus hannai fermented with Cordyceps militaris mycelia in RAW264.7 macrophages through TRIF-dependent signaling pathway.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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In this study, Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai) fermentation was attempted with Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) mycelia using a solid culture. We tried to ferment H. discus hannai to determine the optimal conditions fermentation with regards to its anti-inflammatory effects. The extracts of H. discus hannai fermented with C. militaris mycelia (HFCM-5) showed higher nitric oxide inhibitory effects than H. discus hannai and C. militaris alone. HFCM-5 also decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-? and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. HFCM-5 did not affect the MyD88-dependent pathway, but decreased phosphorylation of IRF3 and STAT1 which are involved in TRIF-dependent pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that HFCM-5 exerts its anti-inflammatory effects via TRIF signaling pathway and could potentially be used as a functional food in the regulation of inflammation.
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The association between body mass index and mortality on peritoneal dialysis: a prospective cohort study.
Perit Dial Int
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Previous studies have demonstrated that increased body mass index (BMI) is associated with decreased mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, the association between BMI and survival has not been well established in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of the study was to determine the association between BMI and mortality in the PD population using the Clinical Research Center (CRC) registry for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cohort in Korea.
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Association between body fat and vitamin D status in Korean adults.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The relationship between body fat mass and vitamin D appears to vary by ethnicity, but our understanding of this predisposition in Asians is limited due to the scarcity of prior investigations. Data on 1,697 Korean adults were obtained from the second and third years (2008-2009) of the fourth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Body fat mass was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both linear regression analysis for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and logistic analysis for vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <20 ng/mL] were performed to determine significant predictors among BMI, waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage (BF), after adjustment of multiple covariates. To explore a possible non-linear relationship between them, the fractional polynomials method was used. All analyses were conducted following stratification by sex. In linear regression analysis, BMI and WC were not associated with 25(OH)D. However, BF was inversely related to 25(OH)D, irrespective of the fat location (both appendicular and truncal fat) in both sexes. In logistic regression analysis, the highest quartile group of BF had a greater OR for vitamin D deficiency than the lower quartile groups, irrespective of the fat location and sex. However, the quartiles of BMI and WC were not associated with vitamin D deficiency. The linear relationships between BF and 25(OH)D (or vitamin D deficiency) were confirmed despite use of the fractional polynomials method. Body fat mass is inversely associated with serum 25(OH)D in Korean adults. Monitoring of vitamin D deficiency in Korean adults with high fat mass is needed.
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Recurrence of idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after kidney transplantation: experience of a Korean tertiary center.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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FSGS is the second most common cause of idiopathic NS in children. It often progresses to ESRD and commonly recurs after KT. To investigate the risk factors and the prognosis of recurrence in pediatric idiopathic FSGS in Korea, retrospective review of 43 KT in 38 children with idiopathic FSGS of last two decades was conducted. The patients presented at the median age of 5.1 yr (range 1.1-13.8 yr) and received KT 5.7 yr later (range 1.3-17.6 yr). FSGS recurred in 20 allografts immediately after transplantation, only in those who presented with NS but not in those who presented with AUA. The risk factors for recurrence were age of onset >5 yr and progression to ESRD within six yr but not sooner than 18 months. CR was achieved in 13 patients with FSGS recurrence and sustained in nine without subsequent relapse over a median of six and a half yr (0.6-20.7 yr). Pediatric idiopathic FSGS presenting with NS recurred in more than half of patients after transplantation. Interestingly, more rapid progression within less than 18 months did not predict recurrence. To identify high-risk patients of recurrence, an international cooperative study would be necessary.
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Effect of Poloxamer 407 as a carrier vehicle on rotator cuff healing in a rat model.
J Orthop Surg Res
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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In vivo studies showing the effects of biologic healing-promoting factors on tendon-to-bone healing after rotator cuff repair have focused only on biologic healing-promoting factors and have not taken into consideration the effect of the carrier vehicle. Moreover, most studies have evaluated the healing process using different carrier vehicles, each of which may have specific effects on tendon healing. This may explain the large variability seen in outcomes in research studies. In this study, we investigated the effects of Poloxamer 407 as a carrier vehicle on rotator cuff healing at the repair site and compared it with those of a collagen sponge, which is a commonly used carrier vehicle.
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A testing algorithm for detection of the B-type Raf kinase V600E mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The B-type Raf kinase (BRAF) V600E mutation is a useful diagnostic marker for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We developed a testing algorithm for the BRAF mutation using BRAF immunohistochemistry (IHC) in PTC. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded PTC tissues from 91 patients were immunostained with a BRAF V600E mutation-specific antibody. The immunostaining results were interpreted semiquantitatively by adding the scores of the proportion of positive cells (scored 0 to 5) and staining intensity (score 0 to 3). To validate BRAF IHC, 4 molecular methods were used: direct sequencing, pyrosequencing, peptide nucleic acid clamping polymerase chain reaction, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The cut-off score of BRAF IHC for predicting the BRAF mutation was 5.5. In 68 cases, where the BRAF IHC score was 6 or more, 89.7% were positive for the BRAF mutation by 2 or more molecular methods and 97.1% by one or more methods. In 13 cases, where the IHC score was between 4 or more and less than 6, 61.5% were positive for the BRAF mutation by 2 or more methods and 69.2% by at least one method. In 10 cases, where the IHC score was less than 4, BRAF mutation was noted in one case only by one molecular method. BRAF V600E IHC scores of less than 4 or 6 or more should not require confirmation by additional tests. However, BRAF V600E IHC scores of 4 or 5 may require confirmation of the BRAF V600E mutation. In addition, BRAF IHC scores 6 or more were more sensitive than any single molecular method; therefore, BRAF IHC may overcome the limitations of using a single type of molecular method.
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Detection of PIWI and piRNAs in the mitochondria of mammalian cancer cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 26-31 nt small noncoding RNAs that are processed from their longer precursor transcripts by Piwi proteins. Localization of Piwi and piRNA has been reported mostly in nucleus and cytoplasm of higher eukaryotes germ-line cells, where it is believed that known piRNA sequences are located in repeat regions of nuclear genome in germ-line cells. However, localization of PIWI and piRNA in mammalian somatic cell mitochondria yet remains largely unknown. We identified 29 piRNA sequence alignments from various regions of the human mitochondrial genome. Twelve out 29 piRNA sequences matched stem-loop fragment sequences of seven distinct tRNAs. We observed their actual expression in mitochondria subcellular fractions by inspecting mitochondrial-specific small RNA-Seq datasets. Of interest, the majority of the 29 piRNAs overlapped with multiple longer transcripts (expressed sequence tags) that are unique to the human mitochondrial genome. The presence of mature piRNAs in mitochondria was detected by qRT-PCR of mitochondrial subcellular RNAs. Further validation showed detection of Piwi by colocalization using anti-Piwil1 and mitochondria organelle-specific protein antibodies.
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Interdialytic weight gain and cardiovascular outcome in incident hemodialysis patients.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) has been regarded as a surrogate of volume overload, but also as a marker of a better nutritional status in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis (HD). This paradoxical meaning of IDWG requires further investigation, particularly in adverse cardiovascular outcomes.
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A nanowire-based label-free immunosensor: direct incorporation of a PSA antibody in electropolymerized polypyrrole.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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We have suggested a novel method for the preparation of a label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as target marker for prostate cancer. Direct incorporation of PSA antibody (anti-PSA) into polypyrrole (Ppy) electropolymerized on a three-dimensional Au nanowire array has resulted in enhanced molecular interactions, ultimately leading to improved sensing performance. The electrochemical performance of the nanowire-based immunosensor array were characterized by (1) differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) to evaluate the specific recognition of PSA, (2) impedance and cyclic voltammetry to observe surface resistance and electroactivity, and (3) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to demonstrate the three-dimensional architecture. The vertically-aligned geometric organization of Ppy provides a novel platform to improve the anti-PSA loading capacity. Overall, enhanced electrochemical performance of the proposed immunosensor has been demonstrated by its linear response over PSA concentrations ranging from 10 fg mL(-1) to 10 ng mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.3 fg mL(-1), indicating that the strategy proposed here has great potential for clinical applications.
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An electroactive biotin-doped polypyrrole substrate that immobilizes and releases EpCAM-positive cancer cells.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The specific capture and remotely controlled release of the EpCAM-positive cancer cells from biotin-doped polypyrrole (Ppy) films in response to an electrical potential is presented. As Ppy allows the direct incorporation of biotin molecules during the electrochemical process, densely packed biotin molecules can serve as the binding sites for streptavidin-tagged biomolecular complexes. This study demonstrates not only the enhanced capture and enrichment of EpCAM-positive cancer cells but also "on-demand" release of the viable cells from conductive Ppy in an electrical-potential-dependent way. This novel approach is of great importance in a diverse range of applications, and in particular in cancer diagnostics and screening.
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Transcriptional regulator CTR9 inhibits Th17 differentiation via repression of IL-17 expression.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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PAF complex is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional complex that associates with RNA polymerase II in the coding region of actively transcribing genes. Although its transcriptional activity is closely related to diverse cellular processes, such as cell-cycle progression or development in mammals, its role in immune responses has not been addressed yet. In this study, we show that CTR9, a component of PAF complex, functions as a repressor of Th17 differentiation. Both mRNA and protein levels of CTR9 were significantly decreased during the differentiation processes of naive T into Th17 effector cells. When CTR9 was depleted, IL-17 expression was induced and differentiation into Th17 cells enhanced. In naive T cells, CTR9 occupied the coding region of Il17a, but dissociated under Th17 in vitro-polarizing conditions. In contrast, both CDC73 and PAF1 were recruited to the Il17a locus under Th17-differentiation conditions. In the IL-6-stimulated splenocytes, expression of CTR9 was decreased, and chromatin-bound CTR9 disappeared in the coding region of Il17a. IL-6 also directly repressed expression of CTR9 gene, as promoter activity of CTR9 was similarly repressed by IL-6 treatment. Moreover, in mice with collagen-induced arthritis, lentivirus-mediated CTR9 overexpression in the joints ameliorated arthritis severity, decreasing the frequency of CD4(+)IL-17(+) T cells in lymph nodes. In conclusion, our data propose a novel feed-forward loop of IL-17 transcriptional regulatory circuit, via IL-6-mediated repression of CTR9 which is a transcriptional repressor of IL-17.
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Long-term prognosis of clinically early IgA nephropathy is not always favorable.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The long-term prognosis of clinically early IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients remains to be clarified. We investigated the long-term outcomes of IgAN patients with an apparently benign presentation and evaluated prognostic factors for renal survival.
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Chitooligosaccharide and its derivatives: preparation and biological applications.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Chitin is a natural polysaccharide of major importance. This biopolymer is synthesized by an enormous number of living organisms; considering the amount of chitin produced annually in the world, it is the most abundant polymer after cellulose. The most important derivative of chitin is chitosan, obtained by partial deacetylation of chitin under alkaline conditions or by enzymatic hydrolysis. Chitin and chitosan are known to have important functional activities but poor solubility makes them difficult to use in food and biomedicinal applications. Chitooligosaccharides (COS) are the degraded products of chitosan or chitin prepared by enzymatic or chemical hydrolysis of chitosan. The greater solubility and low viscosity of COS have attracted the interest of many researchers to utilize COS and their derivatives for various biomedical applications. In light of the recent interest in the biomedical applications of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, this review focuses on the preparation and biological activities of chitin, chitosan, COS, and their derivatives.
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Renal adverse effects of sunitinib and its clinical significance: a single-center experience in Korea.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Sunitinib is an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor used mainly for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The renal adverse effects (RAEs) of sunitinib have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of RAEs (proteinuria [PU] and renal insufficiency [RI]) and to investigate the relationship between PU and antitumor efficacy.
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Effect of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of fimasartan: a single-dose, open-label, Phase I study.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Fimasartan is a novel angiotensin II receptor blocker. Fimasartan is mainly eliminated via biliary excretion, and its urinary elimination is less than 3%.
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Mg2+ effect on argonaute and RNA duplex by molecular dynamics and bioinformatics implications.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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RNA interference (RNAi), mediated by small non-coding RNAs (e.g., miRNAs, siRNAs), influences diverse cellular functions. Highly complementary miRNA-target RNA (or siRNA-target RNA) duplexes are recognized by an Argonaute family protein (Ago2), and recent observations indicate that the concentration of Mg2+ ions influences miRNA targeting of specific mRNAs, thereby modulating miRNA-mRNA networks. In the present report, we studied the thermodynamic effects of differential [Mg2+] on slicing (RNA silencing cycle) through molecular dynamics simulation analysis, and its subsequent statistical analysis. Those analyses revealed different structural conformations of the RNA duplex in Ago2, depending on Mg2+ concentration. We also demonstrate that cation effects on Ago2 structural flexibility are critical to its catalytic/functional activity, with low [Mg2+] favoring greater Ago2 flexibility (e.g., greater entropy) and less miRNA/mRNA duplex stability, thus favoring slicing. The latter finding was supported by a negative correlation between expression of an Mg2+ influx channel, TRPM7, and one miRNA's (miR-378) ability to downregulate its mRNA target, TMEM245. These results imply that thermodynamics could be applied to siRNA-based therapeutic strategies, using highly complementary binding targets, because Ago2 is also involved in RNAi slicing by exogenous siRNAs. However, the efficacy of a siRNA-based approach will differ, to some extent, based on the Mg2+ concentration even within the same disease type; therefore, different siRNA-based approaches might be considered for patient-to-patient needs.
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Circulating TNF receptors are significant prognostic biomarkers for idiopathic membranous nephropathy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. A biomarker to accurately indicate the severity of iMN and predict long-term prognosis is insufficient. Here, we evaluated the clinical significance of circulating tumor necrosis factor receptors (cTNFRs) as prognostic biomarkers of iMN with nephrotic syndrome. A total of 113 patients with biopsy-proven iMN and 43 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Ninety patients with iMN had nephrotic range proteinuria. Levels of cTNFRs were measured by using serum samples collected at the time of initial diagnosis. Levels of cTNFRs were higher in the patients with nephrotic syndrome than in those with subnephrotic range proteinuria or in the healthy volunteers (P for trend <0.001). Estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria tended to worsen as the cTNFRs levels increased. Having a cTNFR1 level within the highest tertile was a significant risk factor for renal progression after adjustment, in comparison with the other tertiles (hazard ratio [HR], 3.39; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.48-7.78; P = 0.004). The cTNFR2 level within the highest tertile also significantly increased the risk of renal progression (HR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.43-7.54; P = 0.005). Renal tubular TNFRs expression was associated with cTNFRs level. However, the cTNFRs levels were not associated with autoantibody against phospholipase A2 receptor reactivity/levels or treatment response. This study demonstrated that cTNFRs levels at the time of initial diagnosis could predict renal progression in patients with iMN.
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Expression of autophagy related proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma: comparison to invasive ductal carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study is to compare the expression of autophagy related proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) with that of autophagy related proteins in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and to determinate its implication. Tissue microarray containing 114 ILC and 692 IDC was constructed, and immunohistochemistry was performed for autophagy related protein (beclin-1, LC3A, LC3B, p62) and Ki-67. No significant difference in expression of autophagy-related proteins between pleomorphic type (n = 12) and classic type (n = 102) of ILC was observed, whereas ILC and IDC showed distinguished features that tumoral beclin-1, stromal LC3A, tumoral LC3B, tumoral p62 were highly expressed in IDC and tumoral BNIP3 was highly expressed in ILC (P < 0.001). Beclin-1 expression was correlated with ER negativity (P = 0.016) and TNBC type (P = 0.024). BNIP3 expression was correlated with ER positivity (p = 0.040). Using multivariate Cox analysis, shorter overall survival was associated with tumoral beclin-1 positivity (hazard ratio: 21.19, 95% CI: 1.098-409.1, P = 0.043). In conclusion, ILC and IDC showed different expression pattern of autophagy-related proteins in tumor and stroma that demonstrated by higher expression of tumoral beclin-1, stromal LC3A, tumoral LC3B, tumoral p62 in IDC, and higher expression of tumoral BNIP3 in ILC.
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Early nephrology referral reduces the economic costs among patients who start renal replacement therapy: a prospective cohort study in Korea.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The nature of cost-saving effects of early referral to a nephrologist in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not fully evaluated. We evaluated the health care costs before and after dialysis according to the referral time.
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Comparison of the impact of high-flux dialysis on mortality in hemodialysis patients with and without residual renal function.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The effect of flux membranes on mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients is controversial. Residual renal function (RRF) has shown to not only be as a predictor of mortality but also a contributor to ?2-microglobulin clearance in HD patients. Our study aimed to determine the interaction of residual renal function with dialyzer membrane flux on mortality in HD patients.
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Serum bilirubin affects graft outcomes through UDP-glucuronosyltransferase sequence variation in kidney transplantation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Oxidative stress is a major mediator of adverse outcome after kidney transplantation. Bilirubin is produced by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1), and has potential as an antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the effects of HO-1 and UGT1A1 sequence variations on kidney allograft outcomes.
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Purification of a Novel Peptide Derived from a Shellfish, Crassostrea gigas, and Evaluation of Its Anticancer Property.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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A novel anticancer peptide was purified from Crassostrea gigas and investigated for its cytotoxic activity. To prepare the peptide, eight proteases were employed for enzymatic hydrolysis. Flavourzyme hydrolysate, which showed clearly superior cytotoxic activity on prostate cancer cells, was further purified using a membrane system and consecutive chromatographic methods. Finally, a novel anticancer peptide was obtained, and the sequence was partially purified as His-Phe-Asn-Ile-Gly-Asn-Arg-Cys-Leu-Cys at the N-terminus. The peptide purified from C. gigas effectively induced the death of prostate, breast, and lung cancer cells but not normal liver cells. This is the first report of an anticancer peptide derived from the enzymatic hydrolysates of C. gigas.
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Light microscopy mapping of connections in the intact brain.
Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.)
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2013
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Mapping of neural connectivity across the mammalian brain is a daunting and exciting prospect. Current approaches can be divided into three classes: macroscale, focusing on coarse inter-regional connectivity; mesoscale, involving a finer focus on neurons and projections; and microscale, reconstructing full details of all synaptic contacts. It remains to be determined how to bridge the datasets or insights from the different levels of study. Here we review recent light-microscopy-based approaches that may help in integration across scales.
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Therapeutic equivalence and pharmacokinetics of generic tacrolimus formulation in de novo kidney transplant patients.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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There is a growing concern about the therapeutic equivalence of the generic tacrolimus formulation (GEN Tacrolimus) to the reference tacrolimus (REF Tacrolimus) in solid organ transplantation.
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Angiofibroma of inferior turbinate as an unusual complication of CO2 laser turbinoplasty.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Angiofibroma is a benign vascular tumor that usually occurs in the nasopharynx, and extranasopharyngeal angiofibromas are rarely reported. We report the first case of an angiofibroma arising from the inferior turbinate after CO2 laser turbinoplasty. Endoscopic excisional biopsy was performed, but the tumor recurred after 2 months of surgery. The mass was excised by endoscopic approach including surrounding normal mucosal tissue. Histologic examination suggested the diagnosis of angiofibroma. The patient was asymptomatic, and there was no evidence of recurrence after 1 year of the second surgery.
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Antioxidant activity and protective effects of Trapa japonica pericarp extracts against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage in Chang cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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In this study, the antioxidant properties of Trapa japonica pericarp extracts were evaluated through several biochemical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), alkyl radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, ABTS radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The antioxidant activities were compared with other natural and synthetic antioxidants. The results showed that higher radical scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity in FRAP than those of vitamin C as a positive control. T. japonica pericarp extracts have antioxidant properties through its ability to prevent tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced toxicity which enhance the cell viability, reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, inhibits of oxidative damage and mitochondria dysfunction in Chang liver cells. Therefore, based on these finding, it seems reasonable to suggest that T. japonica pericarp extracts has the potential to protect liver against t-BHP-induced cell damage and should be considered as a potential functional food.
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Outcomes of kidney allograft in recipients with kidney disease of unknown etiology.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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The etiology of renal disease is important because the primary renal pathology may affect the outcomes of kidney allograft with respect to recurrence, rejection, and survival. However, for a significant number of patients who undergo kidney transplantation, the disease etiology is unknown. Here, allograft outcomes for patients with kidney disease of unknown etiology (UEK) at three affiliated Korean hospitals were identified. The incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) for UEK was 22.9%, which was similar to the rates for diabetic nephropathy (DN, 24.4%) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN, 20.0%; p = 0.345). The cumulative incidence of post-transplant glomerulonephritis (PTGN) among patients with UEK was significantly lower than that among patients with IgAN (p < 0.001). Overall graft survival of the UEK group was superior to that of the DN group (hazards ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.92, p = 0.030). Preemptive transplantation for UEK significantly reduced the incidence of BPAR (preemptive vs. non-preemptive 9.6% vs. 30.3%, p = 0.001), but graft survival and recurrence were not affected by preemptive transplantation. The outcomes of kidney transplantation for patients with UEK were not inferior to those for patients with IgAN or DN. Preemptive kidney transplantation may be encouraged for UEK patients.
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Antioxidant activity of a novel synthetic hexa-peptide derived from an enzymatic hydrolysate of duck skin by-products.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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A peptide was synthesized on the basis of our previous study from solid phase peptide synthesis using ASP48S (Peptron Inc.) and identified by the reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Vydac Everest C18 column. The molecular mass of the peptide found to be 693.90Da, and the amino acid sequences of the peptide was Trp-Tyr-Pro-Ala-Ala-Pro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antioxidant effects of the peptide by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer, and on t-BHP-induced liver cells damage in Chang cells. The antioxidative activity of the peptide was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, alkyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity using an ESR spectrometer. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of the peptide for hydroxyl, DPPH, alkyl, and superoxide radical scavenging activity were 45.2, 18.5, 31.5, and 33.4?M, respectively. In addition, the peptide inhibited productions of cell death against t-BHP-induced liver cell damage in Chang cells. It was presumed to be peptide involved in regulating the apoptosis-related gene expression in the cell environment. The present results indicate that the peptide substantially contributes to antioxidative properties in liver cells.
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Increasing the dialysate sodium concentration based on serum sodium concentrations exacerbates weight gain and thirst in hemodialysis patients.
Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Most dialysis centers adopt a standard dialysate sodium prescription. While pre-hemodialysis (HD) serum sodium levels remain relatively constant in each individual patient on chronic HD, these levels can vary between different patients. Therefore, a single dialysate sodium prescription may not be appropriate for all patients. Nineteen stable patients on maintenance HD were dialyzed for 9 HD sessions with their current dialysis solutions, followed by another 9 sessions using individualized prescriptions created by aligning dialysate sodium levels to each patients serum sodium concentration. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to whether the average pre-HD serum sodium concentration was higher than (higher serum sodium group, n = 13) or equal to (equal sodium group, n = 5) the standard dialysate sodium concentration. Pre-HD serum sodium levels remained constant during entire study period in both groups. In higher serum sodium group, interdialytic weight gain increased after implementation of the sodium alignment (2.0 ± 0.3 kg vs. 2.3 ± 0.4 kg; P = 0.008). Thirst scores also increased in patients whose dialysate sodium was increased by 4 mmol/L (n = 7) (6.4 ± 1.5 vs. 7.6 ± 1.5, P = 0.015). There were no significant changes in blood pressure and intradialytic complications. In equal sodium group, significant differences were not observed in any parameters. Our results suggest that alignment of dialysate sodium levels to each patients serum sodium concentration is of little benefit in hemodynamically stable patients who have pre-HD serum sodium concentrations higher than dialysate sodium concentration.
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SET binding factor 1 (SBF1) mutation causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B3.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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To identify the genetic cause of an autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B (CMT4B) family.
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Association between blood pressure and target organ damage in patients with chronic kidney disease and hypertension: results of the APrODiTe study.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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Blood pressure control is the most established practice for preventing the progression of chronic kidney disease. Evidence addressing blood pressure control status or nocturnal blood pressure dipping in Korean hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease is scarce. We recruited 1317 hypertensive patients (chronic kidney disease stages 2-4, median age 58) from 21 centers in Korea. These patients underwent office and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. High office and ambulatory blood pressure were defined as >140/90?mm?Hg and >135/85?mm?Hg (daytime)/ >120/70?mm?Hg (nighttime), respectively. The blood pressure control status was as follows: true controlled (19%), white-coat (4.3%), masked (33.9%) and sustained uncontrolled (42.3%) hypertension. The dipping status was as follows: extreme-dipping (14.9%), dipping (33.3%), non-dipping (34.5%) and reverse-dipping (17.3%). Masked and sustained hypertension as well as non-dipping/reverse-dipping was more apparent in proportion to renal dysfunction and the extent of proteinuria. Ageing (?58 years), male gender, obesity, diabetic nephropathy and proteinuria (>300?mg?g(-1) Cr or dipstick proteinuria?1+) were independently associated with sustained uncontrolled hypertension. Diabetic nephropathy, old age, a history of stable angina/heart failure, advanced renal dysfunction and higher proteinuria levels were also significantly associated with non-dipping and reverse-dipping. Half of Korean chronic kidney disease patients had uncontrolled blood pressure and a non-dipping nocturnal blood pressure pattern. Future studies are warranted to assess the predictive values of ambulatory blood pressure for cardiorenal events in Korean chronic kidney disease patients.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 19 September 2013; doi:10.1038/hr.2013.127.
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Papillary thyroid carcinoma with thyroiditis: lymph node metastasis, complications.
J Korean Surg Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of papillary thyroid cancer with thyroiditis, and to determine the rate of its complications for it.
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Air pollution and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in South Korea: an ecological correlation study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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The effects of air pollution on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, and the resulting impacts on public health, have been widely studied. However, little is known about the effect of air pollution on the occurrence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), a rodent-borne infectious disease. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between air pollution and HFRS incidence from 2001 to 2010, and estimated the significance of the correlation under the effect of climate variables.
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Radiation exposure in multidetector CT: dose comparison between late 1990s and early 2010s in Korea.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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The effective dose under ordinary clinical computed tomography (CT) protocols using three kinds of 64-channel and a 40-channel CT ranged from 0.6 to 15.5 mSv in early 2010s. And the organ dose ranged from 1.6 to 130.4 mGy: orbital and brain doses for brain stroke CT were the highest. For the comparison of the effective dose between late 1990s and early 2010s, multidetector CT (MDCT) for high-resolution lung CT was 2.4 times higher than that of single-detector CT (SDCT) and the ratio was the highest. However, the effective dose at MDCT was 20 % lower than that of SDCT in chest CT due to applying dose-saving techniques. In organ dose comparisons, high-resolution lung CT at MDCT was 3.5-4.5 times higher than that of SDCT, and showed 1.1-1.5 times higher than that of SDCT in the head and chest CT. For the abdomen CT, the primary organ dose at MDCT was ?30 % lower than that of SDCT.
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Prevalence of vitamin d deficiency and effects of supplementation with cholecalciferol in patients with chronic kidney disease.
J Ren Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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We aimed to evaluate the vitamin D status, the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation, and the factors associated with vitamin D restoration in nondialytic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
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Structural and molecular interrogation of intact biological systems.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Obtaining high-resolution information from a complex system, while maintaining the global perspective needed to understand system function, represents a key challenge in biology. Here we address this challenge with a method (termed CLARITY) for the transformation of intact tissue into a nanoporous hydrogel-hybridized form (crosslinked to a three-dimensional network of hydrophilic polymers) that is fully assembled but optically transparent and macromolecule-permeable. Using mouse brains, we show intact-tissue imaging of long-range projections, local circuit wiring, cellular relationships, subcellular structures, protein complexes, nucleic acids and neurotransmitters. CLARITY also enables intact-tissue in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry with multiple rounds of staining and de-staining in non-sectioned tissue, and antibody labelling throughout the intact adult mouse brain. Finally, we show that CLARITY enables fine structural analysis of clinical samples, including non-sectioned human tissue from a neuropsychiatric-disease setting, establishing a path for the transmutation of human tissue into a stable, intact and accessible form suitable for probing structural and molecular underpinnings of physiological function and disease.
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Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated.
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Development of a modified naturalistic action test for korean patients with impaired cognition.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a modified Naturalistic Action Test (m-NAT) for Korean patients with impaired cognition. The NAT was originally designed to assess everyday action impairment associated with higher cortical dysfunction.
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Diverging neural pathways assemble a behavioural state from separable features in anxiety.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Behavioural states in mammals, such as the anxious state, are characterized by several features that are coordinately regulated by diverse nervous system outputs, ranging from behavioural choice patterns to changes in physiology (in anxiety, exemplified respectively by risk-avoidance and respiratory rate alterations). Here we investigate if and how defined neural projections arising from a single coordinating brain region in mice could mediate diverse features of anxiety. Integrating behavioural assays, in vivo and in vitro electrophysiology, respiratory physiology and optogenetics, we identify a surprising new role for the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in the coordinated modulation of diverse anxiety features. First, two BNST subregions were unexpectedly found to exert opposite effects on the anxious state: oval BNST activity promoted several independent anxious state features, whereas anterodorsal BNST-associated activity exerted anxiolytic influence for the same features. Notably, we found that three distinct anterodorsal BNST efferent projections-to the lateral hypothalamus, parabrachial nucleus and ventral tegmental area-each implemented an independent feature of anxiolysis: reduced risk-avoidance, reduced respiratory rate, and increased positive valence, respectively. Furthermore, selective inhibition of corresponding circuit elements in freely moving mice showed opposing behavioural effects compared with excitation, and in vivo recordings during free behaviour showed native spiking patterns in anterodorsal BNST neurons that differentiated safe and anxiogenic environments. These results demonstrate that distinct BNST subregions exert opposite effects in modulating anxiety, establish separable anxiolytic roles for different anterodorsal BNST projections, and illustrate circuit mechanisms underlying selection of features for the assembly of the anxious state.
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Prevalence of microalbuminuria and associated risk factors among adult Korean hypertensive patients in a primary care setting.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Microalbuminuria is an early sign of nephropathy and an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this study was to assess microalbuminuria prevalence and its contributing factors in Korean hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study enrolled male and female patients of ?35 years old with an essential hypertension diagnosis as made by 841 physicians in primary care clinics and 17 in general hospitals in the Republic of Korea between November 2008 and July 2009. To assess microalbuminuria prevalence, urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) was measured in patients with a positive dipstick test. Of the 40,473 enrolled patients, 5713 (14.1%) had a positive dipstick test. Of 5393 patients with a positive dipstick test and valid UACR values, 2657 (6.6%) had significantly elevated UACR (?30??g?mg(-1)), 2158 (5.4%) had microalbuminuria (30??g?mg(-1)?UACR <300??g?mg(-1)) and 499 (1.2%) had macroalbuminuria (UACR ?300??g?mg(-1)). Based on multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with elevated UACR included low adherence to antihypertensive medication (23% higher; P=0.042), poorly controlled blood pressure (BP; 38% higher for systolic BP/diastolic BP ?130?mm?Hg/?80?mm?Hg; P<0.001), obesity (47% higher for body mass index (BMI) ?25.0?kg?m(-2); P<0.001), age (17% lower and 58% higher for age categories 35-44 years (P=0.043) and >75 years (P<0.001), respectively) and a prior history of diabetes (151% higher; P<0.001) and kidney-related disease (71% higher; P<0.001). The prevalences of elevated UACR and microalbuminuria were 6.6% and 5.4%, respectively. Age, increased BMI, presence of comorbidities, poor medication adherence and inadequately controlled BP were independent predictors of elevated UACR after controlling for potential confounders.
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Thymol from Thymus quinquecostatus Celak. protects against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in Chang cells.
J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The present work describes the protective effects of thymol isolated from Thymus quinquecostatus Celak. against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage through various experiments with Chang liver cells. Thymol significantly protected hepatocytes against t-BHP-induced cell cytotoxicity as demonstrated by increased viability. Furthermore, observation of Hoechst staining, annexin V/PI staining, and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax indicated that thymol inhibited t-BHP-induced Chang cell damage. Further, thymol inhibited the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in t-BHP-treated Chang cells and prevented oxidative stress-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA). Thymol restored the antioxidant capability of hepatocytes including glutathione (GSH) levels which were reduced by t-BHP. These results indicated that thymol prevents oxidative stress-induced damage to liver cells through suppression of ROS and MDA levels and increase of GSH level.
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Purification of a novel nitric oxide inhibitory peptide derived from enzymatic hydrolysates of Mytilus coruscus.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Shellfish contain significant levels of high quality protein and are therefore a potential source for biofunctional high-value peptides. To purify a novel anti-inflammatory peptide from Mytilus coruscus (M. coruscus), we applied enzymatic hydrolysis and tangential flow filtration (TFF) and investigated its nitric oxide inhibitory property. To prepare the peptide, eight proteases were employed for enzymatic hydrolysis. Flavouzyme hydrolysates, which showed clearly superior nitric oxide inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7, were further purified using a TFF system and consecutive chromatographic methods. Finally, a novel anti-inflammatory peptide composed of 10 amino acid residues was obtained, and the sequence was identified as Gly-Val-Ser-Leu-Leu-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Leu at N-terminal position. The peptide from M. coruscus effectively inhibited nitric oxide production on macrophage cells. This is the first report of an anti-inflammatory peptide derived from the hydrolysates of M. coruscus.
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Evaluation of nutrient intake in early post kidney transplant recipients.
Clin Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The purpose of our study was to evaluate the dietary intake of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and assess oral intake related nutrition problems. Fifty patients who had undergone kidney transplantation were included: 24 males, 26 females. The mean age was 46.8 ± 11.2 years, height was 161.3 ± 8.3 cm, and body weight was 60.5 ± 8.7 kg. We conducted nutrition education based on the diet guideline for KTRs (energy 32 kcal/kg of ideal body weight [IBW], protein 1.3 g/kg of IBW) and neutropenic diet guideline before discharge. Dietary intake of the patients at 1 month after transplantation was investigated by 3-day food records. Body weight and laboratory values for nutritional status and graft function were also collected. Body weight was significantly decreased from admission to discharge. Body weight from discharge to 1 month and 3 months after transplantation was increased but was not significant. Biochemical measurements were generally improved but the number of patients with hypophosphatemia increased. The daily dietary intake of energy and protein was adequate (33.1 kcal/kg, 1.5 g/kg, respectively). However, the dietary intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C did not meet the Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake of vitamins and minerals (86.8%, 62.4%, and 88.0%, respectively). Patients with low intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C presented low intake in milk and dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and these foods were related to restricted food items in neutropenic diet. More attention should be paid on improving quality of diet, and reconsideration of present neutropenic diet guideline is necessary. These results can be used to establish evidence-based medical nutrition therapy guideline for KTRs.
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Early referral to a nephrologist improved patient survival: prospective cohort study for end-stage renal disease in Korea.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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The timing of referral to a nephrologist may influence the outcome of chronic kidney disease patients, but its impact has not been evaluated thoroughly. The results of a recent study showing an association between early referral and patient survival are still being debated. A total of 1028 patients newly diagnosed as end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from July 2008 to October 2011 were enrolled. Early referral (ER) was defined as patients meeting with a nephrologist more than a year before dialysis and dialysis education were provided, and all others were considered late referral (LR). The relationship of referral pattern with mortality in ESRD patients was explored using a Cox proportional hazards regression models. Time from referral to dialysis was significantly longer in 599 ER patients than in 429 LR patients (62.3 ± 58.9 versus 2.9 ± 3.4 months, P<0.001). Emergency HD using a temporary vascular catheter was required in 485 (47.2%) out of all patients and in 262 (43.7%) of ER compared with 223 (52.0%) of LR (P = 0.009). After 2 years of follow-up, the survival rate in ER was better than that in LR (hazard ratio [HR] 2.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-4.45, P = 0.007). In patients with diabetes nephropathy, patient survival was also significantly higher in ER than in LR (HR 4.74, 95% CI 1.73-13.00, P = 0.002). With increasing age, HR also increased. Timely referral to a nephrologist in the predialytic stage is associated with reduced mortality.
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Mortality and renal outcome of primary glomerulonephritis in Korea: observation in 1,943 biopsied cases.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Previous epidemiological studies have focused on the prevalence of primary glomerulonephritis (GN), but few have explored long-term patient outcomes. This study was conducted to investigate the long-term patient and renal outcomes of primary GN.
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Endogenous stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12) supports autonomous growth of acute myeloid leukemia cells.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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We investigated the role of endogenous stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1; CXCL12) in the survival and proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in vitro. CD34(+) cells from the peripheral blood of five patients with AML, as well as five AML cell lines, produced and secreted SDF-1. Knock-down of endogenous SDF-1 expression using siRNA technology downregulated the constitutive phosphorylation of SDF-1-related signaling molecules and significantly inhibited spontaneous proliferation of the AML cell lines during a 3-day incubation in serum-free conditions. These results indicate that endogenous SDF-1 expression by AML cells plays a role in the autonomous growth of the cells.
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Rapid correction rate of hyponatremia as an independent risk factor for neurological complication following liver transplantation.
Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Hyponatremia is prevalent before liver transplantation and generally corrected immediately after transplantation. However, the clinical significance of correction rate of hyponatremia is not well investigated. The prognostic impact of pre-transplant serum sodium concentrations and post-transplant correction rate of hyponatremia were assessed. A total of 512 patients who received orthotopic liver transplants were enrolled. The correction rate of hyponatremia (delta sodium, ?Na) was calculated based on the data collected during the first 48 hours following liver transplantation. Outcomes, including in-hospital mortality, delirium, neurological complications, acute kidney injury, and infections, were compared according to the serum sodium levels (sNa < 125, 125-135, and ? 135 mmol/L), and the risk factors for in-hospital mortality and neurological complications were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression methods. Patients with severe hyponatremia (sNa < 125 mmol/L) had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (9.6%, P = 0.010), delirium (54.8%, P = 0.003), neurological complications (24.7%, P = 0.003), and acute kidney injury (57.5%, P = 0.005). In multivariate analysis, serum sodium levels (OR = 0.975, P = 0.402) and delta sodium (OR = 1.097, P = 0.066) were not independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality. However, delta sodium (OR = 1.093, P = 0.003) and fast correction rate of hyponatremia (?Na ? 12 mmol/L/24h, OR = 3.397, P = 0.023) were significantly associated with post-transplant neurological complications. Pre-transplantation hyponatremia was not independently associated with clinical outcomes. However, rapid correction of hyponatremia is an independent risk factor for the development of post-transplant neurological complications.
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Purification of a novel peptide derived from Mytilus coruscus and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of its bioactive properties.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Excess oxidant can promote inflammatory responses. Moreover, chronic inflammation accompanied by oxidative stress is connected various steps involved in many diseases. From the aspect, we investigated an antioxidant peptide to prevent inflammatory response against oxidant overexpression. To prepare the peptide, eight proteases were employed for enzymatic hydrolysis, and the antioxidant properties of the hydrolysates were investigated using free radical scavenging activity by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Papain hydrolysates, which showed clearly superior free radical scavenging activity, were further purified using consecutive chromatographic methods. Finally, a novel antioxidant peptide was obtained, and the sequence was identified as Ser-Leu-Pro-Ile-Gly-Leu-Met-Ile-Ala-Met at N-terminal. Oral administration of the peptide to mice effectively inhibited malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, and we also confirmed the antioxidative enzyme activities in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) assays. This is the first report of an antioxidant peptide derived from the hydrolysate of Mytilus coruscus, and also these results suggest that the peptide possesses potent antioxidant activity, and potential to enhance anti-inflammatory response.
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Survival Advantage of Peritoneal Dialysis Relative to Hemodialysis in the Early Period of Incident Dialysis Patients: A Nationwide Prospective Propensity-Matched Study in Korea.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The impact of dialysis modality on survival is still somewhat controversial. Given possible differences in patients characteristics and the cause and rate of death in different countries, the issue needs to be evaluated in Korean cohorts.
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Non-linear relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and hemoglobin in Korean females: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Anemia and vitamin D deficiency are both important health issues; however, the nature of the association between vitamin D and either hemoglobin or anemia remains unresolved in the general population.
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Autoantibodies against phospholipase A2 receptor in Korean patients with membranous nephropathy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The data were presented in abstract form at the 45(th) meeting of the American Society of Nephrology, October 30-November 04 2012, San Diego, CA, USA. Circulating autoantibodies against M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) are important pathogenic antibodies of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN) in adults. However, previous studies on the clinical impact of anti-PLA2R antibodies demonstrated several limitations, including insufficient numbers of study subjects and different time points and methods for anti-PLA2R antibody measurement. To verify the clinical significance of anti-PLA2R antibodies in Korean patients with MN, we measured autoantibodies in serum samples obtained at the time of biopsy from a total of 100 patients with idiopathic MN who had not yet received immunosuppressive treatment. We detected anti-PLA2R antibody in 69 patients, and we observed that autoantibody reactivity reflected the severity of disease activity. Proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia were more severe in patients with anti-PLA2R than in those without the autoantibodies (2.95 g/g vs. 6.85 g/g, P = 0.003; 3.1 g/dL vs. 2.5 g/dL, P = 0.004, respectively). Additionally, the clinical severities worsened proportionally as the levels of anti-PLA2R antibodies increased (P = 0.015 and P for trend <0.001 for proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, respectively). However, neither the levels nor the presence or absence of anti-PLA2R antibody showed a significant correlation with clinical outcomes, such as remission rate and time to remission. In conclusion, we observed that anti-PLA2R antibodies are highly prevalent in Korean patients with idiopathic MN and that they reflect the clinical disease activity before the administration of immunosuppressive treatment. However, the levels of anti-PLA2R antibody at the time of kidney biopsy may not predict the clinical outcomes in current clinical practice.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.