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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
In situ observation of facet-dependent oxidation of graphene on platinum in an environmental TEM.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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We performed a direct observation of a crystal facet-dependent oxidation of graphene layers on platinum nanocrystals at atomic resolution in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Combined with density functional theory calculations, our work provides a novel approach for the dynamical exploration of the facet-dependent reactions at the atomic level.
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Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds in a hybrid system composed of a molecular catalyst and visible light-absorbing semiconductor.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds proceeded efficiently in a hybrid system with ruthenium aqua complexes as catalysts, BiVO4 as a light absorber, [Co(NH3)5Cl](2+) as a sacrificial electron acceptor and water as an oxygen source. The photogenerated holes in the semiconductor are used to oxidize molecular catalysts into the high-valent Ru(IV)[double bond, length as m-dash]O intermediates for 2e(-) oxidation.
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[Application of three-dimensional laparoscopy in radical gastric cancer surgery].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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To explore the application of three-dimensional (3D) high-definition (HD) laparoscopy in radical operation for stomach carcinoma.
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Small Quantum Dots Conjugated to Nanobodies as Immunofluorescence Probes for Nanometric Microscopy.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Immunofluorescence, a powerful technique to detect specific targets using fluorescently labeled antibodies, has been widely used in both scientific research and clinical diagnostics. The probes should be made with small antibodies and high brightness. We conjugated GFP binding protein (GBP) nanobodies, small single-chain antibodies from llamas, with new ~7 nm quantum dots. These provide simple and versatile immunofluorescence nano-probes with nanometer accuracy and resolution. Using the new probes we tracked the walking of individual kinesin motors and measured their 8 nm step sizes; we tracked Piezo1 channels, which are eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels; we also tracked AMPA receptors on living neurons. Finally, we used a new super-resolution algorithm based on blinking of (small) quantum dots that allowed ~ 2 nm precision.
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Complete sequence and characterization of mitochondrial genome of Jianyang Daer goat (Capra hircus).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Abstract This study has presented the complete mitogenome of Jianyang Daer goat (Capra hircus), a crossbreed known for its high growth rate and good-meat quality in China. The mitogenome was 16,643?bp in length, including 33.54% A, 26.07% C, 13.10% G and 27.29% T. It contained a non-coding control region, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. Two kinds of inititiation codon and four types of termination codon were identified. Moreover, most of the genes were encoded on H-strand. These information will be useful for further investigation on the genetic divergence among Chinese domestic goats.
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Exploiting the narrow gap of rearrangement between the substituents in the vicinal disubstitution reactions of diaryliodonium salts with pyridine N-sulfonamidates.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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The vicinal disubstitution reactions of diaryliodonium salts with pyridine N-sulfonamidates to give o-pyridinium anilines were fully examined. A reaction pathway of N-arylation occurring at the amidate group followed by a radical rearrangement is proposed. The electronic effects of various substituents in this radical rearrangement were investigated.
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Amide Groups Switch Selectivity: C-H Trifluoromethylation of ?,?-Unsaturated Amides and Subsequent Asymmetric Transformation.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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The first direct C-H ?-trifluoromethylation of unsubstituted or ?-alkyl-substituted ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds under metal-free conditions was realized with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity as well as a very broad substrate scope. Both olefinic and allylic trifluoromethylation products are accessible with high selectivities by altering the substrate substitutions. The resultant olefinic products, namely (E)-?-trifluoromethyl (CF3) ?,?-unsaturated hydroxamic acid derivatives, served as acceptors in organocatalytic asymmetric Michael addition reactions to give hydroxamic acid derivatives bearing a chiral CF3-substituted stereocenter with high enantioselectivities.
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A COPD Health Management Program in a Community-Based Primary Care Setting: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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A number of effective strategies have been developed to improve the quality of life in patients with COPD. However, few have been implemented in patients with COPD at all stages in a community setting. This study evaluated the efficacy of a complex COPD health management intervention in rural communities in China.
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Effect of Copper Treatment on the Composition and Function of the Bacterial Community in the Sponge Haliclona cymaeformis.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Marine sponges are the most primitive metazoan and host symbiotic microorganisms. They are crucial components of the marine ecological system and play an essential role in pelagic processes. Copper pollution is currently a widespread problem and poses a threat to marine organisms. Here, we examined the effects of copper treatment on the composition of the sponge-associated bacterial community and the genetic features that facilitate the survival of enriched bacteria under copper stress. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis harbored symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing Ectothiorhodospiraceae and photosynthetic Cyanobacteria as dominant species. However, these autotrophic bacteria decreased substantially after treatment with a high copper concentration, which enriched for a heterotrophic-bacterium-dominated community. Metagenomic comparison revealed a varied profile of functional genes and enriched functions, including bacterial motility and chemotaxis, extracellular polysaccharide and capsule synthesis, virulence-associated genes, and genes involved in cell signaling and regulation, suggesting short-period mechanisms of the enriched bacterial community for surviving copper stress in the microenvironment of the sponge. Microscopic observation and comparison revealed dynamic bacterial aggregation within the matrix and lysis of sponge cells. The bacteriophage community was also enriched, and the complete genome of a dominant phage was determined, implying that a lytic phage cycle was stimulated by the high copper concentration. This study demonstrated a copper-induced shift in the composition of functional genes of the sponge-associated bacterial community, revealing the selective effect of copper treatment on the functions of the bacterial community in the microenvironment of the sponge.
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Arterial stiffness is a potential mechanism and promising indicator of orthostatic hypotension in the general population.
VASA
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a disease prevalent among middle-aged men and the elderly. The association between arterial stiffness and OH is unclear. This study evaluates whether arterial stiffness is correlated with OH and tests the usefulness of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an arterial stiffness marker, with regard to identifying OH.
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Extremely efficient and recyclable absorbents for oily pollutants enabled by ultrathin-layered functionalization.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Oils and organic solvents that leak into water bodies must be promptly removed to avoid ecological disasters, for example, by selective absorption using oleophilic absorbents. However, it remains a challenge for the low-cost synthesis of efficient and recyclable absorbents for oily pollutants. By surface functionalization to inexpensive polyurethane (PU) foams, we synthesize oil absorbents exhibiting the highest absorption capacity and the best recyclability among all polymeric absorbents. The synthesis is enabled by atomic layer deposition of ?5 nm-thick Al2O3 transition layer onto the skeleton surface of PU foams, followed by coupling a single-molecule layer of silanes to the Al2O3 layer. The sub-10 nm functionalization layer provides the PU foam an outstanding water-repelling and oil-absorbing functionality without compromising its high porosity and elasticity. The functionalized foam is able to quickly absorb oily pollutants spread on water surfaces or precipitated in water with a capacity more than 100 times its own weight. This ultrathin-layer-functionalization method is also applicable to renewable porous biomaterials, providing a sustainable solution for oil spills. Moreover, we propose devices than can continuously operate to efficiently collect oil spills from water surfaces based on the functionalized PU foam developed in this work.
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Syntheses, crystal structures, MMCT and magnetic properties of four one-dimensional cyanide-bridged complexes comprised of M(II)-CN-Fe(III) (M = Fe, Ru, Os).
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Four new one-dimensional (1D) zigzag chain cyanide-bridged complexes [cis-M(II)(L)2(CN)2Fe(III)(salen)](PF6) (M = Fe, L = bpy, ; M = Fe, L = phen, ; M = Ru, L = bpy, ; M = Os, L = bpy, ) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneaminato) dianion) have been synthesized and structurally as well as magnetically characterized, especially and are mixed-valence complexes. Fortunately, the crystals of complexes , and suitable for single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis were obtained. In addition, the electronic absorption spectra indicate the existence of the MMCT (metal-to-metal charge transfer) bands in complexes . The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibilities reveal that the Fe(iii)-Fe(iii) exchange coupling separated by a diamagnetic cyanidometal -NC-M(ii)-CN- bridge is weakly ferromagnetic for , but weakly anti-ferromagnetic for . Moreover, the specific heat measurements suggest complexes exhibit a phase transition at 2.8 K, 2.7 K and 2.6 K, respectively.
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[Investigation of field width and pitch in tomotherapy treatment plans for brain metastases from lung cancer].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Tomotherapy plans were produced using a combination of field widths (1 cm, 2.5 cm and 5 cm) and pitches (0.15, 0.30, and 0.45) for seven patients with brain metastases from lung cancer, the plans were compared with dosimetric parameters, protection of organs at risk (OAR) dose and treatment times. All plans were defined that CTV with 30Gy and GTV 50 Gy by ten fraction synchronously. The results showed that the mean dose and CI for GTV was statistical difference (P = 0.002 1, P = 0.012 8), OARs were within the normal range, the treatment time increased inversely proportional to the jaw width, but had lesser impact on the pitch. This study showed plans produced with 5 cm jaw was an effective method for patients with brain metastases from lung cancer.
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Polymerization of Affinity Ligands on a Surface for Enhanced Ligand Display and Cell Binding.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Surfaces functionalized with affinity ligands have been widely studied for applications such as biological separations and cell regulation. While individual ligands can be directly conjugated onto a surface, it is often important to conjugate polyvalent ligands onto the surface to enhance ligand display. This study was aimed at exploring a method for surface functionalization via polymerization of affinity ligands, which was achieved through ligand hybridization with DNA polymers protruding from the surface. The surface with polyvalent ligands was evaluated via aptamer-mediated cell binding. The results show that this surface bound target cells more effectively than a surface directly functionalized with individual ligands in situations with either equal amounts of ligand display or equal amounts of surface reaction sites. Therefore, this study has demonstrated a new strategy for surface functionalization to enhance ligand display and cell binding. This strategy may find broad applications in settings where surface area is limited or the surface of a material does not possess sufficient reaction sites.
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Robust high-order superdirectivity of circular sensor arrays.
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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This paper presents a detailed study of the high-order superdirectivity of circular sensor arrays, which is aimed at completing the authors' recently proposed analytical superdirectivity model. From the limit expression of the maximum directivity factor, it is shown that the circular arrays possess good potential for directivity improvement. It is found that the sensitivity function used as a robustness measurement can also be accurately decomposed into a series of closed-form sensitivity functions of eigenbeams, similar to the optimal beampattern and its corresponding directivity factor. Moreover, the performance of eigenbeams can be regarded as an indicator of error sensitivity, and the robustness constraint parameters can be estimated easily. Two specific approaches are proposed for obtaining robust superdirectivity on the basis of robustness analyses, and their performance is demonstrated experimentally.
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Expression of RBMX in the Light-Induced Damage of Rat Retina In Vivo.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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RNA-binding motif protein, X-linked (RBMX) is a 43 kDa nuclear protein in the RBM family and functions on alternative splicing of RNA. The gene encoding RBMX is located on chromosome Xq26. To investigate whether RBMX is involved in retinal neuron apoptosis, we performed a light-induced retinal damage model in adult rats. Western blotting analysis showed RBMX gradually increased, reached a peak at 12 h and then declined during the following days. The association of RBMX in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with light exposure was found by immunofluorescence staining. The injury-induced expression of RBMX was detected in active caspase-3 and TUNEL positive cells. We also examined the expression profiles of active caspase-3, bcl-2 and Bax, whose changes were correlated with the expression profiles of RBMX. To summarize, we uncovered the dynamic changes of RBMX in the light-induced retinal damage model for the first time. RBMX might play a significant role in the degenerative process of RGCs after light-induced damage in the retina.
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Resonantly pumped Q-switched Er:YAG ceramic laser at 1645 nm.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We report on an acousto-optic Q-switched 1645 nm Er:YAG ceramic laser resonantly pumped by using an Er,Yb fiber laser at 1532 nm. Maximum continuous wave output powers of 2.1 W and 2.4 W were obtained for 10% and 20% transmission OCs under 10.5 W of incident pump power, respectively. In Q-switched mode, the laser produced pulses with ~3.7 mJ energy and 82 ns width at 200 Hz repetition rate for 20% transmission OC under 8.6 W of incident pump power, corresponding to a peak power of ~45 kW.
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Room temperature continuous-wave laser performance of LD pumped Er:Lu2O3 and Er:Y2O3 ceramic at 2.7 ?m.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We report the demonstration of continue wave operation of diode end-pumped Er:Y2O3 and Er:Lu2O3 ceramic lasers operating at 2.7 ?m at room temperature. The maximum output power of 320 mW and 611 mW was obtained from the Er:Y2O3 and Er:Lu2O3 ceramic lasers, with slope efficiency of 6.5% and 7.6%, respectively. Characteristics of Red-shift in lasing wavelength of the ceramic lasers was investigated and discussed. The study indicates that under 967 nm and 976 nm LD pumping, 15 at.% Er-doped Lu2O3 ceramic exhibit a better performance than that of Y2O3 at room temperature.
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Continuous-wave and Q-switched operation of a resonantly pumped polycrystalline ceramic Ho:LuAG laser.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We have reported continuous-wave (CW) and Q-switched operations of a polycrystalline ceramic Ho:LuAG laser in band pumped by a Tm:fiber laser at the wavelength of 1907 nm. By using an output coupler of 20% transmission, maximum continuous-wave output power of 2.87 W for 9.72 W of incident pump power was achieved, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 31.9%. Shortest pulse duration of 21.0 ns with peak power of 28.2 kW has been obtained at 500 Hz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) under 5.65 W of incident pump power.
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Habitat evaluation for outbreak of Yangtze voles, Microtus fortis, and management implications.
Integr Zool
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Rodent pests severely damage agricultural crops. Outbreak risk models of rodent pests often do not include sufficient information regarding geographic variation. Habitat plays an important role in rodent-pest outbreak risk, and more information about the relationship between habitat and crop protection is urgently needed. The goal of the present study was to provide an outbreak risk map for the Dongting Lake region and to understand the relationship between rodent-pest outbreak variation and habitat distribution. The main rodent pests in the Dongting Lake region are Yangtze voles (Microtus fortis, Buchner, 1889). These pests cause massive damage in outbreak years, most notably in 2007. Habitat evaluation and ecological details were obtained by analyzing the correlation between habitat suitability and outbreak risk, as indicated by population density and historical events. For the source-sink population, 96.18% Yangtze vole disaster regions were covered by a 10-km buffer zone of suitable habitat in 2007. Historical outbreak frequency and peak population density were significantly correlated with the proportion of land covered by suitable habitat (r = 0.68, p = 0.04 and r = 0.76, p = 0.03, respectively). The Yangtze vole population tends to migrate about 10 km in outbreak years. Here, we propose a practical method for habitat evaluation that can be used to create integrated pest management plans for rodent pests when combined with basic information on the biology, ecology, and behavior of the target species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Predicting cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.
Ann. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is a critical clinical challenge due to poor clinical outcome and increasing prevalence. Nephrologists and transplant specialists need suitable biomarkers to predict the occurrence of cardiovascular events and/or mortality in practice. At the technical level, development of a non-invasive repetitive sampling procedure is required to develop applicable biomarkers, offering a platform for clinicians to dynamically monitor the alteration of patient condition. Apart from specificity and sensitivity, the ideal biomarkers should be independent of various confounders such as sex, sex, age, kidney function, diabetes, and blood pressure. This article reviews recent studies on the identified potential biomarkers to analyze their predictive value and significance. The present study revealed that the identified potential biomarkers are involved in magnesium and phosphate metabolism, hormone dysregulation, pro-inflammatory process, and cardiovascular pathogenesis. Combined use of those biomarkers might allow early identification of subclinical cardiovascular system organ damage, effectively predict cardiovascular mortality, and significantly deepen our mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of cardiovascular events and mortality, which will help to develop preventive measures.
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[Risk factors for chronic allograft failure in renal transplant recipients].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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To identify the potential risk factors for the development of chronic renal allograft failure in renal transplant recipients.
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Altered DNA Methylation and Expression Profiles of 8-Oxoguanine DNA Glycosylase 1 in Lens Tissue from Age-related Cataract Patients.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Abstract Purpose: Oxidative stress and DNA damage contribute to the pathogenesis of age-related cataract (ARC). Most oxidative DNA lesions are repaired via the base excision repair (BER) proteins including 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1). This study examined DNA methylation of CpG islands upstream of OGG1 and their relation to the gene expression in lens cortex from ARC patients. Methods: The clinical case-control study consisted of 15 cortical type of ARC patients and 15 age-matched non-ARC controls who received transparent lens extraction due to vitreoretinal diseases. OGG1 expression in lens cortex was analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The localization and the proportion of cells positive for OGG1 were determined by immunofluorescence. Bisulfite-sequencing PCR (BSP) was performed to evaluate the methylation status of CpG islands near OGG1 in DNA extracted from lens cortex. To test relationship between the methylation and the expression of the gene of interest, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) was used to induce demethylation of cultured human lens epithelium B-3 (HLE B-3). To test the role of OGG1 in the repair of cellular damage, HLE B-3 was transfected with OGG1 vector, followed by ultraviolet radiation b (UVB) exposure to induce apoptosis. Results: The mRNA and protein levels of OGG1 were significantly reduced in the lens cortex of ARC. Immunofluorescence showed that the proportion of OGG1-positive cells decreased significantly in ARC cortex in comparison with the control. The CpG island in first exon of OGG1 displayed hypermethylation in the DNA extracted from the lens cortex of ARC. Treatment of HLEB-3 cells with 5-Aza-dC upregulated OGG1 expression. UVB-induced apoptosis was attenuated after transfection with OGG1. Conclusion: A reduced OGG1 expression was correlated with hypermethylation of a CpG island of OGG1 in lens cortex of ARC. The role of epigenetic change in OGG1 gene in the susceptibility to oxidative stress induced cortical ARC is warranted to further study.
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Discovery of Cathepsin S Inhibitor LY3000328 for the Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Cathepsin S (Cat S) plays an important role in many pathological conditions, including abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Inhibition of Cat S may provide a new treatment for AAA. To date, several classes of Cat S inhibitors have been reported, many of which form covalent interactions with the active site Cys25. Herein, we report the discovery of a novel series of noncovalent inhibitors of Cat S through a medium-throughput focused cassette screen and the optimization of the resulting hits. Structure-based optimization efforts led to Cat S inhibitors such as 5 and 9 with greatly improved potency and drug disposition properties. This series of compounds binds to the S2 and S3 subsites without interacting with the active site Cys25. On the basis of in vitro potency, selectivity, and efficacy in a CaCl2-induced AAA in vivo model, 5 (LY3000328) was selected for clinical development.
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[Study on the relationship between level of glucose metabolism and risk of cancer incidents].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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To explore the relationship between level of glucose metabolism and risk of cancer incidents.
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Fluorescence Imaging with One-nanometer Accuracy (FIONA).
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Fluorescence imaging with one-nanometer accuracy (FIONA) is a simple but useful technique for localizing single fluorophores with nanometer precision in the x-y plane. Here a summary of the FIONA technique is reported and examples of research that have been performed using FIONA are briefly described. First, how to set up the required equipment for FIONA experiments, i.e., a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), with details on aligning the optics, is described. Then how to carry out a simple FIONA experiment on localizing immobilized Cy3-DNA single molecules using appropriate protocols, followed by the use of FIONA to measure the 36 nm step size of a single truncated myosin Va motor labeled with a quantum dot, is illustrated. Lastly, recent effort to extend the application of FIONA to thick samples is reported. It is shown that, using a water immersion objective and quantum dots soaked deep in sol-gels and rabbit eye corneas (>200 µm), localization precision of 2-3 nm can be achieved.
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Fabrication of folate bioconjugated near-infrared fluorescent silver nanoclusters for targeted in vitro and in vivo bioimaging.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Thiolpolyethyleneimine stabilized silver nanoclusters (SH-PEI-AgNCs) with intense NIR fluorescence and chemical stability were fabricated in aqueous solution. The SH-PEI-AgNCs were subsequently bioconjugated with folate for targeted in vitro and in vivo bioimaging.
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A Mechanistic study of Plasma Treatment Effects on Demineralized Dentin Surfaces for Improved Adhesive/Dentin Interface Bonding.
Clin Plasma Med
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Our previous work has shown that non-thermal plasma treatment of demineralized dentin significantly (p<0.05) improved adhesive/dentin bonding strength for dental composite restoration as compared with the untreated controls. This study is to achieve mechanistic understanding of the plasma treatment effects on dentin surface through investigating the plasma treated dentin surfaces and their interaction with adhesive monomer, 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The plasma treated dentin surfaces from human third molars were evaluated by water contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that plasma-treated dentin surface with subsequent HEMA immersion (Plasma/HEMA Treated) had much lower water contact angle compared with only plasma-treated (Plasma Treated) or only HEMA immersed (HEMA Treated) dentin surfaces. With prolong water droplet deposition time, water droplets spread out completely on the Plasma/HEMA Treated dentin surfaces. SEM images of Plasma/HEMA Treated dentin surfaces verified that dentin tubules were opened-up and filled with HEMA monomers. Extracted type I collagen fibrils, which was used as simulation of the exposed dentinal collagen fibrils after acid etching step, were plasma treated and analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra. FT-IR spectra of the Plasma/HEMA Treated collage fibrils showed broadened amide I peak at 1660 cm(-1) and amide II at 1550 cm(-1), which indicate secondary structure changes of the collagen fibrils. CD spectra indicated that 67.4% collagen helix structures were denatured after plasma treatment. These experimental results demonstrate that non-thermal argon plasma treatment was very effective in loosing collagen structure and enhancing adhesive monomer penetration, which are beneficial to thicker hybrid layer and longer resin tag formation, and consequently enhance adhesive/dentin interface bonding.
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A novel strategy to synthesize hierarchical, porous carbohydrate-derived carbon with tunable properties.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of carbohydrate is an interesting candidate for the preparation of carbon materials, as it provides an easy, inexpensive and environmental friendly route. However, it is difficult to prepare porous carbon materials by a straight HTC process. Herein, the solubilising technology of micelles was introduced to direct the HTC of fructose by using an amphiphilic block copolymer, poly-(4-vinylpyridine)-block-poly-(ethylene glycol) (P4VP-PEG), as a structure-directing agent. By this strategy, hierarchical porous carbon materials with tunable properties were prepared. It was found that P4VP-PEG micelles could solubilize fructose and confine the formation of primary carbon domains during a sol-gel process. And the micelle size could be adjusted easily by changing the preparation conditions. Accordingly, the particle size of the obtained carbon materials was effectively tuned from 20 to 100 nm by the direction of the primary micelle size. After calcination, the hierarchical porous carbon materials were evidenced as effective electrode materials for supercapacitor with a capacitance of ?197 F at 1 A g(-1), which was almost four times higher than the carbon materials prepared by a straight HTC process.
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Development and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of the F167Y mutation of carbendazim-resistant isolates in Fusarium graminearum.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Resistance of Fusarium graminearum to carbendazim is caused by point mutations in the ?2-tubulin gene. The point mutation at codon 167 (TTT ? TAT, F167Y) occurs in more than 90% of field resistant isolates in China. To establish a suitable method for rapid detection of the F167Y mutation in F. graminearum, an efficient and simple method with high specificity was developed based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). A set of four primers was designed and optimized to specially distinguish the F167Y mutation genotype. The LAMP reaction was optimal at 63°C for 60?min. When hydroxynaphthol blue dye (HNB) was added prior to amplification, samples with DNA of the F167Y mutation developed a characteristic sky blue color after the reaction but those without DNA or with different DNA did not. Results of HNB staining method were reconfirmed by gel electrophoresis. The developed LAMP had good specificity, stability and repeatability and was suitable for monitoring carbendazim-resistance populations of F. graminearum in agricultural production.
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Association between serum uric acid and mortality in a Chinese population of hypertensive patients.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Abstract Objectives: To investigate the association between serum uric acid and mortality in a Chinese population of hypertensive patients. Methods and results: A total of 2757 Chinese hypertensive patients from department of cardiology of several hospitals in Shanghai in China were followed up for about six years in this prospective study. Mortality was recorded and related factors were evaluated. Hyperuricemia was diagnosed by serum uric acid levels of >420?µmol/L in males or >357?µmol/L in females. A total of 2585 hypertensive patients with complete data were included in the final statistical analysis. Totally 709 deaths (27.4%) occurred during the six-year follow-up, of which 475 deaths were attributable to cardiovascular disease (CVD). All-cause and CVD mortality of hypertensive patients with hyperuricemia was significantly higher than that of patients without hyperuricemia. The Cox regression analysis indicated that hazards ratios (HRs) of hyperuricemia for all-cause and CVD mortality were 1.206 (95% CI: 1.002-1.453) and 1.085 (95% CI: 1.002-1.271) respectively. All-cause and CVD mortality of hypertensive patients was significantly increased (both p?536?µmol/L to all-cause and CVD mortality of hypertensive patients were 2.115 (95% CI: 1.596-2.801) and 1.861 (95% CI: 1.296-2.673), respectively, compared with those of uric acid levels ?357?µmol/L. Conclusions: The data from this cohort study indicate that hyperuricemia can predict increased all-cause and CVD mortality in hypertensive patients.
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Scale-Invariant Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulators beyond the Two-Dimensional Limit.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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We investigate the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) and related chiral transport in the millimeter-size (Cr_{0.12}Bi_{0.26}Sb_{0.62})_{2}Te_{3} films. With high sample quality and robust magnetism at low temperatures, the quantized Hall conductance of e^{2}/h is found to persist even when the film thickness is beyond the two-dimensional (2D) hybridization limit. Meanwhile, the Chern insulator-featured chiral edge conduction is manifested by the nonlocal transport measurements. In contrast to the 2D hybridized thin film, an additional weakly field-dependent longitudinal resistance is observed in the ten-quintuple-layer film, suggesting the influence of the film thickness on the dissipative edge channel in the QAHE regime. The extension of the QAHE into the three-dimensional thickness region addresses the universality of this quantum transport phenomenon and motivates the exploration of new QAHE phases with tunable Chern numbers. In addition, the observation of scale-invariant dissipationless chiral propagation on a macroscopic scale makes a major stride towards ideal low-power interconnect applications.
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Hepatoprotective effect of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. lignans and its formula with Rubus idaeus on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the liver protection effect of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (SC) lignans and its combination with Rubus idaeus (RI) on chronic alcohol-induced mice. A low level of SC lignans (SL) was prepared from the clear juice of sarcocarp. Lignans were further extracted from the SC seeds and added to the SL to form high-level SC lignans (SH). Moreover, RI clear juice lyophilized powder was mixed with SL (SR), and the liver protection effects of SL, SH and SR were investigated. Male ICR mice were administered with the corresponding samples and gastrically infused with 50% alcohol (1 h later) once per day for 60 d. In the in vitro study, the characteristic lignans in the SC clear juice and the seed extract were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capability of SL, SH, and SR were determined. The results of the in vivo study showed that SC lignans exhibited a dose-dependent effect on the regulation of hepatic antioxidant status, serum transaminases levels, hyperlipidemia and hepatic fat deposition in mice. However, hepatic lesions were observed in the SH mice, which indicated a potential side effect caused by long-term consumption of SH under chronic alcohol administration. By contrast, SR exhibited a similar hepatoprotective effect as SH without any abnormality found in the histological analysis. After analysis with HPLC, Schizandrol A and Schizandrol B were identified in the SC clear juice, and two more kinds of lignans, Schisandrin A and Schisandrin B, were identified in the seed extracts. The SR sample had the highest TPC and exhibited the best antioxidant capability. In conclusion, RI strengthened the liver protection effect of SC lignans effectively and safely, which was probably achieved by enhancing the antioxidant status and the positive effect of their combination was possibly attributed to both lignans and polyphenols. This study demonstrated that the combination of low-level SC lignans and RI might be used as a potential safe formula for beverage development to alleviate the adverse effects of long-term alcohol consumption.
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[Clinical role of BRAF V600E mutation testing in thyroid nodules].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To evaluate the clinical role of BRAF V600E mutation testing in fine-needle aspirates (FNA) of thyroid nodules.
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Molecular characterization and different expression patterns of the FABP gene family during goat skeletal muscle development.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The FABP (adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein) genes play an important role in intracellular fatty acid transport and considered to be candidate genes for fatness traits in domestic animal. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of goat FABP family genes and their expression patterns were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and quantitative real time RT-PCR. Expression analysis showed that goat FABP1 gene was predominantly expressed in liver, kidney and large intestine. While FABP4 was widely expressed in many tissues with a high expression level was observed in the fat, skeletal muscle, stomach and lung. Notably, FABP2 gene was expressed specifically in small intestine. Moreover, goat FABP3 was expressed at 60 day with the highest level, then significantly (p < 0.01) decreased at the 90 day. No significant expression differences were observed in longissimus dorsi muscles among 3 day, 30 day and 60 day. Goat FABP4 was expressed at 3 day with the lowest level, then significantly (p < 0.01) increased to a peak at the 60 day. In addition, a significant relationship between FABP3 mRNA expression levels and intramuscular fat (IMF) content was observed. These results suggest that the FABP3 and FABP4 may be important genes for meat quality and provides useful information for further studies on their roles in skeletal muscle IMF deposit.
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LY2875358, a Neutralizing and Internalizing Anti-MET Bivalent Antibody, Inhibits HGF-Dependent and HGF-Independent MET Activation and Tumor Growth.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), has been implicated in driving tumor proliferation and metastasis. High MET expression is correlated with poor prognosis in multiple cancers. Activation of MET can be induced either by HGF-independent mechanisms such as gene amplification, specific genetic mutations, and transcriptional upregulation or by HGF-dependent autocrine or paracrine mechanisms.
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[Quantitative evaluation of three-dimensional reconstruction accuracy of edentulous models in centric relation].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To reconstruct the centric relation of upper and lower edentulous dental models with two methods, to compare the reconstruction accuracy of the vertical and horizontal distance, and to provide some references to computer aided design and computer aided manufacture for complete denture.
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Sustainable and scalable production of monodisperse and highly uniform colloidal carbonaceous spheres using sodium polyacrylate as the dispersant.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Monodisperse, uniform colloidal carbonaceous spheres were fabricated by the hydrothermal treatment of glucose with the help of a tiny amount of sodium polyacrylate (PAANa). This synthetic strategy is effective at high glucose concentration and for scale-up experiments. The sphere size can be easily tuned by the reaction time, temperature and glucose concentration.
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Improved electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation by Pd@N-doped carbon from biomass.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Pd@N-doped carbon (Pd@CN) exhibited four and two times higher peak current density toward ethanol electrooxidation than Pd@active carbon and Pd@non-nitrogen carbon. Controlled experimental results indicated that the incorporation of nitrogen into the carbon matrix improved the percentage of Pd(0) and increased the binding energy of Pd in Pd@CN, and accordingly enhanced the catalytic activity.
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Dynamic conformational change regulates the protein-DNA recognition: an investigation on binding of a Y-family polymerase to its target DNA.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Protein-DNA recognition is a central biological process that governs the life of cells. A protein will often undergo a conformational transition to form the functional complex with its target DNA. The protein conformational dynamics are expected to contribute to the stability and specificity of DNA recognition and therefore may control the functional activity of the protein-DNA complex. Understanding how the conformational dynamics influences the protein-DNA recognition is still challenging. Here, we developed a two-basin structure-based model to explore functional dynamics in Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Y-family polymerase IV (DPO4) during its binding to DNA. With explicit consideration of non-specific and specific interactions between DPO4 and DNA, we found that DPO4-DNA recognition is comprised of first 3D diffusion, then a short-range adjustment sliding on DNA and finally specific binding. Interestingly, we found that DPO4 is under a conformational equilibrium between multiple states during the binding process and the distributions of the conformations vary at different binding stages. By modulating the strength of the electrostatic interactions, the flexibility of the linker, and the conformational dynamics in DPO4, we drew a clear picture on how DPO4 dynamically regulates the DNA recognition. We argue that the unique features of flexibility and conformational dynamics in DPO4-DNA recognition have direct implications for low-fidelity translesion DNA synthesis, most of which is found to be accomplished by the Y-family DNA polymerases. Our results help complete the description of the DNA synthesis process for the Y-family polymerases. Furthermore, the methods developed here can be widely applied for future investigations on how various proteins recognize and bind specific DNA substrates.
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Graphene-based nanocomposite anodes for lithium-ion batteries.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Graphene-based nanocomposites have been demonstrated to be promising high-capacity anodes for lithium ion batteries to satisfy the ever-growing demands for higher capacity, longer cycle life and better high-rate performance. Synergetic effects between graphene and the introduced second-phase component are generally observed. In this feature review article, we will focus on the recent work on four different categories of graphene-based nanocomposite anodes by us and others: graphene-transitional metal oxide, graphene-Sn/Si/Ge, graphene-metal sulfide, and graphene-carbon nanotubes. For the supported materials on graphene, we will emphasize the non-zero dimensional (non-particle) morphologies such as two dimensional nanosheet/nanoplate and one dimensional nanorod/nanofibre/nanotube morphologies. The synthesis strategies and lithium-ion storage properties of these highlighted electrode morphologies are distinct from those of the commonly obtained zero dimensional nanoparticles. We aim to stress the importance of structure matching in the composites and their morphology-dependent lithium-storage properties and mechanisms.
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The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic.
Science
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (~3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.
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Theoretical insights into the reductive metabolism of CCl4 by cytochrome P450 enzymes and the CCl4-dependent suicidal inactivation of P450.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The anaerobic metabolism of CCl4 by P450 enzymes was investigated using quantum chemical calculations. It was found that under anaerobic conditions, the substrate CCl4 might undergo one or two subsequent one-electron reductions to generate different reactive metabolites, trichloromethyl radical (?CCl3) and dichlorocarbene (:CCl2) respectively. Meanwhile, it was the reduced ferrous haem complex rather than the unreduced ferric haem complex that could directly achieve such reductions. Based on the formation of the former reactive metabolite, a further one-electron reduction could take place with the assistance of a proton to yield the latter reactive species, i.e., a further reductive dechloridation of ?CCl3 could take place via a novel SE3 mechanism. In addition, the ?CCl3 species was capable of binding covalently to the meso-carbon atom of the prosthetic group, leading to the suicidal destruction of P450 enzymes. Whereas the :CCl2 species was involved in the CCl4-dependent reversible P450 inhibition as its hydrolysis product, CO, but was not significantly involved in the CCl4-dependent irreversible P450 destruction. It is obvious that the reductive metabolism of CCl4 to reactive intermediates by P450 enzymes is an essential prerequisite for its toxicity.
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[Comparison of clinical characteristics and survival on patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and familial pulmonary arterial hypertension during conventional therapy era and targeted therapy era].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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To compare the clinical characteristics and survival on Chinese patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and familiar pulmonary arterial hypertension (FPAH) during conventional therapy era and targeted therapy era.
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Bioinspired affinity DNA polymers on nanoparticles for drug sequestration and detoxification.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Nanomaterials with the ability of sequestering target molecules hold great potential for a variety of applications. To ensure the stable sequestration, most of these nanomaterials have been traditionally designed with a clear boundary or compact structures and behave as closed systems. While this feature is beneficial to applications such as drug delivery, it may pose a challenge to applications where fast molecular transport from the environment to nanomaterials is critical. Thus, this study was aimed at exploring a nanomaterial with affinity DNA polymers and nanoparticles as an open system with function similar to jellyfish tentacles in sequestering target molecules from surroundings. The results show that this nanomaterial can effectively and rapidly sequester both small molecule drugs and large molecule biologics and resultantly mitigate their biological effects. Thus, this nanomaterial holds potential as a universal nanoscale antidote for drug removal and detoxification. While this nanomaterial was evaluated by using drug removal and detoxification as a model, the synthesis of periodically oriented affinity polymers on a nanoparticle with the capability of sequestering target molecules may be tuned for broad applications such as separation, sensing, imaging and drug delivery.
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Borealin/Dasra B is overexpressed in colorectal cancers and contributes to proliferation of cancer cells.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Borealin/Dasra B, also called cell division cycle associated 8, is a member of the chromosomal passenger complex and plays a crucial role during mitosis and cell division. The expression of this gene has been investigated in several kinds of cancers, but its role in colorectal cancers (CRC) remains to be elucidated. In this study, our in silico analysis using the Oncomine database showed that Borealin was overexpressed in CRC tissues, which was further validated by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 81 pairs of primary CRC and adjacent non-cancerous tissues. In CRC, Borealin expression was positively correlated with age (P = 0.0079), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0086), and TNM stage (P = 0.0050). Significant difference in the overall survival time was seen between patients with high and low expression (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, high Borealin expression remained independently prognostic in multivariate analysis (HR 4.556, 95 % CI 1.964-10.567, P = 0.0004). Functional studies showed that suppression of Borealin expression with siRNA could significantly inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis in HCT-116 cells (P < 0.01). These results suggest that Borealin might act as an independent prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target for patients with CRC.
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Beta blockers prevent correlation of plasma ACE2 activity with echocardiographic parameters in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 activity has been demonstrated to be an independent prognostic marker in Chagas' disease (CD), equally potent as B-type natriuretic peptide. This study aims to investigate the prognostic potency of circulating ACE2 activity in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).Blood samples were withdrawn from patients with idiopathic DCM and healthy control subjects. The DCM patients were subdivided into two groups according to their NYHA classification. The plasma ACE2 activity was measured by a fluorescence method. Plasma ACE2 activity was significantly increased in DCM patients, correlating with clinical severity. It was correlating with echocardiographic parameters in DCM patients. Furthermore, plasma ACE2 activity had the potency to predict cardiac death and heart transplant. However, compared to CD patients, the correlation and predictive value of ACE2 activity in DCM patients was much less pronounced. Beta blocker treatment in DCM patients was identified to prevent the association between circulating ACE2 activity and echocardiographic parameters.While ACE2 activity in blood samples of DCM patients without beta blockers is potent in correlating with the severity of disease and in predicting death and heart transplant, its correlation and prediction potency are significantly diminished by beta blocker treatment.
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A Reduction and pH Dual-Sensitive Polymeric Vector for Long-Circulating and Tumor-Targeted siRNA Delivery.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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A novel reduction and pH dual-sensitive nonviral vector for long-circulating and tumor-targeted siRNA delivery is described. The nanomedicine is negatively charged at neutral pH of bloodstream whereas positively charged at lower pH of tumor tissue (ca. 6.8). Interlayer crosslinking with disulfide bonds stabilizes the nanomedicine during blood circulation and allows quick intracellular siRNA release after endocytosis.
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Fluorescent gold nanoclusters based photoelectrochemical sensors for detection of H2O2 and glucose.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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In this work, low-toxicity fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) based photoelectrochemical sensors were developed for H2O2 and glucose detection. Herein, the processes used to fabricate the sensors and the photoelectrochemical performances of the sensors under different conditions were presented. Based on the energy band levels of the AuNCs and electron tunneling processes, a detailed photoelectrochemical sensing model was given. The designed sensors were then used for H2O2 and glucose detection without any extra modification of the AuNCs or complex enzyme immobilization. The results demonstrate that the AuNCs allow for H2O2 sensing based on their capacity for both fluorescence and catalysis. Indeed, it was observed that H2O2 was catalyzed by the AuNCs and reduced by photoinduced electrons derived from excited AuNCs. Furthermore, an enhancement in photocurrent amplitude followed the increase in the concentrations of H2O2 and glucose. The effects of the types of ligands surrounding the AuNCs and the applied potential on the output photocurrent were well studied to optimize the measurement conditions. The sensitivity and LOD of MUA-AuNCs at -500mV were 4.33nA/mM and 35?M, respectively. All experimental results indicated that AuNCs could not only serve as a promising photoelectrical material for building the photoelectrochemical biosensors but as catalysts for H2O2 sensing.
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Autophagy occurs within an hour of adenosine triphosphate treatment after nerve cell damage: the neuroprotective effects of adenosine triphosphate against apoptosis.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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After hypoxia, ischemia, or inflammatory injuries to the central nervous system, the damaged cells release a large amount of adenosine triphosphate, which may cause secondary neuronal death. Autophagy is a form of cell death that also has neuroprotective effects. Cell Counting Kit assay, monodansylcadaverine staining, flow cytometry, western blotting, and real-time PCR were used to determine the effects of exogenous adenosine triphosphate treatment at different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mmol/L) over time (1, 2, 3, and 6 hours) on the apoptosis and autophagy of SH-SY5Y cells. High concentrations of extracellular adenosine triphosphate induced autophagy and apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. The enhanced autophagy first appeared, and peaked at 1 hour after treatment with adenosine triphosphate. Cell apoptosis peaked at 3 hours, and persisted through 6 hours. With prolonged exposure to the adenosine triphosphate treatment, the fraction of apoptotic cells increased. These data suggest that the SH-SY5Y neural cells initiated autophagy against apoptosis within an hour of adenosine triphosphate treatment to protect themselves against injury.
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Piperazinyl-oxadiazoles as selective sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonists.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The discovery of a new series of selective S1P1 agonists is described. This series of piperazinyl-oxadiazole derivatives was rapidly optimized starting from high-throughput screening hit 1 to afford potent and selective lead compound 10d. Further SAR studies showed that 10d was converted to the active phosphate metabolite 29 in vivo. Oral administration of compound 10d to rats was shown to induce lymphopenia at 3mg/kg.
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Clinically relevant strategies for lowering cardiomyocyte glucose uptake for (18)F-FDG imaging of myocardial inflammation in mice.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Myocardial inflammation is an emerging target for novel therapies and thus for molecular imaging. Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been employed, but requires an approach for suppression of cardiomyocyte uptake. We tested clinically viable strategies for their suitability in mouse models in order to optimize preclinical imaging protocols.
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Genome-wide identification and analysis of basic helix-loop-helix domains in dog, Canis lupus familiaris.
Mol. Genet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain is a highly conserved amino acid motif that defines a group of DNA-binding transcription factors. bHLH proteins play essential regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes in animal, plant, and fungus. The domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris, is a good model organism for genetic, physiological, and behavioral studies. In this study, we identified 115 putative bHLH genes in the dog genome. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, 51, 26, 14, 4, 12, and 4 dog bHLH genes were assigned to six separate groups (A-F); four bHLH genes were categorized as ''orphans''. Within-group evolutionary relationships inferred from the phylogenetic analysis were consistent with positional conservation, other conserved domains flanking the bHLH motif, and highly conserved intron/exon patterns in other vertebrates. Our analytical results confirmed the GenBank annotations of 89 dog bHLH proteins and provided information that could be used to update the annotations of the remaining 26 dog bHLH proteins. These data will provide good references for further studies on the structures and regulatory functions of bHLH proteins in the growth and development of dogs, which may help in understanding the mechanisms that underlie the physical and behavioral differences between dogs and wolves.
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Improved solubility and stability of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin at different temperatures and pH values through complexation with sulfobutyl ether-?-cyclodextrin.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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The inclusion complex of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (7H4MC) with sulfobutyl ether-?-cyclodextrin (SBE-?-CD) was investigated by means of UV-vis, circular dichroism and (1)H NMR spectroscopy in phosphate buffer solutions at different temperatures and pH values. The stoichiometric ratio of the complexation was found to be 1:1 and the stability constants (KC) were estimated from phase solubility analysis. The thermodynamic parameters of standard Gibbs free energy change, ?G(o), enthalpy change, ?H(o), and entropy change, ?S(o), for the complexation process were obtained by using the van't Hoff equation and Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. The large negative ?H(o) and the small negative or positive ?S(o) (|?H(o)|>|T?S(o)|) demonstrated that the inclusion interaction was an enthalpy-driven process. The positive signal of circular dichroism indicated that 7H4MC penetrated the cavity in such a way that the transition moment of the guest chromophore was parallel to the long axis of SBE-?-CD cavity. Moreover, the (1)H NMR spectrum showed that the entire 7H4MC molecule, except the hydroxyl group, was included in the SBE-?-CD cavity.
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Exposure to cigarette smoke impacts myeloid-derived regulatory cell function and exacerbates airway hyper-responsiveness.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Cigarette smoking enhances oxidative stress and airway inflammation in asthma, the mechanisms of which are largely unknown. Myeloid-derived regulatory cells (MDRC) are free radical producing immature myeloid cells with immunoregulatory properties that have recently been demonstrated as critical regulators of allergic airway inflammation. NO (nitric oxide)-producing immunosuppressive MDRC suppress T-cell proliferation and airway-hyper responsiveness (AHR), while the O2(•-) (superoxide)-producing MDRC are proinflammatory. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure may impact MDRC function and contribute to exacerbations in asthma. Exposure of bone marrow (BM)-derived NO-producing MDRC to CS reduced the production of NO and its metabolites and inhibited their potential to suppress T-cell proliferation. Production of immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly inhibited, while proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-33 were enhanced in CS-exposed BM-MDRC. Additionally, CS exposure increased NF-?B activation and induced BM-MDRC-mediated production of O2(•-), via NF-?B-dependent pathway. Intratracheal transfer of smoke-exposed MDRC-producing proinflammatory cytokines increased NF-?B activation, reactive oxygen species and mucin production in vivo and exacerbated AHR in C57BL/6 mice, mice deficient in Type I IFNR and MyD88, both with reduced numbers of endogenous MDRC. Thus CS exposure modulates MDRC function and contributes to asthma exacerbation and identifies MDRC as potential targets for asthma therapy.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 3 November 2014; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2014.126.
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman infection of rhesus macaques of Chinese origin.
Tuberculosis (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Continuous high global tuberculosis (TB) mortality rates and variable vaccine efficacy of mycobacterium Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) emphasize the need for improved vaccines and drugs against TB, which require clinically relevant animal models for evaluation. We infected a total of 24 Chinese rhesus macaques with varying doses (CFU of 25, 100 and 500) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) Erdman strain via bronchoscopy. Regardless of the M.tb doses, all animals were infected successfully with minor differences in clinical progression; as evidenced by clinical manifestations, laboratory analyses, bacterial burden in infected tissues and histopathology evaluations. Rhesus macaques of Chinese origin are highly susceptible to infection with M.tb Erdman strain and develop acute TB disease, which is similar to that in humans. Pathologically, Chinese rhesus macaques recapitulated the complete spectrum of granulomatous lesions seen in human TB disease. These data indicate that low-dose infection of rhesus macaques of Chinese origin is a suitable model for acute M.tb infection.
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Diagnostic and prognostic value of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 in patients with gliomas.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17) has been shown to regulate numerous proteins involved in the cell cycle, as well as tumor oncogenes. The expression pattern of ADAM17 in glioma patients, however, is unclear. In the present study, the expression pattern and prognostic significance of ADAM17 was investigated in patients with glioma. A total of 60 glioma specimens and eight normal control samples were obtained. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses were used to examine the expression of ADAM17. In addition, the association of ADAM17 expression with the clinicopathological parameters and the survival rates of the glioma patients was analyzed. The results showed that ADAM17 was upregulated in the high-grade glioma tissues compared with that in the low-grade and normal brain tissues of the glioma patients, and that the level increased with ascending World Health Organization tumor grade (P<0.05). Furthermore, the survival rate of the patients with ADAM17-positive tumors was lower compared with the patients with ADAM17-negative tumors. These results indicated that the overexpression of ADAM17 was correlated with a high tumor grade and a poor prognosis in patients with glioma. ADAM17 may have an important oncogenic function in glioma progression, and is a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target.
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Design and fabrication of hierarchically porous carbon with a template-free method.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Fabrication of hierarchically porous carbon materials (HPCs) with high surface area and pore volume has always been pursued. However, the currently effective template methods and acid/base activation strategies suffer from the drawbacks of either high costs or tedious steps. Herein, HPCs with 3D macro-mesopores and short-range meso-micropores were fabricated via an easy and sustainable two-step method from biomass. Macro-mesopores were constructed by slightly accumulation/aggregation of carbon spheres ranging from 60?nm to 80?nm, providing efficient mass diffusion pathways. Short-range mesopores and micropores with high electrolyte accessibility were developed in these spheres by air activation. The obtained HPCs showed surface area values up to 1306?m(2)/g and high mesopore volume proportion (63.9%). They demonstrated excellent capacitance and low equivalent series resistance (ESR) as supercapacitor electrode materials, suggesting the efficient diffusion and adsorption of electrolyte ions in the designed hierarchically porous structure.
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Stable small quantum dots for synaptic receptor tracking on live neurons.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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We developed a coating method to produce functionalized small quantum dots (sQDs), about 9?nm in diameter, that were stable for over a month. We made sQDs in four emission wavelengths, from 527 to 655?nm and with different functional groups. AMPA receptors on live neurons were labeled with sQDs and postsynaptic density proteins were visualized with super-resolution microscopy. Their diffusion behavior indicates that sQDs access the synaptic clefts significantly more often than commercial QDs.
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Berberine targets epidermal growth factor receptor signaling to suppress prostate cancer proliferation in vitro.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Berberine is a well?known component of the Chinese herbal medicine Huanglian (Coptis chinensis), and is capable of inhibiting the proliferation of multiple cancer cell lines. However, information available regarding the effect of berberine on prostate cancer cell growth is limited. In the present study, LnCaP and PC?3 human prostate cancer cell lines were selected as in vitro models in order to assess the efficacy of berberine as an anticancer agent. A cell proliferation assay demonstrated that berberine inhibited cell growth in a dose?and time?dependent manner. Further investigation revealed berberine significantly accumulated inside cells that were in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and enhanced apoptosis. Western blot analysis demonstrated that berberine inhibited the expression of prostate?specific antigen and the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and it attenuated EGFR activation following EGF treatment in vitro. In conclusion, the results indicate that berberine inhibits the proliferation of prostate cancer cells through apoptosis and/or cell cycle arrest by inactivation of the EGFR signaling pathway.
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Validation of the Chinese Version of the Short TEMPS-A and its application in patients with mood disorders.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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The short version of Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) is a useful instrument to measure affective temperaments. Aims of the present study are to validate the Chinese Version of the Short TEMPS-A, and to explore whether it could be useful to distinguish patients with mood disorders from healthy controls or differentiate patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) from those with major depressive disorder (MDD) in Chinese population.
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Stomach carcinoma presenting with a synchronous liver cancer: a case report and literature review.
Case Rep Gastrointest Med
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Multiple primary malignant neoplasms are two or more malignancies in an individual without any relationship between the tumors. Multiple primary malignancies are relatively rare but have increased in recent decades. Two cancers are commonly observed among those with multiple primary malignancies, but two malignancies of stomach and liver are relatively rare to be reported. Mechanisms of the tumors were unclear; we described a patient who had stomach carcinoma presenting with a synchronous liver cancer and investigated his family history; we suggest that family history may be a key risk factor and early detection for additional primary malignancies should be needed for patients who had specific cancer history in their pedigree. Early diagnosis may be the key risk factor affecting prognosis.
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A sensor based on blue luminescent graphene quantum dots for analysis of a common explosive substance and an industrial intermediate, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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A rapid and effective sensor for the analysis of nitrophenol-based explosive substances, represented by trinitrophenol (TNP), has been developed with the use of the blue luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs); these GQDs are derived from citric acid by a pyrolysis procedure. They emit strong blue fluorescence at 450nm after excitation at 365nm, and TNP can quench this fluorescence because a fluorescence resonance energy transfer occurs. The quenching ratio (F0-F)/F0 was related linearly to the concentration of TNP in the range of 0.1-15?molL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.091?molL(-1) (S/N=3). The developed method exhibits high sensitivity, good linearity and reliable reproducibility for the quantitative analysis of TNP in water samples. The GQDs were used directly without any further treatment or complicated modification.
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Efficacy and acceptability of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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As some evidences demonstrated that atypical antipsychotics (AA) may be efficacious in treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we preformed a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of AAs for the treatment of PTSD. Two hundred and fifty one papers were searched and screened. Eight RCTs met the inclusion criteria. AAs may be superior to placebo in the treatment of PTSD, as indicated by the changes in Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) total scores (weighted mean differences (WMD)=-5.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-9.21, -2.56], P=0.0005) and also in CAPS subscale intrusion (WMD=-2.58, 95% CI[-3.83, -1.33], P<0.0001 ) and subscale hyperarousal (WMD=-2.94, 95% CI[-5.45, -0.43], P=0.02). The acceptability measured by dropout rates between AAs and placebo showed no statistical difference (OR=1.24, 95%CI [0.78, 1.97], P=0.36). PTSD symptom cluster, especially in intrusion and hyperarousal. However, we should be careful to generalize the conclusion because of the small number of included trails. We expect more RCTs will be done in the future so as to clarify the specific value of AAs for PTSD.
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An outbreak of acute norovirus gastroenteritis in a boarding school in Shanghai: a retrospective cohort study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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More than 200 students and teachers at a boarding school in Shanghai developed acute gastroenteritis in December, 2012. The transmission mode remained largely unknown. An immediate epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify it.
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Simultaneous removal of Co(II) and 1-naphthol by core-shell structured Fe ?O?@cyclodextrin magnetic nanoparticles.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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Herein, ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) was introduced on the surfaces of Fe3O4 particles via the chemical co-precipitation approach. The as-prepared Fe3O4@CD MNPs can be easily separated from the aqueous phase with a magnet. The removal performance of Fe3O4@CD MNPs toward Co(II) and 1-naphthol were investigated by using the batch technique. The maximum sorption capacities of Fe3O4@CD MNPs toward Co(II) and 1-naphthol are higher than a series of adsorbent materials. The simultaneous removal of Co(II) and 1-naphthol is achieved via the binding of Co(II) on the external surface sites of Fe3O4@CD MNPs and the incorporation of 1-naphthol into the hydrophobic cavity of surface-coated ?-CD. The Fe3O4@CD MNPs exhibit favorable removal performance toward Co(II) and 1-naphthol from the simulated effluent. The experimental results herein suggest that Fe3O4@CD MNPs can be used as cost-effective material for the purification of co-contaminated water systems.
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The combination of a nuclear HMGB1-positive and HMGB2-negative expression is potentially associated with a shortened survival in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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High-mobility group box (HMGB) proteins are ubiquitous, abundant nuclear non-histone chromosomal proteins that play a critical role in binding to distorted DNA structures and subsequently regulating DNA transcription, replication, repair, and recombination. Both HMGB1 and HMGB2 exhibit a high expression in several human cancers and are closely associated with tumor progression and a poor prognosis. However, the expression patterns of these molecules in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain to be elucidated. As most cases of postoperative relapse of PDAC occur within the first 2 years, the clinical significance of accurate biomarkers is needed. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between the immunohistochemical HMGB1 and HMGB2 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis using 62 paraffin-embedded tumor samples obtained from patients with surgically resected PDAC. The HMGB1/2 expression was considered to be positive when 10 % or more of the cancer cells showed positive nuclear, not merely cytoplasmic, staining. Consequently, the expression of HMGB1/2 was observed in 54 (87.1 %) and 31 (50.0 %) patients, respectively. Unexpectedly, a positive HMGB1 expression was found to have a significantly close relationship with a negative HMGB2 expression. The univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that the patients with a HMGB1+ and HMGB2- status had markedly lower disease-specific survival rates, especially within the first 2 years postoperatively, whereas those with a HMGB1+ status alone did not. Therefore, the combination of a HMGB1+ and HMGB2- expression potentially predicts a poor prognosis in patients with PDAC, and these new biomarkers may be useful parameters for clinical management in the early postoperative phase.
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Wettability of dentin after Yb:KYW thin-disk femtosecond ablation.
Lasers Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the wettability of dentin after Yb:KYW thin-disk femtosecond-pulsed laser ablation by measuring the contact angle. Different laser parameters were used including different fluences (F), scanning speeds, and scanning line spacings. Crowns of 15 extracted human teeth were cut longitudinally into slices approximately 1.5-mm thick with a cutting instrument. The samples were randomly divided into ten groups (n?=?3/group). Samples in groups 1-8 were irradiated with a femtosecond-pulsed laser. The dentin samples were fixed on a stage at the focal plane, and the laser beam irradiated the samples through a galvanometric scanning system so rectangular movement could be achieved. Samples in groups 9 and 10 were prepared with grinding instruments. Following ablation and preparation, the samples were examined for contact angle with an optical contact angle measuring instrument. The results showed that scanning speed and scanning line spacing had little influence on the wettability of dentin following femtosecond-pulsed laser ablation, except when F?=?6 J/cm(2). For six out of the eight laser ablation groups, when a lower fluence was used, the dentin contact angle was higher and vice versa. Most of the dentin which had been ablated using the femtosecond-pulsed laser had improved wettability compared to samples prepared with the grinding instruments. This study showed that various laser fluences, scanning speeds, and scanning line spacings can alter dentin wettability. Therefore, adequate parameters should be chosen to achieve proper therapeutic benefits.
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Species sorting during biofilm assembly by artificial substrates deployed in a cold seep system.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Studies focusing on biofilm assembly in deep-sea environments are rarely conducted. To examine the effects of substrate type on microbial community assembly, biofilms were developed on different substrates for different durations at two locations in the Red Sea: in a brine pool and in nearby bottom water (NBW) adjacent to the Thuwal cold seep II. The composition of the microbial communities in 51 biofilms and water samples were revealed by classification of pyrosequenced 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Together with the microscopic characteristics of the biofilms, the results indicate a stronger selection effect by the substrates on the microbial assembly in the brine pool compared with the NBW. Moreover, the selection effect by substrate type was stronger in the early stages compared with the later stages of the biofilm development. These results are consistent with the hypotheses proposed in the framework of species sorting theory, which states that the power of species sorting during microbial community assembly is dictated by habitat conditions, duration and the structure of the source community. Therefore, the results of this study shed light on the control strategy underlying biofilm-associated marine fouling and provide supporting evidence for ecological theories important for understanding the formation of deep-sea biofilms.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.