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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Chemical Tuned Strategy to Develop Novel Irreversible EGFR-TK Inhibitors with Improved Safety and Pharmacokinetic Profiles.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Gatekeeper T790M mutation in EGFR is the most prevalent factor underlying acquired resistance. Acrylamide-bearing quinazoline derivatives are powerful irreversible inhibitors for overcoming resistance. Nevertheless, concerns about the risk of non-specific covalent modification have motivated the development of novel cysteine-targeting inhibitors. In this paper, we demonstrate that fluoro-substituted olefins can be tuned to alter Michael addition reactivity. Incorporation of these olefins into the quinazoline templates produced potent EGFR inhibitors with improved safety and pharmacokinetic properties. A lead compound 5a was validated against EGFRWT, EGFR T790M as well as A431 and H1975 cancer cell lines. Additionally, compound 5a displayed a weaker inhibition against the EGFR-independent cancer cell line SW620 when compared withafatinib. Oral administration of 5a at a dose of 30mg/kg induced tumor regression in a murine-EGFRL858R/T790M driven H1975 xenograft model. Also, 5a exhibited improved oral bioavailability and safety, as well as favorable tissue distribution properties and enhanced brain uptake. These findings provide the basis of a promising strategy toward the treatment of NSCLC patients with drug resistance.
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The kiss/kissr systems are dispensable for zebrafish reproduction: evidence from gene knockout studies.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The kiss1/gpr54 signaling system is considered to be a critical regulator of reproduction in most vertebrates. However this presumption has not been tested vigorously in non-mammalian vertebrates. Distinct from mammals, multiple kiss1/gpr54 paralogous genes (kiss/kissr) have been identified in non-mammalian vertebrates, raising the possibility of functional redundancy among these genes. In this study, we have systematically generated the zebrafish kiss1(-/-), kiss2(-/-) and kiss1(-/-);kiss2(-/-) mutant lines as well as the kissr1(-/-), kissr2(-/-) and kissr1(-/-);kissr2(-/-) mutant lines using transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs). We have demonstrated that spermatogenesis and folliculogenesis as well as reproductive capability are not impaired in all of these six mutant lines. Collectively, our results indicate that kiss/kissr signaling is not absolutely required for zebrafish reproduction, suggesting that the kiss/kissr systems play non-essential roles for reproduction in certain non-mammalian vertebrates. These findings also demonstrated that fish and mammals have evolved different strategies for neuroendocrine control of reproduction.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus akaara (Perciformes: Serranidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus akaara was presented in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,743?bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of Epinephelus akaara mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 27.31% of A, 16.20% of C, 28.68% of T and 27.81% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand.
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Development of an Immunochromatographic Strip Test for the Rapid Detection of Zearalenone in Corn.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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A rapid immunochromatographic test strip has been developed for the detection of zearalenone (ZEN) residues in corn. For this purpose, a specific anti-ZEN monoclonal antibody (mAb), 4A3-F9, was obtained and identified. ZEN coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) via 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether was prepared as immunogen. The mAb showed low cross-reactivity with five ZEN analogues. Using an antibody preparation with a titer of ?1:5.12 × 10(5), the cross-reactivity (CR) of the anti-ZEN monoclonal antibody with four of the analogues was <4%, except for zearalanone, which was 53.121%. The recovery rates of ZEN in spiked corn samples were in the range of 91.30-97.07% with coefficients of variation <5.32%. An immunochromatographic strip was developed using the specific anti-ZEN monoclonal antibody and applied to the screening of corn samples for ZEN residues. The test could be accomplished within 5-10 min. The sensitivity of the test strip in corn sample extract was confirmed to be 20 ?g/kg by unaided visual assessment, and the IC50 was calculated as 3.4 ng/mL using a test strip reader. The test strip, analyzed by unaided visual assessment and strip reader, showed very good agreement with competitive indirect ELISA and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis for naturally contaminated corn samples.
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[Meta analysis of the changes of regulatory T cell number in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Objective To evaluate the change of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using meta-analysis. Methods The PubMed and China Biomedical Literature (CBM) databases were searched for relevant studies up to August 31, 2013. After quality assessment and data extraction for included studies, a meta-analysis was performed using the software of Comprehensive-Meta Analysis (CMA) v2.2. Results Finally 22 case-control studies were recruited, including 12 studies reporting the change of Treg number and 12 studies for the change of Treg:CD4(+)T cell ratio. The quality of studies was moderate to high. It demonstrated that the Treg number in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of active SLE patients significantly decreased than ones in controls (WMD=-1.23%, %CI=-1.87% to -0.59%). Then, subgroup analysis was performed based on the different surface markers of Tregs. It showed that the Treg number in PBMCs of active SLE patients decreased by 1.56% for the CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs (WMD=-1.56%, 95% CI=-2.18% to -0.94%), and by 0.91% for the CD4(+)CD25(high) Tregs (WMD=-0.91%, 95% CI=-1.52% to -0.29%) compared with ones in controls. As for the ratio of Tregs to CD4(+) T cells, there was no significant difference between the SLE patients and the controls. Sensitivity analysis showed the results were robust, and the Funnel Plots showed there was no publication bias. Conclusion Based on the current evidences, the development of SLE may be due to the decrease of Treg number in PBMCs, not to the abnormal ratio of Tregs to CD4(+) T cells.
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Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution.
Bernhard Misof, Shanlin Liu, Karen Meusemann, Ralph S Peters, Alexander Donath, Christoph Mayer, Paul B Frandsen, Jessica Ware, Tomáš Flouri, Rolf G Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Malte Petersen, Fernando Izquierdo-Carrasco, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Andre J Aberer, Ulrike Aspöck, Horst Aspöck, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Blanke, Simon Berger, Alexander Böhm, Thomas R Buckley, Brett Calcott, Junqing Chen, Frank Friedrich, Makiko Fukui, Mari Fujita, Carola Greve, Peter Grobe, Shengchang Gu, Ying Huang, Lars S Jermiin, Akito Y Kawahara, Lars Krogmann, Martin Kubiak, Robert Lanfear, Harald Letsch, Yiyuan Li, Zhenyu Li, Jiguang Li, Haorong Lu, Ryuichiro Machida, Yuta Mashimo, Pashalia Kapli, Duane D McKenna, Guanliang Meng, Yasutaka Nakagaki, José Luis Navarrete-Heredia, Michael Ott, Yanxiang Ou, Günther Pass, Lars Podsiadlowski, Hans Pohl, Björn M von Reumont, Kai Schütte, Kaoru Sekiya, Shota Shimizu, Adam Slipinski, Alexandros Stamatakis, Wenhui Song, Xu Su, Nikolaus U Szucsich, Meihua Tan, Xuemei Tan, Min Tang, Jingbo Tang, Gerald Timelthaler, Shigekazu Tomizuka, Michelle Trautwein, Xiaoli Tong, Toshiki Uchifune, Manfred G Walzl, Brian M Wiegmann, Jeanne Wilbrandt, Benjamin Wipfler, Thomas K F Wong, Qiong Wu, Gengxiong Wu, Yinlong Xie, Shenzhou Yang, Qing Yang, David K Yeates, Kazunori Yoshizawa, Qing Zhang, Rui Zhang, Wenwei Zhang, Yunhui Zhang, Jing Zhao, Chengran Zhou, Lili Zhou, Tanja Ziesmann, Shijie Zou, Yingrui Li, Xun Xu, Yong Zhang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Jun Wang, Karl M Kjer, Xin Zhou.
Science
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Insects are the most speciose group of animals, but the phylogenetic relationships of many major lineages remain unresolved. We inferred the phylogeny of insects from 1478 protein-coding genes. Phylogenomic analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, with site-specific nucleotide or domain-specific amino acid substitution models, produced statistically robust and congruent results resolving previously controversial phylogenetic relations hips. We dated the origin of insects to the Early Ordovician [~479 million years ago (Ma)], of insect flight to the Early Devonian (~406 Ma), of major extant lineages to the Mississippian (~345 Ma), and the major diversification of holometabolous insects to the Early Cretaceous. Our phylogenomic study provides a comprehensive reliable scaffold for future comparative analyses of evolutionary innovations among insects.
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Relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation tensor with kinetically balanced rotational London orbitals.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same "direct relativistic mapping" between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].
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[Study on packaging-induced stress in 4 mm cavity length high-power single emitter semiconductor laser].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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To reduce packaging-induced stress of long cavity length high-power single emitter semiconductor laser, the relationship between the stress and the wavelength shift was deduced on the basis of the theory that the stress can change the band gap. A method was developed for quantitatively calculating the stress by measuring the emission spectrum of the laser under pulse conditions. The results show that the soldering quality is a critical factor affecting thermal stress. The difference in stress can exceed 300 MPa due to the difference in soldering quality. By optimizing the reflowing soldering curve of the laser, the stress of the laser drops from 129.7 to 53.4 MPa. This method can also effectively solve the problem that the stress varies with storage time. This work demonstrates that the measurement and analysis of the emission spectrum of the laser can provide a useful method to study packaging stress of the high-power single emitter semiconductor laser. It is also an available means to evaluate and analyze soldering quality.
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Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Reconstructing the origin and evolution of land plants and their algal relatives is a fundamental problem in plant phylogenetics, and is essential for understanding how critical adaptations arose, including the embryo, vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers. Despite advances in molecular systematics, some hypotheses of relationships remain weakly resolved. Inferring deep phylogenies with bouts of rapid diversification can be problematic; however, genome-scale data should significantly increase the number of informative characters for analyses. Recent phylogenomic reconstructions focused on the major divergences of plants have resulted in promising but inconsistent results. One limitation is sparse taxon sampling, likely resulting from the difficulty and cost of data generation. To address this limitation, transcriptome data for 92 streptophyte taxa were generated and analyzed along with 11 published plant genome sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted using up to 852 nuclear genes and 1,701,170 aligned sites. Sixty-nine analyses were performed to test the robustness of phylogenetic inferences to permutations of the data matrix or to phylogenetic method, including supermatrix, supertree, and coalescent-based approaches, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, partitioned and unpartitioned analyses, and amino acid versus DNA alignments. Among other results, we find robust support for a sister-group relationship between land plants and one group of streptophyte green algae, the Zygnematophyceae. Strong and robust support for a clade comprising liverworts and mosses is inconsistent with a widely accepted view of early land plant evolution, and suggests that phylogenetic hypotheses used to understand the evolution of fundamental plant traits should be reevaluated.
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Arabidopsis protein arginine methyltransferase 3 is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting precursor ribosomal RNA processing.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental and tightly regulated cellular process, including synthesis, processing, and assembly of rRNAs with ribosomal proteins. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been implicated in many important biological processes, such as ribosome biogenesis. Two alternative precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing pathways coexist in yeast and mammals; however, how PRMT affects ribosome biogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis PRMT3 (AtPRMT3) is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting pre-rRNA processing. Disruption of AtPRMT3 results in pleiotropic developmental defects, imbalanced polyribosome profiles, and aberrant pre-rRNA processing. We further identify an alternative pre-rRNA processing pathway in Arabidopsis and demonstrate that AtPRMT3 is required for the balance of these two pathways to promote normal growth and development. Our work uncovers a previously unidentified function of PRMT in posttranscriptional regulation of rRNA, revealing an extra layer of complexity in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis.
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Surface-Energy-Assisted Perfect Transfer of Centimeter-Scale Monolayer and Few-Layer MoS2 Films onto Arbitrary Substrates.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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The transfer of synthesized 2D MoS2 films is important for fundamental and applied research. However, it is problematic to translate the well-established transfer processes for graphene to MoS2 due to different growth mechanisms and surface properties. Here we demonstrate a surface-energy-assisted process that can perfectly transfer centimeter-scale monolayer and few-layer MoS2 films from original growth substrates onto arbitrary substrates with no observable wrinkles, cracks, and polymer residues. The unique strategies used in this process include leveraging the penetration of water between hydrophobic MoS2 films and hydrophilic growth substrates to lift off the films and dry transferring the film after the lift off. This is in stark contrast with the previous transfer process for synthesized MoS2 films, which explores the etching of the growth substrate by hot base solutions to lift off the films. Our transfer process can effectively eliminate the mechanical force caused by bubble generations, the attacks from chemical etchants, and the capillary force induced when transferring the film outside solutions as in the previous transfer process, which consists of the major causes for the previous unsatisfactory transfer. Our transfer process also benefits from using polystyrene (PS), instead of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) that was widely used previously, as the carrier polymer. PS can form more intimate interaction with MoS2 films than PMMA and is important for maintaining the integrity of the film during the transfer process. This surface-energy-assisted approach can be generally applied to the transfer of other 2D materials, such as WS2.
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Multiple Polyploidy Events in the Early Radiation of Nodulating and Nonnodulating Legumes.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Unresolved questions about evolution of the large and diverse legume family include the timing of polyploidy (whole-genome duplication; WGDs) relative to the origin of the major lineages within the Fabaceae and to the origin of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Previous work has established that a WGD affects most lineages in the Papilionoideae and occurred sometime after the divergence of the papilionoid and mimosoid clades, but the exact timing has been unknown. The history of WGD has also not been established for legume lineages outside the Papilionoideae. We investigated the presence and timing of WGDs in the legumes by querying thousands of phylogenetic trees constructed from transcriptome and genome data from 20 diverse legumes and 17 outgroup species. The timing of duplications in the gene trees indicates that the papilionoid WGD occurred in the common ancestor of all papilionoids. The earliest diverging lineages of the Papilionoideae include both nodulating taxa, such as the genistoids (e.g., lupin), dalbergioids (e.g., peanut), phaseoloids (e.g., beans), and galegoids (=Hologalegina, e.g., clovers), and clades with nonnodulating taxa including Xanthocercis and Cladrastis (evaluated in this study). We also found evidence for several independent WGDs near the base of other major legume lineages, including the Mimosoideae-Cassiinae-Caesalpinieae (MCC), Detarieae, and Cercideae clades. Nodulation is found in the MCC and papilionoid clades, both of which experienced ancestral WGDs. However, there are numerous nonnodulating lineages in both clades, making it unclear whether the phylogenetic distribution of nodulation is due to independent gains or a single origin followed by multiple losses.
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Genistein alleviates pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis in mice.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Pressure overload-induced cardiac interstitial fibrosis is viewed as a major cause of heart failure in patients with hypertension or aorta atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and the underlying mechanisms of genistein (Gen), a natural phytoestrogen found in soy bean extract, on pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis.
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Studying regioisomer formation in the pd-catalyzed fluorination of aryl triflates by deuterium labeling.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Isotopic labeling has been used to determine that a portion of the desired product in the Pd-catalyzed fluorination of electron-rich, non-ortho-substituted aryl triflates results from direct C-F cross-coupling. In some cases, formation of a Pd-aryne intermediate is responsible for producing undesired regioisomers. The generation of the Pd-aryne intermediate occurs primarily via ortho-deprotonation of a L·Pd(Ar)OTf (L = biaryl monophosphine) species by CsF and thus competes directly with the transmetalation step of the catalytic cycle. Deuterium labeling studies were conducted with a variety of aryl triflates.
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Poliomyelitis eradication in china: 1953-2012.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Poliomyelitis has historically been endemic in China and has been considered an important cause of disability and death.
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Ultrahigh sensitivity and gain white light photodetector based on GaTe/Sn : CdS nanoflake/nanowire heterostructures.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Optoelectronic diode based on PN heterostructure is one of the most fundamental device building blocks with extensive applications. Here we reported the fabrication and optoelectronic properties of GaTe/Sn : CdS nanoflake/nanowire PN heterojunction photodetectors. With high quality contacts between metal electrodes and Sn : CdS or GaTe, the electrical measurement of GaTe/Sn : CdS hybrid heterojunction under dark condition demonstrates an excellent diode characteristic with well-defined current rectification behavior. The photocurrent increases drastically under LED white light as well as red, green, UV illumination. The on-off ratio of current is about 100 for forward bias and 3000 for reverse bias, which clearly indicates the ultrahigh sensitivity of the heterostructure photodetector to white light. The responsivity and optical gain are determined to be 607 A W(-1) and (1.06-2.16) × 10(5)%, which is higher than previous reports of single GaTe or CdS nanostructures. Combination the Ids-Vds curves under different illumination power with energy band diagrams, we assign that both the light modulation effect under forward and reverse bias and the surface molecular oxygen adsorption/desorption mechanism are dominant to the electrical transport behavior of GaTe/Sn : CdS heterojunction. This heterostructure photodetector also shows good stability and fast response speed. Both the high photosensibility and fast response time described in the present study suggest strongly that the GaTe/Sn : CdS hybrid heterostructure is a promising candidate for photodetection, optical sensing and switching devices.
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Stress induces pain transition by potentiation of AMPA receptor phosphorylation.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Chronic postsurgical pain is a serious issue in clinical practice. After surgery, patients experience ongoing pain or become sensitive to incident, normally nonpainful stimulation. The intensity and duration of postsurgical pain vary. However, it is unclear how the transition from acute to chronic pain occurs. Here we showed that social defeat stress enhanced plantar incision-induced AMPA receptor GluA1 phosphorylation at the Ser831 site in the spinal cord and greatly prolonged plantar incision-induced pain. Interestingly, targeted mutation of the GluA1 phosphorylation site Ser831 significantly inhibited stress-induced prolongation of incisional pain. In addition, stress hormones enhanced GluA1 phosphorylation and AMPA receptor-mediated electrical activity in the spinal cord. Subthreshold stimulation induced spinal long-term potentiation in GluA1 phosphomimetic mutant mice, but not in wild-type mice. Therefore, spinal AMPA receptor phosphorylation contributes to the mechanisms underlying stress-induced pain transition.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus lanceolatus (Perciformes: Serranidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus lanceolatus was presented in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,743?bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of E. lanceolatus mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 26.55% of A, 15.02% of C, 29.67% of T and 28.76% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand.
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PbS sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays with different sizes and filling degrees for enhancing photoelectrochemical properties.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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PbS nanoparticles (PbS NPs), an efficient sensitizer for TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NAs), were fabricated by the method of sonication-assisted successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). The filling degree and size of PbS NPs can be tuned by changing the repeated cycles (N) of the SILAR process. TiO2 NAs can be fully covered with PbS NPs with a size ranging from less than 4 nm to 25 nm and large aggregates inside and outside the nanotubes when N reaches 15. The growth mechanism of PbS NPs in TiO2 NAs was expounded in great detail in this work. Ultraviolet-visible diffuse-reflectance spectra and surface photovoltage spectroscopy were used to investigate the light absorption properties and the transfer behavior of photogenerated charges in PbS-modified TiO2 NA heterostructures. Results show that the absorption range of TiO2 NAs is extended from the ultraviolet to the visible region by PbS NPs modification. A heterojunction is formed between PbS NPs and TiO2 NAs, facilitating the separation of photogenerated charge carriers. This PbS NPs fully-covered TiO2 NA electrode exhibits the best photoelectrochemical performance in all PbS-sensitized TiO2 NA electrodes, due to a larger number of small PbS NPs (<4 nm). With AM 1.5G illumination at 100 mW cm(-2), its short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and photoelectric conversion efficiency are 9.55 mA cm(-2), 0.95 V and 2.83%, respectively.
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Mental health care in China: review on the delivery and policy issues in 1949–2009 and the outlook for the next decade.
Acta Neuropsychiatr
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, delivery models and policies on mental health care in China during the period of 1949–2009 were reviewed and characteristics of different stages of the mental health-care development were also analysed in this period. Recent studies demonstrate that mental health-care services in China are being transformed from large mental hospital-based pattern to community-based pattern in the past six decades. Combining the international experiences with current strategies and situations of Chinese health care, we provided the outlook for mental health-care services in the next decade in China. In addition, we proposed relevant policy recommendations that mainly focus on the equity and availability of mental health-care services with the purpose of promoting community-based health services.
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[Advances of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Myristica genus].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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The genus Myristica (Myristicaceae) consists of 120 species, which were distributed in South Asia, from west Polynesia, Oceania, eastern India to the Philippines. Phytochemical studies showed that 164 compounds including a majority of lignans, along with phenglpropanoids, flavonoids and phenolics, have been isolated from this genus, which exhibited anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hyperglycemic and hepatic protective activities. This article summarizes research progress of the chemical compositions and their pharmacological activities from this genus, which could provide reference for the in-depth development and utilization of the Myristica plants.
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[Alterations of after depolarization and triggered activity in myocardiac muscle during progression of mouse aortic stenosis].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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To explore the alterations of after depolarization and triggered activity in myocardiac muscle during progression of mouse aortic stenosis.
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Etiology of acute conjunctivitis due to coxsackievirus A24 variant, human adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, and Chlamydia in Beijing, China.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Acute conjunctivitis is a common disease associated with high morbidity and economic burden. To clarify the etiological characteristics of acute conjunctivitis in Beijing, surveillance of acute conjunctivitis was conducted from July to October during 2007-2012 by collecting eye swabs from patients treated at surveillance hospitals affiliated with a surveillance program of 18 districts Center for Disease Prevention and Control in Beijing. Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v), enterovirus 70 (EV70), human adenovirus (HAdV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and chlamydia were identified by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 region of CA24v was conducted. Comparisons of proportions and statistical significance were performed using the chi-square test. HAdV was found to be the most prevalent pathogen, followed by CA24v, chlamydia, and HSV. Significant differences in the symptoms of ocular pain, photophobia, and epiphora were identified among the 4 agents. The prevalence of HAdV- and CA24v-mediated conjunctivitis peaked in July or August and September or October, respectively. Nucleotide sequences of the VP1 regions among the isolated CA24v strains shared 92.8%-100% homology. In conclusion, HAdV followed by CA24v, chlamydia, and HSV were the most common causative agents of acute conjunctivitis in Beijing. Comprehensive, continuous surveillance and advanced laboratory techniques are needed for further studies.
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Complementary symbiont contributions to plant decomposition in a fungus-farming termite.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Termites normally rely on gut symbionts to decompose organic matter but the Macrotermitinae domesticated Termitomyces fungi to produce their own food. This transition was accompanied by a shift in the composition of the gut microbiota, but the complementary roles of these bacteria in the symbiosis have remained enigmatic. We obtained high-quality annotated draft genomes of the termite Macrotermes natalensis, its Termitomyces symbiont, and gut metagenomes from workers, soldiers, and a queen. We show that members from 111 of the 128 known glycoside hydrolase families are represented in the symbiosis, that Termitomyces has the genomic capacity to handle complex carbohydrates, and that worker gut microbes primarily contribute enzymes for final digestion of oligosaccharides. This apparent division of labor is consistent with the Macrotermes gut microbes being most important during the second passage of comb material through the termite gut, after a first gut passage where the crude plant substrate is inoculated with Termitomyces asexual spores so that initial fungal growth and polysaccharide decomposition can proceed with high efficiency. Complex conversion of biomass in termite mounds thus appears to be mainly accomplished by complementary cooperation between a domesticated fungal monoculture and a specialized bacterial community. In sharp contrast, the gut microbiota of the queen had highly reduced plant decomposition potential, suggesting that mature reproductives digest fungal material provided by workers rather than plant substrate.
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Knockdown of PSF1 expression inhibits cell proliferation in lung cancer cells in vitro.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Partner of sld five 1 (PSF1) is a member of the heterotetrameric complex termed GINS. Previous studies have shown that PSF1 is unregulated in several cancer and associated with tumor malignant characters. However, the effects of PSF1 in lung cancer are still unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of PSF1 on the proliferation capacities of lung cancer. To start with, expression of PSF1 in 22 human lung cancer samples and adjacent non-tumor samples were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Our results showed that PSF1 was overexpressed in lung cancer samples compared to adjacent non-tumor samples. To achieve better insights of PSF1 functions in lung cancer cells, we used PSF1-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) successfully inhibit the expression of PSF1 in messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. In addition, we used lung cancer cell lines with different p53 gene background (p53 null and p53 wild-type). The results showed that knockdown of PSF1 inhibited cell proliferation and caused cell cycle arrest of lung cancer cells in a p53-independent manner. Our data indicated that PSF1 is functionally involved in lung cancer cell proliferation and is a potential target for lung cancer therapy.
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Clinical study on carboplatin for treating pediatric patients with Wilms tumors.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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This analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carboplatin based chemotherapy in treating pediatric patients with Wilms tumors.
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Efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R in combination with anti-angiogenesis therapy on a pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) and cell line mouse models.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R treatment following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy on VEGF-positive human pancreatic cancer. A pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) that was VEGF-positive and an orthotopic VEGF-positive human pancreatic cancer cell line (MiaPaCa-2-GFP) as well as a VEGF-negative cell line (Panc-1) were tested. Nude mice with these tumors were treated with gemcitabine (GEM), bevacizumab (BEV), and S. typhimurium A1-R. BEV/GEM followed by S. typhimurium A1-R significantly reduced tumor weight compared to BEV/GEM treatment alone in the PDOX and MiaPaCa-2 models. Neither treatment was as effective in the VEGF-negative model as in the VEGF-positive models. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium A1-R following anti-angiogenic therapy is effective on pancreatic cancer including the PDOX model, suggesting its clinical potential.
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Poly(ethylene imine)-modified graphene oxide with improved colloidal stability and its adsorption of methyl orange.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Graphene oxide (GO) was chemically modified with poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) to improve its colloidal stability and was investigated as a potential adsorbent for the removal of methyl orange (MO). The synthesis of PEI-GO was verified with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and thermogravimetric analysis. A series of adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the adsorption capacity of PEI-GO. Adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics studies were performed, and the thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The results showed that PEI could improve the colloidal stability of GO in aqueous solution, and the obtained PEI-GO showed a macroscopically homogeneous dispersion after more than three months. After standing for 90 days, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of GO decreased from 353 to 214 m(2) · g(-1), while that of PEI-GO remained almost unchanged (from 432 to 413 m(2) · g(-1)). The PEI-GO exhibited significantly faster kinetic and higher adsorption capacity for MO than GO. Moreover, PEI-GO had a good adsorption capacity in the acidic range, and the highest adsorption of MO occurred at pH = 6.0. The adsorption of MO on PEI-GO was an endothermic, spontaneous and physisorption process.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the Drepane punctata (Perciformes: Drepanidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the Drepane punctata was presented in our study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,397?bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 16 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of D. punctata mitochondrial genome was different from that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 24.56% of A, 16.02% of C, 27.81% of T and 31.61% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and five tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand.
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Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R prevents experimental human breast cancer bone metastasis in nude mice.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Bone metastasis is a lethal and morbid late stage of breast cancer that is currently treatment resistant. More effective mouse models and treatment are necessary. High bone-metastatic variants of human breast cancer cells were selected in nude mice by cardiac injection. After cardiac injection of a high bone-metastatic variant of breast cancer, all untreated mice had bone metastases compared to only 20% with parental cells. Treatment with tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R completely prevented the appearance of bone metastasis of the high metastatic variant in nude mice (P < 0.001). After injection of the highly bone-metastatic breast cancer variant to the tibia of nude mice, S. typhimurium A1-R treatment significantly reduced tumor growth in the bone (P < 0.001). These data indicated that S. typhimurium A1-R is useful to prevent and inhibit breast cancer bone metastasis and should be of future clinical use for breast cancer in the adjuvant setting.
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Pyk2 promotes tumor progression in multiple myeloma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) is a member of the focal adhesion kinase family that has been recently linked to tumor development. However, its role in modulating multiple myeloma (MM) biology and disease progression remains unexplored. We first demonstrated that patients with MM present with higher expression of Pyk2 compared with healthy individuals. By using loss-of-function approaches, we found that Pyk2 inhibition led to reduction of MM tumor growth in vivo as well as decreased cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and adhesion ability in vitro. In turn, overexpression of Pyk2 promoted the malignant phenotype, substantiated by enhanced tumor growth and reduced survival. Mechanistically, inhibition of Pyk2 reduced activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling by destabilizing ?-catenin, leading to downregulation of c-Myc and Cyclin D1. Furthermore, treatment of MM cells with the FAK/Pyk2 inhibitor VS-4718 effectively inhibited MM cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our findings describe the tumor-promoting role of Pyk2 in MM, thus providing molecular evidence for a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor as a new therapeutic option in MM.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Perciformes, Serranidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Abstract We present the complete mitochondrial genome of Epinephelus coioides in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,458?bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. All of them are encoded on the heavy strand except ND6 and 8 tRNA genes on the light strand. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 28.88% of G, 28.75% of T, 26.58% of A and 15.80% of C. All the protein-coding genes share ATG initiation codon except ATP6 with CTG and COXI with GTG, and four types of inferred termination codons are T (ND2, COXII, ND3, ND4 and Cytb), TA (COXIII), TAA (ND1, ATP8, ND4L, ND5, ATP6 and COXI) and TAG (ND6). There are 10 intergenic spacers, 5 gene overlaps and no tandem repeat sequence. Gene arrangement and distribution are consistent with the typical vertebrates.
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DLD pillar shape design for efficient separation of spherical and non-spherical bioparticles.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Particle sorting methods in microfluidic platforms are gaining momentum for various biomedical applications. Bioparticles are found in different shapes and sizes. However, conventional separation techniques are mainly designed for separation of spherical particles. Thus, there is a need to develop new methods for effective separation of spherical and non-spherical bioparticles for various applications. Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) microfluidic methods have become popular for high separation resolution, simplicity, and predictability. However, shape sorting in the DLD separation methods is not well researched. Recently, we explored this area and found that pillar shapes in DLD significantly affect bioparticle separation. In this work, we designed a group of different pillar shapes with protrusions and groove structures with the hypothesis that pillar protrusions will induce particle rotation while pillar grooves will confine the particle rotational movement in a directed path for effective separation in a DLD pillar array. Using combinations of protrusions and grooves, 3-dimensional spherical particles, 2-dimensional planar disc-shaped red blood cells and 1-dimensional rod-shaped bacteria were separated and two interesting phenomena were observed. Firstly, the arrangement of pillar protrusions and grooves induces inertial movements, enhancing the separation of spherical particles. Secondly, non-spherical particles experience dominant rotational movements due to the protrusions and grooves which help in changing their orientations. This gives an opportunity to perform efficient separation based on the desired orientation (the longest dimension of the particles) by restricting or containing their movement within a specific DLD path.
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[Progressive damage monitoring of corrugated composite skins by the FBG spectral characteristics].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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In the present paper, a method of monitoring progressive damage of composite structures by non-uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) reflection spectrum is proposed. Due to the finite element analysis of corrugated composite skins specimens, the failure process under tensile load and corresponding critical failure loads of corrugated composite skin was predicated. Then, the non-uniform reflection spectrum of FBG sensor could be reconstructed and the corresponding relationship between layer failure order sequence of corrugated composite skin and FBG sensor reflection spectrums was acquired. A monitoring system based on FBG non-uniform reflection spectrum, which can be used to monitor progressive damage of corrugated composite skins, was built. The corrugated composite skins were stretched under this FBG non-uniform reflection spectrum monitoring system. The results indicate that real-time spectrums acquired by FBG non-uniform reflection spectrum monitoring system show the same trend with the reconstruction reflection spectrums. The maximum error between the corresponding failure and the predictive value is 8.6%, which proves the feasibility of using FBG sensor to monitor progressive damage of corrugated composite skin. In this method, the real-time changes in the FBG non-uniform reflection spectrum within the scope of failure were acquired through the way of monitoring and predicating, and at the same time, the progressive damage extent and layer failure sequence of corru- gated composite skin was estimated, and without destroying the structure of the specimen, the method is easy and simple to operate. The measurement and transmission section of the system are completely composed of optical fiber, which provides new ideas and experimental reference for the field of dynamic monitoring of smart skin.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhabdosargus sarba (Perciformes: Sparidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhabdosargus sarba was presented in our study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,644?bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of R. sarba mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 27.01% of A, 17.96% of C, 26.02% of T and 29.01% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand.
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Investigating osteogenic differentiation in multiple myeloma using a novel 3D bone marrow niche model.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Clonal proliferation of plasma cells within the bone marrow (BM) affects local cells, such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), leading to osteolysis and fatality in multiple myeloma (MM). Consequently, there is an urgent need to find better mechanisms of inhibiting myeloma growth and osteolytic lesion development. To meet this need and accelerate clinical translation, better models of myeloma within the BM are required. Herein we have developed a clinically-relevant, three-dimensional (3D) myeloma BM co-culture model that mimics bone cell/cancer cell interactions within the bone microenvironment. The co-culture model and clinical samples were utilized to investigate myeloma growth, osteogenesis inhibition, and myeloma-induced abnormalities in MM-MSCs. This platform demonstrated myeloma support of capillary-like assembly of endothelial cells and cell adhesion mediated-drug resistance (CAM-DR). Also, distinct normal donor (ND)- and MM-MSC miRNA signatures were identified and used to uncover osteogenic miRs of interest for osteoblast differentiation. More broadly, our 3D platform provides a simple, clinically-relevant tool to model cancer growth within the bone, useful for investigating skeletal cancer biology, screening compounds, and exploring osteogenesis. Our identification and efficacy validation of novel, bone anabolic miRs in MM opens the floodgate for novel approaches to cancer therapy via stromal miR modulation.
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Systematically labeling developmental stage-specific genes for the study of pancreatic ?-cell differentiation from human embryonic stem cells.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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The applications of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cells in regenerative medicine has encountered a long-standing challenge: how can we efficiently obtain mature cell types from hPSCs? Attempts to address this problem are hindered by the complexity of controlling cell fate commitment and the lack of sufficient developmental knowledge for guiding hPSC differentiation. Here, we developed a systematic strategy to study hPSC differentiation by labeling sequential developmental genes to encompass the major developmental stages, using the directed differentiation of pancreatic ? cells from hPSCs as a model. We therefore generated a large panel of pancreas-specific mono- and dual-reporter cell lines. With this unique platform, we visualized the kinetics of the entire differentiation process in real time for the first time by monitoring the expression dynamics of the reporter genes, identified desired cell populations at each differentiation stage and demonstrated the ability to isolate these cell populations for further characterization. We further revealed the expression profiles of isolated NGN3-eGFP(+) cells by RNA sequencing and identified sushi domain-containing 2 (SUSD2) as a novel surface protein that enriches for pancreatic endocrine progenitors and early endocrine cells both in human embryonic stem cells (hESC)-derived pancreatic cells and in the developing human pancreas. Moreover, we captured a series of cell fate transition events in real time, identified multiple cell subpopulations and unveiled their distinct gene expression profiles, among heterogeneous progenitors for the first time using our dual reporter hESC lines. The exploration of this platform and our new findings will pave the way to obtain mature ? cells in vitro.
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[The effect of nasal irrigation in the treatment of allergic rhinitis].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To compare the symptoms and lower airway inflammatory factors of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and to observe the effect of nasal irrigation in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.
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A composite cathode based on scandium doped titanate with enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards direct carbon dioxide electrolysis.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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A composite cathode based on redox-stable La0.2Sr0.8TiO(3+?) (LSTO) can perform direct carbon dioxide electrolysis; however, the insufficient electro-catalytic activity limits the electrode performances and current efficiencies. In this work, catalytically active scandium is doped into LSTO to enhance the electro-catalytic activity for CO2 electrolysis. The structures, electronic conductivities and ionic conductivities of La0.2Sr0.8Ti(1-x)Sc(x)O (LSTS(x)O) (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2) are systematically studied and further correlated with electrode performances. The ionic conductivities of single-phase LSTS(x)O (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) remarkably improve versus the scandium doping contents though the electrical conductivities gradually change in an adverse trend. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate promising electrode polarisation of LSTS(x)O electrodes and increasing scandium doping contents accordingly improve electrode performances. The Faradic efficiencies of carbon dioxide electrolysis are enhanced by 20% with LSTS0.15O in contrast to bare LSTO electrodes in a solid oxide electrolyser at 800 °C.
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Ultrafast, superhigh gain visible-blind UV detector and optical logic gates based on nonpolar a-axial GaN nanowire.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Nonpolar a-axial GaN nanowire (NW) was first used to construct the MSM (metal-semiconductor-metal) symmetrical Schottky contact device for application as visible-blind ultraviolet (UV) detector. Without any surface or composition modifications, the fabricated device demonstrated a superior performance through a combination of its high sensitivity (up to 10(4) A W(-1)) and EQE value (up to 10(5)), as well as ultrafast (<26 ms) response speed, which indicates that a balance between the photocurrent gain and the response speed has been achieved. Based on its excellent photoresponse performance, an optical logic AND gate and OR gate have been demonstrated for performing photo-electronic coupled logic devices by further integrating the fabricated GaN NW detectors, which logically convert optical signals to electrical signals in real time. These results indicate the possibility of using a nonpolar a-axial GaN NW not only as a high performance UV detector, but also as a stable optical logic device, both in light-wave communications and for future memory storage.
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[Gastric expressions of neuron-specific enolase and synaptophysin in human fetuses of 2 to 4 gestational months].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To investigate the distribution patterns of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and synaptophysin (SYN) during the development of human fetal stomach.
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EGCG inhibits properties of glioma stem-like cells and synergizes with temozolomide through downregulation of P-glycoprotein inhibition.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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Rational: Combination therapy to inhibit cancer stem cells may have important clinical implications. Here, we examine the molecular mechanisms by which epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a bioactive polyphenol in green tea, inhibits the stem cell characteristics of glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs) and synergizes with temozolomide (TMZ), a DNA-methylating agent commonly used as first-line chemotherapy in gliomas. GSLCs were enriched from the human glioblastoma cell line U87 using neurosphere culture. Cells were analyzed using flow cytometry, quantitative PCR, and western blotting. Compared to U87 cells, a higher percentage of U87 GSLCs remained in the G0/G1 phase, with downregulation of the cell-cycle protein CylinD1 and overexpression of stem cell markers CD133 and ALDH1. The drug-resistance gene ABCB1 (but not ABCG2 or MGMT) also showed high mRNA and protein expression. The resistance index of U87 GSLCs against TMZ and carmustine (BCNU) was 3.0 and 16.8, respectively. These results indicate that U87 GSLCs possess neural stem cell and drug-resistance properties. Interestingly, EGCG treatment inhibited cell viability, neurosphere formation, and migration in this cell model. EGCG also induced apoptosis, downregulation of p-Akt and Bcl-2, and cleaving PARP in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, EGCG treatment significantly downregulated P-glycoprotein expression but not that of ABCG2 or MGMT and simultaneously enhanced sensitivity to TMZ. Our study demonstrates that the use of EGCG alone or in combination with TMZ may be an effective therapeutic strategy for glioma.
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Hexokinase 2-mediated Warburg effect is required for PTEN- and p53-deficiency-driven prostate cancer growth.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Accumulating evidence suggests that codeletion of the tumor suppressor genes Pten and p53 plays a crucial role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism underlying Pten-/p53-deficiency-driven prostate tumorigenesis remains incompletely understood. Building upon insights gained from our studies with Pten-/p53-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we report here that hexokinase 2 (HK2) is selectively upregulated by the combined loss of Pten and p53 in prostate cancer cells. Mechanistically, Pten deletion increases HK2 mRNA translation through the activation of the AKT-mTORC1-4EBP1 axis, and p53 loss enhances HK2 mRNA stability through the inhibition of miR143 biogenesis. Genetic studies demonstrate that HK2-mediated aerobic glycolysis, known as the Warburg effect, is required for Pten-/p53-deficiency-driven tumor growth in xenograft mouse models of prostate cancer. Our findings suggest that HK2 might be a therapeutic target for prostate cancer patients carrying Pten and p53 mutations.
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Biotechnical paving of recombinant enterocin A as the candidate of anti-Listeria agent.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Enterocin A is a classic IIa bacteriocin isolated firstly from Enterococcus faecium CTC492 with selective antimicrobial activity against Listeria strains. However, the application of enterocin A as an anti-Listeria agent has been limited due to its very low native yield. The present work describes high production of enterocin A through codon optimization strategy and its character study.
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Toxicological responses of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix exposed to excess dissolved iron or challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The responses of genes encoding defense components such as ferritin, the lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor (LITAF), the inhibitor of nuclear factor-?B (I?B), metallothionein, and glutathione peroxidase were assessed at the transcriptional level in order to investigate the toxicological and immune mechanism of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix (HCMM) following challenge with iron or a bacterium (Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Fe dissolved in natural seawater led to an increase of Fe content in both the hepatopancreas and gill tissue of HCMM between 4 and 15 days of exposure. The ferritin gene responded both transcriptionally as indicated by real-time quantitative PCR and translationally as shown by western blotting results to iron exposure and both transcriptional and translational ferritin expression in the hepatopancreas had a positive correlation with the concentration of dissolved iron in seawater. Both iron and V. parahaemolyticus exposure triggered immune responses with similar trends in clam tissues. There was a significant post-challenge mRNA expression of LITAF and I?B at 3h, ferritin at 24h, and metallothionein and glutathione peroxidase at 48h. This behavior might be linked to their specific functions in physiological processes. These results suggested that similar signaling pathways were triggered during both iron and V. parahaemolyticus challenges. Here, we indicated that the ferritin of Meretrix meretrix was an intermediate in the pathway of iron homeostasis and in its innate immune defense mechanism.
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A survey on "Trojan Horse" peptides: Opportunities, issues and controlled entry to "Troy"
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), often vividly termed as the "Trojan Horse" peptides, have attracted considerable interest for the intracellular delivery of a wide range of cargoes, such as small molecules, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, contrast agents, nanocarriers and so on. Some preclinical and clinical developments of CPP conjugates demonstrate their promise as therapeutic agents for drug discovery. There is increasing evidence to suggest that CPPs have the potential to cross several bio-barriers (e.g., blood-brain barriers, intestinal mucosa, nasal mucosa and skin barriers). Despite revolutionary process in many aspects, there are a lot of basic issues unclear for these entities, such as internalization mechanisms, translocation efficiency, translocation kinetics, metabolic degradation, toxicity, side effect, distribution and non-specificity. Among them, non-specificity remains a major drawback for the in vivo application of CPPs in the targeted delivery of cargoes. So far, diverse organelle-specific CPPs or controlled delivery strategies have emerged and improved their specificity. In this review, we will look at the opportunities of CPPs in clinical development, bio-barriers penetration and nanocarriers delivery. Then, a series of basic problems of CPPs will be discussed. Finally, this paper will highlight the use of various controlled strategies in the organelle-specific delivery and targeted delivery of CPPs. The purpose of this review will be to emphasize most influential advance in this field and present a fundamental understanding for challenges and utilizations of CPPs. This will accelerate their translation as efficient vectors from the in vitro setting into the clinic arena, and retrieve the entry art to "Troy".
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In vitro culture and characterization of human lung cancer circulating tumor cells isolated by size exclusion from an orthotopic nude-mouse model expressing fluorescent protein.
J Fluoresc
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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In the present study, we demonstrate an animal model and recently introduced size-based exclusion method for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) isolation. The methodology enables subsequent in vitro CTC-culture and characterization. Human lung cancer cell line H460, expressing red fluorescent protein (H460-RFP), was orthotopically implanted in nude mice. CTCs were isolated by a size-based filtration method and successfully cultured in vitro on the separating membrane (MetaCell®), analyzed by means of time-lapse imaging. The cultured CTCs were heterogeneous in size and morphology even though they originated from a single tumor. The outer CTC-membranes were blebbing in general. Abnormal mitosis resulting in three daughter cells was frequently observed. The expression of RFP ensured that the CTCs originated from lung tumor. These readily isolatable, identifiable and cultivable CTCs can be used to characterize individual patient cancers and for screening of more effective treatment.
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Direct observation of the photodegradation of anthracene and pyrene adsorbed onto mangrove leaves.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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An established synchronous fluorimetry method was used for in situ investigation of the photodegradation of pyrene (PYR) and anthracene (ANT) adsorbed onto fresh leaves of the seedlings of two mangrove species, Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco (Ac) and Kandelia obovata (Ko) in multicomponent mixtures (mixture of the ANT and PYR). Experimental results indicated that photodegradation was the main transformation pathway for both ANT and PYR in multicomponent mixtures. The amount of the PAHs volatilizing from the leaf surfaces and entering the inner leaf tissues was negligible. Over a certain period of irradiation time, the photodegradation of both PYR and ANT adsorbed onto the leaves of Ac and Ko followed first-order kinetics, with faster rates being observed on Ac leaves. In addition, the photodegradation rate of PYR on the leaves of the mangrove species in multicomponent mixtures was much slower than that of adsorbed ANT. Compared with the PAHs adsorbed as single component, the photodegradation rate of ANT adsorbed in multicomponent mixtures was slower, while that of PYR was faster. Moreover, the photodegradation of PYR and ANT dissolved in water in multicomponent mixtures was investigated for comparison. The photodegradation rate on leaves was much slower than in water. Therefore, the physical-chemical properties of the substrate may strongly influence the photodegradation rate of adsorbed PAHs.
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Diffraction interference induced superfocusing in nonlinear Talbot effect.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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We report a simple, novel subdiffraction method, i.e. diffraction interference induced superfocusing in second-harmonic (SH) Talbot effect, to achieve focusing size of less than ?SH/4 (or ?pump/8) without involving evanescent waves or subwavelength apertures. By tailoring point spread functions with Fresnel diffraction interference, we observe periodic SH subdiffracted spots over a hundred of micrometers away from the sample. Our demonstration is the first experimental realization of the Toraldo di Francia's proposal pioneered 62 years ago for superresolution imaging.
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In-context language control with production tasks in bilinguals: An fMRI study.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Bilinguals exhibit a feat to control their two languages in conversation. The neural substrates of bilingual language control have been well investigated with language switching paradigm. Yet, most of those studies have taken single lexical items (i.e., words outside a context) as the investigative tool. In the present study, we examined the neural substrates of in-context language control in unbalanced bilinguals with a sentence-end switching paradigm. Our results showed that in-context language control in bilinguals recruited the neural mechanisms that were similar in kind to those responsible for cognitive control in general. When the direction of switching was considered, we found that backward switching called for more cognitive/language control relative to forward switching. Behaviorally, symmetric switching costs were found regardless of the switching factor (switching vs. non-switching) and the language factor (L1 vs. L2). We interpreted our imaging and behavioral results as the effects of context when unbalanced bilinguals controlled their two languages in a context.
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Fluorescence-guided surgery improves outcome in an orthotopic osteosarcoma nude-mouse model.
J. Orthop. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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In order to develop a model for fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS), 143B human osteosarcoma cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were injected into the intramedullary cavity of the tibia in nude mice. The fluorescent areas of residual tumors after bright-light surgery (BLS) and FGS were 10.2?±?2.4?mm(2) and 0.1?±?0.1?mm(2) , respectively (p?
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Photocontrolled nanoparticle delivery systems for biomedical applications.
Acc. Chem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Conspectus "Smart" stimuli-responsive nanomaterials are becoming popular as targeted delivery systems because they allow the use of internal or external stimuli to achieve spatial or temporal control over the delivery process. Among the stimuli that have been used, light is of special interest because it is not only noninvasive but also controllable both spatially and temporally, thus allowing unprecedented control over the delivery of bioactive molecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, drugs, etc. This is particularly advantageous for biomedical applications where specificity and selectivity are highly desired. Several strategies have evolved under the umbrella of light based delivery systems and can be classified into three main groups. The first strategy involves "caging" of the bioactive molecule using photolabile groups, loading these caged molecules onto a carrier and then "uncaging" or activating them at the targeted site upon irradiation with light of a particular wavelength. The second strategy makes use of nanocarriers that themselves are made photoresponsive either through modification with photosensitive groups or through the attachment of photolinkers on the carrier surface. These nanoparticles upon irradiation dissociate, releasing the cargo encapsulated within, or the photolinkers attaching the cargo to the surface get cleaved, resulting in release. The third approach makes use of the surface plasmon resonance of noble metal based nanoparticles. Upon irradiation with light at the plasmon resonant frequency, the resulting thermal or nonthermal field enhancement effects facilitate the release of bioactive molecules loaded onto the nanoparticles. In addition, other materials, certain metal sulfides, graphene oxide, etc., also exhibit photothermal transduction that can be exploited for targeted delivery. These approaches, though effective, are constrained by their predominant use of UV or visible light to which most photolabile groups are sensitive. Near infrared (NIR) excitation is preferred because NIR light is safer and can penetrate deeper in biological tissues. However, most photolabile groups cannot be excited by NIR light directly. So light conversion from NIR to UV/visible is required. Nanomaterials that display upconversion or two-photon-excitation properties have been developed that can serve as nanotransducers, converting NIR to UV/visible light to which the aforementioned photoresponsive moieties are sensitive. This Account will review the existing light-based nanoparticle delivery systems, their applications, the limitations they face, and the technologies that have emerged in an effort to overcome these limitations.
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Temperature dependence of heat conduction in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-? lattice with next-nearest-neighbor coupling.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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We show numerically that introducing the next-nearest-neighbor interactions (of appropriate strength) into the one-dimensional (1D) Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-? (FPU-?) lattice can result in an unusual, nonmonotonic temperature dependent divergence behavior in a wide temperature range, which is in clear contrast to the universal divergence manner independent of temperature as suggested previously in the conventional 1D FPU-? models with nearest-neighbor (NN) coupling only. We also discuss the underlying mechanism of this finding by analyzing the temperature variations of the properties of discrete breathers, especially that with frequencies having the intraband components. The results may provide useful information for establishing the connection between the macroscopic heat transport properties and the underlying dynamics in general 1D systems with interactions beyond NN couplings.
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Determination of benzimidazole anthelmintics in milk and honey by monolithic fiber-based solid-phase microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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A porous poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic fiber (MEMF) for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of five benzimidazole anthelmintics was prepared by in-situ polymerization. The effect of polymerization conditions on SPME of the target analytes was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the monolith were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Several conditions affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and, under the optimized conditions, a simple and sensitive method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in milk and honey was established by coupling MEMF-SPME with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (MEMF-SPME-HPLC-DAD). Under the optimum experimental conditions, the limits of detection (S/N = 3) of the method were 0.11-0.30 ?g L(-1) for milk and 0.086-0.28 ?g L(-1) for honey. Evaluation of intra-day and inter-day precision showed reproducibility was satisfactory-relative standard deviations (RSD) for both were <10 %. Finally, the method was successfully used for determination of benzimidazole residues in milk and honey. Recoveries obtained for determination of benzimidazole anthelmintics in spiked samples ranged from 72.3 to 121 %, with RSD always <11 %.
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Tween-80 and impurity induce anaphylactoid reaction in zebrafish.
J Appl Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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A number of recent reports suspected that Tween-80 in injectable medicines, including traditional Chinese medicine injections could cause life-threatening anaphylactoid reaction, but no sound conclusion was drawn. A drug-induced anaphylactoid reaction is hard to be assayed in vitro and in conventional animal models. In this study, we developed a microplate-based quantitative in vivo zebrafish assay for assessing anaphylactoid reaction and live whole zebrafish mast cell tryptase activity was quantitatively measured at a wavelength of 405?nm using N-benzoyl-dl-arginine p-nitroanilide as a substrate. We assessed 10 batches of Tween-80 solutions from various national and international suppliers and three Tween-80 impurities (ethylene glycol, 2-chloroethanol and hydrogen peroxide) in this model and found that three batches of Tween-80 (nos 2, 20080709 and 20080616) and one Tween-80 impurity, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), induced anaphylactoid reactions in zebrafish. Furthermore, we found that H2 O2 residue and peroxide value were much higher in Tween-80 samples 2, 20080709 and 20080616. These findings suggest that H2 O2 residue in combination with oxidized fatty acid residues (measured as peroxide value) or more likely the oxidized fatty acid residues in Tween-80 samples, but not Tween-80 itself, may induce anaphylactoid reaction. High-throughput zebrafish tryptase assay developed in this report could be used for assessing safety of Tween-80-containing injectable medicines and potentially for screening novel mast cell-modulating drugs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The Combination of Tet1 with Oct4 Generates High-Quality Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs).
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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The DNA dioxygenase Tet1 has recently been proposed to play an important role in the reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency. Its oxidization product 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), formerly considered an intermediate in the demethylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), has recently been implicated as being important in epigenetic reprogramming. Here, we provide evidence that Tet1 (T) can replace multiple transcription factors during somatic cell reprogramming and can generate high-quality mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with Oct4 (O). The OT-iPSCs can efficiently produce viable mice derived entirely from iPSCs through tetraploid complementation; all 47 adult OT-iPSC mice grew healthily, without tumorigenesis, and had a normal life span. Furthermore, a new secondary reprogramming system was established using the OT all-iPSC mice-derived somatic cells. Our results provide the first evidence that the DNA dioxygenase Tet1 can replace multiple pluripotency transcription factors and can generate high-quality iPSCs with Oct4. Stem Cells 2014.
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Design and recombination expression of a novel plectasin-derived peptide MP1106 and its properties against Staphylococcus aureus.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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A novel antimicrobial peptide MP1106 was designed based on the parental peptide plectasin with four mutational sites and a high level of expression in Pichia pastoris X-33 via the pPICZ?A plasmid was achieved. The concentration of total secreted protein in the fermented supernatant was 2.134 g/l (29 °C), and the concentration of recombinant MP1106 (rMP1106) reached 1,808 mg/l after a 120-h induction in a 5-l fermentor. The rMP1106 was purified using a cation-exchange column, and the yield was 831 mg/l with 94.68 % purity. The sample exhibited a narrow spectrum against some Gram-positive bacteria and strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus at low minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.014, 1.8, 0.45, and 0.91 ?M to S. aureus strains ATCC 25923, 29213, 6538, and 43300, respectively. Meanwhile, rMP1106 showed potent activity (0.03-1.8 ?M) against 20 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In addition, rMP1106 exhibited a broad range of thermostability from 20 to 100 °C. The higher antimicrobial activity of rMP1106 was maintained in neutral and alkaline environments (pH 6, 8, and 10), and its activity was slightly reduced in acidic environments (pH 2 and 4). The rMP1106 was resistant to the digestion of pepsin, snailase, and proteinase K and was sensitive to trypsin. It exhibited hemolytic activity of only 1.16 % at a concentration of 512 ?g/ml and remained stable in human serum at 37 °C for 24 h. Furthermore, the activity of rMP1106 was minorly affected by 10 mM dithiothreitol and 20 % dimethylsulfoxide. Our results indicate that MP1106 can be produced on a large scale and has potential as a therapeutic drug against S. aureus.
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Oridonin exerts therapeutic effect by suppressing Th1/Th17 simultaneously in a mouse model of Crohn's disease.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Oridonin is an effective component isolated from Rabdosia rubescens. It can inhibit the activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B and suppress the over expression of cytokines. We postulated that oridonin may be a potential therapeutic candidate for Crohn's disease.
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Instance transfer learning with multisource dynamic TrAdaBoost.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Since the transfer learning can employ knowledge in relative domains to help the learning tasks in current target domain, compared with the traditional learning it shows the advantages of reducing the learning cost and improving the learning efficiency. Focused on the situation that sample data from the transfer source domain and the target domain have similar distribution, an instance transfer learning method based on multisource dynamic TrAdaBoost is proposed in this paper. In this method, knowledge from multiple source domains is used well to avoid negative transfer; furthermore, the information that is conducive to target task learning is obtained to train candidate classifiers. The theoretical analysis suggests that the proposed algorithm improves the capability that weight entropy drifts from source to target instances by means of adding the dynamic factor, and the classification effectiveness is better than single source transfer. Finally, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has higher classification accuracy.
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Incorporating Super-Diffusion due to Sub-Grid Heterogeneity to Capture Non-Fickian Transport.
Ground Water
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Numerical transport models based on the advection-dispersion equation (ADE) are built on the assumption that sub-grid cell transport is Fickian such that dispersive spreading around the average velocity is symmetric and without significant tailing on the front edge of a solute plume. However, anomalous diffusion in the form of super-diffusion due to preferential pathways in an aquifer has been observed in field data, challenging the assumption of Fickian dispersion at the local scale. This study develops a fully Lagrangian method to simulate sub-grid super-diffusion in a multidimensional regional-scale transport model by using a recent mathematical model allowing super-diffusion along the flow direction given by the regional model. Here, the time randomizing procedure known as subordination is applied to flow field output from MODFLOW simulations. Numerical tests check the applicability of the novel method in mapping regional-scale super-diffusive transport conditioned on local properties of multidimensional heterogeneous media.
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A Moldable Putty Containing Silk Fibroin Yolk Shell Particles for Improved Hemostasis and Bone Repair.
Adv Healthc Mater
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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During minimally invasive orthopedic surgeries, surgical intervention is required at two stages; to attain hemostasis and subsequently to implant the bone graft or its substitute. There is an apparent need for a material which can simultaneously control bone bleeding and provide support for bone repair. In this work, a moldable putty, which can be applied to bone defects (usually irregular in shape), was developed to address this need. It comprises of a hemostatic factor thrombin, osteoinductive "yolk-shell" particles containing bone growth factor (BMP-2), and an osteoconductive component hydroxyapatite. The yolk shell particles allowed controlled release of BMP-2 and showed significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 (mouse myoblast) cells as demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and relative gene expressions of osteogenic differentiation markers. These particles were assembled into a moldable putty by mixing them with hydroxyapatite and silk fibroin solution (binding agent) supplemented with thrombin. The putty showed non-cytotoxicity, hemostatic ability, sustained release of BMP-2 and induced increased mineralization in C2C12 cells. This putty, if applied to bone defects during surgeries, may help attain hemostasis and may enhance bone repair by providing sustained release of bone growth factors.
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Identification of copy number variations in Qinchuan cattle using BovineHD Genotyping Beadchip array.
Mol. Genet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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In recent years, copy number variations (CNVs), which associate with complex traits such as disease and quantitative phenotypes, are increasingly recognized as an important and abundant source of genetic variation and phenotypic diversity. CNVs have been studied in several breeds of cattle with the goal of improving selection methods for commercial use; however, little is known about the extent to which CNVs contribute to genetic variation in Qinchuan cattle. The BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip array was used for analyzing the whole genomic CNVs of Qinchuan cattle breed; we discovered 367 unique CNV events from 6 Qinchuan cattle. Accounting for overlapping regions, a total of 365 autosomal copy number variation regions (CNVRs) (131 losses and 234 gains) were identified with an average number of 60.8 CNV events per individual, which covered 13.13 Mb of the cattle genomic sequence corresponding to 0.4 % of the whole cattle genome. The average and median sizes of CNVRs were 35.07 and 18.56 kb, respectively. The CNVRs map of Qinchuan cattle was first constructed based on the BovineHD Genotyping Beadchip array. Functional analysis indicated that most genes in CNVRs that were significantly enriched are involved in environmental stress. Comparison of CNVRs in ten published studies and the 365 CNVRs identified in our study overlapped 0.7-42.7 %. These findings are the first report of CNVs mapping in Qinchuan cattle and contribute to the greater understanding of CNV genetics in commercial cattle phenotypes.
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Chemopreventive effect of Korean Angelica root extract on TRAMP carcinogenesis and integrative "omic" profiling of affected neuroendocrine carcinomas.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root ethanol extract exerts anti-cancer activity in several allograft and xenograft models. Here we examined its chemopreventive efficacy through gavage administration against primary carcinogenesis in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Male C57BL/6 TRAMP mice and wild type littermates were given a daily gavage (5?mg/mouse, Monday-Friday) of AGN or vehicle, beginning at 8?wk of age (WOA). All mice were terminated at 24 WOA, unless earlier euthanasia was necessitated by large tumors. Whereas AGN-treated TRAMP mice decreased dorsolateral prostate lesion growth by 30% (P?=?0.009), they developed fewer and smaller neuroendocrine-carcinomas (NE-Ca) (0.12?g/mouse) than vehicle-treated counterparts (0.81?g/mouse, P?=?0.037). We analyzed the proteome and transcriptome of banked NE-Ca to gain molecular insights. Angiogenesis-antibody array detected a substantial reduction in AGN-treated NE-Ca of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), an angiogenesis stimulator. iTRAQ proteomics plus data mining suggested changes of genes upstream and downstream of FGF2 functionally consistent with AGN inhibiting FGF2/FGFR1 signaling at different levels of the transduction cascade. Moreover, AGN upregulated mRNA of genes related to immune responses, restored expression of many tumor suppressor genes, and prostate function and muscle differentiation genes. On the other hand, AGN down-regulated mRNA of genes related to neuron signaling, oncofetal antigens, inflammation, and mast cells, Wnt signaling, embryonic morphogenesis, biosynthesis, cell adhesion, motility, invasion, and angiogenesis. These changes suggest not only multiple cancer cell targeting actions of AGN but also impact on the tumor microenvironments such as angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune surveillance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Oxidative cleavage-based upconversional nanosensor for visual evaluation of antioxidant activity of drugs.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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In this work, we reported a simple and effective upconversional nanoprobe for selective detection of hydroxyl radical (OH) and visual evaluation of OH-scavenging activities of drugs for the first time. The upconversion luminescence from NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles was first quenched by carminic acid (CA) through luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) mechanism, and then hydroxyl radical-initiated oxidative cleavage of CA can recover the luminescence by inhibition of LRET. The nanosensors exhibited high selectivity towards other reactive oxygen species and many common metal ions with the detection limit down to 0.21?M, and displayed a relative standard deviation ranging from 1.17% to 3.13%. More attractively, the nanosensors have efficiently avoided the interference of autofluorescence upon near-infrared excitation, and provided a robust platform to study hydroxyl radical scavenging abilities of several common antioxidants such as tannic acid, ascorbic acid and ferulic acid, and visually evaluate antioxidant activities of five traditional Chinese medicines by luminescent images. This newly developed nanosensor could be further exploited for many applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical and environmental engineering areas.
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Deep sequencing analysis of microRNAs in bovine sperm.
Mol. Reprod. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that participates in the regulation of many physiological pathways, but a role for spermatozoon-delivered miRNAs in fertilization and embryonic development remains controversial. A library of miRNAs in bovine sperm was constructed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology, along with the predication and the pathway analysis of target genes. miRNAs in mammalian spermatozoon were systematically investigated, and a protocol for RNA isolation from the cauda region of an epididymal biopsy was established. Unique sequences that were 18-26 nucleotides in length were mapped to specific precursors in miRBase 20.0 using BLAST. A total of 951 known miRNAs and 8 novel, highly expressed miRNA candidates were identified. The search for endogenous sperm miRNAs will contribute to a preliminary database for functional and molecular mechanistic studies in embryonic development and sperm epigenetic programming. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 81: 1042-1052, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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By targeting Stat3 microRNA-17-5p promotes cardiomyocyte apoptosis in response to ischemia followed by reperfusion.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Several studies have confirmed the role of microRNAs in regulating ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiac injury (I/R-I). MiR-17-5p has been regarded as an oncomiR in the development of cancer. However, its potential role in cardiomyocytes has not been exploited. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of miR-17-5p in I/R-I and the underlying mechanism through targeting Stat3, a key surviving factor in cardiomyocytes.
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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) in the Modeling of Hepatitis C Virus Infection.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has shown a great potential in disease modeling, drug screening, organ reconstruction and cancer therapy. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), particularly in Western countries. However, HCV infection has never been fully understood because the culprit virus only preferably infects human and chimpanzee. Hepatocyte-like cells derived from human iPSCs have been reported to be susceptible to infection with HCV and may serve as an appropriate model for HCV infection. Recently, the field of HCV research has been revolutionized by the finding that pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina) hepatic cells derived from iPSCs support the entire HCV life cycle, and pigtail macaques may serve as a suitable, clinically relevant model for the study of HCV infection. Moreover, the technologies generating vascularized and functional human liver from human iPSCs by transplantation of liver buds created in vitro have also been established. These findings will play a very important role in understanding the mechanism of HCV infection and therapy for HCV related HCC.
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Allergenic pollen season variations in the past two decades under changing climate in the United States.
Glob Chang Biol
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Many diseases are linked with climate trends and variations. In particular, climate change is expected to alter the spatiotemporal dynamics of allergenic airborne pollen and potentially increase occurrence of allergic airway disease. Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of changes in pollen season timing and levels is thus important in assessing climate impacts on aerobiology and allergy caused by allergenic airborne pollen. Here, we describe the spatiotemporal patterns of changes in the seasonal timing and levels of allergenic airborne pollen for multiple taxa in different climate regions at a continental scale. The allergenic pollen seasons of representative trees, weeds and grass during the past decade (2001-2010) across the contiguous United States have been observed to start 3.0 [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.1-4.9] days earlier on average than in the 1990s (1994-2000). The average peak value and annual total of daily counted airborne pollen have increased by 42.4% (95% CI, 21.9-62.9%) and 46.0% (95% CI, 21.5-70.5%), respectively. Changes of pollen season timing and airborne levels depend on latitude, and are associated with changes of growing degree days, frost free days, and precipitation. These changes are likely due to recent climate change and particularly the enhanced warming and precipitation at higher latitudes in the contiguous United States.
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Shensong Yangxin Capsule prevents diabetic myocardial fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-?1/Smad signaling.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Shensong Yangxin Capsule (SSYX), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has long been used clinically to treat arrhythmias in China. However, the effect of SSYX on interstitial fibrosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of SSYX on myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.