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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
ATAD5 Deficiency Decreases B Cell Division and Igh Recombination.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Mammalian ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 5 (ATAD5) and its yeast homolog enhanced level of genomic instability 1 are responsible for unloading proliferating cell nuclear antigen from newly synthesized DNA. Prior work in HeLa and yeast cells showed that a decrease in ATAD5 protein levels resulted in accumulation of chromatin-bound proliferating cell nuclear antigen, slowed cell division, and increased genomic instability. In this study, B cells from heterozygous (Atad5(+/m)) mice were used to examine the effects of decreased cell proliferation on Ab diversity. ATAD5 haploinsufficiency did not change the frequency or spectrum of somatic hypermutation in Ab genes, indicating that DNA repair and error-prone DNA polymerase ? usage were unaffected. However, immunized Atad5(+/m) mice had decreased serum IgG1 Abs, demonstrating a functional effect on class switch recombination. The mechanism of this altered immune response was then examined following ex vivo stimulation of splenic B cells, where Atad5(+/m) cells accumulated in the S phase of the cell cycle and had reduced proliferation compared with wild-type cells. These haploinsufficient cells underwent a significant decline in activation-induced deaminase expression, resulting in decreased switch region DNA double-strand breaks and interchromosomal translocations in the Igh locus. Class switch recombination to several isotypes was also reduced in Atad5(+/m) cells, although the types of end-joining pathways were not affected. These results describe a defect in DNA replication that affects Igh recombination via reduced cell division.
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Tunable wideband microwave photonic phase shifter using on-chip stimulated Brillouin scattering.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We present the first microwave photonic phase shifter using stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) on-chip. The unique ability of SBS to generate both narrowband gain and loss resonances allows us to achieve low ±1.5 dB amplitude fluctuations, which is a record for integrated devices, along with 240° continuously tunable phase shift. Contrary to previous SBS-based approaches, the phase shift tuning mechanism relies on tuning the power, not the frequency, of two SBS pumps, making it more suited to on-chip implementations. We finally demonstrate that SBS pump depletion leads to amplitude response fluctuations, as well as increasing the insertion loss of the phase shifter. Advantageously, shorter integrated platforms possess higher pump depletion thresholds compared to long fibers, thus offering greater potential for reducing the insertion loss.
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Binding mode and potency of N-indolyl-oxopyridinyl-4-amino-propanyl-based inhibitors targeting Trypanosoma cruzi CYP51.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Chagas disease is a chronic infection in humans caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and manifested in progressive cardiomyopathy and/or gastrointestinal dysfunction. Limited therapeutic options to prevent and treat Chagas disease put 8 million people infected with T. cruzi worldwide at risk. CYP51, involved in the biosynthesis of the membrane sterol component in eukaryotes, is a promising drug target in T. cruzi. We report the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of an N-arylpiperazine series of N-indolyl-oxopyridinyl-4-aminopropanyl-based inhibitors designed to probe the impact of substituents in the terminal N-phenyl ring on binding mode, selectivity and potency. Depending on the substituents at C-4, two distinct ring binding modes, buried and solvent-exposed, have been observed by x-ray structure analysis (resolution of 1.95- 2.48 Å). The 5-chloro-substituted analogs 9 and 10 with no substituent at C-4 demonstrated improved selectivity and potency, suppressing ? 99.8 % parasitemia in mice when administered orally at 25 mg/kg, b.i.d., for 4 days.
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Helium Nanodroplet Study of the Hydrogen Bonded OH Vibrations in HCl-H2O Clusters.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Mixed (HCl)N(H2O)M clusters have been assembled in He droplets from the constituting molecules. Spectra of the clusters were obtained in the range of hydrogen-bonded OH vibrations (3100-3700 cm-1) by infrared laser depletion spectroscopy. The observed bands were assigned to cyclic hydrogen bonded aggregates containing up to two HCl and three H2O molecules. The obtained frequencies are in good agreement with the results of harmonic quantum chemical calculations upon appropriate uniform shifts mimicking anharmonic corrections. Although larger clusters containing up to six water molecules were also produced in the droplets, their spectra were found to contribute to the unresolved signal in the range of 3250 - 3550 cm-1. The fact that no narrow bands could be unambiguously assigned to the mixed clusters containing more than 3 water molecules may indicate that such clusters exist in many isomeric forms that lead to overlapped and unresolved bands giving rise to broad structureless features. Another possible explanation includes the formation of elusive zwitterionic clusters, whose bands may have considerable breadth due to electrostatic coupling of different vibrational modes and concomitant intramolecular vibrational relaxation.
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Brazilin isolated from Caesalpinia. sappan suppresses nuclear envelope reassembly by inhibiting BAF phosphorylation.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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To date, many anticancer drugs have been developed by directly or indirectly targeting microtubules, which are involved in cell division. Although this approach has yielded many anticancer drugs, these drugs possess undesirable side effects. An alternative strategy is needed, and targeting mitotic exit may be one alternative approach. Localization of phosphorylated barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) to the chromosomal core region is essential for nuclear envelope compartment re-localization. In this study, we isolated brazilin from Caesalpinia sappan Leguminosae and demonstrated that it inhibited BAF phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrated direct binding between brazilin and BAF. The inhibition of BAF phosphorylation induced abnormal nuclear envelope reassembly and cell death, indicating that perturbation of nuclear envelope reassembly could be a novel approach to anticancer therapy. We propose that brazilin isolated from C. sappan may be a new anticancer drug candidate that induces cell death by inhibiting vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1)-mediated BAF phosphorylation.
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Comparison of re-biopsy with preceded MRI and re-biopsy without preceded MRI in patients with previous negative biopsy and persistently high PSA.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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To retrospectively compare re-biopsy with preceded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and re-biopsy without preceded MRI.
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Aluminum plasmonics based highly transmissive polarization-independent subtractive color filters exploiting a nanopatch array.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Nanophotonic devices enabled by aluminum plasmonics are saliently advantageous in terms of their low cost, outstanding sustainability, and affordable volume production. We report, for the first time, aluminum plasmonics based highly transmissive polarization-independent subtractive color filters, which are fabricated just with single step electron-beam lithography. The filters feature selective suppression in the transmission spectra, which is realized by combining the propagating and nonpropagating surface plasmons mediated by an array of opaque and physically thin aluminum nanopatches. A broad palette of bright, high-contrast subtractive colors is successfully demonstrated by simply varying the pitches of the nanopatches. These subtractive color filters have twice the photon throughput of additive counterparts, ultimately providing elevated optical transmission and thus stronger color signals. Moreover, the filters are demonstrated to conspicuously feature a dual-mode operation, both transmissive and reflective, in conjunction with a capability to exhibit micron-scale colors in arbitrary shapes. They are anticipated to be diversely applied to digital display, digital imaging, color printing, and sensing.
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Suppression of lung inflammation in an LPS-induced acute lung injury model by the fruit hull of Gleditsia sinensis.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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The fruit hull of Gleditsia sinensis (FGS) used in traditional Asian medicine was reported to have a preventive effect on lung inflammation in an acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. Here, we explored FGS as a possible therapeutics against inflammatory lung diseases including ALI, and examined an underlying mechanism for the effect of FGS.
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Characterization of maltotriose production by hydrolyzing of soluble starch with ?-amylase from Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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A maltotriose-producing ?-amylase, AmyA, from a newly isolated bacterial strain Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221 was purified and characterized in the heterologous host, Escherichia coli, using the pCold I vector. The amyA gene encoded a 761-residue protein composed of a 33 amino acid secretion signal peptide. The purified ?-amylase with a molecular mass of 80 kDa, approximately, shared a sequence motif characteristic of the glycoside hydrolase family 13. The enzyme was optimally active, at 50 °C in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0), by the traditional one factor-at-a-time method. But the optimal conditions of time, temperature, and pH for production of maltotriose from soluble starch were 1.76 h, 44.95 °C, and pH 6.35 by response surface methodology, respectively. Maltotriose, as the major enzyme reaction product, was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The enzyme was found to be inhibited by the addition of 10 mM Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Hg(2+), Zn(2+), and EDTA, but exhibited extreme stability toward hexane. The K m and V max values for the hydrolysis of soluble starch were 1.08 mg/mL and 1.736 mmol maltotriose/mg protein/min, respectively.
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Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Due to the increasing concerns about limited fossil resources and environmental problems, there has been much interest in developing biofuels from renewable biomass. Ethanol is currently used as a major biofuel, as it can be easily produced by existing fermentation technology, but it is not the best biofuel due to its low energy density, high vapor pressure, hygroscopy, and incompatibility with current infrastructure. Higher alcohols, including 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which possess fuel properties more similar to those of petroleum-based fuel, have attracted particular interest as alternatives to ethanol. Since microorganisms isolated from nature do not allow production of these alcohols at high enough efficiencies, metabolic engineering has been employed to enhance their production. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols.
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B-RafV600E inhibits sodium iodide symporter expression via regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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B-RafV600E mutant is found in 40-70% of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and has an important role in the pathogenesis of PTC. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active iodide transport into the thyroid follicular cells, and B-RafV600E has been known to be associated with the loss of NIS expression. In this study, we found that B-RafV600E inhibited NIS expression by the upregulation of its promoter methylation, and that specific regions of CpG islands of NIS promoter in B-RafV600E harboring PTC were highly methylated compared with surrounding normal tissue. Although DNA methyltransferase 3a and 3b (DNMT3a,3b) were not increased by B-RafV600E, DNMT1 expression was markedly upregulated in PTC and B-RafV600E expressing thyrocytes. Furthermore, DNMT1 expression was upregulated by B-RafV600E induced NF-?B activation. These results led us to conclude that NIS promoter methylation, which was induced by B-RafV600E, is one of the possible mechanisms involved in NIS downregulation in PTC.
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Skeletal analysis and differential gene expression in Runx2/Osterix double heterozygous embryos.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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The transcription factors, Runx2 and Osterix (Osx), act downstream in the BMP2 pathway, and they are essential for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. While Runx2 expression is normal in Osx-null mice, Osx is not expressed in Runx2-null mice, indicating that Osx acts downstream of Runx2 during bone formation. Runx2 and Osx are also independently regulated during bone formation. To define the unknown correlation between Runx2 and Osx in the regulation of bone formation, we analyzed the bone of Runx2/Osx double heterozygotes generated by mating heterozygous Runx2 and Osx mice and elucidated the differential gene expressions due to the lack of Runx2 and Osx in bone. Compared to the Runx2 and Osx heterozygous embryos, Runx2/Osx double heterozygous embryos showed reduced bone length in the humerus and femur as well as hypoplastic or complete absence of the maxillary and palatine shelf, presphenoid bone, zygomatic bone, and tympanic ring. Severe inward bending was observed in the ribs and humerus. Histological analysis showed an expanded region of hypertrophic chondrocytes and a reduced area of mineralized bones in the Runx2/Osx double heterozygous embryos. DNA microarray analysis of the calvaria of embryos allowed gene classification based on similarities in the upregulated and downregulated expression patterns. Clusters 1 and 2 include 68 downregulated genes and 18 upregulated genes, respectively, in the Runx2/Osx double heterozygous embryos. Finally, the skeletal analysis and gene expression profiles obtained by clustering may facilitate the understanding of the correlation between Runx2 and Osx in skeletal development.
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Early prophylactic versus late selective use of surfactant for respiratory distress syndrome in very preterm infants: a collaborative study of 53 multi-center trials in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Pulmonary surfactant (PS) therapy was proven to be highly successful for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants. As a results, early prophylactic (EP) PS therapy has been introduced recently in Europe, the US and Korea. However, no multi-center study was compared EP and late selective (LS) PS therapies in Korea. We performed a retrospective multi-center study to compare the outcomes of EP and LS PS therapies in very preterm infants. We analyzed clinical morbidity and mortality for 1,291 infants in 2010 (LS group) and 1,249 infants in 2011 (EP group); the infants were born <30 weeks of gestation and had birth weight ?1,250 g, and were chosen from 53 neonatal intensive care units in Korea. Compared to the LS group (22.5%), the overall mortality was better in the EP group (19.9%) and there was no increased need for retreatment.There were additional benefits in the EP group such as fewer associated complications. To the best of knowledge, our study is the first nationwide Korean study to compare the outcomes of EP and LS therapies, and it provides evidences that EP PS therapy is important in very preterm infants to improve for survival and reduce morbidities.
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Inhibition of bladder cancer invasion by Sp1-mediated BTG2 expression via inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 1.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Significantly lower endogenous expression of B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) was observed in human muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBC) than matched normal tissues and non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBC). BTG2 expression was inversely correlated with increased expression of the DNA methyltransferases DNMT1 and DNMT3a in MIBC, but not NMIBC, suggesting a potential role for BTG2 expression in muscle invasion of bladder cancer. Over 90% of tumor tissues revealed strong methylation at CpG islands of the BTG2 gene, compared with no methylation in the normal tissues, implying epigenetic regulation of BTG2 expression in bladder carcinogenesis. By using EJ bladder cancer cells and the demethylating agent decitabine, transcription of BTG2 was shown to be up-regulated by inhibiting DNMT1 expression via modification at CpG islands. DNMT1 binding to the BTG2 gene further regulated BTG2 expression by chromatin remodeling, such as H3K9 dimethylation and H3K4 trimethylation, and Sp1 activation. Induced BTG2 expression significantly reduced EJ cell tumorigenesis and invasiveness together with induction of G2 /M arrest. These results demonstrate an important role for the BTG2(/TIS21/PC3) gene in the progression of bladder cancers, and suggest that BTG2(/TIS21/PC3) is a promising epigenetic target for prevention of muscle invasion in human bladder cancers.
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The effect of doping Sb on the electronic structure and the device characteristics of Ovonic Threshold Switches based on Ge-Se.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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The Ovonic Threshold Switch (OTS) based on an amorphous chalcogenide material has attracted much interest as a promising candidate for a high-performance thin-film switching device enabling 3D-stacking of memory devices. In this work, we studied on the electronic structure of amorphous Sb-doped Ge0.6Se0.4 (in atomic mole fraction) film and its characteristics as to OTS devices. From the optical absorption spectroscopy measurement, the band gap (Eg) was found to decrease with increasing Sb content. In addition, as Sb content increased, the activation energy (Ea) for electrical conduction was found to decrease down to about one third of Eg from a half. As to the device characteristics, we found that the threshold switching voltage (Vth) drastically decreased with the Sb content. These results, being accountable in terms of the changes in the bonding configuration of constituent atoms as well as in the electronic structure such as the energy gap and trap states, advance an effective method of compositional adjustment to modulate Vth of an OTS device for various applications.
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Core Binding Factor ? of Osteoblasts Maintains Cortical Bone Mass Via Stabilization of Runx2 in Mice.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Core binding factor beta (Cbf?), the partner protein of Runx family transcription factors, enhances Runx function by increasing the binding of Runx to DNA. Null mutations of Cbfb result in embryonic death, which can be rescued by restoring fetal hematopoiesis but only until birth where bone formation is still nearly absent. Here we address a direct role of Cbf? in skeletal homeostasis by generating osteoblast-specific Cbf?-deficient mice (Cbfb(?ob/?ob) ) from Cbfb-floxed mice crossed with mice expressing Cre from the Col1a1 promoter. Cbfb(?ob/?ob) mice showed normal growth and development, but exhibited reduced bone mass, particularly of cortical bone. The reduction of bone mass in Cbfb(?ob/?ob) mice is similar to the phenotype of mice with haploinsufficiency of Runx2. Although the number of osteoblasts remained unchanged, the number of active osteoblasts decreased in Cbfb(?ob/?ob) mice and resulted in lower mineral apposition rate. Immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the expression of osteogenic markers, including Runx2, osterix, osteocalcin and osteopontin, was significantly repressed in Cbfb(?ob/?ob) mice compared to wild type mice. Cbf? deficiency also reduced Runx2 protein levels in osteoblasts. The mechanism was revealed by forced expression of Cbf? which increased Runx2 protein levels in vitro by inhibiting polyubiquitination-mediated proteosomal degradation. Collectively, these findings indicate that Cbf? stabilizes Runx2 in osteoblasts by forming a complex, and thus facilitates the proper maintenance of bone mass, particularly cortical bone. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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Changes in the Cesarean Section Rate in Korea (1982-2012) and a Review of the Associated Factors.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Although Cesarean section (CS) itself has contributed to the reduction in maternal and perinatal mortality, an undue rise in the CS rate (CSR) has been issued in Korea as well as globally. The CSR in Korea increased over the past two decades, but has remained at approximately 36% since 2006. Contributing factors associated with the CSR in Korea were an improvement in socio-economic status, a higher maternal age, a rise in multiple pregnancies, and maternal obesity. We found that countries with a no-fault compensation system maintained a lower CSR compared to that in countries with civil action, indicating the close relationship between the CSR and the medico-legal system within a country. The Korean government has implemented strategies including an incentive system relating to the CSR or encouraging vaginal birth after Cesarean to decrease CSR, but such strategies have proved ineffective. To optimize the CSR in Korea, efforts on lowering the maternal childbearing age or reducing maternal obesity are needed at individual level. And from a national view point, reforming health care system, which could encourage the experienced obstetricians to be trained properly and be relieved from legal pressure with deliveries is necessary.
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Negligible nonlinear absorption in hydrogenated amorphous silicon at 1.55 ?m for ultra-fast nonlinear signal processing.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Three-photon absorption (3PA) has been observed as the dominant mechanism for nonlinear absorption in wide-bandgap hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H-W) at 1.55 ?m. The nonlinear index n2 and 3PA coefficient were measured to be 22 × 10(-17)m(2)/W and 5.0 × 10(-26) m(3)/W(2) respectively at 1.55 ?m by using the z-scan method. This indicates that the figure of merit (FOM) of this material is intensity dependent. A value FOM>60 is predicted at intensities below 0.5 GW/cm(2) which is the maximum practical intensity for high-bit-rate (>160 GB/s) alloptical signal processing. The nonlinear phase change in a-Si:H-W has been compared with other common nonlinear materials (c-Si, As(2)S(3), Ge(11.5)As(24)Se(64.5)) for a 2 cm long waveguide with a-Si:H-W showing the greatest potential for integrated devices for all-optical processing with a high nonlinear index and negligible nonlinear absorption at intensities < 0.5 GW/cm(2).
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Inhibition of foreign body giant cell formation by 4- hexylresorcinol through suppression of diacylglycerol kinase delta gene expression.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Grafted macromolecules often induce granuloma formation with foreign body giant cell (FBGC) infiltration, and this is the main reason for graft failure. Diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) is an important intracellular mediator of FBGC formation in macrophages. In this study, 4-hexylresorcinol (4HR) inhibited DAGK? in a macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). As a result of DAGK-? inhibition by 4HR, FBGC formation was significantly inhibited in RAW264.7 cells. Silk fibroin is a well-known natural macromolecule, and when it is grafted into bone defects, it results in granuloma formation with massive FBGC formation. 4HR-incorporating silk graft materials displayed significant reduction of granuloma formation and increases in the extent of new bone formation in a rabbit calvarial defect model. In conclusion, 4HR could inhibit foreign body reaction via a DAGK-mediated pathway.
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Patterns of Neutropenia and Risk Factors for Febrile Neutropenia of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients Treated with Rituximab-CHOP.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the major toxicity of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) regimen in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The prediction of neutropenia and FN is mandatory to continue the planned R-CHOP therapy resulting in successful anti-cancer treatment. The clinical features and patterns of neutropenia and FN from 181 DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP were analyzed retrospectively. Sixty percent (60.2%) of patients experienced at least one episode of grade 4 neutropenia. Among them, 42.2% of episodes progressed to FN. Forty-eight percent (48.8%) of patients with FN was experienced their first FN during the first cycle of R-CHOP. All those patients never experienced FN again during the rest cycles of R-CHOP. Female, higher stage, international prognostic index (IPI), age ?65 yr, comorbidities, bone marrow involvement, and baseline serum albumin ?3.5 mg/dL were significant risk factors for FN by univariate analysis. Among these variables, comorbidities (P=0.009), bone marrow involvement (P=0.006), and female gender (P=0.024) were independent risk factors for FN based on multivariate analysis. On observing the patterns of neutropenia and FN, primary prophylaxis of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and antibiotics should be considered particularly in female patients, patients with comorbidities, or when there is bone marrow involvement of disease.
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Tpl2 induces castration resistant prostate cancer progression and metastasis.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Progression to metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the major lethal pathway of prostate cancer (PC). Herein, we demonstrated that tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) kinase is the fundamental molecule provoking progression and metastasis of CRPC. Tpl2 upregulates CXCR4 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to activate CXCL12/CXCR4 and FAK/Akt signalling pathway. Consequently, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness of androgen depletion independent (ADI) PC cells are induced, which is dependent on the kinase activity of Tpl2. In vitro, proliferation, clonogenicity, migration, invasion and chemoresistance of ADI PC cells were enhanced by Tpl2. In vivo, Tpl2 overexpression and downregulation showed significant stimulatory and inhibitory effects on tumorigenic and metastatic potential of ADI PC cells, respectively. Moreover, the prognostic effects of Tpl2 and expressional correlation between Tpl2 and EMT-related molecules/CXCR4 were validated in clinical PC databases. Since Tpl2 exerts metastatic progression promoting activities in CRPC, Tpl2 could serve as a novel therapeutic target for metastatic CRPC.
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Significance of early prostate-specific antigen values after salvage radiotherapy in recurrent prostate cancer patients treated with surgery.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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To assess the use of post-salvage radiotherapy prostate-specific antigen for early prediction of biochemical failure or clinical recurrence after salvage radiotherapy in recurrent prostate cancer patients after prostatectomy.
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A novel cantharidin analog N-benzylcantharidinamide reduces the expression of MMP-9 and invasive potentials of Hep3B via inhibiting cytosolic translocation of HuR.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Invasion and metastasis are major causes of malignant tumor-associated mortality. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular events underlying inhibitory effect of N-benzylcantharidinamide, a novel synthetic analog of cantharidin, on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)-mediated invasion in highly metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells. In this investigation, among six analogs of cantharidin, only N-benzylcantharidinamide has the inhibitory action on MMP-9 expression at non-toxic dose. The MMP-9 expression and invasion of Hep3B cells were significantly suppressed by treatment of N-benzylcantharidinamide in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 promoter and nuclear levels of NF-?B and AP-1 as the main transcriptional factors inducing MMP-9 expression were not affected by it although the level of MMP-9 mRNA was reduced by treatment of N-benzylcantharidinamide. Interestingly, the stability of MMP-9 mRNA was significantly reduced by N-benzylcantharidinamide-treatment. In addition, the cytosolic translocation of human antigen R (HuR), which results in the increase of MMP-9 mRNA stability through interaction of HuR with 3'-untranslated region of MMP-9 mRNA, was suppressed by treatment of N-benzylcantharidinamide, in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, it was demonstrated, for the first time, that N-benzylcantharidinamide suppresses MMP-9 expression by reducing HuR-mediated MMP-9 mRNA stability for the inhibition of invasive potential in highly metastatic Hep3B cells.
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A cold-adapted carbohydrate esterase from the oil-degrading marine Bacterium Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221: gene cloning, purification, and characterization.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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A cold-adapted carbohydrate esterase, CEST, belonging to the carbohydrate esterase family 6, was cloned from Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221. CEST was composed of 307 amino acids with the first 22 serving as a secretion signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass and isoelectric point of the mature enzyme were 31,244 Da and pH 5.89, respectively. The catalytic triad consisted of residues Ser37, Glu192, and His281 in the conserved regions: GQSNMXG, QGEX(D/N), and DXXH. The three-dimensional structure of CEST revealed that CEST belongs to the ?/?-class of protein consisted of a central six-stranded ?-sheet flanked by eight ?-helices. The recombinant CEST was purified by His-tag affinity chromatography and the characterization showed its optimal temperature and pH were 15°C and 8.0, respectively. Specifically, CEST maintained up to 70% of its enzyme activity when preincubated at 50°C or 60°C for 6 h, and 89% of its enzyme activity when preincubated at 70°C for 1h . The results suggest CEST belongs to group 3 of the cold-adapted enzymes. The enzyme activity was increased by Na(+) and Mg(2+) ions but was strongly inhibited by Cu(+) and Hg(2+) ions, at all ion concentrations. Using p-nitrophenyl acetate as a substrate, the enzyme had a Km of 0.278 mM and a kcat of 1.9 s(-1). Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the catalytic triad (Ser37, Glu192, and His281) and Asp278 were essential for the enzyme activity.
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Transperitoneal versus retroperitoneal robotic partial nephrectomy: matched-pair comparisons by nephrometry scores.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The purpose of this study was to compare perioperative outcomes of transperitoneal (TP) and retroperitoneal (RP) robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN) by matched analysis using nephrometry systems.
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The influence of time of day on static and dynamic postural control in normal adults.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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[Purpose] We attempted to determine whether static and dynamic postural control ability fluctuated depending on the influence of the time of day (9 am, 1 pm, and 5 pm), and at which time point postural balance performance was best in healthy individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four healthy subjects participated in this study. The static and dynamic postural balance test was conducted during three sessions (i.e., at 9 am, 1 pm, and 5 pm) with a counterbalanced order for prevention of learning effects. As outcome measurements, AP distance, ML distance, and velocity moment were adopted in the static balance test, and the performance time and total distance were measured in the dynamic balance test. [Results] For the static postural balance test, COP distance was shorter and COP velocity was slower at 9 am compared with those at 1 and 5 pm. In particular, the COP distance at 9 am was statistically different from that at 13 pm. During the dynamic postural balance test, performance time and total distance were influenced by the time of day, as the best performance was observed in the morning. [Conclusion] This study found that static and dynamic postural balance abilities were greatest in the morning and worst at 1 pm. Understanding of the mechanism of the time-of-day effect on postural balance will be helpful for assessment and treatment of postural balance by physical therapists and in making desirable clinical decisions.
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Non-iridescent transmissive structural color filter featuring highly efficient transmission and high excitation purity.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Nanostructure based color filtering has been considered an attractive replacement for current colorant pigmentation in the display technologies, in view of its increased efficiencies, ease of fabrication and eco-friendliness. For such structural filtering, iridescence relevant to its angular dependency, which poses a detrimental barrier to the practical development of high performance display and sensing devices, should be mitigated. We report on a non-iridescent transmissive structural color filter, fabricated in a large area of 76.2 × 25.4?mm(2), taking advantage of a stack of three etalon resonators in dielectric films based on a high-index cavity in amorphous silicon. The proposed filter features a high transmission above 80%, a high excitation purity of 0.93 and non-iridescence over a range of 160°, exhibiting no significant change in the center wavelength, dominant wavelength and excitation purity, which implies no change in hue and saturation of the output color. The proposed structure may find its potential applications to large-scale display and imaging sensor systems.
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Predictive factors of unfavorable prostate cancer in patients who underwent prostatectomy but eligible for active surveillance.
Prostate Int
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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To investigate the predictive factors of unfavorable prostate cancer in Korean men who underwent radical prostatectomy but eligible for active surveillance according to Epstein criteria.
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High-intensity focused ultrasound as salvage therapy for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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To evaluate the oncologic outcomes and postoperative complications of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as a salvage therapy after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) failure in patients with prostate cancer.
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Second primary mucosal malignant melanoma in hypopharynx.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Primary mucosal melanomas of the head and neck are rare. In addition, second primary mucosal melanoma following primary cutaneous malignant melanomas is very rare. We report a second primary mucosal melanoma. A 76-year-old woman, who had a previously cutaneous malignant melanoma of the left foot, visited with a complaint of a foreign body sensation of the throat. Endoscopy revealed a black mass at the left piriform sinus of the hypopharynx. After wide surgical excision of the lesion and reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap, the histopathology was confirmed to be a second primary mucosal malignant melanoma of the hypopharynx. Five months postoperatively, masses were palpated in the neck, and metastasis was diagnosed. The patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Eight months postoperatively, computed tomography scans showed other metastatic masses in the liver, spleen, both adrenal glands, soft tissues of the abdominal wall, and both lungs. After that, the patient died 9 months postoperatively. We report a rare case of second primary mucosal malignant melanoma of the hypopharynx. Although rare, this case shows that a detailed examination of the hypopharynx and the head and neck should be a part of the follow-up examination in all cutaneous malignant melanoma patients.
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Insulin is inversely associated with bone mass, especially in the insulin-resistant population: the Korea and US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Insulin is an important osteotropic hormone but may be negatively associated with bone mass after adjustment for body mass index in adolescent populations. However, the association between insulin and bone mass in adults remains unclear.
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Sensitization of metformin-cytotoxicity by dichloroacetate via reprogramming glucose metabolism in cancer cells.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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To investigate sensitization of metformin-cytotoxicity, cancer cells were treated with dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Metformin-cytotoxicity was mainly dependent on glucose availability and reducing power generated by pentose phosphate pathway, whereas DCA cotreatment enhanced metformin-cytotoxicity via reprogramming glucose metabolism by inhibiting PDK and increasing mitochondrial respiration. DCA cotreatment elicited cell death rather than cell survival despite high glucose and high GSH condition. In conclusion, DCA sensitized metformin-cytotoxicity by reprogramming glucose metabolism in part from aerobic glycolysis to mitochondrial oxidation, evidenced by measurements of glucose consumption, lactate release, and the ratio of oxygen consumption rate/extracellular acidification rate.
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Influence of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Decision to Preserve or Resect Neurovascular Bundles at Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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We evaluated the accuracy of preoperative multiparametric 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging for local staging of prostate cancer and its influence in the decision to preserve neurovascular bundles at robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.
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Expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 protein in malignant cutaneous tumors.
Arch Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages cell molecules, and modifies cell signaling. The nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) is a critical transcription regulator, which protects cells against oxidative damage. Nrf2 expression is increased in a large number of cancers. However, little information has been reported regarding the expression of Nrf2 in skin cancers. Hence, we explored the expression of Nrf2 protein in skin cancers.
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Testosterone deficiency associated with poor glycemic control in korean male diabetics.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Recent studies have shown that men with diabetes have lower testosterone levels than healthy men. However, studies on the correlation between testosterone and diabetes are rare in Korea. We examined the relationship between testosterone deficiency and markers related to diabetes in adult Korean men.
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Suggestion for the prostatic fossa clinical target volume in adjuvant or salvage radiotherapy after a radical prostatectomy.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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To assess the location of recurrent tumors and suggest the optimal target volume in adjuvant or salvage radiotherapy (RT) after a radical prostatectomy (RP).
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Deletion of individual Ku subunits in mice causes an NHEJ-independent phenotype potentially by altering apurinic/apyrimidinic site repair.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ku70 and Ku80 form a heterodimer called Ku that forms a holoenzyme with DNA dependent-protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKCS) to repair DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) through the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. As expected mutating these genes in mice caused a similar DSB repair-defective phenotype. However, ku70(-/-) cells and ku80(-/-) cells also appeared to have a defect in base excision repair (BER). BER corrects base lesions, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and single stand breaks (SSBs) utilizing a variety of proteins including glycosylases, AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) and DNA Polymerase ? (Pol ?). In addition, deleting Ku70 was not equivalent to deleting Ku80 in cells and mice. Therefore, we hypothesized that free Ku70 (not bound to Ku80) and/or free Ku80 (not bound to Ku70) possessed activity that influenced BER. To further test this hypothesis we performed two general sets of experiments. The first set showed that deleting either Ku70 or Ku80 caused an NHEJ-independent defect. We found ku80(-/-) mice had a shorter life span than dna-pkcs(-/-) mice demonstrating a phenotype that was greater than deleting the holoenzyme. We also found Ku70-deletion induced a p53 response that reduced the level of small mutations in the brain suggesting defective BER. We further confirmed that Ku80-deletion impaired BER via a mechanism that was not epistatic to Pol ?. The second set of experiments showed that free Ku70 and free Ku80 could influence BER. We observed that deletion of either Ku70 or Ku80, but not both, increased sensitivity of cells to CRT0044876 (CRT), an agent that interferes with APE1. In addition, free Ku70 and free Ku80 bound to AP sites and in the case of Ku70 inhibited APE1 activity. These observations support a novel role for free Ku70 and free Ku80 in altering BER.
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Transoral Open Reduction for Subcondylar Fractures of the Mandible Using an Angulated Screwdriver System.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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The management of subcondylar mandibular fractures has been a matter of controversy. Although closed reduction is the most useful method, it can be difficult to achieve anatomical reduction with this technique compared with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Most surgeons prefer to treat subcondylar fractures by extraoral approaches rather than intraoral approaches because extraoral approaches provide good visualization of the operative field. The retromandibular, submandibular, and perilobular approaches are commonly performed in the treatment of displaced condylar or subcondylar fractures and that the functional results of these treatments are good. However, extraoral approaches have a high rate of surgical complications such as salivary fistula formation, visible scarring, and facial nerve injury, compared with intraoral approaches. Therefore, this clinical study evaluated the clinical results of ORIF for mandibular subcondylar fractures through a transoral approach using an angulated screwdriver system without endoscopic assistance.
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Randomised clinical trials on acupuncture in the Korean literature: bibliometric analysis and methodological quality.
Acupunct Med
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Acupuncture systematic reviewers have increasingly searched Chinese databases and journals to identify eligible randomised clinical trials (RCTs). However, reviewers have infrequently searched for eligible RCTs in Korean databases and journals. This study aimed to identify difficult to locate acupuncture RCTs in Korean databases and journals and to assess the characteristics and quality of the identified RCTs.
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Differential expression of the metastasis suppressor KAI1 in decidual cells and trophoblast giant cells at the feto-maternal interface.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Invasion of trophoblasts into maternal uterine tissue is essential for establishing mature feto-maternal circulation. The trophoblast invasion associated with placentation is similar to tumor invasion. In this study, we investigated the role of KAI1, an antimetastasis factor, at the maternal-fetal interface during placentation. Mouse embryos were obtained from gestational days 5.5 (E5.5) to E13.5. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that KAI1 was expressed on decidual cells around the track made when a fertilized ovum invaded the endometrium, at days E5.5 and E7.5, and on trophoblast giant cells, along the central maternal artery of the placenta at E9.5. KAI1 in trophoblast giant cells was increased at E11.5, and then decreased at E13.5. Furthermore, KAI1 was upregulated during the forskolin-mediated trophoblastic differentiation of BeWo cells. Collectively, these results indicate that KAI1 is differentially expressed in decidual cells and trophoblasts at the maternal-fetal interface, suggesting that KAI1 prevents trophoblast invasion during placentation.
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Characterization of a cold-active ?-glucosidase from Paenibacillus xylanilyticus KJ-03 capable of hydrolyzing isoflavones daidzin and genistin.
Protein J.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Paenibacillus xylanilyticus KJ-03 isolated from konjac field, showed ?-glucosidase activity on tryptic soy agar plate supplemented with 0.1 % esculin and 0.25 % ferric ammonium citrate. A genome library was constructed to obtain the ?-glucosidase gene and a recombinant clone, pGlc2-3 was selected. The 2,247 bp gene encoding KJ-03 ?-glucosidase consisted of 749 amino acids. The deduced amino acids of BglA were 61 % homologous with that of the ?-glucosidase from Bacillus cereus AH1272, which belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 3. His-tagged ?-glucosidase was purified by using His-Trap column and characterized. KJ-03 ?-glucosidase was showed as a single band with about 82 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme has optimal activity at 20 °C and pH 7.0 using p-NP?G and 72 % of the maximal activity was still remaining at 10 °C. The ?-glucosidase has optimal activity at low temperatures indicating that it is a cold-active enzyme. The substrate specificity showed that the purified enzyme hydrolyzed aryl ?-glucoside substrates and isoflavones such as daidzin and genistin.
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The tyrosine kinase inhibitor GNF-2 suppresses osteoclast formation and activity.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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GNF-2, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was developed to overcome imatinib-resistant mutations found in CML patients. Osteoclasts are the principal bone-resorbing cells that are responsible for bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, tumor-induced osteolysis, and metastatic cancers. In this study, we investigated the effect of GNF-2 on osteoclast development induced by RANKL and M-CSF. We found that GNF-2 inhibited osteoclast differentiation from BMMs. GNF-2 suppressed RANKL-induced NF-?B transcriptional activity and the induction of c-Fos and NFATc1, which are two key transcription factors in osteoclastogenesis. We also observed that GNF-2 dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of osteoclast precursors through the suppression of the M-CSFR c-Fms. In addition, GNF-2 accelerated osteoclast apoptosis by inducing caspase-3 and Bim expression. Furthermore, GNF-2 interfered with actin cytoskeletal organization and subsequently blocked the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. In agreement with its in vitro effects, GNF-2 reduced osteoclast number and bone loss in a mouse model of LPS-induced bone destruction. Taken together, our data reveal that GNF-2 possesses anti-bone-resorptive properties, suggesting that GNF-2 may have therapeutic value for the treatment of bone-destructive disorders that can occur as a result of excessive osteoclastic bone resorption.
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Marine algal fucoxanthin inhibits the metastatic potential of cancer cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Metastasis is major cause of malignant cancer-associated mortality. Fucoxanthin has effect on various pharmacological activities including anti-cancer activity. However, the inhibitory effect of fucoxanthin on cancer metastasis remains unclear. Here, we show that fucoxanthin isolated from brown alga Saccharina japonica has anti-metastatic activity. To check anti-metastatic properties of fucoxanthin, in vitro models including assays for invasion, migration, actin fiber organization and cancer cell-endothelial cell interaction were used. Fucoxanthin inhibited the expression and secretion of MMP-9 which plays a critical role in tumor invasion and migration, and also suppressed invasion of highly metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells as evidenced by transwell invasion assay. In addition, fucoxanthin diminished the expressions of the cell surface glycoprotein CD44 and CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) which play roles in migration, invasion and cancer-endothelial cell adhesion. Fucoxanthin markedly suppressed cell migration in wound healing assay and inhibited actin fiber formation. The adhesion of B16-F10 melanoma cells to the endothelial cells was significantly inhibited by fucoxanthin. Moreover, in experimental lung metastasis in vivo assay, fucoxanthin resulted in significant reduction of tumor nodules. Taken together, we demonstrate, for the first time, that fucoxanthin suppresses metastasis of highly metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
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Narrow linewidth Brillouin laser based on chalcogenide photonic chip.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of a narrow linewidth, waveguide-based Brillouin laser that is enabled by large Brillouin gain of a chalcogenide chip. The waveguides are equipped with vertical tapers for low-loss coupling. Due to optical feedback for the Stokes wave, the lasing threshold is reduced to 360 mW, which is five times lower than the calculated single-pass Brillouin threshold for the same waveguide. The slope efficiency of the laser is found to be 30%, and the linewidth of 100 kHz is measured using a self-heterodyne method.
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Neurolymphomatosis of Brachial Plexus in Patients with Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma.
Case Rep Oncol Med
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare clinical disease where neoplastic cells invade the cranial nerves and peripheral nerve roots, plexus, or other nerves in patients with hematologic malignancy. Most NL cases are caused by B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL). Diagnosis can be made by imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We experienced two cases of NL involving the brachial plexus in patients with NHL. One patient, who had NHL with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, experienced complete remission after 8 cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) chemotherapy but relapsed into NL of the brachial plexus 5 months later. The other patient, who suffered from primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), had been undergoing chemoradiotherapy but progressed to NL of the brachial plexus.
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Role of Interleukin-10 in Endochondral Bone Formation in Mice: Anabolic Effect via the Bone Morphogenetic Protein/Smad Pathway.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic immunoregulatory cytokine with a chondroprotective effect that is elevated in cartilage and synovium in patients with osteoarthritis. However, the role of IL-10 during endochondral bone formation and its mechanism of action have not been elucidated.
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A comparison of surgical and functional outcomes of robot-assisted versus pure laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.
JSLS
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) is emerging as an alternative to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for the treatment of small renal tumors. We compare the results of LPN and RAPN performed by a single surgeon.
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Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) from glucose.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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The Escherichia coli XL1-blue strain was metabolically engineered to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] through 2-ketobutyrate, which is generated via citramalate pathway, as a precursor for propionyl-CoA. Two different metabolic pathways were examined for the synthesis of propionyl-CoA from 2-ketobutyrate. The first pathway is composed of the Dickeya dadantii 3937 2-ketobutyrate oxidase or the E. coli pyruvate oxidase mutant (PoxB L253F V380A) for the conversion of 2-ketobutyrate into propionate and the Ralstonia eutropha propionyl-CoA synthetase (PrpE) or the E. coli acetyl-CoA:acetoacetyl-CoA transferase for further conversion of propionate into propionyl-CoA. The second pathway employs pyruvate formate lyase encoded by the E. coli tdcE gene or the Clostridium difficile pflB gene for the direct conversion of 2-ketobutyrate into propionyl-CoA. As the direct conversion of 2-ketobutyrate into propionyl-CoA could not support the efficient production of P(3HB-co-3HV) from glucose, the first metabolic pathway was further examined. When the recombinant E. coli XL1-blue strain equipped with citramalate pathway expressing the E. coli poxB L253F V380A gene and R. eutropha prpE gene together with the R. eutropha PHA biosynthesis genes was cultured in a chemically defined medium containing 20 g/L of glucose as a sole carbon source, P(3HB-co-2.3 mol% 3HV) was produced up to the polymer content of 61.7 wt.%. Moreover, the 3HV monomer fraction in P(3HB-co-3HV) could be increased up to 5.5 mol% by additional deletion of the prpC and scpC genes, which are responsible for the metabolism of propionyl-CoA in host strains.
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Carthami Flos suppresses neutrophilic lung inflammation in mice, for which nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-1 is required.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Carthami Flos (CF) is used in traditional Asian medicine to treat blood stagnation and its associated diseases in patients. While the underlying mechanism for this effect remains unknown, CF has been reported to activate Nrf2, a transcription factor that is critical in protecting from various inflammatory lung diseases including acute lung injury (ALI). Here, we examined whether CF has a therapeutic effect on lung inflammation and assessed the impact of Nrf2 on the effect of CF using an ALI mouse model. Treatment of bone marrow derived macrophages with standardized aqueous extract of CF (AECF) activated Nrf2, resulting in the expression of Nrf2 dependent genes including GCLC, NQO-1 and HO-1. While intranasal LPS treatment of wild type mice resulted in neutrophilic infiltration and a concomitant expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes in the lung, the hallmarks of ALI, an intratracheal spraying of AECF to the lung 2h after LPS treatment suppressed the inflammatory response. By contrast, similar treatment in nrf2(-/-) mice with AECF failed to attenuate the inflammatory response. Thus, our results show that AECF attenuated neutrophilic lung inflammation in mice, which required Nrf2. Since AECF administration abrogates lung inflammation after LPS treatment, we propose CF as a potential therapeutics in the management of ALI.
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Trends of breastfeeding rate in Korea (1994-2012): comparison with OECD and other countries.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2013
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Breastfeeding has numerous benefits both for infants and mothers. WHO, UNICEF, and OECD report the breastfeeding rate (BR) and exclusive breastfeeding rate (EBR) at 3, 4, and 6 months of age for the international comparison. This article investigates the nationwide changes in BR and EBR in Korea from 1994 to 2012. EBR declined from 1994 to 2000, however progressively increased untill 2012. The latest data in 2012 revealed EBRs at 3, 4, and 6 months were 50.0%, 40.5%, and 11.4% respectively. The exclusive formula feeding rate (EFR) was highest in 2000 and gradually declined thereafter. In 2012, the EFRs at 3, 4 and 6 months were 21.7%, 26.5%, and 10.1%. In 2009, the EBRs at 3 and 6 months in the United States were 36.0% and 16.3% compared to 50.0% and 11.4% in Korea. In England, the EBRs were 17% and 12% in 2010. Amongst OECD countries, Hungary ranked highest EBRwith 95%, and Iceland, Norway, Slovak Republic, Australia, New Zealand followed. In conclusion, BRs were lowest in 2000, and there have been remarkable increases in BRs over the past 10 yr in Korea. Although BRs have been increasing, further efforts to increase BRs should be made continuously.
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TIS21(/BTG2/PC3) inhibits interleukin-6 expression via downregulation of STAT3 pathway.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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Cancer cell growth was increased when co-cultured with fibroblasts, however, no effect was observed when co-cultured with TIS21-overexpressed fibroblast. Therefore, the role of TIS21 played in cancer microenvironment was investigated. TIS21 decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in human dermal fibroblast (HDF). Adenoviral transduction of TIS21 gene to HDF decreased the secretion of IL-6, whereas knockdown of the gene increased IL-6 expression. Furthermore, TIS21 overexpression inhibited STAT3 binding to IL-6 promoter region as well as JAK2-STAT3 signaling by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by being localized in mitochondria. Mitochondria-target TIS21 (MT-TIS21) also inhibited IL-6 expression by downregulating STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas NF-?B pathway was not influenced by TIS21 expression. These results indicate that TIS21 negatively regulated cancer cell growth by inhibiting IL-6 expression through downregulation of STAT3 activation.
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Hydrolysis of isoflavone glycoside by immobilization of ?-glucosidase on a chitosan-carbon in two-phase system.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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We explored a method to examine the hydrolysis of isoflavone glycoside by immobilizing ?-glucosidase on chitosan-carbon beads in an aqueous-organic two-phase system. The chitosan-carbon beads were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to immobilize ?-glucosidase from Exiguobacterium sp. DAU5. The optimal pH and temperature were 9.0 and 55 °C, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, crude and purified enzymes immobilized onto chitosan-carbon beads gave yields of 16.7% and 60%, respectively. The specific activities of immobilized crude and purified enzymes were 4.3 U/g and 6 U/g, respectively. The immobilized enzyme retained more than 80% of its maximum activity at pH 7.0-11.0, while temperature was more influential (80% activity after 40 °C for 1.5 h, but only 40% activity after 55 °C for 0.5 h, respectively. The immobilized enzyme was able to hydrolyze isoflavone glycoside in an aqueous-organic two-phase system, and the hydrolyzed products were enriched in the organic phase, making it easy to recover the products, i.e., genistein and daidein from the reaction system. These results suggest that immobilized ?-glucosidase may be applicable for the industrial-scale hydrolysis of isoflavone glycoside.
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Other than daytime working is associated with lower bone mineral density: the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey 2009.
Calcif. Tissue Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Occupation affects bone mineral density (BMD); however, only few studies have been published. This study evaluated the effect of working time during a day on BMD. The cross-sectional study involved 18- to 50-year-old people who reported their working time and were measured for BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009. The time period of work was divided into "daytime" and "other than daytime." The other-than-daytime group included evening time, nighttime, regular shift time, and irregular shift time. Among 3,005 subjects, 2,378 were daytime workers and 627 were other-than-daytime workers. The mean BMD of the total femur and lumbar spine were significantly lower in other-than-daytime workers compared to daytime workers (femur 0.948 vs. 0.966 g/cm², respectively, p = 0.001; lumbar spine 0.976 vs. 0.988 g/cm², respectively, p = 0.023). The other-than-daytime group had lower levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D than the daytime group (16.3 vs. 17.6 ng/mL, p < 0.001). The proportion of osteopenia (T score < -1.0) was higher in the other-than-daytime than the daytime group (34.3 vs. 29.1 %, p = 0.014). After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, daily intake of calcium, and vitamin D level, the relative risks of osteopenia of regular-shift and irregular-shift workers were significantly higher (1.65, 95 % CI 1.05-2.60; 1.78, 95 % CI 1.09-2.89) than those of daytime workers. These data suggest that other-than-daytime working, especially regular and irregular shift working, is associated with decreased BMD and increased risk for osteopenia in Korean adults.
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Hybrid waveguide from As2S3 and Er-doped TeO2 for lossless nonlinear optics.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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The fabrication and characterization of loss-compensated dispersion-engineered nonlinear As(2)S(3) on Er:TeO2 waveguides is reported for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The hybrid waveguide is a strip loaded structure made from an Er-doped TeO2 slab and an etched As(2)S(3) strip. Almost complete loss compensation is demonstrated with 1480 nm pumping and a fully lossless waveguide with high nonlinear coefficient can be achieved with higher 1480 nm pump power.
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Pure laparoscopic radical cystectomy with ileal conduit: a single surgeons mid-term outcomes.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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The use of laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is not yet widespread because of the technical difficulties of the procedure and the lengthy operating time. In this study, we report a single surgeons experience with LRC.
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Inhibitory effects of obovatol on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Osteoclasts are polykaryons that have the unique capacity to degrade bone. Modulation of osteoclast formation and function is a promising strategy for the treatment of bone-destructive diseases. Here, we report that obovatol, a natural compound isolated from Magnolia obovata, inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and inflammatory bone loss in vivo. We found that obovatol strongly inhibited osteoclast formation from bone marrow-derived macrophages in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Obovatol significantly suppressed RANKL-induced activation of NF-?B, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways. Obovatol also inhibited RANKL-induced expression of the genes c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1, which are transcription factors important for osteoclastogenesis. In addition to osteoclast differentiation, obovatol blocked cytoskeletal organization and abrogated the bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclast. Obovatol also accelerated osteoclast apoptosis through the induction of caspase-3 activation. Consistent with its in vitro anti-resorptive effect, obovatol prevented bone loss induced by lipopolysaccharide in vivo. Together, our data suggest that obovatol may be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of pathological bone disorders characterized by excessive osteoclastic bone resorption.
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On-chip high sensitivity laser frequency sensing with Brillouin mutually-modulated cross-gain modulation.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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We report the first demonstration of a photonic-chip laser frequency sensor using Brillouin mutually-modulated cross-gain modulation (MMXGM). A large sensitivity (~9.5 mrad/kHz) of the modulation phase shift to probe carrier frequency is demonstrated at a modulation frequency of 50 kHz using Brillouin MMXGM in a ~7 cm long chalcogenide rib waveguide.
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Phase-sensitive amplification of light in a ?(3) photonic chip using a dispersion engineered chalcogenide ridge waveguide.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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We report phase-sensitive amplification of light using ?((3)) parametric processes in a chalcogenide ridge waveguide. By spectrally slicing pump, signal and idler waves from a single pulsed source, we are able to observe 9.9 dB of on-chip phase-sensitive extinction with a signal-degenerate dual pump four-wave mixing architecture in good agreement with numerical simulations.
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Carbon plate shows even distribution of stress, decreases screw loosening, and increases recovery of preoperative daily feed intake amount in a rabbit model of mandibular continuity defects.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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The aim of this study was to compare a carbon plate (CP) and a titanium mandibular reconstruction plate (TMRP) in finite element analysis and an animal model.
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Therapeutic Effect of Chung-Pae, an Experimental Herbal Formula, on Acute Lung Inflammation Is Associated with Suppression of NF- ? B and Activation of Nrf2.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory disease with high mortality, but therapeutics against it is unavailable. Recently, we elaborated a formula, named Chung-pae (CP), that comprises four ethnic herbs commonly prescribed against various respiratory diseases in Asian traditional medicine. CP is being administered in aerosol to relieve various respiratory symptoms of patients in our clinic. Here, we sought to examine whether CP has a therapeutic effect on ALI and to uncover the mechanism behind it. Reporter assays show that CP suppressed the transcriptional activity of proinflammatory NF- ? B and activated that of anti-inflammatory Nrf2. Similarly, CP suppressed the expression of NF- ? B dependent, proinflammatory cytokines and induced that of Nrf2 dependent genes in RAW 264.7. An aerosol intratracheal administration of CP effectively reduced neutrophilic infiltration and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hallmarks of ALI, in the lungs of mice that received a prior intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. The intratracheal CP administration concomitantly enhanced the expression of Nrf2 dependent genes in the lung. Therefore, our results evidenced a therapeutic effect of CP on ALI, in which differential regulation of the two key inflammatory factors, NF- ? B and Nrf2, was involved. We propose that CP can be a new therapeutic formula against ALI.
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Scalp acupuncture for Parkinsons disease: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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To evaluate the effectiveness of scalp acupuncture (SA), a modern acupuncture technique specialized to neurological disorders, in managing motor function and symptoms for Parkinsons disease (PD) patients.
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Changes of plantar pressure distributions following open and closed kinetic chain exercise in patients with stroke.
NeuroRehabilitation
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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The aim of this study is to investigate whether progressive resistive training with closed-kinetic chain (CKC) and open-kinetic chain (OKC) exercises could change plantar pressure distribution during walking in patients with stroke.
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Automatic DGD and GVD compensation at 640 Gb/s based on scalar radio-frequency spectrum measurement.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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We demonstrate what we believe to be the first real-time impairment-cancellation system for group-velocity dispersion (GVD) and differential group delay (DGD) for a 640 Gb/s single-channel signal. Simultaneous compensation of two independent parameters is demonstrated by feedback control of separate GVD and DGD compensators using an impairment monitor based on an integrated all-optical radio-frequency (RF) spectrum analyzer. We show that low-bandwidth measurement of only a single tone in the RF spectrum is sufficient for automatic compensation for multiple degrees of freedom using a multivariate optimization scheme.
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Signals regulating necrosis of cardiomyoblast by BTG2(/TIS21/PC3) via activation of GSK3? and opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore in response to H2O2.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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To investigate signal transduction pathway of cell death regulated by a tumor suppressor after oxidative stress, cardiomyoblasts were virally transfected with BTG2(/TIS21/PC3) (BTG2) and subsequently treated with H2O2. Heart muscle rarely expresses BTG2 unless oxidative stress occurs, however, ischemia induced BTG2 expression and necrosis, not apoptosis, of cardiomyoblasts. BTG2-expressioning cardiomyblasts showed impaired recoveries of survival kinases, Akt and Erk, thus sustaining GSK-3? activity in 30 min of H2O2 exposure, in contrast to their rapid recoveries in LacZ control. The phenomenon was accompanied by the failure of ATP regeneration and the sustained activation of AMPK in the BTG2 expresser. Furthermore, H2O2 treatment markedly induced BTG2 translocation from nuclei to mitochondria along with cell death by cyclophilin D activation and mPTP opening. Exogenous and endogenous effect of BTG2 was confirmed by chemical inhibitors and BTG2-KO-MEF, respectively. Here, we suggest tumor suppressor, BTG2, as one of the regulators of necrosis in myocardium via inhibiting Akt/Erk, but activating GSK3? and cyclophilin D, which resulted in mPTP opening in response to H2O2.
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Microbial production of short-chain alkanes.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Increasing concerns about limited fossil fuels and global environmental problems have focused attention on the need to develop sustainable biofuels from renewable resources. Although microbial production of diesel has been reported, production of another much in demand transport fuel, petrol (gasoline), has not yet been demonstrated. Here we report the development of platform Escherichia coli strains that are capable of producing short-chain alkanes (SCAs; petrol), free fatty acids (FFAs), fatty esters and fatty alcohols through the fatty acyl (acyl carrier protein (ACP)) to fatty acid to fatty acyl-CoA pathway. First, the ?-oxidation pathway was blocked by deleting the fadE gene to prevent the degradation of fatty acyl-CoAs generated in vivo. To increase the formation of short-chain fatty acids suitable for subsequent conversion to SCAs in vivo, the activity of 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase (FabH), which is inhibited by unsaturated fatty acyl-ACPs, was enhanced to promote the initiation of fatty acid biosynthesis by deleting the fadR gene; deletion of the fadR gene prevents upregulation of the fabA and fabB genes responsible for unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis. A modified thioesterase was used to convert short-chain fatty acyl-ACPs to the corresponding FFAs, which were then converted to SCAs by the sequential reactions of E. coli fatty acyl-CoA synthetase, Clostridium acetobutylicum fatty acyl-CoA reductase and Arabidopsis thaliana fatty aldehyde decarbonylase. The final engineered strain produced up to 580.8?mg?l(-1) of SCAs consisting of nonane (327.8?mg?l(-1)), dodecane (136.5?mg?l(-1)), tridecane (64.8?mg?l(-1)), 2-methyl-dodecane (42.8?mg?l(-1)) and tetradecane (8.9?mg?l(-1)), together with small amounts of other hydrocarbons. Furthermore, this platform strain could produce short-chain FFAs using a fadD-deleted strain, and short-chain fatty esters by introducing the Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 wax ester synthase (atfA) and the E. coli mutant alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE(mut)).
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Therapeutic Effect of the Tuber of Alisma orientale on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Although Alisma orientale, an ethnic herb, has been prescribed for treating various diseases in Asian traditional medicine, experimental evidence to support its therapeutic effects is lacking. Here, we sought to determine whether A. orientale has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury (ALI). Ethanol extract of the tuber of A. orientale (EEAO) was prepared and fingerprinted by HPLC for its constituents. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for the induction of ALI. At 2?h after LPS treatment, mice received an intratracheal (i.t.) spraying of various amounts of EEAO to the lung. Bioluminescence imaging of transgenic NF- ? B/luciferase reporter mice shows that i.t. EEAO posttreatment suppressed lung inflammation. In similar experiments with C57BL/6 mice, EEAO posttreatment significantly improved lung inflammation, as assessed by H&E staining of lung sections, counting of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and semiquantitative RT-PCR analyses of proinflammatory cytokines and Nrf2-dependent genes in the inflamed lungs. Furthermore, EEAO posttreatment enhanced the survival of mice that received a lethal dose of LPS. Together, our results provide evidence that A. orientale has a therapeutic effect on ALI induced by sepsis.
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An ?-1,4-xylanase with exo-enzyme activity produced by Paenibacillus xylanilyticus KJ-03 and its cloning and characterization.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Paenibacillus xylanilyticus KJ-03 was isolated from soil samples obtained from a field with Amorphophallus konjac plants. A gene encoding xylanase was isolated from KJ-03 and cloned using a fosmid library. The xynA gene encodes xylanase; it consists of 1,035 bp and encodes 345 amino acids. The amino acid sequence deduced from the P. xylanilyticus KJ-03 xylanase showed 81% and 69% identities with those deduced from the P. polymyxa E681 and Paenibacillus sp. HPL-001 xylanases, respectively. The xynA gene comprises a single domain, consisting of a catalytic domain of the glycosyl hydrolase (GH) 10 family. The xynA gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (trxB), and the recombinant xylanase was purified by Niaffinity chromatography. The purified xylanase showed optimum activity with birchwood xylan as a substrate at 40°C and pH 7.4. Treatment with Mg(2+) and Li(+) showed a slight decrease in XynA activity; however, treatment with 5 mM Cu(2+) completely inhibited its activity. The results of the thin layer chromatography analysis indicated that the major hydrolysis product was xylobiose and small amounts of xylose and xylotriose. XynA showed increased activity with oat spelt xylan and birchwood xylan, but showed only slight activity with locust bean gum.
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A simplified formula using early blood gas analysis can predict survival outcomes and the requirements for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
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The aims of this study were to investigate whether early arterial blood gas analysis (ABGA) could define the severity of disease in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We conducted a retrospective study over a 21-yr period of infants diagnosed with CDH. Outcomes were defined as death before discharge, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation requirements (ECMO) or death. A total 114 infants were included in this study. We investigated whether simplified prediction formula [PO2-PCO2] values at 0, 4, 8, and 12 hr after birth were associated with mortality, and ECMO or death. The area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the optimum ABGA values for predicting outcomes. The value of [PO2-PCO2] at birth was the best predictor of mortality (AUC 0.803, P < 0.001) and at 4 hr after birth was the most reliable predictor of ECMO or death (AUC 0.777, P < 0.001). The value of [PO2-PCO2] from ABGA early period after birth can reliably predict outcomes in infants with CDH.
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The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on the motor suppression in stop-signal task.
NeuroRehabilitation
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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This study examined whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor cortex alters the response time in motor suppression using the stop-signal task (SST).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.