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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
CRISPR/Cas9 Nuclease-Mediated Gene Knock-In in Bovine-Induced Pluripotent Cells.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Efficient and precise genetic engineering in livestock such as cattle holds great promise in agriculture and biomedicine. However, techniques that generate pluripotent stem cells, as well as reliable tools for gene targeting in livestock, are still inefficient, and thus not routinely used. Here, we report highly efficient gene targeting in the bovine genome using bovine pluripotent cells and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 nuclease. First, we generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from bovine somatic fibroblasts by the ectopic expression of yamanaka factors and GSK3? and MEK inhibitor (2i) treatment. We observed that these bovine iPSCs are highly similar to naïve pluripotent stem cells with regard to gene expression and developmental potential in teratomas. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease, which was specific for the bovine NANOG locus, showed highly efficient editing of the bovine genome in bovine iPSCs and embryos. To conclude, CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated homologous recombination targeting in bovine pluripotent cells is an efficient gene editing method that can be used to generate transgenic livestock in the future.
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The mechanism of hemifacial spasm: a new understanding of the offending artery.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Although neurovascular confliction was believed to be the cause of hemifacial spasm (HFS), the mechanism of the disorder remains unclear to date. Current theories, merely focusing on the facial nerve, have failed to explain the clinical phenomenon of immediate relief following a successful microvascular decompression surgery (MVD). With the experience of thousands of microvascular decompression surgeries and preliminary investigations, we have learned that the offending artery may play a more important role than the effect of merely mechanical compression in the pathogenesis of the disease. We believe that the attrition of neurovascular interface is the essence of the etiology, and the substance of the disease is emersion of ectopic action potentials from the demyelinated facial nerve fibers, which were triggered by the sympathetic endings from the offending artery wall. In this paper, we put forward evidence to support this hypothesis, both logically and theoretically.
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Via-cerebellar-fissures approach for microvascular decompression of trigeminal nerve.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Although the infratentorial superior-lateral cerebellar approach has been traditionally chosen for exposure of the V cranial nerve root in the process of microvascular decompression for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, those petrosal veins often block this surgical corridor. To detour these petrosal veins, we require a new approach. We provide a via-cerebellar-fissures approach to expose well the trigeminal nerve. With microscopy, cerebrospinal fluid was drained sufficiently to relax the cerebellum. Caudally to petrosal veins, the dissection was started from the cerebellar fissures. With the arachnoid membranes around the petrosal fissure and superior cerebellopontine fissures being opened thoroughly, the root entry zone of V nerve was visualized directly. This new approach was used in 106 patients. Among them, the block veins were encountered in 17 (16.0%). Among the 17 vein-blocked cases, 1 or 2 branches of the veins were finally cut in 2 (1.9%). The postoperative relief rate was 95.3% without complications. This via-cerebellar-fissures approach may access the root entry zone of the V cranial nerve without killing those petrosal veins, which is worth to be recommended and popularized.
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Effectiveness and safety of microvascular decompression surgery for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: a systematic review.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Microvascular decompression has been now accepted worldwide as a reasonable treatment for trigeminal neuralgia, yet, as a functional operation in the cerebellopontine angle, this process may be risky and the postoperative outcomes might not be good enough sometimes. To assess the effectiveness and safety of microvascular decompression for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, we conducted a systematic review. Using the keywords "trigeminal neuralgia", "microvascular decompression", or "neurovascular conflict", manuscripts published in English-language journals and indexed in PubMed between January 1, 2000 and June 1, 2013 on the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) with microvascular decompression were considered for this study. The success and complications were analyzed. The success in this investigation was defined as complete pain free. Continuous outcomes were summarized using means or medians, and dichotomous outcomes were presented as percentage associated with 95% confidence interval. Twenty-six papers with 6,847 patients were finally enrolled in this review. Among them, the male-to-female ratio was 1:1.4, the left-to-right ratio was 1:1.6, and the pain was located in the innervation of V3 and/or V2 in most of the cases with only 2.3% (0.1-4.7) of V1 exclusively. The average age at surgery was 60.9 years (52.5-64.1) with TN symptoms duration of 24.7 months (6.1-42.1) before microvascular decompression (MVD). Operative findings confirmed the superior cerebellar artery, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and multiple vascular contacts (including veins) as the most common sources of nerve compression. The average follow-up duration was 35.8 months (26.2-56.6). The success rate was 83.5% (79.6-89.1). Complications included incisional infection in 1.3% (0.1-2.5), facial palsy 2.9% (0.5-6.2), facial numbness 9.1% (1.3-19.6), cerebrospinal fluid leak 1.6% (0.7-2.5), and hearing deficit 1.9% (0.2-3.9). The postoperative mortality was 0.1% (0.02-0.2). Accordingly, MVD is the most effective treatment for patients with trigeminal neuralgia. An immediate pain free can be achieved by an experienced neurosurgeon with good knowledge of the regional anatomy. To avoid complications, each single step of the process cannot be overemphasized.
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Cholesteatoma of cerebellopontine angle presented as trigeminal neuralgia.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Cholesteatoma in the cerebellopontine angle presented as trigeminal neuralgia are not common. Between 2010 and 2013, 12 such patients were operated on in our department. Those patients included 8 females and 4 males with an average age of 47.8 years. One patient was combined with the ipsilateral hemifacial spasm. Five patients had hypesthesia in the ipsilateral side of the face. During the surgery, a pearly sheen mass with boundary was found in the cerebellopontine angle, and the trigeminal root was buried in the tumor. The tumor was removed totally in all the cases. Afterwards, the trigeminal root was observed distorted in 5 and the offending vessel was finally distinguished in 9. Postoperatively, the symptoms were relieved in all the cases and no recurrence was found up to the 36-month period of follow-up. We believed that the etiology of secondary trigeminal neuralgia caused by cholesteatoma is still the neurovascular confliction; the only difference is that the offending vessel was pushed by the tumor instead of idiopathically. Sometimes, the offending artery may not be found after the tumor resection for it may have been transposed off while the tumor is being removed.
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Upregulation of Nav1.8 in demyelinated facial nerves might be relevant to the generation of hemifacial spasm.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Our previous studies demonstrated that the abnormal muscle response could vanish when the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion was removed and reappear when norepinephrine was dripped at the neurovascular conflict site. Evidentially, we believed that the mechanism of hemifacial spasm should involve emersion of ectopical action potential in the compressed facial nerve fibers. As the action potential is ignited by ion channel opening, we focused on Nav1.8 that has been found overexpressed in peripheral nerve while damaged. In this study, Moller model was adopted, 20 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent drip of norepinephrine, and the abnormal muscle response wave was monitored in 14 rats. Antibodies against unique epitopes of the ? subunit of sodium channel isoforms were used to detect the Nav1.8 neuronal isoforms, and the immunohistochemistry showed strong staining in 13 rats, which were all in the abnormal muscle response positive group (P < 0.05). Accordingly, we concluded that the substance of hemifacial spasm is an ectopic action potential that emerged on the damaged facial nerve, which might be coupled by Nav1.8.
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Development of a method of vitrification, thawing, and transfer of mammalian blastocysts using a single closed cryo-straw.
Cryo Letters
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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There are different methods for cryopreservation of mammalian embryos with variable degrees of success. These methods require specific vessels for embryo vitrification, thawing, and transfer.
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Isoindolone derivative QSN-10c induces leukemic cell apoptosis and suppresses angiogenesis via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway inhibition.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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2-(4,6-Dimethoxy-1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl) ethyl 2-chloroacetate (QSN-10c) is one of isoindolone derivatives with antiproliferative activity against human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The aim of this study was to investigate its antitumor activity in vitro and anti-angiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo.
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Tetramethylpyrazine alleviated cytokine synthesis and dopamine deficit and improved motor dysfunction in the mice model of Parkinson's disease.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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It was previously reported that cytokines and neurotoxins released from activated inflammatory cells induced the loss of projecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which triggered the pathogenesis of PD. The present study investigated the effect of treatment with tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on the central cytokine synthesis, striatal dopamine content and glutamatergic transmission, and behavioral performance in the rotarod task in mice injected with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Treatment with TMP significantly improved the behavioral performance in the rotarod task in mice injected with MPTP. It also decreased the upregulation of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1?) in the substantia nigra and striatum in these modeled mice. Furthermore, treatment with TMP significantly improved the dopamine deficits and attenuated the upregulation of striatal basal glutamatergic strength in the striatum of mice injected with MPTP. These results indicated that TMP might serve as a novel approach for the treatment of patients with PD.
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Microvascular decompression of trigeminal nerve root for treatment of a patient with hemimasticatory spasm.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Hemimasticatory spasm is a rare disease; with little knowledge of the pathogenesis, it has still been intractable today. We presented a 56-year-old woman with involuntary painful spasm in her left masseter muscle for 11 years. The patient was successfully treated with microvascular decompression surgery. An offending superior cerebellar artery was found to contact with the motor branch of the trigeminal nerve root, which was then removed away and pieces of soft wadding were interposed between the nerve and the vessel to assure the separation. Postoperatively, the symptom totally disappeared and no recurrence was observed during the 7 months' follow-up. The treatment as well as the pathogenesis of the disease was reviewed, and we put forward a new hypothesis.
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The influence of herbal medicine ursolic acid on the uptake of rosuvastatin mediated by OATP1B1*1a and *5.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Chinese herbal medicines such as hawthorn, salvia, etc., are frequently combined with statins so as to treat cardiovascular diseases more effectively. Chinese herbal medicines contain many kinds of active components, which may have drug-drug interactions with statins. This study aims to explore the effect and mechanism by which ursolic acid affects OATP1B1-mediated transport of rosuvastatin. This study will explore the effect of ursolic acid on OAPT1B1-mediated transport of rosuvastatin in the different cell systems. Given the genetic polymorphisms of OATP1B1, simultaneously, this study will further explore the effect of ursolic acid on OATP1B1 (521T>C)-mediated transport of rosuvastatin. When the concentration of ursolic acid was 1.8 and 18 µM, it showed that ursolic acid significantly inhibits the uptake of rosuvastatin in both OATP1B1*1a-HEK 293T cells and OATP1B1*5-HEK 293T cells. The reduction of OATP1B1*1a transport of rosuvastatin were 34.60 ± 2.99 and 66.08 ± 1.83 %, and for OATP1B1*5 were 34.27 ± 7.08 % and 66.95 ± 1.14 %. Inhibitory parameters of IC50 were 6.25 ± 0.42 and 6.07 ± 0.57 µM, respectively. This study suggests that ursolic acid can affect the uptake of rosuvastatin in hepatocytes by inhibiting the transport of OATP1B1, and gene mutation of OATP1B1 may cause different effects on its transport of rosuvastatin.
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Microvascular decompression surgery: surgical principles and technical nuances based on 4000 cases.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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As an etiological treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and hemifacial spasm (HFS), microvascular decompression (MVD) has been popularized around the world. However, as a functional operation in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), this process can be risky and the postoperative outcomes might not be good enough sometimes.
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Detailed assessment of gene activation levels by multiple hypoxia-responsive elements under various hypoxic conditions.
Ann Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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HIF-1/HRE pathway is a promising target for the imaging and the treatment of intractable malignancy (HIF-1; hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HRE; hypoxia-responsive element). The purposes of our study are: (1) to assess the gene activation levels resulting from various numbers of HREs under various hypoxic conditions, (2) to evaluate the bidirectional activity of multiple HREs, and (3) to confirm whether multiple HREs can induce gene expression in vivo.
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Microvascular decompression in patients with coexistent trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and glossopharyngeal neuralgia.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Trigeminal neuralgia(TN), hemifacial spasm (HFS) and glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) were referred to hyperactive dysfunction syndromes (HDSs) of the cranial nerves. These symptoms may occur synchronously or metachronously, but the combination of three diseases is extremely rare.
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The crystallinity effect of mesocrystalline BaZrO3 hollow nanospheres on charge separation for photocatalysis.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Highly crystalline mesocrystalline BaZrO3 hollow nanospheres offered higher photocatalytic activities. It is found that the highly crystalline sample can function as a "highway" for electron transport with less grain boundaries, resulting in better charge separation and thus photocatalytic performance.
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Dovitinib synergizes with oxaliplatin in suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells regardless of RAS-RAF mutation status.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Cancer is the result of a multistep process of genomic alterations, including mutations in key regulatory proteins that result in loss of balanced gene expression and subsequent malignant transformation. Throughout the various stages of colorectal carcinoma (CRC), complex genetic alterations occur, of which over-expression of growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derive growth factor and their corresponding receptor tyrosine kinases, have been shown to correlate with invasiveness, tumor angiogenesis, metastasis, recurrence, and poor prognosis of colorectal cancer. To evaluate the therapeutic effect, we combined Dovitinib, an orally bioavailable, potent inhibitor of class III-V receptor tyrosine kinases with chemotherapeutic drug, oxaliplatin in preclinical models of colon cancer.
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The roles of a novel anti-inflammatory factor, milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8, in patients with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Inflammation is now considered a main pathogenic factor in coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CHD), and it has a positive correlation with plaque vulnerability. A novel anti-inflammatory factor, milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8), has been reported as having prominent anti-inflammatory effects in sepsis. However, few studies have reported on the association between MFG-E8 and CHD. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the serum MFG-E8 concentrations in patients with different stages of CHD or without CHD. Then, we studied the associations among MFG-E8, Gensini score, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in Chinese patients with CHD to illustrate the role of MFG-E8 in CHD.
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JMY functions as actin nucleation-promoting factor and mediator for p53-mediated DNA damage in porcine oocytes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Junction-mediating and regulatory protein(JMY) is a multifunctional protein with roles in the transcriptional co-activation of p53 and the regulation of actin nucleation promoting factors and, hence, cell migration; however, its role in the maturation of porcine oocytes is unclear. In the current study, we investigated functional roles of JMY in porcine oocytes. Porcine oocytes expressed JMY mRNA and protein, and the mRNA expression level decreased during oocyte maturation. Knockdown of JMY by RNA interference decreased the rate of polar body extrusion, validating its role in the asymmetric division of porcine oocytes. JMY knockdown also down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of actin and Arp2/3. Furthermore, JMY accumulated in the nucleus in response to DNA damage, and JMY knockdown suppressed DNA damage-mediated p53 activation. In conclusion, our results show that JMY has important roles in oocyte maturation as a regulator of actin nucleation-promoting factors and an activator of p53 during DNA damage during DNA damages in porcine oocytes.
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[Effect of emodin lipid nano-microbubble on MAPK signal pathway and inflammation cytokine in AT-II cells by mechanical stretch].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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To investigate the effect of emodin lipid nano-microbubble on MAPK signaling pathway and the level of inflammation cytokine in AT-II cells induced by mechanical stretch and its mechanism.
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Actin nucleator Arp2/3 complex is essential for mouse preimplantation embryo development.
Reprod. Fertil. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2013
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The Arp2/3 complex is a critical actin nucleator, which promotes actin assembly and is widely involved in a diverse range of actin-related processes such as cell locomotion, phagocytosis and the establishment of cell polarity. Previous studies showed that the Arp2/3 complex regulates spindle migration and asymmetric division during mouse oocyte maturation; however, the role of the Arp2/3 complex in early mouse embryo development is still unknown. The results of the present study show that the Arp2/3 complex is critical for cytokinesis during mouse embryo development. The Arp2/3 complex was concentrated at the cortex of each cell at the 2- to 8-cell stage and the peripheral areas of the morula and blastocyst. Inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex by the specific inhibitor CK666 at the zygote stage caused a failure in cell division; mouse embryos failed to undergo compaction and lost apical-basal polarity. The actin level decreased in the CK666-treated group, and two or more nuclei were observed within a single cell, indicating a failure of cell division. Addition of CK666 at the 8-cell stage caused a failure of blastocyst formation, and CDX2 staining confirmed the loss of embryo polarity and the failure of trophectoderm and inner cell mass formation. Taken together, these data suggest that the Arp2/3 complex may regulate mouse embryo development via its effect on cell division.
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Treatment of hemimasticatory spasm with microvascular decompression.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Hemimasticatory spasm is a rare disorder characterized by paroxysmal involuntary contraction of the jaw-closing muscles. As the ideology and pathogenesis of the disease are still unclear, there has been no treatment that could give rise to a good outcome so far. Herein, we tried to use surgical management to cure the disease. Six patients with the disease were included in this study. These patients underwent microvascular decompression of the motor fibers of the trigeminal root. After the operation, all faces of the patients felt relaxed at varied degrees, except for 1 patient. Our study showed that microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve could lead to a better outcome. However, a control study with a large sample is needed before this technique is widely used.
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Triterpene saponins from Clematis mandshurica and their antiproliferative activity.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Six new triterpene saponins, clematomandshurica saponins F-K (1-6), together with a known compound (7), were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Clematis mandshurica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and hydrolysis. Compounds 5-7 exhibited antiproliferative effects against PC-3 human prostate cancer cells with GI50 values of 1.29, 1.50, and 0.71 µM, respectively.
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The rearrangement of filamentous actin in mossy fiber synapses in pentylenetetrazol-kindled C57BL/6 mice.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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Chemical kindling, as an experimental model of epileptogenesis, is induced by repetitive administration of subconvulsive amount of excitatory drugs. Kindled mice do not typically display spontaneous recurrent seizures, but are instead characterized by enhanced seizure susceptibility to convulsive stimulations. In order to provide insights into the aberrant synaptic plasticity during kindling, this study investigated the effect of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling on filamentous actin (F-actin) in mossy fiber synapses in C57BL/6 mice. Phalloidin labeling of F-actin showed that F-actin puncta were increased in number in the stratum lucidum of CA3 region in the hippocampus after kindling. The rearrangement of F-actin seemed to occur presynaptically, since synapsin I, a specific marker for mossy fiber terminals, was also up-regulated. Such subtle structural modifications occurring in the synapses are thought to contribute to the long-lasting increased sensitivity in the PTZ-kindled C57BL/6 mice.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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In this study, a series of fused-heterocyclic derivatives were systematically designed and synthesized using an efficient route, and evaluated in terms of GLP-1R agonist activity. We employed short synthetic steps and reactions that are tolerant of the presence of various functional groups and suitable for parallel operations to enable the rapid generation of libraries of diverse and structurally complex small molecules. Of the compounds synthesized, 3-(8-chloro-6-(trifluoromethyl)imidazo[1,2-a] pyridin-2-yl)phenyl methanesulfonate (8e) was the most potent agonist with an EC50 of 7.89 ?M, and thus is the compound with the greatest potential for application. These findings represent a valuable starting point for the design and discovery of small-molecule GLP-1R agonists that can be administered orally.
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Design, in vitro release characterization and pharmacokinetics of novel controlled release pellets containing levodropropizine.
Pharm Dev Technol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Abstract This study was performed to investigate the in vitro release characteristics of levodropropizine (LDP) from novel dual-coated sustained release (SR) pellets, and evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a novel controlled release (CR) preparation composed of the dual-coated SR pellets and immediate release (IR) LDP pellets. The dual-coated SR pellets composed of a drug-loaded nonpareil core, a sub-coating layer (HPMC 6cps) and an SR-coating layer (Aquacoat® ECD, Eudragit® RS 30D or Kollicoat® SR 30D) were prepared by a bottom-spray fluidized bed-coating method. The drug release from the dual-coated SR pellets coated with Aquacoat® ECD followed a zero-order profile in water, and the drug release was not affected by the coating level of the sub-coating layer and stable under the accelerated storage condition (40?°C, 75% RH) for 6 months. The CR preparation showed significantly decreased values of maximum drug concentration (Cmax) and elimination rate (K) than the reference product (LEVOTUS® SYR) but the similar bioavailability (F?=?95.43%). The novel CR preparation presents promising delivery of LDP with an immediate and sustained release manner, with similar clinical effect as the commercial IR product.
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Greatwall kinase is required for meiotic maturation in porcine oocytes.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Meiotic maturation in many species is initiated by the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) with concomitant inactivation of counteracting phosphatases, most notably protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Recently, Greatwall (GWL) has been identified as a cell cycle regulator that inhibits PP2A activity. In this study, we demonstrate that GWL is required for meiotic maturation in porcine oocytes. GWL expression increases from germinal vesicle (GV) to metaphase II (MII) stages of porcine oocytes and dramatically decreases with progression of the meiotic cell cycle. GWL is initially localized in the nucleus of GV oocytes and is associated with spindle fibers following GV breakdown. Depletion of GWL inhibited or delayed meiotic maturation secondary to defects in chromosome congression and spindle formation. Conversely, overexpression of GWL overcame meiotic arrest and initiated progression to MII stage. However, these oocytes had severe spindle defects. Furthermore, MII oocytes depleted of GWL progressed to pronuclear formation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that GWL is required not only for meiotic maturation but also for maintenance of MII arrest in porcine oocytes.
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Effect of disulphide bond position on salt resistance and LPS-neutralizing activity of ?-helical homo-dimeric model antimicrobial peptides.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2011
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To investigate the effects of disulphide bond position on the salt resistance and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-neutralizing activity of ?-helical homo-dimeric antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), we synthesized an ?-helical model peptide (K6L4W1) and its homo-dimeric peptides (di-K(6)L(4)W(1)-N, di-K(6)L(4)W(1)-M, and di-K(6)L(4)W(1)-C) with a disulphide bond at the N-terminus, the central position, and the C-terminus of the molecules, respectively. Unlike (6)L(4)W(1) and di-K(6)L(4)W(1)-M, the antimicrobial activity of di-K(6)L(4)W(1)-N and di-K(6)L(4)W(1)-C was unaffected by 150 mM NaCl. Both di-K(6)L(4)W(1)-N and di-K(6)L(4)W(1)-C caused much greater inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) release in LPS-induced mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, compared to di-K(6)L(4)W(1)-M. Taken together, our results indicate that the presence of a disulphide bond at the N- or C-terminus of the molecule, rather than at the central position, is more effective when designing salt-resistant ?-helical homo-dimeric AMPs with potent antimicrobial and LPS-neutralizing activities. [BMB reports 2011; 44(11): 747-752].
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Cat fertilization by mouse sperm injection.
Zygote
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Interspecies intracytoplasmic sperm injection has been carried out to understand species-specific differences in oocyte environments and sperm components during fertilization. While sperm aster organization during cat fertilization requires a paternally derived centriole, mouse and hamster fertilization occur within the maternal centrosomal components. To address the questions of where sperm aster assembly occurs and whether complete fertilization is achieved in cat oocytes by interspecies sperm, we studied the fertilization processes of cat oocytes following the injection of cat, mouse, or hamster sperm. Male and female pronuclear formations were not different in the cat oocytes at 6 h following cat, mouse or hamster sperm injection. Microtubule asters were seen in all oocytes following intracytoplasmic injection of cat, mouse or hamster sperm. Immunocytochemical staining with a histone H3-m2K9 antibody revealed that mouse sperm chromatin is incorporated normally with cat egg chromatin, and that the cat eggs fertilized with mouse sperm enter metaphase and become normal 2-cell stage embryos. These results suggest that sperm aster formation is maternally dependent, and that fertilization processes and cleavage occur in a non-species specific manner in cat oocytes.
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Substitution of the GalNAc-?-O-Thr¹¹ residue in drosocin with O-linked glyco-peptoid residue: effect on antibacterial activity and conformational change.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
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One of the obvious disadvantages of natural peptides is their liability to proteases. Among the several solutions for this issue, peptoids or oligomers of N-substituted glycine have emerged as a promising tool that may enhance the stability of proteolysis-susceptible natural peptides. We have synthesized the drosocin and its glyco-peptoid analogues linked O-GalNAc at the Thr(11) residue. One of our glyco-peptoid analogues showed an increased antibacterial activity by the modification of the Thr(11) residue with glyco-peptoid. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the antibacterial activity by glyco-peptoid drosocin requires three key elements: free hydroxyl group on the carbohydrate moiety, ?-methyl group of the Thr(11) residue derivative and (S)-configuration over (R)-configuration.
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WAVE2 regulates meiotic spindle stability, peripheral positioning and polar body emission in mouse oocytes.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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During oocyte meiotic maturation, meiotic spindles form in the central cytoplasm and then migrate to the cortex to extrude a small polar body, forming a highly polarized cell through a process involving actin and actin-related molecules. The mechanisms underlying oocyte polarization are still unclear. The Arp2/3 complex regulates oocyte polarization but it is not known whether the WASP family of proteins, a known regulator of the Arp2/3 complex, is involved in this context. In the present study, the role of WASP family member WAVE2 in mouse oocyte asymmetric division was investigated. (1) WAVE2 mRNA and protein were detected during mouse oocyte meiosis. (2) siRNA-mediated and antibody-mediated disruption of WAVE2 resulted in the failure of chromosome congression, spindle formation, spindle positioning and polar body extrusion. (3) WAVE2 regulated actin-driven chromosome migration since chromosomes were arrested in the central cytoplasm by WAVE2 RNAi in the absence of microtubules. (4) Localization of ?-tubulin and MAPK was disrupted after RNAi, confirming the effect of WAVE2 on spindle formation. (5) Actin cap and cortical granule-free domain (CGFD) formation was also disrupted, further confirming the failure of oocyte polarization. Our data suggest that WAVE2 regulates oocyte polarization by regulating meiotic spindle, peripheral positioning, probably via an actin-mediated pathway, and is involved in polar body emission during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.
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Ndc80 regulates meiotic spindle organization, chromosome alignment, and cell cycle progression in mouse oocytes.
Microsc. Microanal.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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Ndc80 (called Hec1 in human), the core component of the Ndc80 complex, is involved in regulation of both kinetochore-microtubule interactions and the spindle assembly checkpoint in mitosis; however, its role in meiosis remains unclear. Here, we report Ndc80 expression, localization, and possible functions in mouse oocyte meiosis. Ndc80 mRNA levels gradually increased during meiosis. Immunofluorescent staining showed that Ndc80 was restricted to the germinal vesicle and associated with spindle microtubules from the Pro-MI to MII stages. Ndc80 was localized on microtubules and asters in the cytoplasm after taxol treatment, while Ndc80 staining was diffuse after disruption of microtubules by nocodazole treatment, confirming its microtubule localization. Disruption of Ndc80 function by either siRNA injection or antibody injection resulted in severe chromosome misalignment, spindle disruption, and precocious polar body extrusion. Our data show a unique localization pattern of Ndc80 in mouse oocytes and suggest that Ndc80 may be required for chromosome alignment and spindle organization, and may regulate spindle checkpoint activity during mouse oocyte meiosis.
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Metformin attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy via AMPK activation.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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To identify the role of metformin in cardiac hypertrophy and investigate the possible mechanism underlying this effect.
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Antimicrobial activity, bactericidal mechanism and LPS-neutralizing activity of the cell-penetrating peptide pVEC and its analogs.
J. Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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pVEC is a cell-penetrating peptide derived from the murine vascular endothelial-cadherin protein. To evaluate the potential of pVEC as antimicrobial peptide (AMP), we synthesized pVEC and its analogs with Trp and Arg/Lys substitution, and their antimicrobial and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-neutralizing activities were investigated. pVEC and its analogs displayed a potent antimicrobial activity (minimal inhibitory concentration: 4-16??M) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but no or less hemolytic activity (less than 10% hemolysis) even at a concentration of 200??M. These peptides induced a near-complete membrane depolarization (more than 80%) at 4??M against Staphylococcus aureus and a significant dye leakage (35-70%) from bacterial membrane-mimicking liposome at a concentration as low as 1??M. The fluorescence profiles of pVEC and its analogs in dye leakage from liposome and membrane depolarization were similar to those of a frog-derived AMP, magainin 2. These results suggest that pVEC and its analogs kill bacteria by forming a pore or ion channel in the cytoplasmic membrane. pVEC and its analogs significantly inhibited nitric oxide production or tumor necrosis factor-? release in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells at 10 to 50??M, in which RAW264.7 were not damaged. Taken together, our results suggest that pVEC and its analogs with potent antimicrobial and LPS-neutralizing activities can serve as AMPs for the treatment of microbial infection and sepsis.
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Trichostatin A modulates apoptotic-related gene expression and improves embryo viability in cloned bovine embryos.
Cell Reprogram
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2011
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Low efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is attributed to incomplete reprogramming of transferred nuclei into oocytes. Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been used to enhance nuclear reprogramming following SCNT. However, the molecular mechanism of TSA for the improvement of the preimplantation embryo and fetal development following SCNT is not known. The present study investigates embryo viability and gene expression of cloned bovine preimplantation embryos in the presence and absence of TSA compared to embryos produced by in vitro fertilization or parthenogenetic activation. Our results indicated that TSA treatment significantly improved total and inner cell mass (ICM) cell number and ratio of ICM:trophectoderm (TE) and also decreased the apoptotic index including total, ICM, and ratio of ICM:TE. Four apoptotic-related genes, Bcl-xL, survivin, Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax), and caspase 3 (Casp3), and four pluripotency/differentiation related genes, Oct4, SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (Sox2), Cdx2, and colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (Csf1r), were measured by real-time RT-PCR. TSA treatment resulted in the high expression of antiapoptotic gene Bcl-xL and low expression of pro-apoptotic gene Bax compared to untreated NT embryos, fertilized embryos, or parthenotes. Furthermore, mRNA expression of Cdx2 was higher in NT-TSA embryos than in NT and in vitro fertilization (IVF) counterparts. Additionally, low expression of microRNA (mir)-21 in NT embryos was enhanced following TSA treatment. These results suggest that TSA positively regulates nuclear reprogramming, and TSA may increased resistance or reduced signal for induction of apoptosis.
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Modulation of autophagy influences development and apoptosis in mouse embryos developing in vitro.
Mol. Reprod. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Autophagyis, the bulk degradation of proteins and organelles, is essential for cellular maintenance, cell viability, and development, and is often involved in type II programmed cell death in mammals. This study investigated the expression levels of autophagy-related genes and the effect of 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor) or rapamycin (an autophagy inducer) on the in vitro development and apoptosis of mouse embryos. LC3, which is essential for the formation of autophagosomes, was widely expressed in mouse embryos, and high levels of transcript were present from 1 to 4 cells but gradually decreased through the morula and blastocyst stages. 3-MA-treated embryos exhibited significantly reduced developmental rates and total cell numbers, but increased rates of apoptosis. Furthermore, both the expression of Lc3, Gabarap, Atg4A, and Atg4B, and the synthesis of LC3 were significantly reduced at the blastocyst stage. Although rapamycin treatment did not affect developmental rates, cell numbers decreased, and the apoptosis rate increased. Expression of Lc3, Gabarap, Atg4A, and Atg4B, and synthesis of LC3 increased as well. Modulation of Lc3 mRNA and LC3 protein levels using 3-MA or rapamycin significantly increased apoptotic cell death through the disruption of mitochondrial morphology and reduction of mtDNA copy number at the blastocyst stage. Interestingly, the inner cell mass, detected by immunostaining with POU5F1 (OCT3/4) after 3-MA or rapamycin treatment of embryos, was significantly increased compared to controls. These results suggest that autophagy influences developmental patterning and apoptosis, and may play a role in early mouse embryogenesis.
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Arp2/3 complex regulates asymmetric division and cytokinesis in mouse oocytes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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Mammalian oocyte meiotic maturation involves oocyte polarization and a unique asymmetric division, but until now, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. Arp2/3 complex has been shown to regulate actin nucleation and is widely involved in a diverse range of processes such as cell locomotion, phagocytosis and the establishment of cell polarity. Whether Arp2/3 complex participates in oocyte polarization and asymmetric division is unknown. The present study investigated the expression and functions of Arp2/3 complex during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Immunofluorescent staining showed that the Arp2/3 complex was restricted to the cortex, with a thickened cap above the meiotic apparatus, and that this localization pattern was depended on actin. Disruption of Arp2/3 complex by a newly-found specific inhibitor CK666, as well as by Arpc2 and Arpc3 RNAi, resulted in a range of effects. These included the failure of asymmetric division, spindle migration, and the formation and completion of oocyte cytokinesis. The formation of the actin cap and cortical granule-free domain (CGFD) was also disrupted, which further confirmed the disruption of spindle migration. Our data suggest that the Arp2/3 complex probably regulates oocyte polarization through its effect on spindle migration, asymmetric division and cytokinesis during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.
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Cell selectivity, mechanism of action and LPS-neutralizing activity of bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-18 (BMAP-18) and its analogs.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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To develop novel antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with improved cell selectivity and potent LPS-neutralizing activity, we synthesized an 18 N-terminal residues peptide (BAMP-18) of bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-27 (BMAP-27) and its analogs (BMAP-18-W, BMAP-18-L, BMAP-18-I and BMAP-18-f). BMAP-18 and its analogs displayed much higher cell selectivity (about 4-97-fold increased) as compared to parental BMAP-27 because of their decreased hemolytic activity and retained antimicrobial activity. BMAP-27 caused near-complete dye leakage from bacterial-membrane-mimicking vesicles even at very low concentration of 0.5?M, whereas BMAP-18 and its analogs induced very little dye leakage (less than 40%) even at 16?M. These peptides induced near-complete membrane depolarization of Staphylococcus aureus cells under their MIC (4?M). These results suggests that BMAP-18 and its analogs exhibit lethality toward microbes due to their ability to form small channels that permit the transit of ions or protons, but not molecules as large as calcein, and not by the membrane-disruption/perturbation mode. BMAP-18 and its analogs significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production or tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) release in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells at 10?M. In particular, BMAP-18-W showed LPS-neutralizing activity comparable to that of BMAP-27. There was a significant linear correlation between the increase in the hydrophobicity of peptides and LPS-neutralizing activity. Although BMAP-18-W has lower hydrophobicity than BMAP-18-L, it showed higher LPS-neutralizing activity as compared to BMAP-18-L. This result suggests other important parameters of AMPs may be involved in their LPS-neutralizing activity, as well as positive charge and hydrophobicity.
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The thin line between cell-penetrating and antimicrobial peptides: the case of Pep-1 and Pep-1-K.
J. Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are cationic oligopeptides able to translocate across biological membranes without perturbing them, while antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) kill bacteria mainly by disrupting their membranes. The two peptide classes share several characteristics (charge, amphipathicity, helicity, and length), and therefore the molecular properties discriminating between the two different bioactivities are not clear. Pep-1-K (KKTWWKTWWTKWSQPKKKRKV) is a new AMP derived from the widely studied CPP Pep-1 (KETWWETWWTEWSQPKKKRKV), or Chariot, known for its ability to carry large cargoes across biological membranes. Pep-1-K was obtained from Pep-1 by substituting the three Glu residues with Lys, to increase its cationic character. Previous studies showed that these modifications endow Pep-1-K with a potent antimicrobial activity, with MICs in the low micromolar range. Here, we characterized the interaction of Pep-1 and Pep-1-K with model membranes to understand the reason for the antimicrobial activity of Pep-1-K. The data show that this peptide causes vesicle aggregation, perturbs membrane order, and induces the leakage of ions, but not of larger solutes, while these effects were not observed for Pep-1. These differences are likely due, at least in part, to the higher affinity of Pep-1-K toward anionic bilayers, which mimick the composition of bacterial membranes.
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Cross species fertilization and development investigated by cat sperm injection into mouse oocytes.
J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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The use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in model animals is a powerful approach for the study of species-specific fertilization processes and multiploidy embryogenesis. In this study, we examined the fertilization process in mouse oocytes following injection of a single mouse or cat sperm, two mouse spermatozoa or mouse and cat spermatozoa. These treatments did not affect histone H3K9 acetylation or methylation, although the pattern of DNA methylation differed following the injection of cat sperm. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that sperm chromatin was normally incorporated with female mouse chromatin following any of the four injection scenarios. Furthermore, metaphase was successfully entered to reach a normal two-cell stage, and cell division could even persist to produce blastocyst stage embryos. In addition, both mouse and cat Pou5l and Nanog mRNA were expressed in the hybrid embryos. These results suggest that, although epigenetic modification of DNA is affected by the sperm injection treatment, fertilization and cleavage occur in a non-species-specific manner. In addition, despite abnormal division of the chromosomes, intra- and inter-species ICSI produced embryos that could develop into blastocysts.
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Perturbation of Spc25 expression affects meiotic spindle organization, chromosome alignment and spindle assembly checkpoint in mouse oocytes.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2010
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Spc25 is a component of the Ndc80 complex which consists of Ndc80, Nuf2, Spc24, and Spc25. Previous work has shown that Spc25 is involved in regulation of kinetochore microtubule attachment and the spindle assembly checkpoint in mitosis. The roles of Spc25 in meiosis remain unknown. Here, we report its expression, localization and functions in mouse oocyte meiosis. The Spc25 mRNA level gradually increased from the GV to MI stage, but decreased by MII during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Immunofluorescent staining showed that Spc25 was restricted to the germinal vesicle, and associated with chromosomes during all stages after GVBD. Overexpression of Spc25 by mRNA injection resulted in oocyte meiotic arrest, chromosome misalignment and spindle disruption. Conversely, Spc25 RNAi by siRNA injection resulted in precocious polar body extrusion and caused severe chromosome misalignment and aberrant spindle formation. Our data suggest that Spc25 is required for chromosome alignment, spindle formation, and proper spindle checkpoint signaling during meiosis.
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Mitochondrial dysfunction influences apoptosis and autophagy in porcine parthenotes developing in vitro.
J. Reprod. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2010
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Mitochondria are important regulators of both apoptosis and autophagy. One of the triggers for mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which include hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite. Recently, several studies have indicated that ROS may also be involved in the induction of autophagy. In the present study, we used H(2)O(2) to induce mitochondrial stress, examined apoptotic- and autophagic-related gene expression and observed LC3 protein (autophagosome presence marker) expression in porcine parthenotes developing in vitro. In porcine four-cell parthenotes cultured for 5 days in NCSU37 medium containing 0.4% BSA, the developmental rate and mitochondrial distribution did not differ from that of the group supplemented with 100 µM H(2)O(2) but was significantly decreased in the group supplemented with 500 µM H(2)O(2) (P<0.05). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that whereas normal shaped mitochondria were observed in blastocysts from the control group, abnormal mitochondria (mitophagy) and autophagic vacuoles were observed in blastocysts from the group that received 500 µM H(2)O(2). Furthermore, addition of H(2)O(2) (100 µM and 500 µM) decreased cell numbers (P<0.05) and increased both apoptosis (P<0.05) and LC3 protein expression in the blastocysts. Real-time RT-PCR showed that H(2)O(2) significantly decreased mRNA expression of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xL but increased pro-apoptotic genes, Caspase 3 (Casp3) and Bak, and autophagy-related genes, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (Map1lc3b) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp2). However, the addition of H(2)O(2) had no effect on mRNA expression levels in nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial-related genes, cytochrome oxidase (Cox) 5a, Cox5b and Cox6b1, in blastocysts. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) leads to mitochondrial dysfunction that results in apoptosis and autophagy, which is possibly related to porcine early embryo development.
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[Gene transfer system mediated by PEI-cholesterol lipopolymer with lipid microbubbles].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
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The properties of polyethyleneimine-cholesterol cationic lipopolymer (PEI-Chol) as gene carries and its gene transfer efficiency in vitro with lipid microbubbles were presented in this paper. PEI-Chol lipopolymer was synthesized by linking cholesterol chloroformate to the amino groups of branched poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) of 1 800. The structure and molecular weight of PEI-Chol were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and MADI-TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry), respectively. The average molecular weight of PEI-Chol was approximately 2 000. The gene delivery system of bubble/PEI-Chol/DNA was constructed by mixed PEI-Chol/pDNA (N/P 10:1) complexes with lipid microbubbles (2-8 microm) which were prepared by DPPC, DSPE-PEG2000 and perfluoropropane with the reverse phase evaporation technique. pEGFP-Cl (enhanced green fluorescent protein) was used as report gene to investigate the DNA condensing ability of PEI-Chol lipopolymer by agarose gel electrophoresis. And their cytotoxicity and in vitro transfer efficiency of different complexes were compared with each other in A549 and MCF-7. The results indicated PEI-Chol lipopolymer can condense plasmid DNA when N/P ratio upto 4, PEI-Chol complexes and bubble/PEI-Chol/DNA complexes were nontoxic to A549 and MCF-7 when formulated at the N/P ratio of 10/1 as determined by MTT assay. This bubble/PEI-Chol/DNA delivery system provided good transfer efficiency with other desirable characteristics such as against-precipitation of plasma proteins. In conclusion, bubble/PEI-Chol/DNA complex is a novel non-viral gene delivery system.
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[Preparation of self-emulsifying soft capsule and its pharmacokinetic in rats for epimedium flavonoids].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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To study the formulation optimization of epimedium flavonoids self-emulsifying drug delivery system and evaluate its effect in vitro and in vivo.
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[Optimization of extraction technics of total saponins from Pulsatilla cernua].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
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The extraction condition of total saponins from Pulsatilla cenua by ultrasonic wave was optimized by single factor and orthogonal experiments.
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Regulation of maternal gene expression by MEK/MAPK and MPF signaling in porcine oocytes during in vitro meiotic maturation.
J. Reprod. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and maturation/M phase promoting factor (MPF) play crucial roles in oocyte meiotic maturation in mammals. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been addressed. In this study, the effects of the MEK/MAPK pathway inhibitor U0126 and the MPF inhibitor roscovitine on meiotic maturation and maternal gene expression in pig cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and denuded oocytes (DOs) were investigated. Both inhibitors can reversibly block the resumption of meiosis in pig oocytes. COCs or DOs initially cultured in drug-free medium for 24 h and then transferred to medium containing U0126 showed normal progress to the Metaphase II stage (MII); (90.38 vs. 92.16% control group). In contrast, roscovitine treatment from 24 to 44 h significantly inhibited maturation of COCs and DOs. To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, expression patterns and polyadenylation states of five representative maternal transcripts, cyclin B1, Cdc2, C-mos, GDF9 and BMP15, were examined by real-time PCR and poly(A)-test PCR (PAT assay). U0126 treatment resulted in aberrant expression of Cdc2 and GDF9, while roscovitine significantly maintained all five maternal transcripts at very high levels in treated COCs compared with the control group. The polyadenylation of these mRNAs increased as well. Furthermore, the experiments were repeated in DOs, and the results also indicated that both Cdc2 and GDF9 showed significantly higher expression in both mRNA and polyadenylation levels in the drug treatment groups. Together, these results provide the first demonstration in a mammalian system that MAPK and MPF play important roles in regulation of maternal gene expression during oocyte maturation.
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Magnolol Inhibits LPS-induced NF-?B/Rel Activation by Blocking p38 Kinase in Murine Macrophages.
Korean J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
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This study demonstrates the ability of magnolol, a hydroxylated biphenyl compound isolated from Magnolia officinalis, to inhibit LPS-induced expression of iNOS gene and activation of NF-?B/Rel in RAW 264.7 cells. Immunohisto-chemical staining of iNOS and Western blot analysis showed magnolol to inhibit iNOS gene expression. Reporter gene assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that magnolol inhibited NF-?B/Rel transcriptional activation and DNA binding, respectively. Since p38 is important in the regulation of iNOS gene expression, we investigated the possibility that magnolol to target p38 for its anti-inflammatory effects. A molecular modeling study proposed a binding position for magnolol that targets the ATP binding site of p38 kinase (3GC7). Direct interaction of magnolol and p38 was further confirmed by pull down assay using magnolol conjugated to Sepharose 4B beads. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203580 abrogated the LPS-induced NF-?B/Rel activation, whereas the selective MEK-1 inhibitor PD98059 did not affect the NF-?B/Rel. Collectively, the results of the series of experiments indicate that magnolol inhibits iNOS gene expression by blocking NF-?B/Rel and p38 kinase signaling.
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DNA synthesis and epigenetic modification during mouse oocyte fertilization by human or hamster sperm injection.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2010
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To evaluate DNA synthesis and epigenetic modification in mouse oocytes during the first cell cycle following the injection of human or hamster sperm.
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Candidacidal mechanism of a Leu/Lys-rich ?-helical amphipathic model antimicrobial peptide and its diastereomer composed of D,L-amino acids.
J. Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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We investigated the mechanism of candidacidal action of a Lys/Leu-rich ?-helical model antimicrobial peptide (K(9)L(8)W) and its diastereomeric peptide (D(9)-K(9)L(8)W) composed of D,L-amino acids. K(9)L(8)W killed completely Candida albicans within 30 min, but D(9)-K(9)L(8)W killed only 72% of C. albicans even after 100 min. Tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the fungal cell selectivity of D(9)-K(9)L(8)W is closely correlated with a selective interaction with the negatively charged PC/PE/PI/ergosterol (5:2.5:2.5:1, w/w/w/w) phospholipids, which mimic the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of C. albicans. K(9)L(8)W was able to induce almost 100% calcein leakage from PC/PE/PI/ergosterol (5:2.5:2.5:1, w/w/w/w) liposomes at a peptide:lipid molar ratio of 1:16, whereas D(9)-K(9)L(8)W caused only 25% dye leakage even at a peptide:lipid molar ratio of 1:2. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy revealed that FITC-labeled D(9)-K(9)L(8)W penetrated the cell wall and cell membrane and accumulated inside the cells, whereas FITC-labeled K(9)L(8)W did not penetrate but associated with the membranes. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the candidacidal activity of K(9)L(8) W and D(9)-K(9)L(8)W may be due to the transmembrane pore/channel formation or perturbation of the fungal cytoplasmic membranes and the inhibition of intracellular functions, respectively. Finally, D(9)-K(9)L(8)W with potent anti-Candida activity but no hemolytic activity may be potentially a useful lead compound for the development of novel antifungal agents.
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Mammalian cell toxicity and candidacidal mechanism of Arg- or Lys-containing Trp-rich model antimicrobial peptides and their d-enantiomeric peptides.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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In this study, we investigated the mammalian cell toxicity and candidacidal mechanism of Arg- or Lys-containing Trp-rich model antimicrobial peptides (K(6)L(2)W(3) and R(6)L(2)W(3)) and their d-enantiomeric peptides (K(6)L(2)W(3)-d and R(6)L(2)W(3)-d). Arg-containing peptides were more toxic to human erythrocytes and mammalian cells as compared to Lys-containing peptides. Arg-containing peptides is slightly more hydrophobic than Lys-containing counterparts, as judged from their reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) retention time. These results suggested that a little difference in hydrophobicity of these peptides affect their hemolytic activity and mammalian cell toxicity. Interestingly, K(6)L(2)W(3) and K(6)L(2)W(3)-d almost similar mammalian cell cytotoxicity, whereas R(6)L(2)W(3)-d showed much higher cytotoxicity as compared to R(6)L(2)W(3). A low ability to facilitate fluorescent marker escape from Candida albicans membrane-mimicking vesicles suggested that the major target site of Lys-containing peptides may be not the cell membrane but the cytoplasm of C. albicans. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy revealed that FITC-labeled Lys-containing peptides penetrated the cell wall and cell membrane and accumulated inside the cells, whereas FITC-labeled Arg-containing peptides did not penetrate but associated with the membranes. Collectively, our results suggested that the ultimate target site of action of Arg-containing peptides and Lys-containing peptides may be the membrane and the cytoplasm of C. albicans, respectively.
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Enhancement of the sensitivity of renal cell carcinoma cells to fas-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis by the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor JTE-522.
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme involved in the production of prostaglandins and its inhibitors have been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. We reasoned that combination treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells with COX-2 inhibitors and anticancer agents may result in synergistic apoptosis. We examined whether the selective COX-2 inhibitor JTE-522 synergizes with anticancer agents in cytotoxicity and apoptosis against RCC cells.
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Structural flexibility and the positive charges are the key factors in bacterial cell selectivity and membrane penetration of peptoid-substituted analog of Piscidin 1.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Piscidin 1 (Pis-1) is a novel cytotoxic peptide with a cationic alpha-helical structure isolated from the mast cells of hybrid striped bass. In our previous study, we showed that Pis-1[PG] with a substitution of Pro(8) for Gly(8) in Pis-1 had higher bacterial cell selectivity than Pis-1. We designed peptoid residue-substituted peptide, Pis-1[NkG], in which Gly(8) of Pis-1 was replaced with Nlys (Lys peptoid residue). Pis-1[NkG] had higher antibacterial activity and lower cytotoxicity against mammalian cells than Pis-1 and Pis-1[PG]. We determined the tertiary structure of Pis-1[PG] and Pis-1[NkG] in the presence of DPC micelles by NMR spectroscopy. Both peptides had a three-turn helix in the C-terminal region and a bent structure in the center. Pis-1[PG] has a rigid bent structure at Pro(8) whereas Pis-1[NkG] existed as a dynamic equilibrium of two conformers with a flexible hinge structure at Nlys(8). Depolarization of the membrane potential of Staphylococcus aureus and confocal laser-scanning microscopy study revealed that Pis-1[NkG] effectively penetrated the bacterial cell membrane and accumulated in the cytoplasm, whereas Pis-1[PG] did not penetrate the membrane but remained outside or on the cell surface. Introduction of a lysine peptoid at position 8 of Pis-1 provided conformational flexibility and increased the positive charge at the hinge region; both factors facilitated penetration of the bacterial cell membrane and conferred bacterial cell selectivity on Pis-1[NkG].
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Cell selectivity and anti-inflammatory activity of a Leu/Lys-rich alpha-helical model antimicrobial peptide and its diastereomeric peptides.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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To investigate the effect of the number and distribution of d-amino acids introduced into non-cell-selective alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides on the cell selectivity, protease stability and anti-inflammatory activity, we synthesized an 18-meric Leu/Lys-rich alpha-helical model peptide (K(9)L(8)W) and d-amino acid-containing diastereomeric peptides. Increasing in cell selectivity of the peptides was increased in parallel with increasing in the number of d-amino acids introduced. Despite having the same number of d-amino acids, D(9)-K(9)L(8)W-1 had better cell selectivity than D(9)-K(9)L(8)W-2, indicating that a dispersed distribution of d-amino acids in diastereomeric peptides is more effective for cell selectivity than their segregated distribution. D(3)-K(9)L(8)W-2, D(6)-K(9)L(8)W, D(9)-K(9)L(8)W-1 and D(9)-K(9)L(8)W-2 showed complete resistance to tryptic digestion. Furthermore, K(9)L(8)W and all of its diastereomeric peptides significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells at a lower concentration than bactericidal concentration. The order of anti-inflammatory activity for the peptides was K(9)L(8)W approximately D(3)-K(9)L(8)W-1 approximately D(3)-K(9)L(8)W-2 approximately D(6)-K(9)L(8)W approximately D(9)-K(9)L(8)W-2>D(4)-K(9)L(8)W>D(9)-K(9)L(8)W-1. Increasing in hydrophobicity or alpha-helicity of the peptides was more closely correlated with increasing in hemolytic activity and anti-inflammatory activity than antimicrobial and LPS-disaggregation activities. Collectively, we successfully developed several d-amino acid-containing antimicrobial peptides (D(4)-K(9)L(8)W, D(6)-K(9)L(8)W and D(9)-K(9)L(8)W-1) with good cell selectivity, protease stability and potent anti-inflammatory activity. These antimicrobial peptides could serve as templates for the development of peptide antibiotics for the treatment of sepsis, as well as microbial infection.
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[Effects of Tankejing dry powder inhaler on the inflammatory damage in the lungs of mice infected by FM1].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2009
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To study the effect of Tankejing Dry Powder inhaler on inflammatory in lung injury of mice infected by influenza virus (FM1).
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[Anti-viral effects of Tankejing preparations against influenza virus A].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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To investigate the anti-viral effects of Tankejing preparations (including solutions, dry power inhalation and powder) against influenza virus A in vitro and the relationship between its anti-viral effect and preparations.
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Heterogeneous expression of the voltage-gated calcium channel alpha2 subunit and the voltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunit in chicken spinal motoneurons.
Biomed. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2009
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The localization of the voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) alpha2 and the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) alpha subunits was immunohistochemically investigated in chicken spinal motoneurons. Approximately 83% and 46% of spinal motoneurons were positive for VGCCalpha2 and VGSCalpha subunits, respectively. Almost all VGSCalpha subunit-positive motoneurons exhibited the VGCCalpha2 subunit immunoreactivity. There were different patterns in occurrence, intensity or nuclear/cytoplasmic stainability of the VGCCalpha2 and VGSCalpha subunits among the motoneurons. This study presents the first cellular morphological evidence for the VGCCalpha2 and VGSCalpha subunits in spinal motoneurons, postulating that the heterogeneous expression of VGCCalpha2 and VGSCalpha subunits in the motoneurons may reflect various motor activities.
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[Effect of different ways of insulin infusion in parenteral nutrition patients on activation and concentration of insulin and blood glucose control:a prospective randomized comparison study].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2009
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To compare activation and concentration of insulin, and blood glucose control in patients between insulin added into "all in one" bags and syringes at parenteral nutrition (PN).
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Cell specificity, anti-inflammatory activity, and plausible bactericidal mechanism of designed Trp-rich model antimicrobial peptides.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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To develop novel short Trp-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with potent cell specificity (targeting bacteria but not eukaryotic cells) and anti-inflammatory activity, a series of 11-meric Trp-rich model peptides with different ratios of Leu and Lys/Arg residues, XXWXXWXXWXX-NH(2) (X indicates Leu or Lys/Arg), was synthesized. K(6)L(2)W(3) displayed an approximately 40-fold increase in cell specificity, compared with the natural Trp-rich AMP indolicidin (IN). Lys-containing peptides (K(8)W(3), K(7)LW(3) and K(6)L(2)W(3)) showed approximately 2- to 4-fold higher cell specificities than did their counterparts, the Arg-containing peptides (R(8)W(3), R(7)LW(3) and R(6)L(2)W(3)), indicating that multiple Lys residues are more important than multiple Arg residues in the design of AMPs with good cell specificity. The excellent resistance of d-enantiomers (K(6)L(2)W(3)-D and R(6)L(2)W(3)-D) and Orn/Nle-containing peptides (O(6)L(2)W(3) and O(6)L(2)W(3)) to trypsin digestion compared with the rapid breakdown of the l-enantiomers (K(6)L(2)W(3) and R(6)L(2)W(3)), highlights the clinical potential of such peptides. K(6)L(2)W(3), R(6)L(2)W(3), K(6)L(2)W(3)-D and R(6)L(2)W(3)-D caused weak dye leakage from bacterial membrane-mimicking negatively charged EYPG/EYPE (7:3, v/v) liposomes. Confocal microscopy showed that these peptides penetrated the cell membrane of Escherichia coli and accumulated in the cytoplasm, as observed for buforin-2. Gel retardation studies revealed that the peptides bound more strongly to DNA than did IN. These results suggested that one possible peptide bactericidal mechanism may relate to the inhibition of intracellular functions via interference with DNA/RNA synthesis. Furthermore, some model peptides, containing K(6)L(2)W(3), K(5)L(3)W(3), R(6)L(2)W(3), O(6)L(2)W(3), O(6)L(2)W(3), and K(6)L(2)W(3)-D inhibited LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression, the release of nitric oxide (NO) following LPS stimulation in RAW264.7 cells and had powerful LPS binding activities at bactericidal concentrations. Collectively, our results indicated that these peptides have potential for future development as novel antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents.
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Design of novel indolicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides with enhanced cell specificity and potent anti-inflammatory activity.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
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Indolicidin (IN) is a 13-residue Trp-rich antimicrobial peptide isolated from bovine neutrophils. To develop novel IN-derived antimicrobial peptides with enhanced cell specificity (therapeutic index) and potent anti-inflammatory activity, several IN analogs were synthesized by Pro-->Lys substitution. All IN analogs displayed an increase in therapeutic index by 3- to 15-fold relative to parental IN. IN and its analogs induced a significant membrane depolarization against intact Staphylococcus aureus in a dose-dependent manner and depolarized membrane potential at 5 microg/ml (MIC for S. aureus) almost completely. However, these peptides caused less than 40% calcein leakage from negatively charged EYPG/EYPE liposomes mimicking bacterial membranes at 10 microg/ml. Based on these results, we hypothesize that IN and its analogs kill microorganisms via the formation of small ion channels that permit transit of ions or protons, but not molecules as large as calcein. Furthermore, IN and its analogs induced a remarkable suppression in nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. All IN analogs showed LPS-binding activity comparable to that of IN. Taken together, their potent antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and LPS-neutralizing activities similar to those of IN, coupled with their no cytotoxicity, our designed IN analogs make excellent candidates for novel antimicrobial and anti-sepsis agents.
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Investigating the effects of positive charge and hydrophobicity on the cell selectivity, mechanism of action and anti-inflammatory activity of a Trp-rich antimicrobial peptide indolicidin.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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To investigate the effects of positive charge and hydrophobicity on the cell selectivity, mechanism of action and anti-inflammatory activity of a Trp-rich antimicrobial peptide indolicidin (IN), a series of IN analogs with Trp-->Lys substitution were synthesized. All IN analogs displayed an approximately 7- to 18-fold higher cell selectivity, compared with IN. IN, IN-1 and IN-2 depolarized (50-90%) the cytoplasmic membrane potential of Staphylococcus aureus close to minimal inhibitory concentration (5-10 microg mL(-1)). However, other IN analogs (IN-3 and IN-4) displayed very low ability in membrane depolarization even at 40 microg mL(-1). Confocal laser-scanning microscopy revealed that IN-3 and IN-4 penetrated the Escherichia coli cell membrane, whereas IN, IN-1 and IN-2 did not enter the cell membrane. In the gel retardation assay, IN-3 and IN-4 bound more strongly to DNA compared with IN, IN-1 and IN-2. These findings suggest that the mechanism of antimicrobial action of IN-3 and IN-4 may be involved in the inhibition of intracellular functions via interference with DNA/RNA synthesis. Unlike IN, all IN analogs did not inhibit nitric oxide production or inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells, indicating that the hydrophobicity of IN is more important for anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophage cells than the positive charge.
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Poly[[di-mu-aqua-tetraaquadi-mu-hydroxido-bis(mu3-3-nitrophthalato)tricopper(II)] dihydrate].
Acta Crystallogr C
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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The novel title complex, {[Cu(3)(C(8)H(3)NO(6))(2)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(6)].2H(2)O}(n), has a one-dimensional polymeric double chain structure where the three Cu atoms are linked by mu(2)-OH and mu(2)-H(2)O groups, and these trinuclear centres are bridged by two 3-nitrophthalate ligands. The asymmetric unit contains one and a half crystallographically independent Cu atoms (one lying on a centre of inversion), both coordinated by six O atoms and exhibiting distorted octahedral coordination geometries, but with different coordination environments. Each 3-nitrophthalate ligand connects to three Cu atoms through two O atoms of one carboxylate group and one O atom of the nitro group. The remaining carboxylate group is free and is involved in intrachain hydrogen bonds, reinforcing the chain linkage.
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Production of transgenic Korean native cattle expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein using a FIV-based lentiviral vector injected into MII oocytes.
J Genet Genomics
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The potential benefits of generating and using transgenic cattle range from improvements in agriculture to the production of large quantities of pharmaceutically relevant proteins. Previous studies have attempted to produce transgenic cattle and other livestock by pronuclear injection and somatic cell nuclear transfer, but these approaches have been largely ineffective; however, a third approach, lentivirus-mediated transgenesis, has successfully produced transgenic livestock. In this study, we generated transgenic (TG) Korean native cattle using perivitelline space injection of viral vectors, which expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) systemically. Two different types of lentiviral vectors derived from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) carrying EGFP were injected into the perivitelline space of MII oocytes. EGFP expression at 8-cell stage was significantly higher in the FIV group compared to the HIV group (47.5%±2.2% v.s. 22.9%±2.9%). Eight-cell embryos that expressed EGFP were cultured into blastocysts and then transferred into 40 heifers. Ten heifers were successfully impregnated and delivered 10 healthy calves. All of these calves expressed EGFP as detected by in vivo imaging, PCR and Southern blotting. In addition, we established an EGFP-expressing cell line from TG calves, which was followed by nuclear transfer (NT). Recloned 8-cell embryos also expressed EGFP, and there were no differences in the rates of fusion, cleavage and development between cells derived from TG and non-TG calves, which were subsequently used for NT. These results illustrate that FIV-based lentiviruses are useful for the production of TG cattle. Moreover, our established EGFP cell line can be used for additional studies that involve induced pluripotent stem cells.
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Linear bactenecin analogs with cell selectivity and anti-endotoxic activity.
J. Pept. Sci.
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Bactenecin (Bac) is a 12-residue disulfide-linked antimicrobial peptide isolated from the granules of bovine neutrophils. In this study, to develop novel linear Bac analogs with cell selectivity and anti-endotoxic activity, we designed and synthesized a series of linear Bac analogs with amino acid substitution in Cys(3,11) and/or Val(6,7) of Bac. Among Bac analogs, some analogs (Bac-W, Bac-KW, Bac-L, Bac-KL, Bac-LW, and Bac-KLW) with higher hydrophobicity showed the amalgamated property of cell selectivity and anti-endotoxic activity. Furthermore, Bac-W, Bac-KW, Bac-LW, and Bac-KLW showed serum stability comparable with that of disulfide-bonded Bac. Therefore, these Bac analogs (Bac-W, Bac-KW, Bac-LW, and Bac-KLW) can serve as promising antibiotics for the development of therapeutic agents for treatment against endotoxic shock and bacterial infection. In addition, our results suggest that a little increase in hydrophobicity may be responsible for the decreased cell selectivity of the multiple Arg-containing peptides (Bac-W, Bac-L, and Bac-LW) over the multiple Lys-containing peptides (Bac-KW, Bac-KL, and Bac-KLW). Copyright © 2012 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Association between laminin ?1 expression and meningioma grade, recurrence, and progression-free survival.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
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Laminins are central components of basement membranes and play important roles in cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. However, the role of laminins in tumor progression has not been thoroughly investigated in meningiomas.
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Electrospun drug-loaded core-sheath PVP/zein nanofibers for biphasic drug release.
Int J Pharm
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Core-sheath nanofibers prepared using coaxial electrospinning were investigated for providing biphasic drug release profiles. With ketoprofen (KET) as the model drug, polyvinylpyrrolidone and zein as the sheath polymer and core matrix, respectively, the coaxial process could be carried out smoothly and continuously without any clogging of the spinneret. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations demonstrated that the nanofibers were linear with homogeneous structure and had a clear core-sheath structure with an average diameter of 730 ± 190 nm, in which the sheath had a thickness of ca. 90 nm. Differential scanning calorimetric and X-ray diffraction analyses verified that all the components in the core-sheath nanofibers were present in an amorphous state. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra demonstrated both the sheath and core matrix had good compatibility with KET owing to hydrogen bonding. In vitro dissolution tests showed that the nanofibers could provide an immediate release of 42.3% of the contained KET, followed by a sustained release over 10h of the remaining drug. The present study exhibited a simple and useful approach to systematically design and fabricate nanostructures using coaxial electrospinning for providing biphasic drug release profiles.
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[Bilateral ureteral polyps in children: a case report].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
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Fibroepithelial polyp of the ureter is a benign tumor of mesodermal origin that rarely occurs in children. The most common presenting symptoms are hematuria and flank pain by obstruction of the urinary tract. The etiology of this tumor is still not clear. It occurs more frequently in boys and often arises in the proximal ureter and the ureteropelvic junction. The preoperative diagnosis is difficult. We present here the case of a 11-year-old boy who had fibroepithelial polyps as the cause of the left flank ureteropelvic junction obstruction at pyeloplasty, and had the same condition on the right flank 5 years ago. We used polypectomy and pyeloureterostomy to treat the boy. No major intraoperative or preoperative complications developed.
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Autophagy influences maternal mRNA degradation and apoptosis in porcine parthenotes developing in vitro.
J. Reprod. Dev.
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Autophagy, an essential process for cellular maintenance, cell viability, and development, is the bulk degradation of proteins and organelles. This study investigated the expression levels of autophagy-related genes and the effect of 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor) or rapamycin (an autophagy inducer) on maternal gene degradation and apoptosis in porcine parthenotes developing in vitro. LC3, which is essential for the formation of autophagosomes, was widely expressed in porcine parthenotes. High levels of autophagy-related genes, Atg5, Beclin1 and Lc3 transcripts were expressed in the 1-cell (1C) stage and gradually decreased through the 2-cell (2C) to blastocyst stages. The mRNA expression of Gdf9, c-mos and cyclin B maintained high levels in 2C and 4-cell (4C) embryos treated with 3-MA compared with the control. The Bmp15 and cyclin B mRNA levels were significantly reduced in embryos treated with rapamycin compared with the control. These results suggest that autophagy influences the degradation of these maternal genes. Furthermore, 3-MA-treated embryos exhibited significantly reduced developmental rates, decreased total cell numbers and increased rates of apoptosis. Expression of Atg5, Beclin1 and Lc3 and synthesis of LC3 protein were significantly reduced at the blastocyst stage. Although rapamycin treatment did not affect the developmental rate, it decreased the cell number and increased the rate of apoptosis, and the expression of Atg5, Beclin1 and Lc3 and LC3 protein synthesis were increased. Finally, blastocysts derived following treatment with 3-MA or rapamycin exhibited significantly decreased expression of selected transcription factors, including Pou5f1, Sox2 and Nanog. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that autophagy influences maternal mRNA degradation and apoptosis at the blastocyst stage and suggest that autophagy plays an important role in early embryo development in the pig.
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The role of autonomic nervous system in the pathophysiology of hemifacial spasm.
Neurol. Res.
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Despite the vascular compression of the seventh cranial nerve has been verified by the microvascular decompression surgery as the cause of hemifacial spasm (HFS), the mechanism of the disease is still unknown. We believe that the autonomic nervous system in adventitia of the offending artery may contribute to the HFS. To prove our hypothesis, we performed an experiment in SD rats.
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Saponins with neuroprotective effects from the roots of Pulsatilla cernua.
Molecules
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Four new oleanene-type triterpenoid saponins together with six known saponins were isolated from the roots of Pulsatilla cernua and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 2D NMR spectra and chemical evidence. Among these one of the aglycones (gypsogenin) is reported for the first time from this genus. Some of these compounds showed significant neuroprotective effects against the cytotoxicity induced by ?-amyloid(25-35) (A?(25-35)) on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.
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Prokaryotic selectivity and LPS-neutralizing activity of short antimicrobial peptides designed from the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37.
Peptides
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To develop novel antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with shorter lengths, improved prokaryotic selectivity and retained lipolysaccharide (LPS)-neutralizing activity compared to human cathelicidin AMP, LL-37, a series of amino acid-substituted analogs based on IG-19 (residues 13-31 of LL-37) were synthesized. Among the IG-19 analogs, the analog a4 showed the highest prokaryotic selectivity, but much lower LPS-neutralizing activity compared to parental LL-37. The analogs, a5, a6, a7 and a8 with higher hydrophobicity displayed LPS-neutralizing activity comparable to that of LL-37, but much lesser prokaryotic selectivity. These results indicate that the proper hydrophobicity of the peptides is crucial to exert the amalgamated property of LPS-neutralizing activity and prokaryotic selectivity. Furthermore, to increase LPS-neutralizing activity of the analog a4 without a remarkable decrease in prokaryotic selectivity, we synthesized Trp-substituted analogs (a4-W1 and a4-W2), in which Phe(5) or Phe(15) of a4 is replaced by Trp. Despite their same prokaryotic selectivity, a4-W2 displayed much higher LPS-neutralizing activity compared to a4-W1. When compared with parental LL-37, a4-W2 showed retained LPS-neutralizing activity and 2.8-fold enhanced prokaryotic selectivity. These results suggest that the effective site for Trp-substitution when designing novel AMPs with higher LPS-neutralizing activity, without a remarkable reduction in prokaryotic selectivity, is the amphipathic interface between the end of the hydrophilic side and the start of the hydrophobic side rather than the central position of the hydrophobic side in their ?-helical wheel projection. Taken together, the analog a4-W2 can serve as a promising template for the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of endotoxic shock and bacterial infection.
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