Extracellular vesicles are spherical bilayered proteolipids, harboring various bioactive molecules. Due to the complexity of the vesicular nomenclatures and components, online searches for extracellular vesicle-related publications and vesicular components are currently challenging.
Extracellular vesicles (Exosomes and microvesicles) have drawn wide attentions in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications, since they are considered to shuttle biological signals intercellularly. However, further research on exosomes is limited by their rarity and heterogeneity even after lengthy isolation processes. In particular, these limitations are challenging in therapeutic applications. To meet these demands, cell-derived nanovesicles that mimic exosomes were generated by extruding living embryonic stem cells through micro-filters. These nanovesicles have an enclosed lipid bilayer and contain cellular contents. The present study investigated the ability of these nanovesicles to improve proliferation by treating primary murine skin fibroblasts with the nanovesicles. The treated skin fibroblasts showed higher expression levels of mRNA, VEGF-?, protein levels of TGF-? collagen I, PCNA, and Ki-67, as well as enhanced cell proliferation rate and number, compared to non-treated cells. The results indicate that treatment with the nanovesicles could potentially contribute to recovery or wound healing process of tissues.
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a progressive heart disease characterized by left ventricular dilation and contractile dysfunction. Although many candidate genes have been identified with mouse models, few of them have been shown to be associated with DCM in humans. Germline depletion of Ncoa6, a nuclear hormone receptor coactivator, leads to embryonic lethality and heart defects. However, it is unclear whether Ncoa6 mutations cause heart diseases in adults. Here, we report that two independent mouse models of NCOA6 dysfunction develop severe DCM with impaired mitochondrial function and reduced activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), an NCOA6 target critical for normal heart function. Sequencing of NCOA6-coding regions revealed three independent nonsynonymous mutations present in 5 of 50 (10%) patients with idiopathic DCM (iDCM). These data suggest that malfunction of NCOA6 can cause DCM in humans.
All living cells release extracellular vesicles having pleiotropic functions in intercellular communication. Mammalian extracellular vesicles, also known as exosomes and microvesicles, are spherical bilayered proteolipids composed of various bioactive molecules, including RNAs, DNAs, proteins, and lipids. Extracellular vesicles directly and indirectly control a diverse range of biological processes by transferring membrane proteins, signaling molecules, mRNAs, and miRNAs, and activating receptors of recipient cells. The active interaction of extracellular vesicles with other cells regulates various physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer, infectious diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent developments in high-throughput proteomics, transcriptomics, and lipidomics tools have provided ample data on the common and specific components of various types of extracellular vesicles. These studies may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in vesicular cargo sorting and the biogenesis of extracellular vesicles, and, further, to the identification of disease-specific biomarkers. This review focuses on the components, functions, and therapeutic and diagnostic potential of extracellular vesicles under various pathophysiological conditions. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(10): 531-539].
Evaluation of kinetic distribution and behaviors of nanoparticles in vivo provides crucial clues into their roles in living organisms. Extracellular vesicles are evolutionary conserved nanoparticles, known to play important biological functions in intercellular, inter-species, and inter-kingdom communication. In this study, the first kinetic analysis of the biodistribution of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs)-bacterial extracellular vesicles-with immune-modulatory functions is performed. OMVs, injected intraperitoneally, spread to the whole mouse body and accumulate in the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney within 3 h of administration. As an early systemic inflammation response, increased levels of TNF-? and IL-6 are observed in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, the number of leukocytes and platelets in the blood is decreased. OMVs and cytokine concentrations, as well as body temperature are gradually decreased 6 h after OMV injection, in concomitance with the formation of eye exudates, and of an increase in ICAM-1 levels in the lung. Following OMV elimination, most of the inflammatory signs are reverted, 12 h post-injection. However, leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are increased as a late reaction. Taken together, these results suggest that OMVs are effective mediators of long distance communication in vivo.
Exosomes/microvesicles are known to shuttle biological signals between cells, possibly by transferring biological signal components such as encapsulated RNAs and proteins, plasma membrane proteins, or both. Therefore exosomes are being considered for use as RNA and protein delivery vehicles for various therapeutic applications. However, living cells in nature secrete only a small number of exosomes, and procedures to collect them are complex; these complications impede their use in mass delivery of components to targeted cells. We propose a novel and efficient method that forces cells through hydrophilic microchannels to generate artificial nanovesicles. These mimetic nanovesicles contain mRNAs, intracellular proteins and plasma membrane proteins, and are shaped like cell-secreted exosomes. When recipient cells are exposed to nanovesicles from embryonic stem cells, mRNAs of Oct 3/4 and Nanog are transferred from embryonic stem cells to the target cells. This result suggests that mimetic nanovesicles can be used as vehicles to deliver RNA. This nanovesicle formation method is expected to be used in exosome research and to have applications in drug and RNA-delivery systems.
Sirtuins are NAD(+) -dependent deacetylases that regulate a range of cellular processes. Although diverse functions of sirtuins have been proposed, those functions of SIRT6 and SIRT7 that are mediated by their interacting proteins remain elusive. In the present study, we identified SIRT6- and SIRT7-interacting proteins, and compared their interactomes to investigate functional links. Our interactomes revealed 136 interacting proteins for SIRT6 and 233 for SIRT7 while confirming seven and 111 proteins identified previously for SIRT6 and SIRT7, respectively. Comparison of SIRT6 and SIRT7 interactomes under the same experimental conditions disclosed 111 shared proteins, implying related functional links. The interaction networks of interactomes indicated biological processes associated with DNA repair, chromatin assembly, and aging. Interactions of two highly acetylated proteins, nucleophosmin (NPM1) and nucleolin, with SIRT6 and SIRT7 were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. NPM1 was found to be deacetylated by both SIRT6 and SIRT7. In senescent cells, the acetylation level of NPM1 was increased in conjunction with decreased levels of SIRT6 and SIRT7, suggesting that the acetylation of NPM1 could be regulated by SIRT6 and SIRT7 in the aging process. Our comparative interactomic study of SIRT6 and SIRT7 implies important functional links to aging by their associations with interacting proteins. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD000159 and PXD000850 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000159, http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000850).
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including the nano-sized exosomes, have the capacity to transfer multiple functional molecules between cells. In cell culture experiments, fetal bovine serum (FBS) is often used to supplement cell culture medium as a nutrient, but it is important to know that the FBS also contain significant quantities of EVs. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the FBS EVs can influence cultured cell phenotype, and secondly to determine the efficiency of FBS-EV elimination protocols. Firstly, FBS that had not been depleted of EVs induced a migratory phenotype in a lung cancer epithelial cell line (A549 cells), an effect that could be mimicked by isolated FBS EVs alone. FBS-derived EVs also contained RNA, which was protected from consecutive proteinase K and RNase A treatment. Comparison of common isolation protocols suggested that an 18-hour centrifugation period eliminates approximately 95% of RNA-containing FBS EVs, whereas a 1.5-hour protocol is insufficient. In conclusion, this study shows that FBS EVs substantially influence cultured cell behaviour, but also that they can be virtually removed by an 18-hour ultracentrifugation protocol.
Skin barrier disruption and dermal inflammation are key phenotypes of atopic dermatitis (AD). Staphylococcus aureus secretes extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are involved in AD pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the role of EVs-associated ?-hemolysin derived from S. aureus in AD pathogenesis. ?-hemolysin production from S. aureus was detected using western blot analyses. The cytotoxic activity of ?-hemolysin on HaCaT keratinocytes was evaluated by measuring cell viability after treating cells with soluble and EVs-associated ?-hemolysin. To determine the type of cell death, HaCaT keratinocytes were stained with annexin V and 7-AAD. The in vivo effects of ?-hemolysin were evaluated by application of soluble and EV-associated ?-hemolysin on the mouse skin. The present study showed that increased ?-hemolysin was produced by S. aureus colonized on AD patients compared to healthy subjects. ?-hemolysin production was also related to AD severity. In addition, EV-associated ?-hemolysin was more cytotoxic to HaCaT keratinocytes than soluble ?-hemolysin, and ?-hemolysin-negative EVs did not induce keratinocyte death. EV-associated ?-hemolysin induced necrosis, but soluble ?-hemolysin induced apoptosis of keratinocytes. In vivo, skin barrier disruption and epidermal hyperplasia were induced by soluble and EV-associated ?-hemolysin. However, AD-like dermal inflammation was only caused by EV-associated ?-hemolysin. Moreover, neither skin barrier disruption nor AD-like skin inflammation was induced by ?-hemolysin-negative EVs. Taken together, ?-Hemolysin secreted from S. aureus, particularly the EV-associated form, induces both skin barrier disruption and AD-like skin inflammation, suggesting that EV-associated ?-hemolysin is a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for the control of AD.
Exosomes, the endogenous nanocarriers that can deliver biological information between cells, were recently introduced as new kind of drug delivery system. However, mammalian cells release relatively low quantities of exosomes, and purification of exosomes is difficult. Here, we developed bioinspired exosome-mimetic nanovesicles that deliver chemotherapeutics to the tumor tissue after systemic administration. The chemotherapeutics-loaded nanovesicles were produced by the breakdown of monocytes or macrophages using a serial extrusion through filters with diminishing pore sizes (10, 5, and 1 ?m). These cell-derived nanovesicles have similar characteristics with the exosomes but have 100-fold higher production yield. Furthermore, the nanovesicles have natural targeting ability of cells by maintaining the topology of plasma membrane proteins. In vitro, chemotherapeutic drug-loaded nanovesicles induced TNF-?-stimulated endothelial cell death in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, experiments in mice showed that the chemotherapeutic drug-loaded nanovesicles traffic to tumor tissue and reduce tumor growth without the adverse effects observed with equipotent free drug. Furthermore, compared with doxorubicin-loaded exosomes, doxorubicin-loaded nanovesicles showed similar in vivo antitumor activity. However, doxorubicin-loaded liposomes that did not carry targeting proteins were inefficient in reducing tumor growth. Importantly, removal of the plasma membrane proteins by trypsinization eliminated the therapeutic effects of the nanovesicles both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these studies suggest that the bioengineered nanovesicles can serve as novel exosome-mimetics to effectively deliver chemotherapeutics to treat malignant tumors.
Airway exposure levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) determine type I versus type II helper T cell induced experimental asthma. While high LPS levels induce Th1-dominant responses, low LPS levels derive Th2 cell induced asthma. The present paper develops a mathematical model of asthma development which focuses on the relative balance of Th1 and Th2 cell induced asthma. In the present work we represent the complex network of interactions between cells and molecules by a mathematical model. The model describes the behaviors of cells (Th0, Th1, Th2 and macrophages) and regulatory molecules (IFN- ?, IL-4, IL-12, TNF-?) in response to high, intermediate, and low levels of LPS. The simulations show how variations in the levels of injected LPS affect the development of Th1 or Th2 cell responses through differential cytokine induction. The model also predicts the coexistence of these two types of response under certain biochemical and biomechanical conditions in the microenvironment.
Mammalian cells, including cancer cells, secrete extracellular vesicles. These vesicles are nanosized, bilayered proteolipids with diameters of 50-1,000 nm. It has been suggested that cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles play diverse roles in cancer progression, which involve invasion, immune modulation, neovascularization, and metastasis. Moreover, their serum levels are significantly elevated in cancer patients compared with normal controls. Recent high-throughput proteomic and transcriptomic studies of these complex extracellular organelles have accelerated the discovery of cancer-specific biomarkers and the development of novel diagnostic tools based on extracellular vesicles. Although many vesicle-associated biomarker candidates have been reported for various types of cancer, few have been validated for clinical use due to preanalytical, technical, temporal, and financial problems. Here, we discuss the potential of extracellular vesicles as sources of biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and monitoring, as well as the limitations and obstacles to adoption of extracellular vesicle-based diagnosis.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often involved in lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. These bacteria can release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), which are bilayered proteolipids with diameters of approximately 20 to 250 nm. In vitro, these OMVs activate macrophages and airway epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether OMVs from P. aeruginosa can induce pulmonary inflammation in vivo and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. Bacteria-free OMVs were isolated from P. aeruginosa cultures. Wild-type, Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 knockout mice were exposed to OMVs by the airway, and inflammation in the lung was assessed using differential counts, histology, and quantification of chemokines and cytokines. The involvement of the TLR2 and TLR4 pathways was studied in human cells using transfection. OMVs given to the mouse lung caused dose- and time-dependent pulmonary cellular inflammation. Furthermore, OMVs increased concentrations of several chemokines and cytokines in the mouse lungs and mouse alveolar macrophages. The inflammatory responses to OMVs were comparable to those of live bacteria and were only partly regulated by the TLR2 and TLR4 pathways, according to studies in knockout mice. This study shows that OMVs from P. aeruginosa cause pulmonary inflammation without live bacteria in vivo. This effect is only partly controlled by TLR2 and TLR4. The role of OMVs in clinical disease warrants further studies because targeting of OMVs in addition to live bacteria may add clinical benefit compared with treating with antibiotics alone.
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) generates a variety of viral microRNAs (miRNAs) by processing the BHRF1 and BamHI A rightward (BART) transcripts. BART miRNAs are expressed in all cells latently infected with EBV, but the functions of most BART miRNAs remain unknown. The results of a cell proliferation assay revealed that miR-BART15-3p inhibited cell proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting following staining with annexin V or propidium iodide showed that miR-BART15-3p promoted apoptosis. Furthermore, the inhibitor for miR-BART15-3p increased cell growth and reduced apoptosis in EBV-infected cells. Using bioinformatic analyses, we predicted that miR-BART15-3p may target the antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), BCL2L2, DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 42 (DDX42), and baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (BRUCE) mRNAs. The luciferase reporter assay showed that only the 3 untranslated region (UTR) of BRUCE was affected by miR-BART15-3p. Two putative seed-matched sites for miR-BART15-3p were evident on the BRUCE 3 UTR. The results of a mutation study indicated that miR-BART15-3p hybridized only with the first seed-matched site on the BRUCE 3 UTR. miR-BART15-3p downregulated the BRUCE protein in EBV-negative cells, while the inhibitor for miR-BART15-3p upregulated the BRUCE protein in EBV-infected cells without affecting the BRUCE mRNA level. miR-BART15-3p was secreted from EBV-infected gastric carcinoma cells, and the level of miR-BART15-3p was 2- to 16-fold higher in exosomes than in the corresponding cells. Our data suggest that miR-BART15-3p can induce apoptosis partially by inhibiting the translation of the apoptosis inhibitor BRUCE. Further study is warranted to understand the role of miR-BART15-3p in the EBV life cycle.
Gram-positive bacteria naturally produce extracellular vesicles. However, little is known regarding the functions of Gram-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles, especially in the bacterial community. Here, we investigated the role of Staphylococcus aureus extracellular vesicles in interbacterial communication to cope with antibiotic stress. We found that S. aureus liberated BlaZ, a ?-lactamase protein, via extracellular vesicles. These extracellular vesicles enabled other ampicillin-susceptible Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria to survive in the presence of ampicillin. However, S. aureus extracellular vesicles did not mediate the survival of tetracycline-, chloramphenicol-, or kanamycin-susceptible bacteria. Moreover, S. aureus extracellular vesicles did not contain the blaZ gene. In addition, the heat-treated S. aureus extracellular vesicles did not mediate the survival of ampicillin-susceptible bacteria. The ?-lactamase activities of S. aureus soluble and extracellular vesicle-associated BlaZ were similar, but only the extracellular vesicle-associated BlaZ was resistant to protease digestion, which suggests that the enzymatic activity of BlaZ in extracellular vesicles is largely protected by the vesicle structure. Our observations provide evidence of the important role of S. aureus extracellular vesicles in antibiotic resistance, which allows the polymicrobial community to continue to evolve and prosper against antibiotics.
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), secreted from Gram-negative bacteria, are spherical nanometer-sized proteolipids enriched with outer membrane proteins. OMVs, also known as extracellular vesicles, have gained interests for use as nonliving complex vaccines and have been examined for immune-stimulating effects. However, the detailed mechanism on how OMVs elicit the vaccination effect has not been studied extensively. In this study, we investigated the immunological mechanism governing the protective immune response of OMV vaccines. Immunization with Escherichia coli-derived OMVs prevented bacteria-induced lethality and OMV-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome. As verified by adoptive transfer and gene-knockout studies, the protective effect of OMV immunization was found to be primarily by the stimulation of T cell immunity rather than B cell immunity, especially by the OMV-Ag-specific production of IFN-? and IL-17 from T cells. By testing the bacteria-killing ability of macrophages, we also demonstrated that IFN-? and IL-17 production is the main factor promoting bacterial clearances. Our findings reveal that E. coli-derived OMV immunization effectively protects bacteria-induced lethality and OMV-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome primarily via Th1 and Th17 cell responses. This study therefore provides a new perspective on the immunological detail regarding OMV vaccination.
Mammalian cells secrete two types of extracellular vesicles either constitutively or in a regulated manner: exosomes (50-100 nm in diameter) released from the intracellular compartment and ectosomes (also called microvesicles, 100-1000 nm in diameter) shed directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles are bilayered proteolipids enriched with proteins, mRNAs, microRNAs, and lipids. In recent years, much data have been collected regarding the specific components of extracellular vesicles from various cell types and body fluids using proteomic, transcriptomic, and lipidomic methods. These studies have revealed that extracellular vesicles harbor specific types of proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, and lipids rather than random cellular components. These results provide valuable information on the molecular mechanisms involved in vesicular cargo-sorting and biogenesis. Furthermore, studies of these complex extracellular organelles have facilitated conceptual advancements in the field of intercellular communication under physiological and pathological conditions as well as for disease-specific biomarker discovery. This review focuses on the proteomic, transcriptomic, and lipidomic profiles of extracellular vesicles, and will briefly summarize recent advances in the biology, function, and diagnostic potential of vesicle-specific components.
Microvesicles (MVs, also known as exosomes, ectosomes, microparticles) are released by various cancer cells, including lung, colorectal, and prostate carcinoma cells. MVs released from tumor cells and other sources accumulate in the circulation and in pleural effusion. Although recent studies have shown that MVs play multiple roles in tumor progression, the potential pathological roles of MV in pleural effusion, and their protein composition, are still unknown. In this study, we report the first global proteomic analysis of highly purified MVs derived from human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pleural effusion. Using nano-LC-MS/MS following 1D SDS-PAGE separation, we identified a total of 912 MV proteins with high confidence. Three independent experiments on three patients showed that MV proteins from PE were distinct from MV obtained from other malignancies. Bioinformatics analyses of the MS data identified pathologically relevant proteins and potential diagnostic makers for NSCLC, including lung-enriched surface antigens and proteins related to epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. These findings provide new insight into the diverse functions of MVs in cancer progression and will aid in the development of novel diagnostic tools for NSCLC.
Escherichia coli, as one of the gut microbiota, can evoke severe inflammatory diseases including peritonitis and sepsis. Gram-negative bacteria including E. coli constitutively release nano-sized outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Although E. coli OMVs can induce the inflammatory responses without live bacteria, the effect of E. coli OMVs in vivo on endothelial cell function has not been previously elucidated. In this study, we show that bacteria-free OMVs increased the expression of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and enhanced the leukocyte binding on human microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. Inhibition of NF-?B and TLR4 reduced the expression of cell adhesion molecules in vitro. OMVs given intraperitoneally to the mice induced ICAM-1 expression and neutrophil sequestration in the lung endothelium, and the effects were reduced in ICAM-1(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice. When compared to free lipopolysaccharide, OMVs were more potent in inducing both ICAM-1 expression as well as leukocyte adhesion in vitro, and ICAM-1 expression and neutrophil sequestration in the lungs in vivo. This study shows that OMVs potently up-regulate functional cell adhesion molecules via NF-?B- and TLR4-dependent pathways, and that OMVs are more potent than free lipopolysaccharide.
T-helper (Th)17 cell responses are important for the development of neutrophilic inflammatory disease. Recently, we found that acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) inhibited Th17 airway inflammation in an asthma mouse model induced by sensitization with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-containing allergens. To investigate the mechanism(s) of the inhibitory effect of ASA on the development of Th17 airway inflammation, a neutrophilic asthma mouse model was generated by intranasal sensitization with LPS plus ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with OVA alone. Immunologic parameters and airway inflammation were evaluated 6 and 48?h after the last OVA challenge. ASA inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-17 from lung T cells as well as in vitro Th17 polarization induced by IL-6. Additionally, ASA, but not salicylic acid, suppressed Th17 airway inflammation, which was associated with decreased expression of acetyl-STAT3 (downstream signaling of IL-6) in the lung. Moreover, the production of IL-6 from inflammatory cells, induced by IL-17, was abolished by treatment with ASA, whereas that induced by LPS was not. Altogether, ASA, likely via its acetyl moiety, inhibits Th17 airway inflammation by blockade of IL-6 and IL-17 positive feedback.
Gut microbiota play an important part in the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, owing to the complexity of the gut microbiota, our understanding of the roles of commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut is evolving only slowly. Here, we evaluated the role of gut microbiota and their secreting extracellular vesicles (EV) in the development of mucosal inflammation in the gut. Experimental IBD model was established by oral application of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to C57BL/6 mice. The composition of gut microbiota and bacteria-derived EV in stools was evaluated by metagenome sequencing using bacterial common primer of 16S rDNA. Metagenomics in the IBD mouse model showed that the change in stool EV composition was more drastic, compared to the change of bacterial composition. Oral DSS application decreased the composition of EV from Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens in stools, whereas increased EV from TM7 phylum, especially from species DQ777900_s and AJ400239_s. In vitro pretreatment of A. muciniphila-derived EV ameliorated the production of a pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from colon epithelial cells induced by Escherichia coli EV. Additionally, oral application of A. muciniphila EV also protected DSS-induced IBD phenotypes, such as body weight loss, colon length, and inflammatory cell infiltration of colon wall. Our data provides insight into the role of gut microbiota-derived EV in regulation of intestinal immunity and homeostasis, and A. muciniphila-derived EV have protective effects in the development of DSS-induced colitis.
Secretion of extracellular vesicles is a general cellular activity that spans the range from simple unicellular organisms (e.g. archaea; Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria) to complex multicellular ones, suggesting that this extracellular vesicle-mediated communication is evolutionarily conserved. Extracellular vesicles are spherical bilayered proteolipids with a mean diameter of 20-1,000 nm, which are known to contain various bioactive molecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Here, we present EVpedia, which is an integrated database of high-throughput datasets from prokaryotic and eukaryotic extracellular vesicles. EVpedia provides high-throughput datasets of vesicular components (proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, and lipids) present on prokaryotic, non-mammalian eukaryotic, and mammalian extracellular vesicles. In addition, EVpedia also provides an array of tools, such as the search and browse of vesicular components, Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, network analysis of vesicular proteins and mRNAs, and a comparison of vesicular datasets by ortholog identification. Moreover, publications on extracellular vesicle studies are listed in the database. This free web-based database of EVpedia (http://evpedia.info) might serve as a fundamental repository to stimulate the advancement of extracellular vesicle studies and to elucidate the novel functions of these complex extracellular organelles.
Hepatic sinusoid, the smallest vessel in the liver, plays important roles in hepatic microcirculation. Although the structure of the hepatic sinusoids affects diverse functions of the liver, little is known about morphological alterations in the sinusoids under pathological conditions. In this study, we show that the structure of hepatic sinusoids can be identified three-dimensionally in normal and carbon tetrachloride-injured mouse liver, using the absorption mode of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography. We observed that the hepatic sinusoidal structure on tomographic slice images was similar to that on histological images of normal and acutely injured mice. Moreover, centrilobular necrosis and structural alterations of the sinusoids in the necrotic region were detectable on tomographic slice and volume-rendered images of the acutely injured mice. Furthermore, quantitative analyses on 3D volume-rendered images of the injured sinusoid revealed decrease in the volume of the sinusoid and connectivity of the sinusoidal network. Our results suggest that the use of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography may improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of hepatic diseases by detecting the hepatic sinusoids and their alterations in three-dimensional structures of the damaged liver.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human bacterial pathogen, constitutively secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) into the extracellular milieu. Although recent progress has revealed that OMVs are essential for pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa, their proteins have not been comprehensively analyzed so far. In this study, we identified 338 vesicular proteins with high confidence by five separate LC-MS/MS analyses. This global proteome profile provides a basis for future studies to elucidate the pathological functions of OMVs from P. aeruginosa.
Recent clinical evidence indicates that the non-eosinophilic subtype of severe asthma is characterized by fixed airway obstruction, which may be related to emphysema. Transgenic studies have demonstrated that high levels of IFN-? in the airways induce emphysema. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), which is the downstream mediator of TGF-?, is important in wound healing. We investigated the role of FGF2 in IFN-?-induced emphysema and the therapeutic effects of recombinant FGF2 in the prevention of emphysema in a severe non-eosinophilic asthma model. To evaluate the role of FGF2 in IFN-?-induced emphysema, lung targeted IFN-? transgenic mice were cross-bred with FGF2-deficient mice. A severe non-eosinophilic asthma model was generated by airway application of LPS-containing allergens twice a week for 4 weeks. To evaluate protective effects of FGF2, recombinant FGF2 (10 ?g) was injected subcutaneously during allergen challenge in the severe asthma model. We found that non-eosinophilic inflammation and emphysema induced by transgenic overexpression of IFN-? in the airways were aggravated by the absence of FGF2. Airway challenge with LPS-containing allergens induced more inflammation in mice sensitized with LPS-containing allergens compared to challenge with allergens alone. In addition, LPS-induced lung inflammation and emphysema depended on IFN-? but not on IL-13. Interestingly, emphysema in the severe asthma model was significantly inhibited by treatment with recombinant FGF2 during allergen challenge, whereas lung inflammation was unaffected. Therefore, our present data suggest that FGF2 may help protect against IFN-?-induced emphysema, and that recombinant FGF2 may help lessen the severity of emphysema.
The presence of malignant ascites in the peritoneal cavity is a poor prognostic indicator of low survival rate. Various cancer cells, including those of colorectal cancer (CRC), release microvesicles (exosomes) into surrounding tissues and peripheral circulation including malignant ascites. Although recent progress has revealed that microvesicles play multiple roles in tumor progression, the protein composition and the pathological function of malignant ascites-derived microvesicles are still unknown. Here, we report the first global proteomic analyses of highly purified microvesicles derived from human CRC ascites. With 1-D SDS-PAGE and nano-LC-MS/MS analyses, we identified a total of 846 microvesicular proteins from ascites of three CRC patients with high confidence; 384 proteins were identified in at least two patients. We identified proteins that might function in tumor progression via disruption of epithelial polarity, migration, invasion, tumor growth, immune modulation, and angiogenesis. Furthermore, we identified several potential diagnostic markers of CRC including colon-specific surface antigens. Our proteomic analyses will help to elucidate diverse functions of microvesicles in cancer progression and will aid in the development of novel diagnostic tools for CRC.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key mediator in the development of airway immune dysfunction to inhaled allergens. However, the exact role of its receptors-mediated signaling is controversial. In this study, we evaluated the role of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1- and VEGFR-2-mediated signaling in T cell priming and polarization in the context of inhalation of LPS-containing allergens. A murine asthma model of mixed Th1 and Th17 cell responses was generated using intranasal sensitization with LPS-containing allergens. Pharmacologic intervention was performed during sensitization. In vivo production of VEGF and Th1- and Th17-polarizing cytokines (IL-12p70 and IL-6, respectively) were upregulated by airway exposure to LPS. Pharmacological intervention with a VEGFR-2-neutralizing Ab (anti-Flk1 mAb) abolished the production of IL-6 (but not IL-12p70) and the subsequent development of allergen-specific Th17 cell response. On the other hand, blocking VEGFR-1 signaling with a VEGFR-1 antagonist (anti-Flt1 hexapeptide) did not affect the production of IL-12p70 and IL-6. However, blocking VEGFR-1 signaling resulted in T cell tolerance rather than priming, mainly by inhibiting the maturation of lung dendritic cells, and their migration into lung-draining lymph nodes. These results suggest that T cell priming to LPS-containing allergens depends on VEGFR-1-mediated signaling, and the subsequent Th17 polarization depends on VEGFR-2 signaling.
Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation induced by immune dysfunction to inhaled antigens. Although respiratory viral infections are the most common cause of asthma exacerbation, immunologic mechanisms underlying virus-associated asthma exacerbation are controversial. Clinical evidence indicates that nitric oxide (NO) levels in exhaled air are increased in exacerbated asthma patients compared to stable patients. Here, we evaluated the immunologic mechanisms and the role of NO synthases (NOSs) in the development of virus-associated asthma exacerbation. A murine model of virus-associated asthma exacerbation was established using intranasal challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) plus dsRNA for 4 weeks in mice sensitized with OVA plus dsRNA. Lung infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils, was increased by repeated challenge with OVA plus dsRNA, as compared to OVA alone. The neutrophilic inflammation enhanced by dsRNA was partly abolished in the absence of IFN-gamma or IL-17 gene expression, whereas unaffected in the absence of IL-13. In terms of the roles of NOSs, dsRNA-enhanced neutrophilic inflammation was significantly decreased in inducible NOS (iNOS)-deficient mice compared to wild type controls; in addition, this phenotype was inhibited by treatment with a non-specific NOS inhibitor (L-NAME) or an specific inhibitor (1400 W), but not with a specific endothelial NOS inhibitor (AP-CAV peptide). Taken together, these findings suggest that iNOS pathway is important in the development of virus-associated exacerbation of neutrophilic inflammation, which is dependent on both Th1 and Th17 cell responses.
IL-4 and IL-13 are closely related cytokines that are produced by Th2 cells. However, IL-4 and IL-13 have different effects on the development of asthma phenotypes. Here, we evaluated downstream molecular mechanisms involved in the development of Th2 type asthma phenotypes. A murine model of Th2 asthma was used that involved intraperitoneal sensitization with an allergen (ovalbumin) plus alum and then challenge with ovalbumin alone. Asthma phenotypes, including airway-hyperresponsiveness (AHR), lung inflammation, and immunologic parameters were evaluated after allergen challenge in mice deficient in candidate genes. The present study showed that methacholine AHR and lung inflammation developed in allergen-challenged IL-4-deficient mice but not in allergen-challenged IL-13-deficient mice. In addition, the production of OVA-specific IgG2a and IFN-gamma-inducible protein (IP)-10 was also impaired in the absence of IL-13, but not of IL-4. Lung-targeted IFN-gamma over-expression in the airways enhanced methacholine AHR and non-eosinophilic inflammation; in addition, these asthma phenotypes were impaired in allergen-challenged IFN-gamma-deficient mice. Moreover, AHR, non-eosinophilic inflammation, and IFN-gamma expression were impaired in allergen-challenged IL-12Rbeta2- and STAT4-deficient mice; however, AHR and non-eosinophilic inflammation were not impaired in allergen-challenged IL-4Ralpha-deficient mice, and these phenomena were accompanied by the enhanced expression of IL-12 and IFN-gamma. The present data suggest that IL-13-mediated asthma phenotypes, such as AHR and non-eosinophilic inflammation, in the Th2 type asthma are dependent on the IL-12-STAT4-IFN-gamma axis, and that these asthma phenotypes are independent of IL-4Ralpha-mediated signaling.
Angiogenesis is critical and indispensable for tumor progression. Since VEGF is known to play a central role in angiogenesis, the disruption of VEGF-VEGF receptor system is a promising target for anti-cancer therapy. Previously, we reported that a hexapeptide (RRKRRR, RK6) blocked the growth and metastasis of tumor by inhibiting VEGF binding to its receptors. In addition, dRK6, the D-form derivative of RK6, retained its biological activity with improved serum stability. In the present study, we developed a serum-stable branched dimeric peptide (MAP2-dRK6) with enhanced anti-VEGF and anti-tumor activity. MAP2-dRK6 is more effective than dRK6 in many respects: inhibition of VEGF binding to its receptors, VEGF- and tumor conditioned medium-induced proliferation and ERK signaling of endothelial cells, and VEGF-induced migration and tube formation of endothelial cells. Moreover, MAP2-dRK6 blocks in vivo growth of VEGF-secreting colorectal cancer cells by the suppression of angiogenesis and the subsequent induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Our observations suggest that MAP2-dRK6 can be a prospective therapeutic molecule or lead compound for the development of drugs for various VEGF-related angiogenic diseases.
While intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a transmembrane protein, two types of extracellular ICAM-1 have been detected in cell culture supernatants as well as in the serum: a soluble form of ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) and a membranous form of ICAM-1 (mICAM-1) associated with exosomes. Previous observations have demonstrated that sICAM-1 cannot exert potent immune modulatory activity due to its low affinity for leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) or membrane attack complex-1. In this report, we initially observed that human cancer cells shed mICAM-1(+)-exosomes but were devoid of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin. We demonstrate that mICAM-1 on exosomes retained its topology similar to that of cell surface ICAM-1, and could bind to leukocytes. In addition, we show that exosomal mICAM-1 exhibits potent anti-leukocyte adhesion activity to tumor necrosis factor-alpha-activated endothelial cells compared to that of sICAM-1. Taken together with previous findings, our results indicate that mICAM-1 on exosomes exhibits potent immune modulatory activity.
Sepsis, characterized by a systemic inflammatory state that is usually related to Gram-negative bacterial infection, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Although the annual incidence of sepsis is still rising, the exact cause of Gram-negative bacteria-associated sepsis is not clear. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), constitutively secreted from Gram-negative bacteria, are nano-sized spherical bilayered proteolipids. Using a mouse model, we showed that intraperitoneal injection of OMVs derived from intestinal Escherichia coli induced lethality. Furthermore, OMVs induced host responses which resemble a clinically relevant condition like sepsis that was characterized by piloerection, eye exudates, hypothermia, tachypnea, leukopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, dysfunction of the lungs, hypotension, and systemic induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6. Our study revealed a previously unidentified causative microbial signal in the pathogenesis of sepsis, suggesting OMVs as a new therapeutic target to prevent and/or treat severe sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacterial infection.
Previous evidence indicates that inhalation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-containing with allergens induced mixed Th1 and Th17 cell responses in the airways. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanometer-sized spherical, lipid-bilayered structures and are recently in the public eye as an intercellular communicator in immune responses.
Although archaea, Gram-negative bacteria, and mammalian cells constitutively secrete membrane vesicles (MVs) as a mechanism for cell-free intercellular communication, this cellular process has been overlooked in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we found for the first time that Gram-positive bacteria naturally produce MVs into the extracellular milieu. Further characterizations showed that the density and size of Staphylococcus aureus-derived MVs are both similar to those of Gram-negative bacteria. With a proteomics approach, we identified with high confidence a total of 90 protein components of S. aureus-derived MVs. In the group of identified proteins, the highly enriched extracellular proteins suggested that a specific sorting mechanism for vesicular proteins exists. We also identified proteins that facilitate the transfer of proteins to other bacteria, as well to eliminate competing organisms, antibiotic resistance, pathological functions in systemic infections, and MV biogenesis. Taken together, these observations suggest that the secretion of MVs is an evolutionally conserved, universal process that occurs from simple organisms to complex multicellular organisms. This information will help us not only to elucidate the biogenesis and functions of MVs, but also to develop therapeutic tools for vaccines, diagnosis, and antibiotics effective against pathogenic strains of Gram-positive bacteria.
Chronic inflammatory airway diseases including asthma are characterized by immune dysfunction to inhaled allergens. Our previous studies demonstrated that T cell priming to inhaled allergens requires LPS, which is ubiquitously present in household dust allergens. In this study, we evaluated the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the development of T cell priming and its polarization to Th1 or Th17 cells when exposed to LPS-contaminated allergens. An asthma mouse model was induced by airway sensitization with LPS-contaminated allergens and then challenged with allergens alone. Therapeutic intervention was performed during allergen sensitization. The present study showed that lung inflammation induced by sensitization with LPS-contaminated allergens was decreased in mice with homozygous disruption of the IL-17 gene; in addition, allergen-specific Th17 immune response was abolished in IL-6 knockout mice. Meanwhile, in vivo production of VEGF was up-regulated by airway exposure of LPS. In addition, airway sensitization of allergen plus recombinant VEGF induced both type 1 and type 17 Th cell (Th1 and Th17) responses. Th1 and Th17 responses induced by airway sensitization with LPS-contaminated allergens were blocked by treatment with a pan-VEGF receptor (VEGFR; VEGFR-1 plus VEGFR-2) inhibitor during sensitization. These effects were accompanied by inhibition of the production of Th1 and Th17 polarizing cytokines, IL-12p70 and IL-6, respectively. These findings indicate that VEGF produced by LPS plays a key role in activation of naive T cells and subsequent polarization to Th1 and Th17 cells.
Various cancer cells, including those of colorectal cancer (CRC), release microvesicles (exosomes) into surrounding tissues and peripheral circulation. These microvesicles can mediate communication between cells and affect various tumor-related processes in their target cells.
The secretion of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is one of the major mechanisms by which Gram-negative bacteria deliver effector molecules to host cells. Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen in hospital-acquired infections, but the secretion system for effector molecules to induce host cell damage has not been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the secretion of OMVs from a clinical A. baumannii isolate and analyzed the comprehensive proteome of A. baumannii-derived OMVs. Acinetobacter baumannii secreted OMVs into the extracellular milieu during in vitro growth. Using 1-DE and LC-MS/MS protein identification and assignment analysis, 132 different proteins associated with OMVs were identified. These proteins were derived from outer membranes (n=26), periplasmic space (n=6), inner membranes (n=8), cytoplasm (n=43), and unknown localization or multiple localization sites (n=49) according to the cell location prediction programs. Among the proteins associated with OMVs, a potent cytotoxic molecule, outer membrane protein A, was highly enriched and several putative virulence-associated proteins were also identified. These results suggest that OMVs from A. baumannii are an important vehicle designed to deliver effector molecules to host cells.
In an effort to devise a safer and more effective vaccine delivery system, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) were engineered to have properties of intrinsically low endotoxicity sufficient for the delivery of foreign antigens. Our strategy involved mutational inactivation of the MsbB (LpxM) lipid A acyltransferase to generate OMVs of reduced endotoxicity from Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7. The chromosomal tagging of a foreign FLAG epitope within an OmpA-fused protein was exploited to localize the FLAG epitope in the OMVs produced by the E. coli mutant having the defined msbB and the ompA::FLAG mutations. It was confirmed that the desired fusion protein (OmpA::FLAG) was expressed and destined to the outer membrane (OM) of the E. coli mutant from which the OMVs carrying OmpA::FLAG are released during growth. A luminal localization of the FLAG epitope within the OMVs was inferred from its differential immunoprecipitation and resistance to proteolytic degradation. Thus, by using genetic engineering-based approaches, the native OMVs were modified to have both intrinsically low endotoxicity and a foreign epitope tag to establish a platform technology for development of multifunctional vaccine delivery vehicles.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membraneous vesicles released by a variety of cells into their microenvironment. Recent studies have elucidated the role of EVs in intercellular communication, pathogenesis, drug, vaccine and gene-vector delivery, and as possible reservoirs of biomarkers. These findings have generated immense interest, along with an exponential increase in molecular data pertaining to EVs. Here, we describe Vesiclepedia, a manually curated compendium of molecular data (lipid, RNA, and protein) identified in different classes of EVs from more than 300 independent studies published over the past several years. Even though databases are indispensable resources for the scientific community, recent studies have shown that more than 50% of the databases are not regularly updated. In addition, more than 20% of the database links are inactive. To prevent such database and link decay, we have initiated a continuous community annotation project with the active involvement of EV researchers. The EV research community can set a gold standard in data sharing with Vesiclepedia, which could evolve as a primary resource for the field.
Communication between osteoblasts and endothelial cells is essential for bone fracture repair, but the molecular identities of such communicating factors are not well defined. Here we identify DJ-1 as a novel mediator of the cross-talk between osteoblasts and endothelial cells through an unbiased screening of molecules secreted from human mesenchymal stem cells during osteogenesis. We show that DJ-1 stimulates the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts and that DJ-1 induces angiogenesis in endothelial cells through activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 signalling. In a rodent model of bone fracture repair, extracellular application of DJ-1 enhances bone regeneration in vivo by stimulating the formation of blood vessels and new bones. Both these effects are blocked by antagonizing fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 signalling. These findings uncover previously undefined extracellular roles of DJ-1 to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis, suggesting DJ-1 may have therapeutic potential to stimulate bone regeneration.
Extracellular vesicles are released by various cell types, particularly tumor cells, and may be potential targets for blood-based cancer diagnosis. However, studies performed on blood-borne vesicles to date have been limited by lack of effective, standardized purification strategies. Using in situ prepared nanoporous membranes, we present a simple strategy employing a microfluidic filtration system to isolate vesicles from whole blood samples. This method can be applied to purify nano-sized particles from blood allowing isolation of intact extracellular vesicles, avoiding the need for laborious and potentially damaging centrifugation steps or overly specific antibody-based affinity purification. Porous polymer monoliths were integrated as membranes into poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic chips by benchtop UV photopolymerization through a mask, allowing precise positioning of membrane elements while preserving simplicity of device preparation. Pore size could be manipulated by changing the ratio of porogenic solvent to prepolymer solution, and was tuned to a size proper for extraction of vesicles. Using the membrane as a size exclusion filter, we separated vesicles from cells and large debris by injecting whole blood under pressure through the microfluidic device. To enhance isolation purity, DC electrophoresis was employed as an alternative driving force to propel particles across the filter and increase the separation efficiency of vesicles from proteins. From the whole blood of melanoma-grown mice, we isolated extracellular vesicles and performed RT-PCR to verify their contents of RNA. Melan A mRNA derived from melanoma tumor cells were found enriched in filtered samples, confirming the recovery of vesicles via their cargo. This filtration system can be incorporated into other on-chip processes enabling integrated sample preparation for the downstream analysis of blood-based extracellular vesicles.
Cancer vaccines with optimal tumor-associated antigens show promise for anti-tumor immunotherapy. Recently, nano-sized vesicles, such as exosomes derived from tumors, were suggested as potential antigen candidates, although the total yield of exosomes is not sufficient for clinical applications. In the present study, we developed a new vaccine strategy based on nano-sized vesicles derived from primary autologous tumors. Through homogenization and sonication of tumor tissues, we achieved high yields of vesicle-bound antigens. These nanovesicles were enriched with antigenic membrane targets but lacked nuclear autoantigens. Furthermore, these nanovesicles together with adjuvant activated dendritic cells in vitro, and induced effective anti-tumor immune responses in both primary and metastatic melanoma mouse models. Therefore, autologous tumor-derived nanovesicles may represent a novel source of antigens with high-level immunogenicity for use in acellular vaccines without compromising safety. Our strategy is cost-effective and can be applied to patient-specific cancer therapeutic vaccination.
Although angiogenesis is crucial for tumor growth and metastasis, the molecular mechanisms controlling this process are not clearly understood. Here, we explore the role of Dab2 in tumor angiogenesis. We found that Dab2 is expressed in several cancer cells, including A549 lung cancer cells, but it is hardly detectable in SW480 colon cancer cells. Migration and Erk phosphorylation were enhanced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with the conditioned medium obtained from Dab2-overexpressing SW480 stable cells. In addition, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein was strongly detected in conditioned medium derived from Dab2-overexpressing SW480 cells, and Erk phosphorylation enhanced by Dab2(+) CM was restored by VEGF inhibition. Moreover, Dab2 depletion in A549 cells led to a decrease in HUVEC migration and Erk phosphorylation. Furthermore, we show that Dab2 is required for the TGF?-induced gene expression of angiogenic factors such as VEGF and FGF2. Taken together, these results suggest that Dab2, which is expressed in cancer cells, is pivotal for endothelial cell migration by affecting VEGF expression.
Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are chemoattractant receptors that mediate inflammatory cell responses to infection. Recent evidence indicates that noneosinophilic asthma phenotypes can be developed by both Th1 and Th17 cell responses when exposed to LPS-containing allergens. In this study, we evaluated the effects of airway activation of FPRs by their synthetic agonist, Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-D-Met (W-peptide), on the development of Th1 and Th17 cell responses in a noneosinophilic asthma mouse model. A noneosinophilic asthma mouse model was generated by intranasal sensitization with 10 ?g of LPS plus 75 ?g of OVA on days 0, 1, 2, and 7. Mice were then challenged with 50 ?g of OVA alone on days 14, 15, 21, and 22. W-peptide was administered during the sensitization period, and immune and inflammatory responses were evaluated after OVA challenge. Lung inflammation after OVA challenge was partly abolished by airway activation of FPRs during sensitization. Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and migration of DCs from the lung to lung-draining lymph nodes were inhibited by FPR activation. In addition, airway activation of FPRs inhibited allergen-specific T cell proliferation in the lymph nodes. Production of IL-12 and IL-6 (Th1- and Th17-polarizing cytokines) from lung DCs was decreased by airway activation of FPRs. This effect resulted in the inhibition of allergen-specific Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Airway activation of FPRs during sensitization effectively prevents the development of Th1 and Th17 cell responses induced by LPS-containing allergens via multiple mechanisms, such as inhibition of DC maturation and migration and the production of Th1- and Th7-polarizing cytokines.
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