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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Common Variants in the MKL1 Gene Confer Risk of Schizophrenia.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have identified multiple risk variants with robust association signals for schizophrenia. However, these variants could explain only a small proportion of schizophrenia heritability. Furthermore, the effect size of these risk variants is relatively small (eg, most of them had an OR less than 1.2), suggesting that additional risk variants may be detected when increasing sample size in analysis. Here, we report the identification of a genome-wide significant schizophrenia risk locus at 22q13.1 by combining 2 large-scale schizophrenia cohort studies. Our meta-analysis revealed that 7 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) on chromosome 22q13.1 reached the genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0×10(-8)) in the combined samples (a total of 38441 individuals). Among them, SNP rs6001946 had the most significant association with schizophrenia (P = 2.04×10(-8)). Interestingly, all 7 SNPs are in high linkage disequilibrium and located in the MKL1 gene. Expression analysis showed that MKL1 is highly expressed in human and mouse brains. We further investigated functional links between MKL1 and proteins encoded by other schizophrenia susceptibility genes in the whole human protein interaction network. We found that MKL1 physically interacts with GSK3B, a protein encoded by a well-characterized schizophrenia susceptibility gene. Collectively, our results revealed that genetic variants in MKL1 might confer risk to schizophrenia. Further investigation of the roles of MKL1 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia is warranted.
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[Expression of PAPP-A, IGF-I and their effects on the cytological functions of siRNA lentiviral vector of hCASMCs IGF-I after inflammatory factor].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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To evaluate expression of PAPP-A, IGF-I and the effect of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta on the cytological functions of hCASMCs with IGF-I gene silencing after inflammatory factor, in order to further study on the action of IGF axis hormone in the rupture of astable atheroxclerosis plaque.
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A water-soluble supramolecular polymer constructed by pillar[5]arene-based molecular recognition.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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A water-soluble linear supramolecular polymer was efficiently constructed driven by pillar[5]arene-based host-guest molecular recognition.
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Prognosis significance of HER2 status and TACC1 expression in patients with gastric carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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HER2 amplification and/or expression occurs in gastric carcinoma (GC), but the role of HER2 in the prognosis of GC remains unclear. The dysregulation of transforming acidic coiled coil 1 (TACC1), a downstream gene of HER2, is thought to be involved in the development of GC. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and relationship of HER2 and TACC1 in GC. The expression of HER2 and TACC1 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry on 129 primary resected GC patients, and HER2 amplification was additionally determined by FISH. The data on clinicopathological features and relevant prognostic factors in these patients were analyzed. The expression (3+, 2+ and 1+) and the amplification of HER2 was observed in 57 cases (44.2 %) and 25 cases (19.4 %), respectively, and the correlation between HER2 expression and amplification was strong (p < 0.001). According to the FDA criteria, 24 cases (18.6 %) would have been considered as HER2 positive. A total 62 (48.1 %) GC tissues showed positive cytoplasmic staining of TACC1. There was a significant and positive association between TACC1 and HER2. HER2 positive was significantly associated with TNM stage (p = 0.019), and TACC1 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.004) and TNM stage (p = 0.004). TNM stage, TACC1 expression and co-positive of both HER2 and TACC1 were independent prognostic factors. TACC1 expression is an independent prognostic indicator of GC. The correlation between TACC1 expression and HER2-positive status indicated a possible synergistic regulation of the two molecules and co-positive of both HER2 and TACC1 maybe a more valuable prognostic marker.
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Common variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes do not confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia in Han Chinese.
Mol. Genet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Schizophrenia is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with a complex etiology. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been frequently reported in schizophrenia. Phosphatase and tension homologue-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protease (PARL) are mitochondrial proteins, and genetic variants of these two genes may confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia by influencing mitochondrial function. In this study, we conducted a two-stage genetic association study to test this hypothesis. We genotyped 4 PINK1 and 5 PARL genetic variants and evaluated the potential association of the 9 SNPs with schizophrenia in two independent case-control cohorts of 2510 Han Chinese individuals. No positive association of common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes with schizophrenia was identified in our samples after Bonferroni correction. Re-analysis of the newly updated Psychiatric Genetics Consortium (PGC) data sets confirmed our negative result. Intriguingly, one PINK1 SNP (rs10916832), which showed a marginally significant association in only Hunan samples (P = 0.032), is associated with the expression of a schizophrenia susceptible gene KIF17 according to the expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis. Our study indicated that common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes are unlikely to be involved in schizophrenia. Further studies are essential to characterize the role of the PINK1 and PARL genes in schizophrenia.
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Anti-RAGE antibody ameliorates severe thermal injury in rats through regulating cellular immune function.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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The receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) participates in a variety of pathophysiological processes and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of an anti-RAGE neutralizing antibody for severe thermal injury in rats, and to determine whether the treatment worked via modulating cellular immune function.
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Anti-diabetic effects of polysaccharides from Talinum triangulare in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic male mice.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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The present study evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of the polysaccharides obtained from Talinum triangulare (TTP). Two TTP doses (150mg/kg and 300mg/kg·bw/d) were administered orally to normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic male Kunming mice, respectively. The TTP hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects were evaluated by testing the fast blood glucose (FBG) level, fasting serum insulin (FINS), and serum lipids (TC, TG, HDL, LDL) as well as the body, hepar and kidney weights. After four weeks administration, the low-dose group 150mg/kg·bw/d) and high-dose group (300mg/kg·bw/d) showed a marked FBG fall rate of 29.85% and 41.18% (FBG fall rate%=((Diabetic control-TTP group)/Diabetic control)×100%). The results of FBG and serum lipids indicate that TTP possess significant hypoglycemic effect, but no significant hypolipidemic effect. These results suggest the potential use of TTP as a functional food for the treatment of type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM).
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Mitochondrial genomes of domestic animals need scrutiny.
Mol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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More than 1000 complete or near-complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences have been deposited in GenBank for eight common domestic animals (cattle, dog, goat, horse, pig, sheep, yak and chicken) and their close wild ancestors or relatives, as well. Nevertheless, few efforts have been performed to evaluate the sequence data quality. Herein, we conducted a phylogenetic survey of these complete or near-complete mtDNA sequences based on mtDNA haplogroup trees for the eight animals. We show that errors due to artificial recombination, surplus of mutations and phantom mutations do exist in 14.5% (194/1342) of mtDNA sequences and all of them should be treated with wide caution. We propose some caveats for future mtDNA studies of domestic animals.
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Insights into the Apoptotic Death of Immune Cells in Sepsis.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Sepsis with subsequent multiple-organ dysfunction is a distinct systemic inflammatory response to concealed or obvious infection, and it is a leading cause of death in intensive care units. Thus, one of the key goals in critical care medicine is to develop novel therapeutic strategies that will affect favorably on outcome of septic patients. In addition to systemic response to infection, apoptosis is implicated to be an important mechanism of the death of immune cells, including neutrophils, macrophages, T lymphocytes, and dendritic cells, and it is usually followed by the development of multiple-organ failure in sepsis. The implication of apoptosis of immune cells is now highlighted by multiple studies that demonstrate that prevention of cell apoptosis can improve survival in relevant animal models of severe sepsis. In this review, we focus on major apoptotic death pathways and molecular mechanisms that regulate apoptosis of different immune cells, and advances in these areas that may be translated into more promising therapies for the prevention and treatment of severe sepsis.
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Internal and external carotid artery embolism following facial injection of autologous fat.
Aesthet Surg J
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Autologous fat injection is a common aesthetic procedure for soft-tissue augmentation of the face. Although this procedure is generally regarded as safe, several patients have experienced acute visual loss or cerebral infarction after these injections. We describe a case of internal and external carotid artery fat embolism that occurred following injection of autologous fat into the face. It appeared that the injected fat entered a branch of the left external carotid artery and that the embolus likely migrated into the left internal carotid artery and distally into the left ophthalmic artery, left anterior artery, and middle cerebral artery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5:
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Positively selected genes of the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) locomotion system.
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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While the recent release of the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) genome has made the tree shrew an increasingly viable experimental animal model for biomedical research, further study of the genome may facilitate new insights into the applicability of this model. For example, though the tree shrew has a rapid rate of speed and strong jumping ability, there are limited studies on its locomotion ability. In this study we used the available Chinese tree shrew genome information and compared the evolutionary pattern of 407 locomotion system related orthologs among five mammals (human, rhesus monkey, mouse, rat and dog) and the Chinese tree shrew. Our analyses identified 29 genes with significantly high ? (Ka/Ks ratio) values and 48 amino acid sites in 14 genes showed significant evidence of positive selection in the Chinese tree shrew. Some of these positively selected genes, e.g. HOXA6 (homeobox A6) and AVP (arginine vasopressin), play important roles in muscle contraction or skeletal morphogenesis. These results provide important clues in understanding the genetic bases of locomotor adaptation in the Chinese tree shrew.
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Mutation and expression analysis of the IDH1, IDH2, DNMT3A, and MYD88 genes in colorectal cancer.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death around the world. Its genetic mechanism was intensively investigated in the past decades with findings of a number of canonical oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes such as APC, KRAS, and TP53. Recent genome-wide association and sequencing studies have identified a series of promising oncogenes including IDH1, IDH2, DNMT3A, and MYD88 in hematologic malignancies. However, whether these genes are involved in CRC remains unknown. In this study, we screened the hotspot mutations of these four genes in 305 CRC samples from Han Chinese by direct sequencing. mRNA expression levels of these genes were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in paired cancerous and paracancerous tissues. Association analyses between mRNA expression levels and different cancerous stages were performed. Except for one patient harboring IDH1 mutation p.I99M, we identified no previously reported hotspot mutations in colorectal cancer tissues. mRNA expression levels of IDH1, DNMT3A, and MYD88, but not IDH2, were significantly decreased in the cancerous tissues comparing with the paired paracancerous normal tissues. Taken together, the hotspot mutations of IDH1, IDH2, DNMT3A, and MYD88 gene were absent in CRC. Aberrant mRNA expression of IDH1, DNMT3A, and MYD88 gene might be actively involved in the development of CRC.
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[Effect of inflammatory factors on cell proliferation and apoptosis in insulin-like grown factor 1-slienced human coronary artery smooth muscle cells].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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To study the effect of inflammatory factors on cell proliferation and apoptosis in insulin-like grown factor 1(IGF1)-slienced human coronary artery smooth muscle cells(hCASMCs).
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Molecular evolution in the CREB1 signal pathway and a rare haplotype in CREB1 with genetic predisposition to schizophrenia.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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CREB1 is a cAMP responsive transcriptional factor which plays a key role in neural development. CREB1 signal pathway (CSP) has been implicated repeatedly in studies of predisposition for schizophrenia. We speculated that CSP has undergone positive selection during evolution of modern human and some genes that have undergone natural selection in the past may predispose to schizophrenia (SCZ) in modern time. Positive selection and association analysis were employed to explore the molecular evolution of CSP and association with schizophrenia. Our results showed a pan-ethnic selection event on NRG1 and CREB1, as confirmed in all 14 ethnic populations studied, which also suggested a selection process occurred before the "Out of Africa" scenario. Analysis of 62 SNPs covering 6 CSP genes in 2019 Han Chinese (976 SCZ patients and 1043 healthy individuals) showed an association of two SNPs (rs4379857, P = 0.009, OR [95% CI]: 1.200 [1.379-1.046]; rs2238751, P = 0.023, OR [95% CI]: 1.253 [1.522-1.032]) with SCZ. However, none of these significances survived after multiple testing corrections. Nonetheless, we observed an association of a rare CREB1 haplotype CCGGC (Bonferroni corrected P = 1.74 × 10(-5)) with SCZ. Our study showed that there was substantial population heterogeneity in genetic predisposition to SCZ, and different genes in the CSP pathway may predispose to SCZ in different populations.
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mRNA expression and DNA methylation in three key genes involved in caste differentiation in female honeybees (Apis mellifera).
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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In honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies, queens and workers are alternative forms of the adult female honeybee that develop from genetically identical zygotes but that depend on differential nourishment. Queens and workers display distinct morphologies, anatomies and behavior, better known as caste differentiation. Despite some basic insights, the exact mechanism responsible for this phenomenon, especially at the molecular level, remains unclear although some progress has been achieved. In this study, we examined mRNA levels of the TOR (target of rapamycin) and Dnmt3 (DNA methyltransferase 3) genes, closely related to caste differentiation in honeybees. We also investigated mRNA expression of the S6K (similar to RPS6-p70-protein kinase) gene linked closely to organismal growth and development in queen and worker larvae (1-day and 3-day old). Last, we investigated the methylation status of these three genes in corresponding castes. We found no difference in mRNA expression for the three genes between 1st instar queen and worker larvae; however, 3rd instar queen larvae had a higher level of TOR mRNA than worker larvae. Methylation levels of all three genes were lower in queen larvae than worker larvae but the differences were not statistically significant. These findings provide basic data for broadening our understanding of caste differentiation in female honeybees.
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Effects of intensive insulin therapy combined with low molecular weight heparin anticoagulant therapy on severe pancreatitis.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The current study explored the effects of intensive insulin therapy (IIT) combined with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) anticoagulant therapy on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 134 patients with SAP that received treatment between June 2008 and June 2012 were divided randomly into groups A (control; n=33), B (IIT; n=33), C (LMWH; n=34) and D (IIT + LMWH; n=34). Group A were treated routinely. Group B received continuous pumped insulin, as well as the routine treatment, to maintain the blood sugar level between 4.4 and 6.1 mmol/l. Group C received a subcutaneous injection of LMWH every 12 h in addition to the routine treatment. Group D received IIT + LMWH and the routine treatment. The white blood cell count, hemodiastase, serum albumin, arterial partial pressure of oxygen and prothrombin time were recorded prior to treatment and 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after the initiation of treatment. The intestinal function recovery time, incidence rate of multiple organ failure (MOF), length of hospitalization and fatality rates were observed. IIT + LMWH noticeably increased the white blood cell count, hemodiastase level, serum albumin level and the arterial partial pressure of oxygen in the patients with SAP (P<0.05). It markedly shortened the intestinal recovery time and the length of stay and reduced the incidence rate of MOF, the surgery rate and the fatality rate (P<0.05). It did not aggravate the hemorrhagic tendency of SAP (P>0.05). IIT + LMWH had a noticeably improved clinical curative effect on SAP compared with that of the other treatments.
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A matrilineal genetic legacy from the last glacial maximum confers susceptibility to schizophrenia in Han Chinese.
J Genet Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely reported in schizophrenia patients. To dissect the matrilineal structure of Han Chinese with or without schizophrenia and to decipher the maternal influence and evolutionary history of schizophrenia, a total of 1212 schizophrenia patients and 1005 matched healthy controls, all of Han Chinese origin, were recruited in Hunan Province, China. We classified haplogroup for each individual based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variations and compared the haplogroup distribution pattern between cases and controls. Haplogroup B5a presented a higher frequency in cases than in controls (P = 0.02, OR = 1.67, 95% CI = [1.09, 2.56]), and this result could be confirmed by permutation analysis. Age estimation of haplogroup B5a in cases revealed a much younger age than that of controls, which was coincident with the Northern Hemisphere deglaciation at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum. Analysis of complete mtDNA in five patients belonging to haplogroup B5a showed that this background effect might be caused by haplogroup-defining variants m.8584G>A and m.10398A>G. Our results showed that matrilineal risk factor for schizophrenia had an ancient origin and might acquire a predisposing effect on schizophrenia due to the environment change and/or orchestration with other nuclear genetic factors appeared recently in human evolutionary history.
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Abandon the mouse research ship? Not just yet!
Shock
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Many preclinical studies in critical care medicine and related disciplines rely on hypothesis-driven research in mice. The underlying premise posits that mice sufficiently emulate numerous pathophysiologic alterations produced by trauma/sepsis and can serve as an experimental platform for answering clinically relevant questions. Recently, the lay press severely criticized the translational relevance of mouse models in critical care medicine. A series of provocative editorials were elicited by a highly publicized research report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS; February 2013), which identified an unrecognized gene expression profile mismatch between human and murine leukocytes following burn/trauma/endotoxemia. Based on their data, the authors concluded that mouse models of trauma/inflammation are unsuitable for studying corresponding human conditions. We believe this conclusion was not justified. In conjunction with resulting negative commentary in the popular press, it can seriously jeopardize future basic research in critical care medicine. We will address some limitations of that PNAS report to provide a framework for discussing its conclusions and attempt to present a balanced summary of strengths/weaknesses of use of mouse models. While many investigators agree that animal research is a central component for improved patient outcomes, it is important to acknowledge known limitations in clinical translation from mouse to man. The scientific community is responsible to discuss valid limitations without overinterpretation. Hopefully, a balanced view of the strengths/weaknesses of using animals for trauma/endotoxemia/critical care research will not result in hasty discount of the clear need for using animals to advance treatment of critically ill patients.
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Roles of Tregs in development of hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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To assess systematically the association between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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IDH1 p.R132 mutations may not be actively involved in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Recent studies have identified prevalent isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) codon 132 mutations (p.R132) in gliomas and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The IDH1 mutations lead to a loss of its normal enzymatic activity and acquisition of neomorphic activity in production of alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) and 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which finally cause alterations of multiple gene expression of tumorigenesis-associated alpha-KG-dependent enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine whether IDH1 p.R132 mutations are involved in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma
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No association between genetic variants of the LRRK2 gene and schizophrenia in Han Chinese.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Mitochondrial dysfunction was widely reported in schizophrenia patients in recent studies. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a mitochondrial protein, and mutations in the LRRK2 gene can induce mitochondrial dysfunction. LRRK2 mutations have been reported to be the most frequent genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). We were interested in whether LRRK2 variants also play a role in schizophrenia. In this study, we genotyped 12 genetic variants (including 4 tag SNPs and 8 disease-associated variants) in the LRRK2 gene in a total of 2449 samples composed of two independent Han Chinese schizophrenia case-control cohorts (486 schizophrenia patients and 480 healthy controls from Hunan Province; 624 schizophrenia patients and 859 healthy controls from Shanghai). We compared the genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies of those SNPs between cases and controls. Statistical analyses revealed no association between LRRK2 variants/haplotypes and schizophrenia in these two schizophrenia case-control cohorts and the combined samples. Our results indicated that the LRRK2 variants are unlikely to be actively involved in schizophrenia in Han Chinese.
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Genetic variations of mitochondrial antiviral signaling gene (MAVS) in domestic chickens.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) gene plays a key role in antiviral regulation in mammals potentially by activating IRF3/7 and NF-?B and leading to the induction of type I interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral and inflammatory responses. In this study, we screened genetic polymorphisms of the MAVS gene in various Chinese domestic chicken breeds/populations and evaluated its potential effect on gene expression. Among the sequenced fragment (4678bp), a total of 75 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in 46 chickens from 10 breeds/populations, including 30 coding SNPs and 45 non-coding SNPs. Extremely high haplotype diversity (37 nucleotide haplotypes, 18 amino acid haplotypes) was observed in the coding region (CDS), and a similar pattern of high polymorphisms was also observed for the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). Luciferase assays of two representative 3'-UTR haplotypes were performed in both HEK293 cells and DF-1 chicken fibroblast cells, and we found that they were differentially associated with different abilities on regulating mRNA expression level (P<0.05). Collectively, we observed a considerably high genetic variability of the MAVS gene, and the 3'-UTR variants had an ability to regulate mRNA expression. These results would cast some clues on understanding the potential role of MAVS on viral resistance in chicken.
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Role of mitofusin-2 in high mobility group box-1 protein-mediated apoptosis of T cells in vitro.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Background: High mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, which is recognized as a danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) triggering activation of the innate immune system. Previous studies have shown that HMGB1 also plays a role in T cell-mediated immunity, but the effect of HMGB1 on apoptosis of T cells and its precise mechanism remain to be determined. Methods: Two kinds of apoptosis assay techniques were used, i.e., Annexin V-FITC conjunction with PI to identify early apoptotic cells, Hoechst 33342 staining for double-stranded DNA to observe nuclear fragmentation or apoptotic body. The activation status of caspase-3, caspase-8, as well as caspase-9 was examined by colorimetric assay. The dynamic changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) was monitored by flow cytometry. Overexpression of Mfn2 was preformed by lentiviral vector transfection. The mRNA and protein levels of Mfn2 were determined by RT-PCR and Western-blotting. Results: Treatment of Jurkat T cells with recombinant human HMGB1 (rhHMGB1) causes a significant dose-dependent increase in percentage of apoptotic cells. When T cells are incubated with HMGB1 they express decreased mitochondria fusion-related protein mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) and activate mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via elevation of [Ca(2+)]i, Bax insertion, and activation of caspase. Furthermore, overexpression of Mfn2 ameliorates the apoptosis of T cells induced by HMGB1. This occurs at least partly through Mfn2 keeps Ca(2+) homeostasis in T cells evidenced by monitoring [Ca(2+)]i dynamics. Conclusion: HMGB1 can trigger apoptosis of T lymphocytes through mitochondrial death pathway associated with [Ca(2+)]i elevation. Mfn2 plays a pivotal role in this process, and it might be a novel therapeutic target in T cell apoptosis related disorders. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Diverse interleukin-7 mRNA transcripts in Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Interleukin-7 (IL7) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is actively involved in the immune system. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. However, there is a lack of biological knowledge about the immune system of the tree shrew. In this study, we cloned the IL7 gene (tIL7) in the Chinese tree shrew and quantified the expression of mRNA transcripts in eight tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, intestine, skeletal muscle and brain) from 20 individuals. Eleven tIL7 mRNA transcripts were identified in different tissues. The canonical form (tIL7c) had a length of 1817 bp and encoded a predicted gene product with 177 amino acids. Phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences revealed a considerably large genetic difference between tree shrew and human. Quantification of mRNA expression of transcripts tIL7c, tIL7-sv1, tIL7-sv2 and tIL7-sv3 showed that these transcripts were expressed in all tissues, albeit the expression levels varied in different tissues. Transcripts tIL7c, tIL7-sv1, and tIL7-sv2 had the lowest expression in brain, and tIL7-sv3 had a dramatically high mRNA expression in skeletal muscle and heart. The mRNA expression levels of tIL7c and tIL7-sv1 were significantly increased upon ploy(I:C) stimulation in tree shrew primary renal cells. As with human full-length IL7, tIL7c, tIL7-sv1, tIL7-sv2 and tIL7-sv3 showed similar a subcellular localization pattern. Our results identified diverse tIL7 transcripts in the Chinese tree shrew, which may play a potential role in modulating IL7-regulated biological effects.
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Macrophage polarization in inflammatory diseases.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Diversity and plasticity are two hallmarks of macrophages. M1 macrophages (classically activated macrophages) are pro-inflammatory and have a central role in host defense against infection, while M2 macrophages (alternatively activated macrophages) are associated with responses to anti-inflammatory reactions and tissue remodeling, and they represent two terminals of the full spectrum of macrophage activation. Transformation of different phenotypes of macrophages regulates the initiation, development, and cessation of inflammatory diseases. Here we reviewed the characters and functions of macrophage polarization in infection, atherosclerosis, obesity, tumor, asthma, and sepsis, and proposed that targeting macrophage polarization and skewing their phenotype to adapt to the microenvironment might hold great promise for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup confers genetic susceptibility to nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chaoshanese from Guangdong, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent studies have shown association of mtDNA background with cancer development. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region variation of 201 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and of 201 normal controls from Chaoshan Han Chinese to discern mtDNA haplogroup effect on the disease onset. Binary logistic regression analysis with adjustment for gender and age revealed that the haplogroup R9 (P = 0.011, OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.16-3.16), particularly its sub-haplogroup F1 (P = 0.015, OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.18-5.00), were associated significantly with increased NPC risk. These haplogroups were further confirmed to confer high NPC risk in males and/or individuals ? 40 years of age, but not in females or in subjects <40 years old. Our results indicated that mtDNA background confers genetic susceptibility to NPC in Chaoshan Han Chinese, and R9, particularly its sub-haplogroup F1, is a risk factor for NPC.
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[Significance of pseudocapsule in the excision of pituitary adenomas in transsphenoidal surgery].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To explore the significance of pseudocapsule in the excision of pituitary adenomas in transsphenoidal surgery.
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[Experimental study on the treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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To explore the optimal treatment for non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis (NTMK).
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Generalized pure cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease: a link between inflammation and cancer not associated with mitochondrial DNA and SLC29A3 gene mutation?
Discov Med
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Recently, we described a case of generalized pure cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease in a 43-year-old Asian man in JAMA. The lesions distributed on nearly all of the skin of the whole body, except for mucous sites. Molecular, immunophenotypic, and sequencing analyses seem to define it as a histiocytic-mesenchymal transition and intermediate proliferative histiocytosis not associated with mtDNA large deletion and pathogenic mutation, as well as the SLC29A3 gene mutation.
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Induced furoeudesmanes: a defense mechanism against stress in Laggera pterodonta, a Chinese herbal plant.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Laggera pterodonta displays different phenotypes in its natural habitat but expresses a uniform phenotype with large, broad leaves and fewer secondary metabolites when grown under optimal conditions. The production of six furoeudesmanes is only induced when L. pterodonta encounters stresses, conferring host resistance against a broad spectrum of plant invaders.
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No association between genetic polymorphisms of the NDUFS7 gene and schizophrenia in Han Chinese.
Psychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes toward the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases. NADH dehydrogenase Fe-S protein 7 (NDUFS7), a subunit of respiratory chain complex I, has been reported recently to be associated with bipolar disorder. To test whether this gene can confer a wide variety of psychiatric disorders, we carried out a case-control association analysis of three tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2074896, rs2074897, and rs2074898) in the NDUFS7 gene by sequencing 330 Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia and 330 well-matched healthy controls. We found no significant difference in the frequency distributions of alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes between the cases and the controls, indicating no active role of this gene in schizophrenia.
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The Significance and Regulatory Mechanisms of Innate Immune Cells in the Development of Sepsis.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Sepsis with subsequent multiple organ dysfunction is a pronounced systemic inflammatory response to concealed or known infection and is a leading cause of death in intensive care units. The survival rate of severe sepsis and septic shock has not markedly improved in recent decades despite a great number of receptors and molecules involved in its pathogenesis have been found and taken as therapeutic targets. It is essential to thoroughly understand the host cell-mediated immunity involved in the development of sepsis and sepsis-related organ injury. Recent studies indicate that innate immune cells (such as neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, T lymphocytes, regulatory T cells, and natural killer T cells) play pivotal roles in the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis and regulation of immune responses during sepsis. Therefore, an understanding of the biological significance and pathophysiological roles of different cell populations might gain novel insights into the immunoregulatory mechanisms of sepsis. In this review, we focus on major immune cells that may play potential roles in the contribution of new therapeutic approaches for sepsis.
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[Advancement in the research of mechanism of immune dysfunction in sepsis and the regulatory effects of Xuebijing injection].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulting from a host response to infection. The early stage of sepsis is characterized by excessive inflammatory response, accompanied by immune dysfunction characterized by aggravating cellular immunosuppression. The vast majority of patients with sepsis survive the initial excessive inflammatory response, but die of hospital-acquired infection, opportunistic pathogenic bacteria infection, latent virus reactivation, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. These facts indicate that immunosuppression may be a significant cause of exacerbation of the illness even death of the septic patients. The primary cellular mechanisms in inducing immune dysfunction include immune dysfunction of T lymphocytes, negative regulation of regulatory T lymphocytes and dendritic cells, and damage of intestinal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue. Xuebijing injection is a complex Chinese patent medicine, which is widely used in the treatment of sepsis. It has a potential immunoregulation ability, as well as effects on bacteriostasis, anti-endotoxin and anti-inflammation. Its target and mechanism of action need to be explored further.
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[Plasma gelsolin level and its relationship with the prognosis of patients with severe burns].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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To observe the changes in plasma gelsolin (pGSN) level of patients with severe burn and to explore its relationship with sepsis and death of patients.
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Effect of Xuebijing injection on systemic lupus erythematosus in mice.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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To observe the effects of Xuebijing injection on dendritic cells (DCs) and T lymphocytes, and the potential mechanisms of its therapeutic effect on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
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[Association of matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene polymorphisms with subtypes of ischemic stroke].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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To assess the association between matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MM-3) gene polymorphisms and subtypes of ischemic stroke (IS) in northern Han Chinese population.
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No association of the LRRK2 genetic variants with Alzheimers disease in Han Chinese individuals.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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The leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2) gene has been regarded as 1 of the most common genetic causes of Parkinsons disease (PD). We hypothesized that LRRK2-susceptible allele(s) for PD might pose a risk for Alzheimers disease (AD). In this study, we screened 12 LRRK2 gene variants in 2 independent cohorts from southwestern China (341 AD patients and 435 normal individuals) and eastern China (297 AD patients and 384 normal individuals), to discern the potential association between this gene and AD. No variant was identified to be associated with AD in either case-control sample. As both of the cohorts were of Han Chinese origin, we combined the LRRK2 variant data for the 2 sample sets together (a total of 638 AD patients and 819 normal individuals) and still found no association between the LRRK2 gene and AD, suggesting that LRRK2 gene variants may not affect the development of AD in Han Chinese individuals.
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Decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number in the hippocampus and peripheral blood during opiate addiction is mediated by autophagy and can be salvaged by melatonin.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease that is a serious social problem and causes enormous financial burden. Because mitochondrial abnormalities have been associated with opiate addiction, we examined the effect of morphine on mtDNA levels in rat and mouse models of addiction and in cultured cells. We found that mtDNA copy number was significantly reduced in the hippocampus and peripheral blood of morphine-addicted rats and mice compared with control animals. Concordantly, decreased mtDNA copy number and elevated mtDNA damage were observed in the peripheral blood from opiate-addicted patients, indicating detrimental effects of drug abuse and stress. In cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and mouse neurons, morphine treatment caused many mitochondrial defects, including a reduction in mtDNA copy number that was mediated by autophagy. Knockdown of the Atg7 gene was able to counteract the loss of mtDNA copy number induced by morphine. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant melatonin restored mtDNA content and neuronal outgrowth and prevented the increase in autophagy upon morphine treatment. In mice, coadministration of melatonin with morphine ameliorated morphine-induced behavioral sensitization, analgesic tolerance and mtDNA content reduction. During drug withdrawal in opiate-addicted patients and improvement of protracted abstinence syndrome, we observed an increase of serum melatonin level. Taken together, our study indicates that opioid addiction is associated with mtDNA copy number reduction and neurostructural remodeling. These effects appear to be mediated by autophagy and can be salvaged by melatonin.
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Connexin-43 can delay early recurrence and metastasis in patients with hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma and low serum alpha-fetoprotein after radical hepatectomy.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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We studied the relationships among Cx43, CD105, and VEGF in specimens of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with different serum AFP levels with respect to recurrence and metastasis.
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Retrieving Y chromosomal haplogroup trees using GWAS data.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Phylogenetically informative Y chromosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) integrated in DNA chips have not been sufficiently explored in most genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Herein, we introduce a pipeline to retrieve Y-SNP data. We introduce the software YTool (http://mitotool.org/ytool/) to handle conversion, filtering, and annotation of the data. Genome-wide SNP data from populations in Myanmar are used to construct a haplogroup tree for 117 Y chromosomes based on 369 high-confidence Y-SNPs. Parallel genotyping and published resequencing data of Y chromosomes confirm the validity of our pipeline. We apply this strategy to the CEU HapMap data set and construct a haplogroup tree with 107 Y-SNPs from 39 individuals. The retrieved Y-SNPs can discern the parental genetic structure of populations. Given the massive quantity of data from GWAS, this method facilitates future investigations of Y chromosome diversity.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 27 November 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.272.
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Prevalence of blindness and causes of visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in southern. Jiangsu Province of China.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Objective: The prevalence of blindness and low vision among adults aged ?50 years in southern Jiangsu Province were surveyed and estimated. Methods: Cluster sampling was employed from January to September 2010 to randomly select 6,722 individuals aged ?50 years in 28 clusters from southern Jiangsu Province. The survey was preceded by a pilot study, which refined operational methods and conducted quality assurance evaluation. Eligible individuals were registered for visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Results: A total of 6,155 individuals were recruited, and a response rate of 91.50% was obtained. The prevalence of bilateral blindness and low vision were found to be 0.76% and 1.37%, respectively. Subjects with monocular blindness and low vision were 3.27% and 3.48%, respectively. Among the individuals evaluated, 201 were detected to have monocular blindness and 47 with bilateral blindness. In addition, 55 of the 201 subjects with monocular blindness were found to suffer from low vision of the other eye. Among the 295 subjects with blind eyes, 116 (39.32%), 31 (10.51%), and 28 (9.49%) were caused by cataract, high myopia macular degeneration, and atrophic eyeballs, respectively. In the 437 subjects with low-vision eyes, 223 (51.03%), 41 (9.38%), and 41 (9.38%) had cataract, high myopia macular degeneration, and age-related macular degeneration, respectively. Conclusions: Blindness and low vision are caused by descending cataract, age-related macular degeneration, high myopia macular degeneration, and atrophic eyeballs.
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Overactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and suppression of mitofusin-2 expression are two independent events in high mobility group box 1 protein-mediated T cell immune dysfunction.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a critical proinflammatory cytokine, has recently been identified to be an immunostimulatory signal involved in sepsis-related immune dysfunction when released extracellularly, but the potential mechanism involved remains elusive. Here, we showed that the treatment with HMGB1 in vitro inhibited T lymphocyte immune response and expression of mitofusin-2 (Mfn-2; a member of the mitofusin family) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Upregulation of Mfn-2 expression attenuated the suppressive effect of HMGB1 on T cell immune function. The phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was markedly upregulated by treating with high amount of HMGB1, while pretreatment with ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK-specific inhibitors (U0126 and SB203580) could attenuate suppression of T cell immune function and nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) activation induced by HMGB1, respectively. HMGB1-induced activity of ERK1/2 and p38 was not fully inhibited in the presence of U0126 or SB203580. Interestingly, overexpression of Mfn-2 had no marked effect on HMGB1-mediated activation of MAPK, but could attenuate the suppressive effect of HMGB1 on the activity of NFAT. Thus, the mechanisms involved in HMGB1-induced T cell immune dysfunction in vitro at least partly include suppression of Mfn-2 expression, overactivation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and intervention of NFAT activation, while the protective effect of Mfn-2 on T cell immune dysfunction induced by HMGB1 is dependent on other signaling pathway associated with NFAT, but not MAPK. Taken together, we conclude that overactivation of MAPK and suppression of Mfn-2 expression are two independent events in HMGB1-mediated T cell immune dysfunction.
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Advances in the management of acute liver failure.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Acute liver failure (ALF) is an uncommon but dramatic clinical syndrome characterized by hepatic encephalopathy and a bleeding tendency due to abrupt loss of liver function caused by massive or submassive liver necrosis in a patient with a previously healthy liver. The causes of ALF encompass a wide variety of toxic, viral, metabolic, vascular and autoimmune insults to the liver, and identifying the correct cause can be difficult or even impossible. Many patients with ALF develop a cascade of serious complications involving almost every organ system, and death is mostly due to multi-organ failure, hemorrhage, infection, and intracranial hypertension. Fortunately, the outcome of ALF has been improved in the last 3 decades through the specific treatment for the disease of certain etiology, and the advanced intensive care management. For most severely affected patients who fail to recover after treatment, rapid evaluation for transfer to a transplantation center and consideration for liver transplantation is mandatory so that transplantation can be applied before contraindications develop. This review focuses on the recent advances in the understanding of various contributing etiologies, the administration of etiology-specific treatment to alleviate the liver injury, and the management of complications (e.g., encephalopathy, coagulopathy, cardiovascular instability, respiratory failure, renal failure, sepsis and metabolic disturbance) in patients with ALF. Assessment of the need for liver transplantation is also presented.
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Apparent mtDNA sequence heterogeneity in single human blood CD34(+) cells is markedly affected by storage and transport.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Single CD34(+) cells from adult human peripheral blood show mtDNA sequence heterogeneity. In this study, we compared mtDNA sequence variation in single CD34(+) cells from peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells (MNCs) from the same donors but under different conditions of storage and transport: group I, MNCs from heparinized PB that inadvertently required six days to be transported to the testing laboratory; group II, MNCs which were isolated from PB within a day of phlebotomy and frozen prior to transportation and storage. We observed more cell death for MNCs of group I than group II. Concordantly, group I CD34(+) cells had a very low potential for hematopoietic colony formation in vitro compared with group II cells. CD34(+) cells of group II showed an unexpectedly higher level of mtDNA sequence heterogeneity than was present in group I cells. These observations suggest that reduced mtDNA sequence heterogeneity in single CD34(+) cells of group I was likely due to elimination of cells harboring mutations. CD34(+) cells that survive stress ex vivo may be more enriched in quiescent primitive hematopoietic stem cells, with fewer mtDNA mutations than are present in committed progenitors. Technically, attention is required to conditions of preparation of human blood samples for single cell mtDNA analysis.
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Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a small experimental animal with a close affinity to primates. This species has long been proposed to be an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. Despite decades of study, there is no pure breed for this animal, and the overall genetic diversity of wild tree shrews remains largely unknown. In order to obtain a set of genetic markers for evaluating the genetic diversity of tree shrew wild populations and tracing the lineages in inbreeding populations, we developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the genomic DNA of the tree shrew. An analysis of a wild population of 117 individuals collected from the suburb of Kunming, China, showed that these loci exhibited a highly expected heterozygosity (0.616). These 12 microsatellites were sufficient for individual identification and parentage analysis. The microsatellite markers developed in this study will be of use in evaluating genetic diversity and lineage tracing for the tree shrew.
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[Molecular evidence on the phylogenetic position of tree shrews].
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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The tree shrew is currently located in the Order Scandentia and is widely distributed in Southeast Asia, South Asia, and South China. Due to its unique characteristics, such as small body size, high brain-to-body mass ratio, short reproductive cycle and life span, and low-cost of maintenance, the tree shrew has been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. However, there is unresolved debate regarding the phylogenetic affinity of tree shrews to primates and their phylogenetic position in Euarchontoglires. To help settle this debate, we summarized the available molecular evidence on the phylogenetic position of the tree shrew. Most nuclear DNA data, including recent genome data, suggested that the tree shrew belongs to the Euarchonta clade harboring primates and flying lemurs (colugos). However, analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data suggested a close relationship to lagomorphs and rodents. These different clustering patterns could be explained by nuclear gene data and mtDNA data discrepancies, as well as the different phylogenetic approaches used in previous studies. Taking all available conclusions together, the robust data from whole genome of this species supports tree shrews being genetically closely related to primates.
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[Tree shrews under the spot light: emerging model of human diseases].
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Animal models are indispensible in biomedical research and have made tremendous contributions to answer fundamental questions on human biology, disease mechanisms, and to the development of new drugs and diagnostic tools. Due to the limitations of rodent models in translational medicine, tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), the closest relative of primates, have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses. Here we discuss the recent progress in tree shrew biology and the development of tree shrews as human disease models including infectious diseases, metabolic diseases, neurological and psychiatric diseases, and cancers. Meanwhile, the current problems and future perspectives of the tree shrew model are explored.
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Association between MT-CO3 haplotypes and high-altitude adaptation in Tibetan chicken.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Genetic mutation in cytochrome c oxidase subunit III gene (MT-CO3) could influence the kinetics of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which catalyzes oxygen transport capacity in oxidative phosphorylation. However, the potential relationship between MT-CO3 variants and high-altitude adaptation remains poorly understood in Tibetan chicken. Here, we sequenced MT-CO3 gene of 125 Tibetan chickens and 144 Chinese domestic chickens in areas at a low elevation (below 1,000 m). Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected; and five of them (m.10081A>G, m.10115G>A, m.10270G>A, m.10336A>G and m.10447C>T) shared by Tibetan chicken and lowland chicken with the significant difference in their respective allele frequencies. Nine haplotypes (H1-H9) were finally defined. Among them, haplotype H4 was positively associated with high-altitude adaptation whereas haplotypes H6, H7 and H8 had negative association with high-altitude adaptation. The Median-joining profile suggested that haplotype H5 had the ancestral position to the other haplotypes but had no significant relationship with high-altitude adaptation. However, there was only m.10081A>G mutation differed from haplotype H4 and H5. Results also suggested that chickens with A allele at m.10081A>G, had over 2.6 times than those with G allele in the probability of the ability to adapt hypoxia. It suggests that the synonymous mutation m.10081A>G may be a prerequisite for shaping high-altitude adaptation-specific haplotypes.
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Construction and expression of an eukaryotic expression vector containing the IER3 gene.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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More and more research indicate that the immediately early response gene 3 (IER3) is involved in many biological processes, such as apoptosis and immunoreaction, as well as viral infection, tumorigenesis and tumour progression.
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An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination.
Mitochondrion
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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The determination of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups is not only crucial in anthropological and forensic studies, but is also helpful in the medical field to prevent establishment of wrong disease associations. In recent years, high-throughput technologies and the huge amounts of data they create, as well as the regular updates to the mtDNA phylogenetic tree, mean that there is a need for an automated approach which can make a speedier determination of haplogroups than can be made by using the traditional manual method. Here, we update the MitoTool (www.mitotool.org) by incorporating a novel scoring system for the determination of mtDNA into haplogroups, which has advantages on speed, accuracy and ease of implementation. In order to make the access to MitoTool easier, we also provide a stand-alone version of the program that will run on a local computer and this version is freely available at the MitoTool website.
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[Research progress of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON; MIM 535000) is one of the most common mitochondrial diseases, with a clinical manifestation of painless, acute or sub-acute bilateral visual loss in young adults leading to blindness and central scotoma. Over 95% of LHON patients were caused by one of three primary mtDNA mutations (m.11778G>A, m.3460G>A and m.14484T>C). Incomplete penetrance and gender bias are two riddles of this disease. Here we summarized recent research progress of LHON, with a focus on the molecular pathogenic mechanisms, clinical features, in vitro experiments and animal models, and prevention and treatment of LHON. In particular, we presented the main findings and challenges in our recent efforts to decipher genetic susceptibility and mechanism of LHON in Chinese patients.
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BRG1 is required for formation of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci induced by oncogenic RAS or BRCA1 loss.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Cellular senescence is an important tumor suppression mechanism. We have previously reported that both oncogene-induced dissociation of BRCA1 from chromatin and BRCA1 knockdown itself drive senescence by promoting formation of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF). However, the molecular mechanism by which BRCA1 regulates SAHF formation and senescence is unclear. BRG1 is a chromatin-remodeling factor that interacts with BRCA1 and pRB. Here we show that BRG1 is required for SAHF formation and senescence induced by oncogenic RAS or BRCA1 loss. The interaction between BRG1 and BRCA1 is disrupted during senescence. This correlates with an increased level of chromatin-associated BRG1 in senescent cells. BRG1 knockdown suppresses the formation of SAHF and senescence, while it has no effect on BRCA1 chromatin dissociation induced by oncogenic RAS, indicating that BRG1 functions downstream of BRCA1 chromatin dissociation. Furthermore, BRG1 knockdown inhibits SAHF formation and senescence induced by BRCA1 knockdown. Conversely, BRG1 overexpression drives SAHF formation and senescence in a DNA damage-independent manner. This effect depends upon BRG1s chromatin-remodeling activity as well as the interaction between BRG1 and pRB. Indeed, the interaction between BRG1 and pRB is enhanced during senescence. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that BRG1s association with the human CDKN2A and CDKN1A gene promoters was enhanced during senescence induced by oncogenic RAS or BRCA1 knockdown. Consistently, knockdown of pRB, p21(CIP1), and p16(INK4a), but not p53, suppressed SAHF formation induced by BRG1. Together, these studies reveal the molecular underpinning by which BRG1 acts downstream of BRCA1 to promote SAHF formation and senescence.
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Mitochondrial dysfunction and nuclear-mitochondrial shuttling of TERT are involved in cell proliferation arrest induced by G-quadruplex ligands.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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G-quadruplex ligands DODC and TMPyP4 have different binding modes to quadruplex structure and cause cell proliferation arrest. Here we showed that DODC was more efficient in cell growth inhibition than TMPyP4. Both G-quadruplex ligands induced nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling and accumulation of TERT in mitochondria. This effect was not fully dependent on cellular oxidative stress. DODC induced robust cell apoptosis by perturbing mitochondrial function intensively. Overexpression of TERT could not counteract the effects of DODC on mitochondrial respiratory function. Taken together, our results suggest that interference of mitochondrial function by DODC is one of main targets for its anti-tumor ability.
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Influence of intensive insulin therapy on vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with severe trauma.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The influence of early-stage intensive insulin therapy on the plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the related parameters in patients with severe trauma and the clinical implication were investigated. Sixty-four cases of severe trauma (injury severity score ?20) with stress hyperglycemia (blood glucose >9 mmol/L) were randomly divided into intensive insulin therapy group and conventional therapy group. ELISA method, radioimmunoassay and density gradient gradation one-step process were used to determine plasma VEGF, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and the number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) at the day of 0, 2, 3, 5 and 7 after admission. Simultaneously, the changes of CRP concentration in plasma were monitored to evaluate inflammatory response. The results showed that plasma levels of observational indexes in patients receiving early-stage intensive insulin therapy were all significantly lower than those in conventional therapy groups 2, 3, 5 and 7 days after admission [for VEGF (ng/L), 122.2±23.8 vs. 135.9±26.5, 109.6±27.3 vs. 129.0±18.4, 88.7±18.2 vs. 102.6±27.3, 54.2±26.4 vs. 85.7±35.2, P<0.05, 0.01, 0.05, 0.05 respectively; for ET-1 (ng/L), 162.8±23.5 vs. 173.7±13.2, 128.6±17.5 vs. 148.8±22.4, 96.5±14.8 vs. 125.7±14.8, 90.7±16.9 vs. 104.9±22.5, P<0.05, 0.01, 0.01, 0.01 respectively; for CRP (mg/L), 23.2±13.8 vs. 31.9±16.5, 13.6±17.3 vs. 23.5±18.4, 8.7±10.2 vs. 15.6±13.3, 5.2±9.4 vs. 10.7±11.2, all P<0.05; for CECs (/0.9 ?L), 10.9±5.6 vs. 13.9±6.2, 8.5±4.9 vs. 11.3±5.3, 6.3±6.4 vs. 9.4±5.7, 4.8±7.1 vs. 7.8±4.8, all P<0.05]. It was concluded that intensive insulin therapy could antagonize the endothelium injury after trauma and reduce inflammation response quickly, which was one of important mechanisms by which intensive insulin therapy improves the prognosis of trauma patients.
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Genome of the Chinese tree shrew.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) possess many features valuable in animals used as experimental models in biomedical research. Currently, there are numerous attempts to employ tree shrews as models for a variety of human disorders: depression, myopia, hepatitis B and C virus infections, and hepatocellular carcinoma, to name a few. Here we present a publicly available annotated genome sequence for the Chinese tree shrew. Phylogenomic analysis of the tree shrew and other mammalians highly support its close affinity to primates. By characterizing key factors and signalling pathways in nervous and immune systems, we demonstrate that tree shrews possess both shared common and unique features, and provide a genetic basis for the use of this animal as a potential model for biomedical research.
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Genetic variants of complement genes ficolin-2, mannose-binding lectin and complement factor H are associated with leprosy in Han Chinese from Southwest China.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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The complement system plays multiple roles in host defense against infection and is supposed to confer genetic susceptibility to leprosy. We aimed to examine whether genetic variants of the Ficolin-2 (FCN2), Mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) and Complement factor H (CFH) genes, which are involved in activation and regulation of the complement system, are associated with leprosy in Han Chinese from Southwest China. 527 leprosy patients and 583 matched controls were recruited from Yunnan Province, China, and were analyzed in this study. We sequenced the promoter region of the FCN2 and MBL2 genes and exon 8 of the FCN2 gene and genotyped three tag SNPs of the CFH gene. Association analysis was performed to discern potential effect of these three genes with leprosy and its subtypes. Luciferase assay was used to characterize the role of different promoter alleles of the FCN2 and MBL2 genes. Genetic variants of FCN2 (rs3811140 and rs7851696), MBL2 (rs11003125, rs7100749, rs11003124 and rs7096206) and CFH (rs1065489 and rs3753395) were significantly associated with leprosy and its subtypes. Haplotypes/genotypes representing low FCN2 and MBL2 transcriptional activity conferred risk to paucibacillary leprosy. Our data confirmed the expected positive association of complement genes with leprosy susceptibility and clinical outcomes in Han Chinese.
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Asymptomatic oral yeast carriage and antifungal susceptibility profile of HIV-infected patients in Kunming, Yunnan Province of China.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Oral Candida colonization and its relation with predisposing factors in HIV-infected patients have received wide concerns during recent decades. In this study, we investigated asymptomatic oral Candida carriage rate, species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of 604 HIV-infected patients and 851 healthy individuals in Kunming, Yunnan Province of China.
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Effects of Tai Chi on the protracted abstinence syndrome: a time trial analysis.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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While exercise has been shown to reduce the negative effects of substance withdrawal symptoms, no research has investigated if Tai Chi, a traditional Chinese exercise, has similar effects. Here, we observed the physiological effects of Tai Chi on protracted abstinence syndrome (PAS) in female heroin addicts by comprehensively inspecting their immune system function, complete blood count, hepatic function and renal function. To determine the psychological effects, we used the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and the rating scale of heroin withdrawal symptoms. We recruited 70 heroin-addicted young women beginning to undergo withdrawal and randomly assigned them into two groups: one group received one-hour Tai Chi exercise every two days (Tai Chi group, n = 36) and the other group did not (control group, n = 34). Thirty-three patients finished this six-month trial. Numerous significant physiological differences were observed between all heroin-addicted subjects (n = 70) and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 18), suggesting a deleterious effect of drug addiction. There were improvements for certain physical parameters between the Tai Chi group (n = 17) and the control group (n = 16), although the differences were not statistically significant. We observed a small significant difference in psychological effects near the 60-day mark between the two groups. Taken together, our results suggest that Tai Chi might have a positive effect on PAS, which future studies can confirm by using an expanded sample size, longer trial time, and more sensitive and specific indicators of psychological and physiological health.
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Accumulation of mtDNA variations in human single CD34+ cells from maternally related individuals: effects of aging and family genetic background.
Stem Cell Res
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Marked sequence variation in the mtDNA control region has been observed in human single CD34(+) cells, which persist in vivo and are present also in differentiated hematopoietic cells. In this study, we analyzed 5071 single CD34(+) cells from 49 individuals (including 31 maternally related members from four families and 18 unrelated donors) in order to determine the mutation spectrum within the mtDNA control region in single cells, as related to aging and family genetic background. Many highly mutated sites among family members were hypervariable sites in the mtDNA control region. Further, CD34(+) cells from members of the same family also shared several unique mtDNA variants, suggesting pedigree-specific occurrence of these variants. Overall age-related accumulation of mtDNA mutations in CD34(+) cells varied in different families, suggesting a specific accumulation pattern, which might be modulated by family genetic background. Our current findings have implications for the occurrence of mtDNA mutations in hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors.
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The case for the continuing use of the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) and the standardization of notation in human mitochondrial DNA studies.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Since the determination in 1981 of the sequence of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome, the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), has been used as the reference sequence to annotate mtDNA in molecular anthropology, forensic science and medical genetics. The CRS was eventually upgraded to the revised version (rCRS) in 1999. This reference sequence is a convenient device for recording mtDNA variation, although it has often been misunderstood as a wild-type (WT) or consensus sequence by medical geneticists. Recently, there has been a proposal to replace the rCRS with the so-called Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS). Even if it had been estimated accurately, the RSRS would be a cumbersome substitute for the rCRS, as the new proposal fuses-and thus confuses-the two distinct concepts of ancestral lineage and reference point for human mtDNA. Instead, we prefer to maintain the rCRS and to report mtDNA profiles by employing the hitherto predominant circumfix style. Tree diagrams could display mutations by using either the profile notation (in conventional short forms where appropriate) or in a root-upwards way with two suffixes indicating ancestral and derived nucleotides. This would guard against misunderstandings about reporting mtDNA variation. It is therefore neither necessary nor sensible to change the present reference sequence, the rCRS, in any way. The proposed switch to RSRS would inevitably lead to notational chaos, mistakes and misinterpretations.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 5 December 2013; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.120.
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Mutation p.G83R in the transthyretin gene is associated with hereditary vitreous amyloidosis in Han Chinese families.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Hereditary vitreous amyloidosis (HVA) is a genetic ophthalmological disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a mutation in the transthyretin (TTR) gene is associated with HVA in Han Chinese families.
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Genetic polymorphisms of the CASP8 gene promoter may not be associated with colorectal cancer in Han Chinese from southwest China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Caspase 8 (CASP8) plays a critical role in the apoptotic pathway and aberrant regulation of this pathway causes many diseases including cancers. Genetic variants rs3834129 (CTTACT/-) and rs3769821 (T/C) in the promoter region of the CASP8 gene were documented to be associated with multiple solid cancers and non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL), respectively, despite of some controversies. We aimed to discern potential association of these two variants and rs113686495 (CTGTCATT/-), as well as CASP8 mRNA and protein expression levels with colorectal cancer (CRC) in Han Chinese.
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[Clinical application of neuronavigation in transsphenoidal microsurgery of pituitary adenomas].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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To summarize the experiences in clinical application of neuronavigation in transsphenoidal microsurgery of specific pituitary adenomas, and to discuss its indications.
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Deciphering the signature of selective constraints on cancerous mitochondrial genome.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2011
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In accordance with the hypothesis that cancer formation is a process of somatic evolution driven by natural selection, signature of positive selection has been detected on a number of cancer-related nuclear genes. It remains, however, controversial whether a similar selective pressure has also acted on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), a small molecule in mitochondrion that may play an important role in tumorigenesis by altering oxidative phosphorylation. To better understand the mutational pattern on cancerous mtDNA and decipher the genetic signature left by natural selection, a total of 186 entire mitochondrial genomes of cancerous and adjacent normal tissues from 93 esophageal cancer patients were obtained and extensively studied. Our results revealed that the observed mutational pattern on the cancerous mtDNAs might be best explained as relaxation of negative selection. Taking into account an additional 1,235 cancerous (nearly) complete mtDNA sequences retrieved from the literature, our results suggested that the relaxed selective pressure was the most likely explanation for the accumulation of mtDNA variation in different types of cancer. This notion is in good agreement with the observation that aerobic glycolysis, instead of mitochondrial respiration, plays the key role in generating energy in cancer cells. Furthermore, our study provided solid evidence demonstrating that problems in some of the published cancerous mtDNA data adequately explained the previously contradictory conclusions about the selective pressure on cancer mtDNA, thus serving as a paradigm emphasizing the importance of data quality in affecting our understanding on the role of mtDNA in tumorigenesis.
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[Effect of tagalsin on p53 and Bcl-2 expression in hepatoma H(22) tumor-bearing mice].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
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To explore the effect and mechanism of tagalsin on hepatoma cells.
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[Observation on biological characteristics of wild Pseudostellaria heterophylla].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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To study the status and regular pattern in growing development of wild Pseudostellaria heterophylla.
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Identification of mutation c.632G>A (p.G211D) in the ATP2A2 gene and genotype-phenotype correlation in a large Chinese family with Dariers disease.
Int. J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Dariers disease (DD, MIM 124200) is an autosomal dominant inherited skin disease. Mutations in the ATP2A2 gene, which encoded the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase isoform 2 (SERCA2), are responsible for this skin disorder. Here we report the clinical, genetic, and molecular characterization of a large Chinese family with DD. We identified mutation c.632G>A (p.G211D) in the ATP2A2 gene in this family. Genotype-phenotype correlation in available family members provided helpful genetic counseling information for mutation carriers.
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[The extracellular role of high mobility group box-1 protein in regulation of immune response].
Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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High mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), a highly conserved nuclear DNA-binding protein, is involved in maintenance of nucleosome structure and regulation of gene replication, transcription and translation. Recently, there is accumulating evidence that HMGB1 can be passively or actively released from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu and act as a late proinflammatory cytokine that mediates development of inflammatory diseases, including sepsis. In addition, HMGB1 can also act as an "alarm signal" regulating immune response of host. In this article, we summarized the structure, secretion and receptor signaling pathways of HMGB1. Furthermore, the role and potential mechanism underlying HMGB1 in regulation of immune function were also discussed.
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[The mutations of germline succinate dehydrogrnase subunit B (SDHB) in sporadic paragangliomas].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatic mutations of human mitochondria succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) in sporadic paragangliomas.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.