Purpose. The purpose is to investigate the mechanism of subconjunctival fibrosis caused by benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is the most common preservative in ophthalmic preparations. Methods. The left eyes of male Sprague-Dawley rats were topically treated with 0.01% BAC or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) twice daily for one month. Primary conjunctival fibroblasts (CFs) were exposed for 24 hours to 0.00005% BAC, 0.000075% BAC, 0.000075% BAC+LY2157299 (a selective transforming growth factor ? receptor type I inhibitor), 0.000075% BAC+NS-398 (a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) and PBS, respectively. The pathological changes of the bulbar conjunctival tissue of rats were examined using haematoxylin-eosin (HE), Van Gieson's (vG), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stains, or immunohistochemisty (IHC). The expression of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) signaling pathway-related molecules, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in bulbar conjunctival tissues and CFs were detected using western blot (WB) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Results. Rats treated with 0.01% BAC exhibited a slight increase of the fibroblast density and a more compact collagen deposition in the bulbar subepithelial connective tissues in comparison with rats treated with PBS. WB and qRT-PCR analyses showed that the expression of ECM, TGF-? signaling pathway-related molecules, and COX-2 were markedly increased in the bulbar conjunctival tissues of rats exposed to 0.01% BAC and in CFs exposed to 0.00005% and 0.000075% BAC. In CFs, BAC-induced ECM expression was clearly decreased by LY2157299, while the BAC-induced activation of the TGF-?1/Smad3 signaling pathway was greatly attenuated by NS-398. Conclusion. BAC-induced subconjunctival fibrosis is a consequence of excessive ECM production of CFs through the COX-2-modulated activation of a TGF-?1/Smad3 Signaling Pathway.
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmic preparations.So far large bodies of clinical and experimental studies have shown that use of topical drugs containing BAC can induce a series of ocular surface diseases, such as apoptosis.However, recently, some clinical studies have shown that ocular toxicity in patients treated with eye drops containing BAC has not apparent correlated with BAC.Some scholars consider that the limitations of the research lead people to recognize the BAC toxicity exaggeratedly.Here we summarize numerous clinical and experimental studies of BAC in the past few years, and focus on reviewing recent researches of the toxic effect of BAC on ocular surface.
During disease progression to AIDS, HIV-1 infected individuals become increasingly immunosuppressed and susceptible to opportunistic infections. It has also been demonstrated that multiple subsets of dendritic cells (DC), including DC-SIGN? cells, become significantly depleted in the blood and lymphoid tissues of AIDS patients, which may contribute to the failure in initiating effective host immune responses. The mechanism for DC depletion, however, is unclear. It is also known that vast quantities of viral envelope protein gp120 are shed from maturing HIV-1 virions and form circulating immune complexes in the serum of HIV-1-infected individuals, but the pathological role of gp120 in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains elusive. Here we describe a previously unrecognized mechanism of DC death in chronic HIV-1 infection, in which ligation of DC-SIGN by gp120 sensitizes DC to undergo accelerated apoptosis in response to a variety of activation stimuli. The cultured monocyte-derived DC and also freshly-isolated DC-SIGN? blood DC that were exposed to either cross-linked recombinant gp120 or immune-complex gp120 in HIV? serum underwent considerable apoptosis after CD40 ligation or exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF? and IL-1?. Furthermore, circulating DC-SIGN? DC that were isolated directly from HIV-1? individuals had actually been pre-sensitized by serum gp120 for activation-induced exorbitant apoptosis. In all cases the DC apoptosis was substantially inhibited by DC-SIGN blockade. Finally, we showed that accelerated DC apoptosis was a direct consequence of excessive activation of the pro-apoptotic molecule ASK-1 and transfection of siRNA against ASK-1 significantly prevented the activation-induced excessive DC death. Our study discloses a previously unknown mechanism of immune modulation by envelope protein gp120, provides new insights into HIV immunopathogenesis, and suggests potential therapeutic approaches to prevent DC depletion in chronic HIV infection.
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is the most common preservative in ophthalmic preparations. Here, we investigated the corneal alternations in rabbits following exposure to BAC. Twenty-four adult male New Zealand albino rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. BAC at 0.01%, 0.05%, or 0.1% was applied twice daily to one eye each of rabbits for 4 days. The contralateral untreated eyes were used as control. Aqueous tear production and fluorescein staining scores of BAC-treated eyes were compared with those of controls. The structure of the central cornea was examined by in vivo confocal microscopy. Expression of mucin-5 subtype AC (MUC5AC) in conjunctiva was detected by immunostainig on cryosections. Corneal barrier function was assessed in terms of permeability to carboxy fluorescein (CF). The distribution and expression of ZO-1, a known marker of tight junction, and reorganization of the perijunctional actomyosin ring (PAMR) were examined by immunofluorescence analysis. Although there were no significant differences between control and BAC-treated eyes in Schirmer scores, corneal fluorescein scores and the number of conjunctival MUC5AC staining cells, in vivo confocal microscopy revealed significant epithelial and stromal defects in all BAC-treated corneas. Moreover, BAC at 0.1% resulted in significant increases in central corneal thickness and endothelial CF permeability, compared with those in control eyes, and endothelial cell damage with dislocation of ZO-1 and disruption of PAMR. Topical application of BAC can quickly impair the whole cornea without occurrence of dry eye. A high concentration of BAC breaks down the barrier integrity of corneal endothelium, concomitant with the disruption of PAMR and remodeling of apical junctional complex in vivo.
Inflammatory response following central nervous system (CNS) injury contributes to progressive neuropathology and reduction in functional recovery. Axons are sensitive to mechanical injury and toxic inflammatory mediators, which may lead to demyelination. Although it is well documented that degenerated myelin triggers undesirable inflammatory responses in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), there has been very little study of the direct inflammatory consequences of damaged myelin in spinal cord injury (SCI), i.e., there is no direct evidence to show that myelin debris from injured spinal cord can trigger undesirable inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Our data showed that myelin can initiate inflammatory responses in vivo, which is complement receptor 3 (CR3)-dependent via stimulating macrophages to express pro-inflammatory molecules and down-regulates expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Mechanism study revealed that myelin-increased cytokine expression is through activation of FAK/PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB signaling pathways and CR3 contributes to myelin-induced PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB activation and cytokine production. The myelin induced inflammatory response is myelin specific as sphingomyelin (the major lipid of myelin) and myelin basic protein (MBP, one of the major proteins of myelin) are not able to activate NF-kappaB signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a crucial role of myelin as an endogenous inflammatory stimulus that induces pro-inflammatory responses and suggest that blocking myelin-CR3 interaction and enhancing myelin debris clearance may be effective interventions for treating SCI.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common neoplasm in Southeastern Asia, and cisplatin-containing regimens for combinational chemotherapy are widely used for treating locally recurrent or metastatic diseases. However, resistance to cisplatin is not infrequently seen and its associated side effects may be life-threatening. In this report, another metallo-pharmaceutical agent gold(III) porphyrin complex [Au(TPP)]Cl was investigated in comparison to cisplatin for its in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects. Through induction of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, [Au(TPP)]Cl exhibited 100-fold higher potency than cisplatin in killing NPC cells, including cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant variants, and also an variant harboring the Epstein-Barr virus. In addition, a safety concentration window was demonstrated, allowing [Au(TPP)]Cl to kill tumors with minimal cytotoxicity to noncancerous cells. More importantly, weekly intraperitoneal injection of 3 mg/kg [Au(TPP)]Cl was more effective than the same dose of cisplatin in inducing tumor apoptosis in vivo and remarkably inhibited tumor growth in animals without any noticeable side effect. [Au(TPP)]Cl therefore is a promising chemotherapeutic agent that deserves further development as a novel drug for the treatment of advanced NPC, in particular, for cases with cisplatin-resistance.
Preservatives are a major component of the ophthalmic preparations in multi-dose bottles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), a common preservative used in ophthalmic preparations, on the localization and expression of zonula occludens (ZO)-1 in the rabbit corneal epithelium in vivo. BAC at 0.005%, 0.01%, or 0.02% was topically applied to one eye each of albino rabbits at 5 min intervals for a total of 3 times. The contralateral untreated eyes served as controls. The following clinical indications were evaluated: Schirmer test, tear break-up time (BUT), fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. The structure of central cornea was examined by in vivo confocal microscopy, and the corneal barrier function was evaluated by measurement of corneal transepithelial electrical resistance and permeability to carboxy fluorescein. Whole mount corneas were analyzed by using fluorescence confocal microscopy for the presence of ZO-1, 2, occludin, claudin-1, Ki67 and cell apoptosis in the epithelium. The expression of ZO-1 in the corneal epithelium was also examined by western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Exposure to BAC resulted in higher rose Bengal staining scores while no significant changes in BUT, Schirmer and corneal florescein scores. It also induced corneal epithelial cell damage, dispersion of ZO-1 and ZO-2 from their normal locus at the superficial layer and disruption of epithelial barrier function. However, the amounts of ZO-1 mRNA and protein in the corneal epithelium were not affected by BAC treatment. Exposure to BAC can quickly impair the corneal epithelium without tear deficiency. BAC disrupts the tight junctions of corneal epithelium between superficial cells in the rabbit corneal epithelium in vivo.
To investigate the effect of netrin-1 on alkali burn-induced corneal inflammation and neovascularization.
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