Mohawk homeobox (MKX) has been demonstrated as a tendon/ligament specific transcription factor. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MKX in ligament/tenogenic differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). Human BMMSCs were treated with 50?ng/ml BMP-12 or transduced with MKX or scleraxis (SCX) adenoviral vector. Gene expression analysis was performed by quantitative reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Rat BMMSCs were seeded in a collagen scaffold and transplanted into a rat Achilles tendon defect model. Tenogenesis related gene expressions and histological features were analyzed. BMP-12 induced tenogenesis in BMMSCs as indicated by increased COL1a1, TNXB, DCN and SCX mRNA, and MKX expression increased simultaneously. Rat BMMSCs enhanced defect repair and were still detectable 3 weeks after transplantation. Increased expressions of COL1a1, TNC and TNMD in vivo were also correlated with upregulated MKX. Adenoviral MKX promoted expression of COL1a1, TNXB, and TNMD in BMMSCs. This study demonstrated that MKX gene expression is enhanced during the tenogenic differentiation of BMMSCs in vitro and in vivo, and the adenoviral overexpression of MKX increases tendon extracellular matrix gene expression and protein production. Thus, MKX is a key factor for tenogenic differentiation of MSCs. 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.
Purpose : To examine the effectiveness of vascular elastography (VE) for the assessment of totally occluded lower limb arteries prior to endovascular treatment (EVT). Methods : Of 812 consecutive patients who underwent EVT between April 2010 and April 2012, VE was used to evaluate the hardness of chronic total occlusions of the femoropopliteal segment prior to EVT in 65 consecutive patients (48 men; mean 73.9 years, range 63-86). Elastograms of the CTOs proximally and distally were scored using a 5-point scale, and outcomes in limbs with hard lesions (VE score 0-2) were compared to those with soft lesions (VE score 3-4) according to lesion length. The interventionists who performed the endovascular procedures were not informed of the VE score results. Results : CTO characteristics could be evaluated in all cases. A VE score ?2 was found in 14 of the 23 lesions <150 mm in length. A flexible guidewire was sufficient for recanalization in more of the soft lesions than in the hard lesions [6/9 vs. 2/14, respectively]. In 39 lesions >150 mm, a VE score of 3 was recorded in most lesions proximally, while lesions distally were hard in many cases (VE score 1 or 2). A flexible guidewire alone was sufficient in many soft CTOs (8/13, p<0.01). In 16 cases, hard calcified plaque was indicated by difficulty in penetrating the lesion even with a stiff guidewire; all these cases had a VE score of 1 or 2. A retrograde approach was required only in hard CTOs (p<0.01). The procedure time was significantly longer for the hard lesion group (152.9±63.2 vs. 87.0±29.8 minutes, p=0.001). In 11 in-stent occlusions, only VE scores of 3 (n=4) or 4 (n=7) were recorded, indicating soft thrombus, which was aspirated under distal protection in 7 cases. Conclusion : VE may be a useful method for determining the hardness of CTO lesions noninvasively before endovascular therapy, providing information that can help plan the procedure.
The RUNX genes encode transcription factors involved in development and human disease. RUNX1 and RUNX3 are frequently associated with leukemias, yet the basis for their involvement in leukemogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that Runx1;Runx3 double-knockout (DKO) mice exhibited lethal phenotypes due to bone marrow failure and myeloproliferative disorder. These contradictory clinical manifestations are reminiscent of human inherited bone marrow failure syndromes such as Fanconi anemia (FA), caused by defective DNA repair. Indeed, Runx1;Runx3 DKO cells showed mitomycin C hypersensitivity, due to impairment of monoubiquitinated-FANCD2 recruitment to DNA damage foci, although FANCD2 monoubiquitination in the FA pathway was unaffected. RUNX1 and RUNX3 interact with FANCD2 independently of CBF?, suggesting a nontranscriptional role for RUNX in DNA repair. These findings suggest that RUNX dysfunction causes DNA repair defect, besides transcriptional misregulation, and promotes the development of leukemias and other cancers.
Very late stent thrombosis (VLST) is a catastrophic complication after implantation of a drug-eluting stent (DES). It has been reported that VLST is associated with pathological changes, which often include late acquired incomplete stent apposition (LAISA) with thrombus formation. In addition, the vascular response to the stent (evaginations, neointimal growth, and thrombosis) and the incidence of LAISA are reported to vary among the different types of DES. We experienced a patient with cardiogenic shock induced by simultaneous VLST of both the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the left circumflex artery (LCX) at 3 years after implantation of two sirolimus-eluting stents. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) showed LAISA of both arteries. A paclitaxel-eluting stent, which had been implanted in the right coronary artery 3 years earlier, did not show such a finding. IVUS revealed "different vascular reactions" to "different types of DES" in this patient.
Entrapment of nondeflated balloon is a rare complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. Sometimes it has hazardous potentials for the patient. We experienced a rare complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) caused by a defective balloon. We reported this experience and simple bailout technique.
Muscle mass is determined between protein synthesis and protein degradation. Reduction of muscle mass leads to bedridden condition and attenuation of resistance to diseases. Moreover, bedridden condition leads to additional muscle loss due to disuse muscle atrophy. In our previous study (Sato et al. 2013), we showed that administered lysine (Lys), one of essential amino acid, suppressed protein degradation in skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated that the mechanism of the suppressive effects of Lys on skeletal muscle proteolysis in C2C12 cell line. C2C12 myotubes were incubated in the serum-free medium containing 10 mM Lys or 20 mM Lys, and myofibrillar protein degradation was determined by the rates of 3-methylhistidine (MeHis) release from the cells. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity from the phosphorylation levels of p70-ribosormal protein S6 kinase 1 and eIF4E-binding protein 1 and the autophagic-lysosomal system activity from the ratio of LC3-II/I in C2C12 myotubes stimulated by 10 mM Lys for 0-3 h were measured. The rates of MeHis release were markedly reduced by addition of Lys. The autophagic-lysosomal system activity was inhibited upon 30 min of Lys supplementation. The activity of mTOR was significantly increased upon 30 min of Lys supplementation. The suppressive effect of Lys on the proteolysis by the autophagic-lysosomal system was maintained partially when mTOR activity was inhibited by 100 nM rapamycin, suggesting that some regulator other than mTOR signaling, for example, Akt, might also suppress the autophagic-lysosomal system. From these results, we suggested that Lys suppressed the activity of the autophagic-lysosomal system in part through activation of mTOR and reduced myofibrillar protein degradation in C2C12 myotubes.
RUNX3 functions as a tumor suppressor in the gastric epithelium, where its inactivation is frequently observed during carcinogenesis. We identified IL23A as a RUNX3 target gene in gastric epithelial cells. This was confirmed in a series of in vitro analyses in gastric epithelial cell lines. In elucidating the underlying regulatory network, we uncovered a prominent role for the TNF-?/NF-?B pathway in activating IL23A transcription. Moreover, the activating effect of TNF-? was markedly augmented by the infection of Helicobacter pylori, the primary cause of human gastritis. Of note, H. pylori utilized the CagA/SHP2 pathway to activate IL23A, as well as the induction of the NOD1 pathway by iE-DAP. Importantly, RUNX3 synergized strongly with these physiologically relevant stimuli to induce IL23A. Lastly, we present evidence for the secretion of IL23A by gastric epithelial cells in a form that is distinct from canonical IL-23 (IL23A/IL12B).
RUNX3 is a tumor suppressor for a variety of cancers. RUNX3 suppresses the canonical Wnt signaling pathway by binding to the TCF4/?-catenin complex, resulting in the inhibition of binding of the complex to the Wnt target gene promoter. Here, we confirmed that RUNX3 suppressed Wnt signaling activity in several gastric cancer cell lines; however, we found that RUNX3 increased the Wnt signaling activity in KatoIII and SNU668 gastric cancer cells. Notably, RUNX3 expression increased the ratio of the Wnt signaling-high population in the KatoIII cells. although the maximum Wnt activation level of individual cells was similar to that in the control. As found previously, RUNX3 also binds to TCF4 and ?-catenin in KatoIII cells, suggesting that these molecules form a ternary complex. Moreover, the ChIP analyses revealed that TCF4, ?-catenin and RUNX3 bind the promoter region of the Wnt target genes, Axin2 and c-Myc, and the occupancy of TCF4 and ?-catenin in these promoter regions is increased by the RUNX3 expression. These results suggest that RUNX3 stabilizes the TCF4/?-catenin complex on the Wnt target gene promoter in KatoIII cells, leading to activation of Wnt signaling. Although RUNX3 increased the Wnt signaling activity, its expression resulted in suppression of tumorigenesis of KatoIII cells, indicating that RUNX3 plays a tumor-suppressing role in KatoIII cells through a Wnt-independent mechanism. These results indicate that RUNX3 can either suppress or activate the Wnt signaling pathway through its binding to the TCF4/?-catenin complex by cell context-dependent mechanisms.
The prevention of muscle wasting is important for maintaining quality of life, since loss of muscle mass can lead to a bedridden state and decreased resistance to diseases. The prevention of muscle wasting requires an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation in skeletal muscle. We previously showed that lysine (Lys) markedly suppressed myofibrillar protein degradation by inhibiting the autophagic-lysosomal system via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and other signal molecules in C2C12 cells. In this study, we investigated the involvement of Akt and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), two regulators of autophagy, on the suppressive effects of Lys on myofibrillar protein degradation in C2C12 cells. Lys induced the phosphorylation of Akt, but the suppressive effects of Lys on myofibrillar protein degradation and autophagy were completely abolished in the presence of Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor (Akti). Lys suppressed the phosphorylation of AMPK, but this effect was also abolished by Akti. On the other hand, AMPK activation by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-?-D-ribonucleoside (AICAR) did not affect either Akt activity or the autophagic-lysosomal system in C2C12 cells treated with Lys. These results indicate that regulation of AMPK activity is not essential for the regulation of autophagy by Lys. Taken together, our results show that Lys suppresses myofibrillar protein degradation by the autophagic-lysosomal system through the phosphorylation of Akt in C2C12 cells.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to clarify the long-term clinical and radiographic results of cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Twenty-eight total hip arthroplasties in 24 patients with a diagnosis of RA were performed from October 1992 to October 1996. All components were titanium alloy with a circumferential porous coating. Six patients (six hips) died before the 10-year follow-up, and one patient (one hip) was lost to follow-up, leaving 21 joints of 17 patients for review at a minimum 10-year follow-up after surgery. There were 3 men and 14 women with an average age of 55.0 years. The average duration of RA at the time of the operation was 12.6 years, and the average follow-up period was 12.2 years. We evaluated the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) hip scores, radiographic changes and survivor rates of components. Results. Compared with the preoperative JOA hip scores, there was significant improvement in the postoperative scores. Spot welds consistent with bone ingrowth were identified in 95.0% of the femoral components. No femoral components showed radiographic loosening or required revision for aseptic loosening, but two acetabular revisions were performed because of aseptic loosening. The 14-year survivor rates of the stem and cup with the end point of loosening were 100% and 88.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Cementless THA with this component design in patients with RA appears to be a promising treatment.
Background:?The advantages of the final kissing balloon technique (FKB) in a provisional 1-stent approach are under debate. Long-term clinical outcomes remain unclear due to limited data. Methods and Results:?Of 2,132 patients (2,502 lesions) enrolled in the TAXUS Japan Postmarket Surveillance Study at 56 centers between July 2007 and December 2008, patients having coronary bifurcation treated with a single cross-over stenting with FKB (FKB-group: 132 patients/137 lesions) were compared to those treated without FKB (no-FKB-group: 121 patients/124 lesions). The no-FKB-group was also compared with non-bifurcation patients who had a single-stent implantation (814 patients/937 lesions). The primary outcome was MACE (major adverse clinical events), defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction and target vessel revascularization (TVR) at 3 years. Higher late loss and binary restenosis were found in the main vessel (MV) of the FKB-group at the 9-month angiogram compared to the no-FKB-group. At 3 years, MACE was numerically higher (14.6% vs. 6.9%, P=0.07) and TVR was significantly higher (14.6% vs. 5.9%, P<0.05) in the FKB-group compared with the no-FKB-group. The rate of MACE (6.9% vs. 10.4%, P=0.34) and TVR (5.9% vs. 7.7%, P=0.57) were similar between the no-FKB and non-bifurcation patients. Conclusions:?In a 1-stent approach, FKB was associated with worse angiographic outcomes in the MV, and did not demonstrate any clinical benefit over the long-term follow-up period. Cross-over stenting without FKB showed similar clinical outcomes to patients without bifurcation.??(Circ J?2014; 78: 110-121).
Targeted inactivation of Runx3 in mouse lung induced mucinous and nonmucinous adenomas and markedly shortened latency of adenocarcinoma formation induced by oncogenic K-Ras. RUNX3 was frequently inactivated in K-RAS mutated human lung adenocarcinomas. A functional genetic screen of a fly mutant library and molecular analysis in cultured cell lines revealed that Runx3 forms a complex with BRD2 in a K-Ras-dependent manner in the early phase of the cell cycle; this complex induces expression of p14(ARF)/p19(Arf) and p21(WAF/CIP). When K-Ras was constitutively activated, the Runx3-BRD2 complex was stably maintained and expression of both p14(ARF) and p21(WAF/CIP) was prolonged. These results provide a missing link between oncogenic K-Ras and the p14(ARF)-p53 pathway, and may explain how cells defend against oncogenic K-Ras.
A new biological activity of falcarindiol isolated from Japanese parsley (Oenanthe javanica) using the mutant yeast YNS17 strain (zds1? erg3? pdr1? pdr3?) was discovered as an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Falcarindiol inhibited GSK-3? in an ATP noncompetitive manner with a Ki value of 86.9 ?M using a human enzyme and luminescent kinase assay platform. Falcarindiol also both suppressed gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells and protected mouse neuroblastoma HT22 cells from glutamate-induced oxidative cell death at 10 ?M. During an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the blood glucose level was significantly decreased in the rats treated with oral administration of O. javanica extract containing falcarindiol (15 mg/kg). These findings indicate that Japanese parsley could be a useful food ingredient against type-2 diabetes and Alzheimers disease.
Mohawk (Mkx) is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor that is expressed in various mesoderm-derived tissues, particularly in developing tendons. In this study, we investigate the exact expression pattern and functions of Mkx in forelimbs.
Many dietary polyphenols can provide health benefits, such as antioxidant and antidiabetic effects, and can down-regulate the progression of glycation (one cause of diabetic complications). Chinese quince (CQ) is rich in polyphenols, especially procyanidins. A few studies have indicated that CQ has an effect on diabetes. In this study, a procyanidin-rich extract was prepared from Chinese quince fruit (CQE), and its effects were investigated and compared with those of green tea extract (GTE) in type 2 diabetes model KK-A(y) mice. Mice were provided one of two high-fat (HF) diets for 4 weeks: a HF diet containing 0.5% CQE or a HF diet containing 0.5% GTE. Blood glucose was suppressed in mice fed CQE and GTE during the experimental period (p < 0.05), although the effect of CQE was weaker than that of GTE. Intake of CQE had no effect on the blood insulin level, whereas GTE decreased the insulin level. Body weight gain was suppressed in mice fed CQE similarly to mice fed GTE (p < 0.05). Hepatic lipid content and ?-dicarbonyl compounds in the kidney were reduced in mice fed CQE and GTE (p < 0.05). These results suggest that intake of CQE could moderate type 2 diabetes and diabetic complications.
The RUNX family genes encode transcription factors that are involved in development and human diseases. RUNX1 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human hematological malignancies and is a critical factor for the generation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells. Another Runx family gene, Runx3, is known to be expressed in hematopoietic cells. However, its involvement in hematopoiesis remains unclear. Here we show the hematopoietic phenotypes in Runx3 conditional knockout (KO) mice (Runx3(fl/fl);Mx1-Cre(+)): whereas young Runx3 KO mice did not exhibit any significant hematopoietic defects, aged Runx3 KO mice developed a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by myeloid-dominant leukocytosis, splenomegaly, and an increase of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Notably, Runx3-deficient cells showed hypersensitivity to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, suggesting enhanced proliferative and mobilization capability of Runx3-deficient HSPCs when stimulated. These results suggest that, besides Runx1, Runx3 also plays a role in hematopoiesis.
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary bone tumor that is most prevalent during adolescence. RUNX2, which stimulates differentiation and suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts, is deregulated in OS. Here, we define pathological roles of RUNX2 in the etiology of OS and mechanisms by which RUNX2 expression is stimulated. RUNX2 is often highly expressed in human OS biopsies and cell lines. Small interference RNA-mediated depletion of RUNX2 inhibits growth of U2OS OS cells. RUNX2 levels are inversely linked to loss of p53 (which predisposes to OS) in distinct OS cell lines and osteoblasts. RUNX2 protein levels decrease upon stabilization of p53 with the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3. Elevated RUNX2 protein expression is post-transcriptionally regulated and directly linked to diminished expression of several validated RUNX2 targeting microRNAs in human OS cells compared with mesenchymal progenitor cells. The p53-dependent miR-34c is the most significantly down-regulated RUNX2 targeting microRNAs in OS. Exogenous supplementation of miR-34c markedly decreases RUNX2 protein levels, whereas 3-UTR reporter assays establish RUNX2 as a direct target of miR-34c in OS cells. Importantly, Nutlin-3-mediated stabilization of p53 increases expression of miR-34c and decreases RUNX2. Thus, a novel p53-miR-34c-RUNX2 network controls cell growth of osseous cells and is compromised in OS.
To evaluate the 2-year results obtained with self-expandable stent for chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the iliac artery, a retrospective study was performed of patients who underwent endovascular therapy (EVT) for chronic iliac artery CTO who presented from April 2007 to September 2012. 82 patients with 86 occluded iliac arteries underwent successful recanalization and stenting with a self-expandable stent. The primary equivalence end point was a composite of restenosis, mortality, target vessel revascularization, and limb salvage rates. Patients were followed up with the presence of a palpable femoral artery pulse, resolution of symptoms, and noninvasive vascular laboratory testing reviewed at 1, 3, and 6 months after EVT and then were evaluated at 6-month intervals. In patients who gave consent, repeat angiography was done in sixty-one of 86 lesions (70.1 %) for follow-up. The mean follow-up was at 27.6 ± 17.8 months (range 3-60 months). All stents were placed in the true lumen under intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance. There were no cases of peripheral embolization or iliac artery rupture after the procedure. The ankle-brachial index increased significantly from 0.55 ± 0.19 to 0.88 ± 0.17 (P < 0.001). The primary patency rate was 96.5 % at 2 years. The MLD immediately after the procedure was 5.10 ± 0.26 mm and increased significantly to 5.40 ± 0.28 mm at the period of follow-up angiography. The 2-year outcome of endovascular therapy with self-expandable stents for CTO of the iliac artery had an acceptable result.
The requirement for an extracapsular resection is indicated for malignant bone tumors that have disseminated intracapsularly. Extracapsular resections are often performed for malignant tumors arising from the knee joint, but there are relatively few studies that have described an extracapsular resection of a tumor arising from the hip joint. The present study describes a case of extracapsular wide resection of the hip joint using rotational acetabular osteotomy. The patient was a 17-year-old female and the diagnosis was an osteoblastic osteosarcoma with a pathological fracture of the femoral neck. The joint was reconstructed using an allograft-implant composite graft and total hip arthroplasty. Although the patient presented a slight Trendelenburg gait, no recurrence or metastases were identified during a follow-up period of 3 years. The clinical features and surgical procedure of the case are described.
Runt-related transcription factors (Runx) regulate the development of various cells. It has been reported that Runx1 and Runx3 are expressed in distinct subpopulations of primary sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and play important roles in the differentiation of nociceptive and proprioceptive neurons, respectively. In the present study, we examined the developmental changes of the expression of Runx1 and Runx3 in the mouse DRG during embryonic and postnatal stages. We found that the expression of Runx3 preceded that of Runx1, but dramatically decreased before birth, whereas the Runx1 expression was maintained during postnatal periods. These results suggest that roles of Runx1 and Runx3 may change dynamically in the differentiation and maturation of DRG neurons. In addition, several DRG neurons expressed both Runx1 and Runx3 throughout embryonic and postnatal stages and many Runx3-expressing DRG neurons coexpressed Runx1 at postnatal day 28. Double and triple labeling studies suggest that some of the Runx1/Runx3-double expressing neurons coexpressed TrkB, c-ret, and TrkC, which have been shown in the mechanoreceptive DRG neurons. These results suggest that Runx1/Runx3-double expressing neurons may represent mechanoreceptive properties in the DRG
Mastermind-like 1 (MAML1) is a transcriptional co-activator in the Notch signaling pathway. Recently, however, several reports revealed novel and unique roles for MAML1 that are independent of the Notch signaling pathway. We found that MAML1 enhances the transcriptional activity of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), a transcription factor essential for osteoblastic differentiation and chondrocyte proliferation and maturation. MAML1 significantly enhanced the Runx2-mediated transcription of the p6OSE2-Luc reporter, in which luciferase expression was controlled by six copies of the osteoblast specific element 2 (OSE2) from the Runx2-regulated osteocalcin gene promoter. Interestingly, a deletion mutant of MAML1 lacking the N-terminal Notch-binding domain also enhanced Runx2-mediated transcription. Moreover, inhibition of Notch signaling did not affect the action of MAML1 on Runx2, suggesting that the activation of Runx2 by MAML1 may be caused in a Notch-independent manner. Overexpression of MAML1 transiently enhanced the Runx2-mediated expression of alkaline phosphatase, an early marker of osteoblast differentiation, in the murine pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2. MAML1(-/-) embryos at embryonic day 16.5 (E16.5) had shorter bone lengths than wild-type embryos. The area of primary spongiosa of the femoral diaphysis was narrowed. At E14.5, extended zone of collagen type II alpha 1 (Col2a1) and Sox9 expression, markers of chondrocyte differentiation, and decreased zone of collagen type X alpha 1 (Col10a1) expression, a marker of hypertrophic chondrocyte, were observed. These observations suggest that chondrocyte maturation was impaired in MAML1(-/-) mice. MAML1 enhances the transcriptional activity of Runx2 and plays a role in bone development.
Mice are among the most valuable model animal species with an enormous amount of heritage in genetic modification studies. However, targeting genes in mice is sometimes difficult, especially for small genes, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and targeting genes in repeat sequences. Here we optimized the application of TALEN system for mice and successfully obtained gene targeting technique in mice for intergenic region and series of microRNAs. Microinjection of synthesized RNA of TALEN targeting each gene in one cell stage of embryo was carried out and injected oocytes were transferred into pseudopregnant ICR female mice, producing a high success rate of the targeted deletion of miRNA genes. In our condition, TALEN RNA without poly(A) tail worked better than that of with poly(A) tail. This mutated allele in miRNA was transmitted to the next generation, suggesting the successful germ line transmission of this targeting method. Consistent with our notion of miRNAs maturation mechanism, in homozygous mutant mice of miR-10a, the non- mutated strand of miRNAs expression was completely diminished. This method will lead us to expand and accelerate our genetic research using mice in a high throughput way.
Recent studies have revealed that differentiated epithelial cells would acquire stem cell-like and tumorigenic properties following an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). However, the signaling pathways that participate in this novel mechanism of tumorigenesis have not been fully characterized. In Runx3 (-/-) p53 (-/-) murine gastric epithelial (GIF-14) cells, EMT-induced plasticity is reflected in the expression of the embryonal proto-oncogene Hmga2 and Lgr5, an exclusive gastrointestinal stem cell marker. Here, we report the concurrent activation of an EGFR/Ras gene expression signature during TGF-?1-induced EMT in GIF-14 cells. Amongst the altered genes was the induction of Egfr, which corresponded with a delayed sensitization to EGF treatment in GIF-14. Co-treatment with TGF-?1 and EGF or the expression of exogenous KRas led to increased Hmga2 or Lgr5 expression, sphere initiation and colony formation in soft agar assay. Interestingly, the gain in cellular plasticity/tumorigenicity was not accompanied by increased EMT. This uncoupling of EMT and the induction of plasticity reveals an involvement of distinct signaling cues, whereby the EGFR/Ras pathway specifically promotes stemness and tumorigenicity in EMT-altered GIF-14 cells. These data show that the EGFR/Ras pathway requisite for the sustenance of gastric stem cells in vivo and in vitro is involved in the genesis and promotion of EMT-induced tumor-initiating cells.
The neoplastic transformation by mutant RAS is thought to require remodeling of expression of an entire set of genes. However, the underlying mechanism for initiation of gene expression remodeling in tumorigenesis remains elusive. This study was aimed to define the oncogenic role of EZH2, a histone modifier protein that is induced by oncogenic mutant RAS, using pancreatic cancers of transgenic rats exogenously expressing human mutant RAS. Immunohistochemical observation of preneoplastic or cancerous lesions in the animal model suggested that upregulation of Ezh2 protein is an initiating event in pancreatic carcinogenesis. MEK-inhibition or Elk-1-knockdown downregulated EZH2, and MEK-inhibition or EZH2-knockdown restored expression of a tumor suppressor, RUNX3 in human and rat pancreatic cancer cells activated by the oncogenic RAS. Furthermore, Elk-1- or EZH2-knockdown inhibited growth of the cancer cells. These results strongly suggested that the oncogenic RAS upregulates EZH2 through MEK-ERK signaling, resulted in downregulation of tumor suppressors including RUNX3 in pancreatic carcinogenesis.
An 80-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency department with ongoing dyspnea for 2 weeks. The patient was immediately intubated endotracheally because of the hypoxia with flush pulmonary edema. Electrocardiogram showed ST depression and echocardiogram showed hypokinesis of anterior left ventricular wall with poor systolic function. Also her cardiac enzymes were elevated, emergency coronary angiogram was performed from radial artery because both femoral arteries were not fully palpable. Coronary angiogram showed three vessels disease including chronic total occlusion of right coronary artery and left main bifurcation lesion. Also blood flow of left anterior descending coronary artery was delayed. Acute coronary syndrome was the cause of acute heart failure and revascularization was needed but aortography revealed total occlusion of infrarenal aorta. Patient was relatively hemodynamically stable; we planned treating total occlusion of infrarenal aorta with endovascular therapy to maintain a rout for cardiopulmonary support system. With bi-directional approach from both femoral artery and left brachial artery, occlusion site with heavy calcification was finally passed through by guide wire from retrograde approach. After pull-through technique, self-expanding nitinol stent was implanted after pre dilation with small balloon. Considering her EURO score, supposed perioperative mortality was high, percutaneous coronary intervention was performed. A 7 fr sheath was inserted from right femoral artery and intra-aortic balloon pump was inserted from left femoral artery. Sirolimus-eluting stent was implanted to left circumflex artery and also from ostium of left main to mid left anterior descending coronary artery after using an atherectomy device. After successful revascularization, patient became hemodynamically stable and weaning off the respirator was successful. Reporting case achieved successful revascularization to severe coronary artery disease after endovascular recanalization with infrarenal aortic occlusion.
We present a quasi-cw laser in a vacuum ultraviolet region at megahertz repetition rate. The narrowband pulses generated from an ytterbium-fiber laser system at 33 MHz repetition rate at the central wavelength of 1074 nm are frequency-converted by successive stages of LiB(3)O(5) crystals and KBe(2)BO(3)F(2) crystals. The generated radiation at 153 nm has the shortest wavelength achieved through phase-matched frequency conversion processes in nonlinear optical crystals to our knowledge.
CD133 is a universal marker of tissue stem/progenitor cells as well as cancer stem cells, but its physiological significance remains to be elucidated. Here we examined the relationship between expression of CD133 and features of gastric epithelial cells, and found that CD133-positive (CD133[+]) tumor cell lines formed well-differentiated tumors while CD133-negative (CD133[-]) lines formed poorly differentiated ones when subcutaneously injected into nude mice. We also found that CD133(+) and CD133(-) cell populations co-existed in some cell lines. FACS analysis showed that CD133(+) cells were mother cells because CD133(+) cells formed both CD133(+) and CD133(-) cells, but CD133(-) cells did not form CD133(+) cells. In these cell lines, CD133(+) cells formed well-differentiated tumors while CD133(-) cells formed poorly differentiated ones. In human gastric cancers, CD133 was exclusively expressed on the luminal surface membrane of gland-forming cells, and it was never found on poorly differentiated diffuse-type cells. Considering that poorly differentiated tumors often develop from well-differentiated tumors during tumor progression, these results suggest that loss of expression of CD133 might be related to gastric tumor progression. Microarray analysis showed that CD133(+) cells specifically expressed Sox17, a tumor suppressor in gastric carcinogenesis. Forced expression of SOX17 induced expression of CD133 in CD133(-) cells, and reduction of SOX17 caused by siRNA in CD133(+) cells induced a reduction in the level of CD133. These results indicate that Sox17 might be a key transcription factor controlling CD133 expression, and that it might also play a role in the control of gastric tumor progression.
The Runt domain transcription factor, RUNX3, has been shown to be a tumor suppressor in a variety of cancers including gastric, colon and breast cancer. Interestingly, an oncogenic role for RUNX3 has also been suggested in basal cell carcinoma and head and neck cancer. Here, we explore the role of RUNX3 in ovarian cancer.
The Runt domain transcription factors Runx1 and Runx3 play crucial roles in dorsal root ganglion neurogenesis. Here we report that RUNX1 protein levels are maintained within a narrow range, despite highly variable levels of RUNX1 mRNA in neuroblastoma cell lines. Forced expression of the RUNX1 isoform AML1a (RUNX1/p27), a transcriptionally inactive competitive inhibitor, induces massive cell death, indicating that the function of RUNX1 is essential for neuroblastoma cell proliferation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of RUNX1 also induces cell death, as well as cell cycle arrest or differentiation. Furthermore, most neuroblastoma cell lines do not synthesize RUNX3 protein at detectable levels. Like RUNX1, exogenous expression also causes cell death, cell cycle arrest or differentiation. These results suggest that protein dosage of RUNX1 is critical for neuroblastoma cell growth and support a role for RUNX3 as a tumor suppressor in neuroblastoma.
A new biological activity of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate derived from Wasabia japonica was discovered as an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3?. The most potent isothiocyanate, 9-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate, inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3? at a K(i) value of 10.5 µM and showed ATP competitive inhibition. The structure-activity relationship revealed an inhibitory potency of methylsulfinyl isothiocyanate dependent on the alkyl chain length and the sulfoxide, sulfone, and/or the isothiocyanate moiety.
RUNX3 is a tumor suppressor originally identified in gastric cancer. The mutation R122C in RUNX3 promotes gastric carcinogenesis by unclear mechanisms. We investigated how Runx3-deficiency contributes to distinct changes in the gastric epithelium that precede neoplasia.
? Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) exhibit frequent RUNX3 inactivation by promoter hypermethylation and protein mislocalization. The aim of this study was to analyse columnar cell lesions (CCLs) to further characterize RUNX3 involvement in breast carcinogenesis.
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was performed for a chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the right coronary artery (RCA) in a 77-year-old male patient. A guidewire could not be passed through the vessel using the antegrade approach, so we tried the retrograde approach via a collateral septal channel. A Fielder FC guidewire (Asahi Intecc Co. Ltd., Aichi, Japan) was passed through the septal channel, and a Corsair catheter (Asahi Intecc) was advanced to the distal side of the CTO in the RCA. However, the guidewire could not be advanced from the false lumen to the true lumen using the kissing-wire technique (KWT) or the reverse controlled antegrade retrograde tracking (CART) technique. Therefore, we retracted the Corsair channel dilator for a #4PD and tried to advance the antegrade Conquest Pro guidewire (Asahi Intecc) from a straight subintimal site into the retrograde channel dilator catheter. After several attempts, the antegrade Conquest guidewire successfully entered the retrograde channel dilator catheter. Subsequently, a Cypher stent (Cordis Corp., Miami Lakes, Florida) was successfully placed. The "rendezvous in coronary" technique was useful for this CTO patient, in whom it was difficult to advance a guidewire into the true lumen by the KWT and CART techniques during the retrograde approach.
Runx1 is essential for the generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and is frequently mutated in human leukemias. However, the cis-regulatory mechanisms modulating the Runx1 gene expression remain to be elucidated. Herewith, we report the identification of an intronic Runx1 enhancer, Runx1 +24 mouse conserved noncoding element (mCNE), using a combinatorial in silico approach involving comparative genomics and retroviral integration sites mapping. The Runx1 +24 mCNE was found to possess hematopoietic-specific enhancer activity in both zebrafish and mouse models. Significantly, this enhancer is active specifically in hemogenic endothelial cells (ECs) at sites where the de novo generation of HSCs occurs. The activity of this enhancer is also strictly restricted to HSCs within the hematopoietic compartment of the adult bone marrow. We anticipate that Runx1 +24 mCNE HSC enhancer will serve as a molecular handle for tracing and/or manipulating hemogenic ECs/HSCs behavior in vivo, and consequently become an invaluable tool for research on stem cell and cancer biology.
RUNX3 is a novel gastric cancer tumor suppressor. RUNX3 promoter hypermethylation is associated with many types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. Furthermore, the RUNX3 promotor is one of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-specific promotors. CIMP is a distinct phenotype associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) in colorectal cancer. In this study, the suitability of the quantitative analysis of RUNX3 promoter hypermethylation as a novel serum tumor marker was investigated. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between RUNX3 promoter methylation and MSI in colorectal cancer.
Metastatic breast cancer cells frequently and ectopically express the transcription factor RUNX2, which normally attenuates proliferation and promotes maturation of osteoblasts. RUNX2 expression is inversely regulated with respect to cell growth in osteoblasts and deregulated in osteosarcoma cells.
Mohawk (Mkx) is a member of the Three Amino acid Loop Extension superclass of atypical homeobox genes that is expressed in developing tendons. To investigate the in vivo functions of Mkx, we generated Mkx(-/-) mice. These mice had hypoplastic tendons throughout the body. Despite the reduction in tendon mass, the cell number in tail tendon fiber bundles was similar between wild-type and Mkx(-/-) mice. We also observed small collagen fibril diameters and a down-regulation of type I collagen in Mkx(-/-) tendons. These data indicate that Mkx plays a critical role in tendon differentiation by regulating type I collagen production in tendon cells.
Osteoarthritis (OA), the most prevalent aging-related joint disease, is characterized by insufficient extracellular matrix synthesis and articular cartilage degradation, mediated by several proteinases, including Adamts-5. miR-140 is one of a very limited number of noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) specifically expressed in cartilage; however, its role in development and/or tissue maintenance is largely uncharacterized. To examine miR-140 function in tissue development and homeostasis, we generated a mouse line through a targeted deletion of miR-140. miR-140(-/-) mice manifested a mild skeletal phenotype with a short stature, although the structure of the articular joint cartilage appeared grossly normal in 1-mo-old miR-140(-/-) mice. Interestingly, miR-140(-/-) mice showed age-related OA-like changes characterized by proteoglycan loss and fibrillation of articular cartilage. Conversely, transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing miR-140 in cartilage were resistant to antigen-induced arthritis. OA-like changes in miR-140-deficient mice can be attributed, in part, to elevated Adamts-5 expression, regulated directly by miR-140. We show that miR-140 regulates cartilage development and homeostasis, and its loss contributes to the development of age-related OA-like changes.
The retrograde approach via native channels, mainly septal collaterals, has now become routine. However even after retrograde advancement of a catheter through a collateral channel, it is sometimes difficult to guide the catheter from a false lumen into the true lumen. We experienced 3 patients in whom the site for retrograde guidewire re-entry site from the chronic total occlusion was unclear, and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was useful for identifying the re-entry site. Here we report on this new technique, in which IVUS guides the retrograde guidewire to its re-entry site.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, are multifunctional cytokines regulating a broad spectrum of biological functions. Recent studies show the presence of BMP receptor 1a mutations in juvenile polyposis and frequent Smad4 mutations in colon cancer, suggesting that aberrations in BMP signaling play an important role in intestinal cancer pathogenesis. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The Runt domain transcription factor RUNX3 is an integral component of signaling pathways mediated by TGF-beta and BMPs. RUNX3 is a gastric and colon tumor suppressor, functioning downstream of TGF-beta. Recently, we showed the tumor-suppressive effects of RUNX3 by its ability to attenuate beta-catenin/T-cell factors (TCFs) transactivation in intestinal tumorigenesis. Here, we explore the molecular basis of the tumor-suppressive function of the BMP pathway through RUNX3 in colorectal carcinogenesis. BMP exerted a growth-suppressive effect in HT-29, a human colorectal cancer cell line. c-Myc oncogene was found to be downregulated by BMP and/or RUNX3. We show that upregulation of RUNX3 by BMP reduces c-Myc expression. Evidence is presented suggesting that RUNX3 downregulates c-Myc expression by two parallel pathways-directly at the transcriptional level and through attenuation of beta-catenin/TCFs, downstream of BMPs in colorectal cancer cells.
RUNX proteins are heterodimeric factors that play crucial roles during development and differentiation of cells of the immune system. The RUNX3 transcription factor controls lineage decisions during thymopoiesis and T-cell differentiation, and modulates myeloid cell effector functions. We now report the characterization of the human RUNX3/p33 isoform, generated by splicing out a Runt DNA-binding domain-encoding exon, and whose transcriptional activities differ from those of the prototypic RUNX3/p44 molecule. Unlike RUNX3/p44, RUNX3/p33 is induced upon maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC), and is unable to transactivate the regulatory regions of the CD11a, CD11c and CD49e integrin genes. Overexpression of RUNX3/p33 in myeloid cell lines led to diminished expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses. Moreover, overexpression of RUNX3/p33 down-modulated the basal level of IL-8 production from immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). Besides, siRNA-mediated knock-down of RUNX3 led to diminished levels of IL-8 RNA in immature MDDC, and modulated the neutrophil-recruiting capacity of myeloid cell line supernatants. Since IL-8 promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation during inflammatory responses, and exerts mitogenic and angiogenic actions within tumor microenvironment, our results imply that myeloid RUNX3 expression regulates the recruitment of leukocytes towards inflammatory foci and might also contribute to human cancer progression.
Although it has been shown that the gastric tumor suppressor RUNX3 has a growth inhibitory activity, the precise molecular mechanisms behind RUNX3-mediated tumor suppression remained unclear. In this study, we found that RUNX3 is closely involved in DNA damage-dependent phosphorylation of tumor suppressor p53 at Ser-15 and acts as a co-activator for p53. The small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of RUNX3 inhibited adriamycin (ADR)-dependent apoptosis in p53-proficient cells but not in p53-deficient cells in association with a significant reduction of p53-target gene expression as well as phosphorylation of p53 at Ser-15. In response to ADR, RUNX3 was induced to accumulate in the cell nucleus and co-localized with p53. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that RUNX3 forms a complex with p53 in cells. In vitro pulldown assays revealed that the COOH-terminal portion of p53 is required for the interaction with RUNX3. Forced expression of RUNX3 enhanced p53-mediated transcriptional activation. Additionally, RUNX3 had an ability to induce the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser-15, thereby promoting p53-dependent apoptosis. Intriguingly, RUNX3 interacted with phosphorylated forms of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated in response to ADR; however, it did not affect the extent of DNA damage. From the clinical point of view, coordinated p53 mutation and decreased expression of RUNX3 in 105 human lung adenocarcinomas were significantly associated with the poor outcome of patients (p = 0.0203). Thus, our present results strongly suggest that RUNX3 acts as a novel co-activator for p53 through regulating its DNA damage-induced phosphorylation at Ser-15 and also provide a clue to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying RUNX3-mediated tumor suppression.
X-ray fluorescence analysis using Cr K(alpha) spectra was applied to the determination of the mixing ratio of Cr(6+) to (Cr(6+) + Cr(3+)) in several mixtures of K(2)CrO(4) and Cr(2)O(3). Because the powder of K(2)CrO(4) contained large particles that were more than 50 microm in diameter, it was ground between a pestle and a mortar for about 8 h. The coarse particles still remaining were removed by using a sieve with 325-mesh (44 microm) in order to reduce the difference in absorption effects between emissions from Cr(6+) and those from Cr(3+). The mixing ratio, K(2)CrO(4)/(K(2)CrO(4) + Cr(2)O(3)), of the five mixtures investigated is 0.50, 0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 in weight, respectively. Each spectrum obtained was analyzed by decomposing it into two reference spectra, those of the two pure materials, K(2)CrO(4) and Cr(2)O(3), with a constant background. The results for the mixtures containing K(2)CrO(4) of more than 20 wt% are that the relative deviation from the true value is less than approximately 5%. On the other hand, when the content of K(2)CrO(4) decreases to less than 10 wt%, the relative deviation gets so large as 20 - 25%. The error coming from a peak separation of spectrum involved in our results were estimated by applying our method to five sets of data for each mixture computationally generated, taking into account the uncertainty in total counts of real measurements.
IgA is a specific isotype required for mucosal immunity and is the most abundant Ab produced in vivo. Recently, several inductive signals for IgA class switch recombination have been identified; however, the molecular details of the action of these signals and the specific factors acting in B cells remain elusive. In this study, we show that combination of retinoic acid (RA) and TGF-beta1 with other factors induced a much higher frequency of IgA-switched cells than reported previously. In addition, IgA production is severely impaired in Runx2-Runx3 double-deficient mice. In Runx2-Runx3-deficient B cells, both RA- and TGF-beta1-dependent inductions of alpha germline transcription are completely blocked. These data suggest that Runx proteins play an essential role in IgA class switching acting downstream of RA and TGF-beta1 signaling.
Dominant RUNX1 inhibition has been proposed as a common pathway for CBF leukemia. CBF beta-SMMHC, a fusion protein in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), dominantly inhibits RUNX1 largely through its RUNX1 high-affinity binding domain (HABD). However, the type I CBF beta-SMMHC fusion in AML patients lacks HABD. Here, we report that the type I CBF beta-SMMHC protein binds RUNX1 inefficiently. Knockin mice expressing CBF beta-SMMHC with a HABD deletion developed leukemia quickly, even though hematopoietic defects associated with Runx1-inhibition were partially rescued. A larger pool of leukemia-initiating cells, increased MN1 expression, and retention of RUNX1 phosphorylation are potential mechanisms for accelerated leukemia development in these mice. Our data suggest that RUNX1 dominant inhibition may not be a critical step for leukemogenesis by CBF beta-SMMHC.
RUNX3 is a transcription factor that functions as a tumor suppressor. In some cancers, RUNX3 expression is down-regulated, usually due to promoter hypermethylation. Recently, it was found that RUNX3 can also be inactivated by the mislocalization of the protein in the cytoplasm. The molecular mechanisms controlling this mislocalization are poorly understood. In this study, we found that the overexpression of Src results in the tyrosine phosphorylation and cytoplasmic localization of RUNX3. We also found that the tyrosine residues of endogenous RUNX3 are phosphorylated and that the protein is localized in the cytoplasm in Src-activated cancer cell lines. We further showed that the knockdown of Src by small interfering RNA, or the inhibition of Src kinase activity by a chemical inhibitor, causes the re-localization of RUNX3 to the nucleus. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the tyrosine phosphorylation of RUNX3 by activated Src is associated with the cytoplasmic localization of RUNX3 in gastric and breast cancers.
Accumulating evidence indicates that RUNX3 is an important tumour suppressor that is inactivated in many cancer types. This study aimed to assess the role of microRNA (miRNA) in the regulation of RUNX3.
To investigate the long-term outcome of Percutaneous transluminal intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO). The subjects were 606 patients (1,145 lesions) who were treated for CTO between January 1996 and December 2003 at our institution. Among them, 436 patients with early success and confirmed patency at the CTO by follow-up coronary angiography after 6 months were classified as the patent group (Group P), while 170 patients without early success or with occlusion on follow-up angiography were classified as the occluded group (Group O). In April 2006 (mean: 660 ± 602 days), the outcome of CTO was investigated and the major adverse cardiac events (MACE)-free rate was calculated. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify determinants of death. The early success rate was 76.4% before 2003 when Conquest guidewires were not available. However, it subsequently showed significant improvement to 89%. The cumulative survival rate was significantly higher for Group P (92%) than for Group O (64%) and the MACE-free rate (free from, death, bypass surgery, myocardial infarction, and revascularization) showed a similar trend. The cumulative survival rate of patients without myocardial viability in the territory of the vessel with CTO was significantly higher for Group P (88%) than for Group O (55%). The outcome was significantly worse for patients with occlusion of other vessels (90%) than for patients without additional occlusion (42%). It was significantly better when the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was ?40% than when the LVEF was ?40% (90 vs. 68%). Multivariate analysis identified occluded CTO, other vessel occlusion, low ejection fraction (EF), unimproved EF, and old age as determinants of death from CTO. If early success is obtained and patency is maintained, the long-term outcome after PCI for CTO is significantly better than when failure occurs Occluded CTO, other vessel occlusion, low EF, unimproved EF, and old age are important determinants of the outcome.
The RUNX1/AML1 gene is the most frequently mutated gene in human leukemia. Conditional deletion of Runx1 in adult mice results in an increase of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which serve as target cells for leukemia; however, Runx1(-/-) mice do not develop spontaneous leukemia. Here we show that maintenance of Runx1(-/-) HSCs is compromised, progressively resulting in HSC exhaustion. In leukemia development, the stem cell exhaustion was rescued by additional genetic changes. Retroviral insertional mutagenesis revealed Evi5 activation as a cooperating genetic alteration and EVI5 overexpression indeed prevented Runx1(-/-) HSC exhaustion in mice. Moreover, EVI5 was frequently overexpressed in human RUNX1-related leukemias. These results provide insights into the mechanism for maintenance of pre-leukemic stem cells and may provide a novel direction for therapeutic applications.
The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of long-term intake of leucine in dietary protein malnutrition on muscle protein synthesis and degradation. A reduction in muscle mass was suppressed by leucine-supplementation (1.5% leucine) in rats fed protein-free diet for 7 days. Furthermore, the rate of muscle protein degradation was decreased without an increase in muscle protein synthesis. In addition, to elucidate the mechanism involved in the suppressive effect of leucine, we measured the activities of degradation systems in muscle. Proteinase activity (calpain and proteasome) and ubiquitin ligase mRNA (Atrogin-1 and MuRF1) expression were not suppressed in animals fed a leucine-supplemented diet, whereas the autophagy marker, protein light chain 3 active form (LC3-II), expression was significantly decreased. These results suggest that the protein-free diet supplemented with leucine suppresses muscle protein degradation through inhibition of autophagy rather than protein synthesis.
The dependence of X-ray intensity on the pressure and type of ambient gas was investigated for LiNbO(3) single crystals polarized in the c-axis direction at pressures of approximately 1 to 30 Pa. Ionization of surrounding gas molecules by the electric field generated by the crystal led to the production of both positive ions and free electrons. The electrons were accelerated toward a Cu target, radiating both white X-rays and X-rays specific to the crystal or target material by bremsstrahlung. The integrated X-ray intensity per cycle in the energy range 1 to 20 keV showed a local maximum value at a pressure P(max). The logarithm of P(max) was proportional to the Boltzmann factor using the first ionization energy of each ambient gas molecule. The value of P(max) was found to be independent of the electrical surface area of the crystal. The integrated X-ray intensity was approximated qualitatively by a quadratic function with pressure, which was upwardly convex. It was found that one of the causes of the reduction in X-ray intensity at pressures P > P(max) is the adsorption of positive ions generated by the ionization of gas molecules on the negative electric surface. It was also discovered that the lifetime of the X-ray radiation device could be improved when the X-ray radiation case was covered with another hermetically sealed decompression case. The gas with the smallest first ionization energy, with a partial pressure of P(max), was enclosed inside the X-ray radiation case (inner case) and the gas with the largest first ionization energy was enclosed at a suitable pressure between the inner and outer cases.
The p14(ARF)-MDM2-p53 pathway constitutes an effective mechanism for protecting cells from oncogenic stimuli such as activated Ras and Myc. Importantly, Ras activation induces p14(ARF) and often occurs earlier than p53 inactivation during cancer development. Here, we show that RUNX3, a tumor suppressor in various tumors including stomach, bladder, colon, and lung, is stabilized by Ras activation through the p14(ARF)-MDM2 signaling pathway. RUNX3 directly binds MDM2 through its Runt-related DNA-binding domain. MDM2 blocks RUNX3 transcriptional activity by interacting with RUNX3 through an acidic domain adjacent to the p53-binding domain of MDM2 and ubiquitinates RUNX3 on key lysine residues to mediate nuclear export and proteasomal degradation. Our data indicate that the lineage-specific tumor suppressor RUNX3 and the ubiquitous p53 protein are both principal responders of the p14(ARF)-MDM2 cell surveillance pathway that prevents pathologic consequences of abnormal oncogene activation.
There are several methods for measuring the rate of myofibrillar protein degradation using 3-methylhistidine (3-MeHis) levels in urine, plasma and isolated muscle. However, these methods lack the accuracy of rate measurements. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new method for determining the rate of myofibrillar protein degradation. We characterized an arteriovenous difference method using 3-MeHis plasma concentration. Rats were fasted overnight and subsequently administered leucine (135 mg/100 g BW) or fed a 20% casein diet. The rate of myofibrillar protein degradation was calculated by multiplying the femoral artery blood flow rate by the arteriovenous difference in 3-MeHis concentrations (vein-artery). The blood was collected from the femoral vein and abdominal aorta. The release of 3-MeHis from hindlimb muscle was significantly suppressed (p<0.05) in rats fed leucine or the 20% casein diet, indicating that myofibrillar protein degradation was suppressed. These results suggest that the evaluation of the rate of myofibrillar protein degradation using the arteriovenous difference method reflects nutritional conditions in a more physiological manner.
Sensory neurons project axons to specific peripheral and central targets according to their sensory modality. Runx3 is crucially involved in proprioceptive dorsal root ganglion neuron development. Runx3 is also expressed in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. The role of Runx3 in the TG, however, is largely unknown because the TG does not contain proprioceptive neurons. In Runx3-deficient (Runx3(-/-)) mice, TrkB-expressing TG neurons were increased, whereas TrkC-expressing TG neurons were decreased during TG neuron development. In Runx3(-/-) neonatal mice, TrkC-expressing TG neurons did not project to the Merkel cells in the outer root sheath (ORS) of whisker vibrissae peripherally and the spinal trigeminal nucleus pars interpolaris (Sp5I) centrally. These findings suggest that Runx3 is required for the specification of TrkC-expressing TG neurons, conveying mechanoreceptive signals from the Merkel cells in the ORS of the whisker vibrissae to the Sp5I.
Sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) is established to be effective in reducing restenosis. Repeat revascularization, however, is still required in up to 5-8% of patients. In this study, we analyzed clinical and angiographic variables that might be related with SES re-restenosis and variables related with re-restenosis after repeat SES implantation for SES restenosis. We also assessed clinical outcomes at 2-year follow-up after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for SES restenosis. Repeat revascularization for SES restenosis was performed in 113 patients with 140 lesions. Of the 140 lesions, follow-up coronary angiography (CAG) was performed on 117 lesions (101 patients) and revealed 46 SES re-restenotic and 71 non-re-restenotic lesions. In multivariate analysis, SES-in-SES-strategy and reference diameter before the second PCI were independent predictors of re-restenosis after PCI for SES restenosis. However, the reference diameter was the only independent predictor of re-restenosis after SES-in-SES. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 2 years were found in 44 patients (43.5%), and target lesion revascularization (TLR) was performed in 33.7% of patients after SES restenosis. In conclusion, the incidence of MACE and TLR was relatively high in patients with SES restenosis, but the placement of another SES on larger-diameter vessels may be an effective strategy for the second PCI.
Transcription in multicellular eukaryotic organisms involves an elaborate orchestration of the core promoter and cis-regulatory elements to drive spatiotemporally and quantitatively correct gene expression. Unlike promoters found immediately upstream of protein-coding genes, the positions of distally located cis-regulatory elements relative to a gene of interest are difficult to define. As such, the identification and characterization of these regulatory elements has proved to be challenging. To this end, we propose a combinatorial in silico approach involving retroviral integration sites (RIS) mapping together with predicted matrix attachment regions (MARs) mapping and an already well-established comparative genomics approach, to enhance the prediction of potential cis-regulatory elements. Predicted elements can be validated by further investigations to ascertain their functions. In view of the abundance of electronically available RIS information, RIS mapping has an unrealized potential to aid in the discovery of novel cis-regulatory elements.
Using real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR (RTQ-MSP), methylated RUNX3 sequences were quantified and the fractional concentrations of circulating tumor DNA in serum were determined, along with peripheral blood cells collected preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively from 65 patients with gastric cancer.
Range of motion (ROM) of the hip joint after total hip arthroplasty (THA) could be increased by using a larger prosthetic femoral head, but it is not known whether the activities of daily living (ADL) are influenced by THA with different head sizes. Our objective was to compare postoperative ADL in patients who underwent THA using a head diameter of 26 mm or 32 mm. We assessed the range of motion and the mode of ADL after cementless primary THA. Comparison was performed between 25 joints of 24 patients who underwent THA with a 26-mm femoral head (26-mm group) and 24 joints of 20 patients with a 32-mm head (32-mm group). The postoperative range of flexion and abduction was significantly larger in the 32-mm group than in the 26-mm group. With respect to the mode of performing selected ADL such as putting on and removing pants, socks, and cutting toenails, many patients adopted the compensatory position of lumbar flexion with hip flexion plus knee extension in the 26-mm group, while a majority of the patients from the 32-mm group employed the mode of hip flexion with knee flexion. Patients with the 32-mm head showed better postoperative ADL of the ipsilateral side compared with the 26-mm head.
Two novel monoterpenes, sibiscolacton (1) and sibiraic acid (2), were isolated from the aerial part of Sibiraea angustata RCHD: . along with seven known compounds, namely three phenylpropanoids (3-5), two flavonoids (6,7), one glucityl ferulate (8, sibirate), and a monoterpene glucoside (9, sibiskoside). The structures of 1 and 2 were established on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical data.
The transcription factor RUNX3 is a gastric tumor suppressor. Tumorigenic Runx3(-/-) gastric epithelial cells attach weakly to each other, compared with nontumorigenic Runx3(+/+) cells. We aimed to identify RUNX3 target genes that promote cell-cell contact to improve our understanding of RUNX3s role in suppressing gastric carcinogenesis.
Recent studies suggest that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may therapeutically prevent cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis (OA). Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease and in the present study we investigated the correlation between HDACs and MMP-13. Comparing the expression of different HDACs in cartilage from OA patients and healthy donors, HDAC7 showed a significant elevation in cartilage from OA patients. High level of HDAC7 expression in OA cartilage was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of HDAC7 by small interference RNA (siRNA) in SW1353 human chondrosarcoma cells strongly suppressed interleukin (IL)-1-dependent and independent induction of MMP-13 gene expression. In conclusion, elevated HDAC7 expression in human OA may contribute to cartilage degradation via promoting MMP-13 gene expression, suggesting the critical role of MMP-13 in OA pathogenesis.
A new monoterpene glycoside (1) isolated from the aerial part of Sibirae angustata RCHD. (Rosaceae) was found to be 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-geraniol-5,10-olide and named as sibiskoside. Acute toxicity study revealed that oral administration of 1 (2.5 g/kg body weight) to mice resulted in no death and no evidence of abnormalities in internal organs. Its oral administration to the mice reared with high-fat diet resulted in weight-loss, which was also reflected in serum triglyceride and sugar level, and the weight of abdominal fat. Sibiskoside could be considered to be an active ingredient of Liucha for exerting weight-loss effect in a drink of S. angustata.
We created a whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) database, termed EMBRYS, containing expression data of 1520 transcription factors and cofactors expressed in E9.5, E10.5, and E11.5 mouse embryos--a highly dynamic stage of skeletal myogenesis. This approach implicated 43 genes in regulation of embryonic myogenesis, including a transcriptional repressor, the zinc-finger protein RP58 (also known as Zfp238). Knockout and knockdown approaches confirmed an essential role for RP58 in skeletal myogenesis. Cell-based high-throughput transfection screening revealed that RP58 is a direct MyoD target. Microarray analysis identified two inhibitors of skeletal myogenesis, Id2 and Id3, as targets for RP58-mediated repression. Consistently, MyoD-dependent activation of the myogenic program is impaired in RP58 null fibroblasts and downregulation of Id2 and Id3 rescues MyoDs ability to promote myogenesis in these cells. Our combined, multi-system approach reveals a MyoD-activated regulatory loop relying on RP58-mediated repression of muscle regulatory factor (MRF) inhibitors.
Runx1 is expressed in medial edge epithelial (MEE) cells of the palatal shelf. Conditionally rescued Runx1(-/-) mice showed limited clefting in the anterior junction between the primary and the secondary palatal shelves, but not in the junction between the secondary palates. In wild type mice, the fusing epithelial surface exhibited a rounded cobblestone-like appearance, while such cellular prominence was less evident in the Runx1 mutants. We also found that Fgf18 was expressed in the mesenchyme underlying the MEE and that locally applied FGF18 induced ectopic Runx1 expression in the epithelium of the palatal explants, indicating that Runx1 was induced by mesenchymal Fgf18 signaling. On the other hand, unpaired palatal explant cultures revealed the presence of anterior-posterior (A-P) differences in the MEE fates and fusion mechanism. Interestingly, the location of anterior clefting in Runx1 mutants corresponded to the region with different MEE behavior. These data showed a novel function of Runx1 in morphological changes in the MEE cells in palatal fusion, which is, at least in part, regulated by the mesenchymal Fgf signaling via an epithelial-mesenchymal interaction.
We had previously established that inactivation of RUNX3 occurs by frequent promoter hypermethylation and protein mislocalization in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of breast. Here, we hypothesize that inactivation of RUNX3 occurring in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) represent early event in breast carcinogenesis.
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