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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch increases mortality after myeloablative unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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We examined current outcomes of unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to determine the clinical implications of donor-recipient HLA matching. Adult and pediatric patients who had first undergone myeloablative-unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood HCT for acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome between 1999 and 2011 were included. All had high-resolution typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1. Of the total (n = 8003), cases were 8/8 (n = 5449), 7/8 (n = 2071), or 6/8 (n = 483) matched. HLA mismatch (6-7/8) conferred significantly increased risk for grades II to IV and III to IV acute graft vs host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, transplant-related mortality (TRM), and overall mortality compared with HLA-matched cases (8/8). Type (allele/antigen) and locus (HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1) of mismatch were not associated with overall mortality. Among 8/8 matched cases, HLA-DPB1 and -DQB1 mismatch resulted in increased acute GVHD, and HLA-DPB1 mismatch had decreased relapse. Nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 allele mismatch was associated with higher TRM compared with permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch or HLA-DPB1 match and increased overall mortality compared with permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch in 8/8 (and 10/10) matched cases. Full matching at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 is required for optimal unrelated donor HCT survival, and avoidance of nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches in otherwise HLA-matched pairs is indicated.
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Association of severity of organ involvement with mortality and recurrent malignancy in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The National Institutes of Health global score for chronic graft-versus-host disease was devised by experts but was not based on empirical data. We hypothesized that analysis of prospectively collected data would enable derivation of a more accurate model for estimating mortality risk. We analyzed 574 adult patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease enrolled in a multicenter, observational study, using multivariate time-varying analysis accounting for serial changes in severity of involvement of eight individual organ sites over time. In the training set, severity of skin, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, liver and lung involvement were independently associated with the risk of non-relapse mortality. Weighted mortality points were assigned to individual organs based on the hazard ratios and were summed. The population was divided into three risk groups based on the total mortality points. The three new risk groups were validated in an independent validation set, but did not show better discriminative performance than the National Institutes of Health global score. As compared to a moderate or mild global score, a severe global score was associated with increased risks of non-relapse and overall mortality across time but not with a decreased risk of recurrent malignancy. The National Institutes of Health global score predicts patients' mortality risk throughout the course of their chronic graft-versus-host disease. Further research is required in order to improve outcomes in patients with severe chronic graft-versus-host disease, since their risk of mortality remains elevated.
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Gallium trihalide catalyzed sequential addition of two different carbon nucleophiles to esters by using silyl cyanide and ketene silyl acetals.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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A sequential addition of silyl cyanide and ketene silyl acetals to esters was achieved by a gallium trihalide catalyst to produce ?-cyano-?-siloxy esters. This is the first example of the sequential addition of two different carbon nucleophiles to esters. The employment of lactones provided ?,?-disubstituted cyclic ethers with a cyano group and an ester moiety. A variety of esters and lactones are applicable to this reaction system.
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Failure-free survival after initial systemic treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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This study was designed to characterize failure-free survival (FFS) as a novel end point for clinical trials of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The study cohort included 400 consecutive patients who received initial systemic treatment of chronic GVHD at our center. FFS was defined by the absence of second-line treatment, nonrelapse mortality, and recurrent malignancy during initial treatment. The FFS rate was 68% at 6 months and 54% at 12 months after initial treatment. Multivariate analysis identified 4 risk factors associated with treatment failure: time interval <12 months from transplantation to initial treatment, patient age ?60 years, severe involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, or lungs, and Karnofsky score <80% at initial treatment. Initial steroid doses and the type of initial treatment were not associated with risk of treatment failure. Lower steroid doses after 12 months of initial treatment were associated with long-term success in withdrawing all systemic treatment. FFS offers a potentially useful basis for interpreting results of initial treatment of chronic GVHD. Incorporation of steroid doses at 12 months would increase clinical benefit associated with the end point. Studies using FFS as the primary end point should measure changes in GVHD-related symptoms, activity, damage, and disability as secondary end points.
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Assessment of joint and fascia manifestations in chronic graft-versus-host disease.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To investigate the usefulness of various scales for evaluating joint and fascia manifestations in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, and to compare the scales in terms of simplicity of use and ability to yield reliable and clinically meaningful results.
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Langerhans cell homeostasis and turnover after nonmyeloablative and myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Langerhans cells (LCs) are self-renewing epidermal myeloid cells that can migrate and mature into dendritic cells. Recipient LCs that survive cytotoxic therapy given in preparation for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation may prime donor T cells to mediate cutaneous graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This possible association, however, has not been investigated in the setting of nonmyeloablative allografting.
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Outcomes of human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling donor hematopoietic cell transplantation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: myeloablative versus reduced-intensity conditioning regimens.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can cure some chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) subjects. This study compared outcomes of myeloablative (MA) and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) transplants from HLA-matched sibling donors (MSD) for CLL. From 1995 to 2007, information regarding 297 CLL subjects was reported to the Center of International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research; of these, 163 underwent MA and 134 underwent RIC MSD HCT. The MA subjects underwent transplantation less often after 2000 and less commonly received antithymocyte globulin (4% versus 13%, P = .004) or prior antibody therapy (14% versus 53%; P < .001). RIC was associated with a greater likelihood of platelet recovery and less grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease compared with MA conditioning. One- and 5-year treatment-related mortality (TRM) were 24% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 16% to 33%) versus 37% (95% CI, 30% to 45%; P = .023), and 40% (95% CI, 29% to 51%) versus 54% (95% CI, 46% to 62%; P = .036), respectively, and the relapse/progression rates at 1 and 5 years were 21% (95% CI, 14% to 29%) versus 10% (95% CI, 6% to 15%; P = .020), and 35% (95% CI, 26% to 46%) versus 17% (95% CI, 12% to 24%; P = .003), respectively. MA conditioning was associated with better progression-free (PFS) (relative risk, .60; 95% CI, .37 to .97; P = .038) and 3-year survival in transplantations before 2001, but for subsequent years, RIC was associated with better PFS and survival (relative risk, 1.49 [95% CI, .92 to 2.42]; P = .10; and relative risk, 1.86 [95% CI, 1.11 to 3.13]; P = .019). Pretransplantation disease status was the most important predictor of relapse (P = .003) and PFS (P = .0007) for both forms of transplantation conditioning. MA and RIC MSD transplantations are effective for CLL. Future strategies to decrease TRM and reduce relapses are warranted.
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Influence of Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Lifestyle Characteristics on Cardiovascular Disease After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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To determine the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors on the risk of cardiovascular disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).
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Better leukemia-free and overall survival in AML in first remission following cyclophosphamide in combination with busulfan compared with TBI.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Cyclophosphamide combined with total body irradiation (Cy/TBI) or busulfan (BuCy) are the most widely used myeloablative conditioning regimens for allotransplants. Recent data regarding their comparative effectiveness are lacking. We analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research for 1230 subjects receiving a first hematopoietic cell transplant from a human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling or from an unrelated donor during the years 2000 to 2006 for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) after conditioning with Cy/TBI or oral or intravenous (IV) BuCy. Multivariate analysis showed significantly less nonrelapse mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.86; P = .007), and relapse after, but not before, 1 year posttransplant (RR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.08-0.65; P = .006), and better leukemia-free survival (RR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55-0.88; P = .003) and survival (RR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.52-0.88; P = .003) in persons receiving IV, but not oral, Bu compared with TBI. In combination with Cy, IV Bu is associated with superior outcomes compared with TBI in patients with AML in first CR.
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Response endpoints and failure-free survival after initial treatment for acute graft-versus-host disease.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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We evaluated short-term response endpoints for acute graft-versus-host disease treatment trials. We postulated that response endpoints should correlate with reduced symptom burden and decreased subsequent treatment failure defined as nonrelapse mortality, recurrent malignancy, or additional systemic treatment. The cohort included 303 consecutive patients who received initial systemic steroid treatment for acute graft-versus-host disease. Response was evaluated at day 28 after initial treatment, which in all cases preceded the onset of chronic graft-versus-host disease. At day 28, 36% of patients had complete response, 26% very good partial response, 10% other partial response and 28% no response. As expected, the symptom burden was lower in patients with very good partial response compared to those with other partial response. The frequencies of subsequent treatment failure were similar in patients with complete and very good partial response, but lower than in patients with other partial response or no response at day 28. The frequency of second-line treatment was lower in patients with very good partial response than in those with other partial response. Risk factors associated with a lower probability of complete or very good partial response at day 28 were unrelated or human leukocyte antigen-mismatched related donor grafts and liver or gastrointestinal involvement at onset of initial treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that endpoints in acute graft-versus-host disease treatment trials should distinguish between very good partial response and other partial response. Our results support the use of complete or very good partial response at day 28 as an appropriate short-term primary endpoint.
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Does Total Body Irradiation Conditioning Improve Outcomes of Myeloablative Human Leukocyte Antigen-Identical Sibling Transplantations for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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An allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from an HLA-identical donor after high-dose (myeloablative) pretransplantation conditioning is an effective therapy for some people with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Because CLL is a highly radiosensitive cancer, we hypothesized that total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning regimens may be associated with better outcomes than those without TBI. To answer this, we analyzed data from 180 subjects with CLL receiving myeloablative doses of TBI (n = 126) or not (n = 54), who received transplants from an HLA-identical sibling donor between 1995 and 2007 and reported to the Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research. At 5 years, treatment-related mortality was 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39% to 57%) versus 50% (95% CI, 36% to 64%); P = NS. Relapse rates were 17% (95% CI, 11% to 25%) versus 22% (95% CI, 11% to 35%); P = NS. Five-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 34% (95% CI, 26% to 43%) versus 28% (95% CI, 15% to 42%); P = NS and 42% (95% CI, 33% to 51%) versus 33% (95% CI, 19% to 48%); P = NS, respectively. The single most common cause of death in both cohorts was recurrent/progressive CLL. No variable tested in the multivariate analysis was found to significantly affect these outcomes, including having failed fludarabine. Within the limitations of this study, we found no difference in HLA-identical sibling transplantation outcomes between myeloablative TBI and chemotherapy pretransplantation conditioning in persons with CLL.
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Pulmonary Symptoms Measured by the National Institutes of Health Lung Score Predict Overall Survival, Nonrelapse Mortality, and Patient-Reported Outcomes In Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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The 2005 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference recommended assessment of lung function in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by both pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and assessment of pulmonary symptoms. We tested whether pulmonary measures were associated with nonrelapse mortality (NRM), overall survival (OS), and patient-reported outcomes (PRO). Clinician and patient-reported data were collected serially in a prospective, multicenter, observational study. Available PFT data were abstracted. Cox regression models were fit for outcomes using a time-varying covariate model for lung function measures and adjusting for patient and transplantation characteristics and nonlung chronic GVHD severity. A total of 1591 visits (496 patients) were used in this analysis. The NIH symptom-based lung score was associated with NRM (P = .02), OS (P = .02), patient-reported symptoms (P < .001) and functional status (P < .001). Worsening of NIH symptom-based lung score over time was associated with higher NRM and lower survival. All other measures were not associated with OS or NRM; although, some were associated with patient-reported lung symptoms. In conclusion, the NIH symptom-based lung symptom score of 0 to 3 is associated with NRM, OS, and PRO measures in patients with chronic GVHD. Worsening of the NIH symptom-based lung score was associated with increased mortality.
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Indium triiodide catalyzed reductive functionalization of amides via the single-stage treatment of hydrosilanes and organosilicon nucleophiles.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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The indium triiodide catalyzed single-stage cascade reaction of N-sulfonyl amides with hydrosilanes and two types of organosilicon nucleophiles such as silyl cyanide and silyl enolates selectively promoted deoxygenative functionalization to give ?-cyanoamines and ?-aminocarbonyl compounds, respectively.
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Fused Heteroaromatic Dihydrosiloles: Synthesis and Double-Fold Modification.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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An efficient method for the synthesis of fused heteroaromatic dihydrosiloles via Ni-catalyzed hydrosilylation/intramolecular Ir-catalyzed dehydrogenative coupling of the Si-H bond with the heteroaromatic C-H bond has been developed. The method is efficient for both electron-deficient and -rich heterocycles. It exhibits high functional group tolerance and good regioselectivity. Fused heteroaromatic dihydrosiloles can be smoothly halogenated and then oxidized or arylated. Application of these transformations allows obtaining highly functionalized heteroaromatic structures. A gram-scale synthesis of dihydropyridinosilole has also been accomplished using reduced amounts of Ni- and Ir-catalysts.
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Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of sclerosis in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Sclerotic chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can result in disability after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. We assessed the incidence and risk factors of sclerosis and its association with transplant outcomes among 977 consecutive patients treated with systemic immunosuppression for chronic GVHD. Sclerosis was defined when cutaneous sclerosis, fasciitis, or joint contracture was first documented in the medical record. Seventy (7%) patients presented with sclerosis at the time of initial systemic treatment for chronic GVHD, and the cumulative incidence of sclerosis increased to 20% at 3 years. Factors associated with an increased risk of sclerosis included the use of a mobilized blood cell graft and a conditioning regimen with > 450 cGy total body irradiation. Factors associated with a decreased risk of sclerosis included the use of an HLA-mismatched donor and a major ABO-mismatched donor. Development of sclerosis was associated with longer time to withdrawal of immunosuppressive treatment but not with risks of overall mortality, nonrelapse mortality, or recurrent malignancy. We found a substantial incidence of sclerosis in patients with chronic GVHD. Development of sclerosis can cause disability but does not affect mortality or recurrent malignancy in patients with chronic GVHD.
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Hand grip strength and 2-minute walk test in chronic graft-versus-host disease assessment: analysis from the Chronic GVHD Consortium.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Hand grip strength (HGS) and the 2-minute walk test (2MWT) have been proposed as elements of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) assessment in clinical trials. Using all available data (n = 584 enrollment visits, 1689 follow-up visits, total of 2273 visits) from a prospective observational cohort study, we explored the relationship between HGS and 2MWT and patient-reported measures (Lee symptom scale, MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36], and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy [FACT]-Bone Marrow Transplantation quality of life instruments and Human Activity Profile [HAP]), chronic GVHD global severity (National Institutes of Health global score, clinician global score, and patient-reported global score), calculated and clinician-reported chronic GVHD response, and mortality (overall survival, nonrelapse mortality, and failure-free survival) in multivariable analyses adjusted for significant covariates. 2MWT was significantly associated with intuitive domains of the Lee Symptom Scale (overall, skin, lung, energy), SF-36 domain and summary scores, FACT summary and domain scores, and HAP scores (all P < .001). Fewer associations were detected with the HGS. The 2MWT and HGS both had significant association with global chronic GVHD severity. In multivariable analysis, 2MWT was significantly associated with overall survival, nonrelapse mortality, and failure-free survival, whereas no association was found for HGS. 2MWT and HGS were not sensitive to National Institutes of Health or clinician-reported response. Based on independent association with mortality, these data support the importance of the 2MWT for identification of high-risk chronic GVHD patients. However, change in 2MWT is not sensitive to chronic GVHD response, limiting its usefulness in clinical trials.
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Donor lymphocyte infusion for relapsed hematological malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: prognostic relevance of the initial CD3+ T cell dose.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The impact of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) initial cell dose on its outcome is known in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia but limited in patients with other hematological malignancies. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the effect of initial DLI CD3(+) cell dose on graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and overall survival after DLI given for relapse of any hematological malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with high- or reduced-intensity conditioning. The cohort included 225 patients. Initial DLI CD3(+) cell dose per kilogram of recipient body weight was ? 1 × 10(7) (n = 84; group A), >1.0 to <10 × 10(7) (n = 58; group B), and ? 10 × 10(7) (n = 66; group C). The initial cell dose was unknown for the remaining 17 patients. Cumulative incidence rates of GVHD at 12 months after DLI were 21%, 45%, and 55% for groups A, B, and C, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that initial DLI CD3(+) cell ? 10 × 10(7) dose per kilogram is associated with an increased risk of GVHD after DLI (P = .03). Moreover, an initial DLI CD3(+) cell dose of 10 × 10(7) or higher did not decrease the risk of relapse and did not improve overall survival. Thus, these results support the use of less than 10 × 10(7) CD3(+) cell per kilogram as the initial cell dose of DLI for treatment of persistent or recurrent hematological malignancy after HCT.
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Analysis of gastrointestinal and hepatic chronic grant-versus-host disease manifestations on major outcomes: a chronic grant-versus-host disease consortium study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Although data support adverse prognosis of overlap subtype of chronic grant-versus-host disease (GVHD), the importance of site of gastrointestinal (GI) and type of hepatic involvement is not known. Using data from the Chronic GVHD Consortium observational cohort study (N = 567, total of 2115 visits), we examined whether the site of GI (esophageal, upper GI, or lower GI) and type of hepatic (bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase) involvement are associated with overall survival (OS) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM), symptoms, quality of life (QOL) and functional status measures. In multivariate analysis utilizing data from enrollment visits only, lower GI involvement (HR, 1.67; P = .05) and elevated bilirubin (HR, 2.46; P = .001) were associated with OS; both were also associated with NRM. In multivariable analysis using all visits (time-dependent covariates), GI score greater than zero (HR, 1.69; P = .02) and elevated bilirubin (HR, 3.73; P < .001) were associated with OS; results were similar for NRM. Any esophageal involvement and GI score greater than zero were associated with both symptoms and QOL, whereas elevated bilirubin was associated with QOL. We found no consistent evidence that upper GI involvement, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, or NIH liver score add prognostic value for survival, overall symptom burden, or QOL. These data support important differences in patient-reported outcomes according to GI and hepatic involvement among chronic GVHD-affected patients and identify those with elevated bilirubin or higher GI score at any time, or lower GI involvement at cohort enrollment, as patients at greater risk for mortality under current treatment approaches.
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Failure-free survival after second-line systemic treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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This study attempted to characterize causes of treatment failure, identify associated prognostic factors, and develop shorter-term end points for trials testing investigational products or regimens for second-line systemic treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The study cohort (312 patients) received second-line systemic treatment of chronic GVHD. The primary end point was failure-free survival (FFS) defined by the absence of third-line treatment, nonrelapse mortality, and recurrent malignancy during second-line treatment. Treatment change was the major cause of treatment failure. FFS was 56% at 6 months after second-line treatment. Lower steroid doses at 6 months correlated with subsequent withdrawal of immunosuppressive treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that high-risk disease at transplantation, lower gastrointestinal involvement at second-line treatment, and severe NIH global score at second-line treatment were associated with increased risks of treatment failure. These three factors were used to define risk groups, and success rates at 6 months were calculated for each risk group either without or with various steroid dose limits at 6 months as an additional criterion of success. These success rates could be used as the basis for a clinically relevant and efficient shorter-term end point in clinical studies that evaluate agents for second-line systemic treatment of chronic GVHD.
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Randomized controlled trial comparing ciprofloxacin and cefepime in febrile neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Ciprofloxacin (CPFX) is a potential alternative in patients with febrile neutropenia (FN) because of its activity against Gram-negative organisms. We conducted a non-inferiority, open-label, randomized controlled trial comparing intravenous CPFX and cefepime (CFPM) for FN patients with hematological malignancies.
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Nonmalignant late effects and compromised functional status in survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2011
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Our objective was to describe the incidence of nonmalignant late complications and their association with health and functional status in a recent cohort of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors.
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Treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease in 2011.
Curr. Opin. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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This article summarizes recent reports on the risks, pathogenesis and treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
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Treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease: Past, present and future.
Korean J Hematol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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Chronic GVHD was recognized as a complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation more than 30 years ago, but progress has been slowed by the limited insight into the pathogenesis of the disease and the mechanisms that lead to development of immunological tolerance. Only 6 randomized phase III treatment studies have been reported. Results of retrospective studies and prospective phase II clinical trials suggested overall benefit from treatment with mycophenolate mofetil or thalidomide, but these results were not substantiated by phase III studies of initial systemic treatment for chronic GVHD. A comprehensive review of published reports showed numerous deficiencies in studies of secondary treatment for chronic GVHD. Fewer than 10% of reports documented an effort to minimize patient selection bias, used a consistent treatment regimen, or tested a formal statistical hypothesis that was based on a contemporaneous or historical benchmark. In order to enable valid comparison of the results from different studies, eligibility criteria, definitions of individual organ and overall response, and time of assessment should be standardized. Improved treatments are more likely to emerge if reviewers and journal editors hold authors to higher standards in evaluating manuscripts for publication.
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Validation of measurement scales in ocular graft-versus-host disease.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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To validate measurement scales for rating ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Candidate scales were recommended for use in clinical trials by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Chronic GVHD Consensus Conference or have been previously validated in dry eye syndromes.
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Influence of immunosuppressive treatment on risk of recurrent malignancy after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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This study was conducted to elucidate the influence of immunosuppressive treatment (IST) and GVHD on risk of recurrent malignancy after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The study cohort included 2656 patients who received allogeneic HCT after high-intensity conditioning regimens for treatment of hematologic malignancies. Rates and hazard ratios of relapse and mortality were analyzed according to GVHD and IST as time-varying covariates. Adjusted Cox analyses showed that acute and chronic GVHD were both associated with statistically similar reductions in risk of relapse beyond 18 months after HCT but not during the first 18 months. In patients with GVHD, resolution of GVHD followed by withdrawal of IST was not associated with a subsequent increase in risk of relapse. In patients without GVHD, withdrawal of IST was associated with a reduced risk of relapse during the first 18 months, but the risk of subsequent relapse remained considerably higher than in patients with GVHD. In summary, the association of GVHD with risk of relapse changes over time after HCT. In patients without GVHD, early withdrawal of IST might help to prevent relapse during the first 18 months, but other interventions would be needed to prevent relapse at later time points.
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Comparative analysis of risk factors for acute graft-versus-host disease and for chronic graft-versus-host disease according to National Institutes of Health consensus criteria.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Risk factors for grades 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and for chronic GVHD as defined by National Institutes of Health consensus criteria were evaluated and compared in 2941 recipients of first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation at our center. In multivariate analyses, the profiles of risk factors for acute and chronic GVHD were similar, with some notable differences. Recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatching and the use of unrelated donors had a greater effect on the risk of acute GVHD than on chronic GVHD, whereas the use of female donors for male recipients had a greater effect on the risk of chronic GVHD than on acute GVHD. Total body irradiation was strongly associated with acute GVHD, but had no statistically significant association with chronic GVHD, whereas grafting with mobilized blood cells was strongly associated with chronic GVHD but not with acute GVHD. Older patient age was associated with chronic GVHD, but had no effect on acute GVHD. For all risk factors associated with chronic GVHD, point estimates and confidence intervals were not significantly changed after adjustment for prior acute GVHD. These results suggest that the mechanisms involved in acute and chronic GVHD are not entirely congruent and that chronic GVHD is not simply the end stage of acute GVHD.
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A retrospective comparison of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine with methotrexate for immunosuppression after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with mobilized blood cells.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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This retrospective study was performed to compare results with tacrolimus versus cyclosporine in combination with methotrexate for immunosuppression after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized blood cells. The cohort included 456 consecutive patients who received first allogeneic T cell-replete HCT with mobilized blood cells from related or unrelated donors after high-intensity conditioning for treatment of hematologic malignancies. Study endpoints included grades II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), grades III-IV aGVHD, chronic GVHD (cGVHD), end of treatment for cGVHD, overall mortality, disease-free survival (DFS), recurrent malignancy, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Adjusted multivariate Cox regression analysis showed no statistically significant differences between tacrolimus and cyclosporine for any of the endpoints tested. Although the size of the cohort is not sufficient to exclude clinically meaningful differences in outcomes, these results support the continued use of cyclosporine at centers that have not adopted tacrolimus as the standard of care after HCT with mobilized blood cells after high-intensity conditioning regimens. A larger registry study should be performed to provide more definitive information comparing outcomes with the 2 calcineurin inhibitors.
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A phase I/II study of chemotherapy followed by donor lymphocyte infusion plus interleukin-2 for relapsed acute leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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The efficacy of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) for treatment of relapsed acute leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is limited. We hypothesized that interleukin-2 (IL-2) combined with DLI after chemotherapy might augment graft-versus-leukemia effects. To identify a safe and effective IL-2 regimen, a phase I/II study of DLI plus IL-2 therapy was performed for such patients. After chemotherapy, 17 patients received DLI (1 × 10(8) CD3/kg for patients with related donors, and 0.1 × 10(8) CD3/kg for those with unrelated donors) and an escalating dose of induction IL-2 (1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 × 10(6) IU/m(2)/day representing levels I [n = 7], Ia [n = 9], and II [n = 1]) for 5 days followed by maintenance (1.0 × 10(6) IU/m(2)/day) for 10 days as a continuous intravenous infusion. Unacceptable IL-2-related toxicities developed in 1 patient at level I, 2 at level Ia, and 1 at level II. Grades III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) developed in 5 patients, and extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) developed in 8. Eight patients had a complete remission after chemotherapy prior to DLI, and 2 additional patients had a complete remission after DLI plus IL-2 therapy. In conclusion, the maximal tolerated induction dose of IL-2 combined with DLI appears to be 1.0 × 10(6) IU/m(2)/day. IL-2 administration after DLI might increase the incidence of cGVHD.
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for adult Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphocytic leukemia: comparable survival rates but different risk factors between related and unrelated transplantation in first complete remission.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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To identify factors to improve the outcomes of related and unrelated allogeneic stem cell transplantations (allo-SCT) for Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphocytic leukemia (Ph(-) ALL) in the first complete remission (CR1), we retrospectively analyzed 1139 Ph(-) ALL patients using the registry data, particularly the details of 641 patients transplanted in CR1. Overall survival was significantly superior among patients transplanted in CR1, but no significant difference was observed between related and unrelated allo-SCTs (related vs unrelated: 65% vs 62% at 4 years, respectively; P = .19). Among patients transplanted in CR1, relapse rates were significantly higher in related allo-SCT compared with unrelated allo-SCT, and multivariate analysis demonstrated that less than 6 months from diagnosis to allo-SCT alone was associated with relapse. On the other hand, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was significantly higher in unrelated allo-SCT compared with related allo-SCT, and multivariate analysis demonstrated that 10 months or longer from diagnosis to allo-SCT, human leukocyte antigen mismatch, and abnormal karyotype were associated with NRM. In conclusion, our study showed comparable survival rates but different relapse rates, NRM rates, and risk factors between related and unrelated allo-SCTs. After a close consideration of these factors, the outcome of allo-SCT for adult Ph(-) ALL in CR1 could be improved.
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Regioselective carboindation of simple alkenes with indium tribromide and ketene silyl acetals.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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The regioselective carboindation of simple alkenes with indium tribromide and ketene silyl acetals was accomplished. Various alkenes such as ethylene, 1-alkenes, and cyclic alkenes were applicable for this reaction system. The alkylindium product from the carboindation of cyclohexene revealed an anti addition mechanism.
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HapMap scanning of novel human minor histocompatibility antigens.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags) are molecular targets of allo-immunity associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and involved in graft-versus-host disease, but they also have beneficial antitumor activity. mHags are typically defined by host SNPs that are not shared by the donor and are immunologically recognized by cytotoxic T cells isolated from post-HSCT patients. However, the number of molecularly identified mHags is still too small to allow prospective studies of their clinical importance in transplantation medicine, mostly due to the lack of an efficient method for isolation. Here we show that when combined with conventional immunologic assays, the large data set from the International HapMap Project can be directly used for genetic mapping of novel mHags. Based on the immunologically determined mHag status in HapMap panels, a target mHag locus can be uniquely mapped through whole genome association scanning taking advantage of the unprecedented resolution and power obtained with more than 3 000 000 markers. The feasibility of our approach could be supported by extensive simulations and further confirmed by actually isolating 2 novel mHags as well as 1 previously identified example. The HapMap data set represents an invaluable resource for investigating human variation, with obvious applications in genetic mapping of clinically relevant human traits.
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Combinations of cytogenetics and international scoring system can predict poor prognosis in multiple myeloma after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a standard therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Combinations of recently proposed prognostic factors such as cytogenetics and international scoring system (ISS) may be useful to predict prognosis after ASCT. This study evaluated 60 consecutive patients who underwent ASCT in four institutes. The median age of patients was 57 years old. Cytogenetic analyses of bone marrow at diagnosis detected metaphase abnormalities in 9 of 51 patients and interphase abnormalities in six of 35 patients (17p13 deletion, t(4;14) and t(14;16)). Seventeen patients had ISS stage 3 at diagnosis. Twenty-five patients who had any of these risk factors were defined as high risk. All patients were conditioned with high-dose melphalan. With a median follow-up of 3.4 years, overall survival and event-free survival at 3 years were significantly worse in high-risk patients (48% vs. 97%; P = 0.0005 and 16% vs. 37%; P = 0.038, respectively) despite the higher CR plus VGPR rate among high-risk patients. In addition, survival at 1 year after progression was significantly worse in high-risk patients despite salvage chemotherapy containing thalidomide (32% vs. 100%, P = 0.0001). Combinations of cytogenetics and ISS could readily predict prognosis. Quality of response is a poor surrogate marker for ultimate outcome. High-risk patients may need more effective treatment.
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Hyperferritinemia after adult allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: quantification of iron burden by determining non-transferrin-bound iron.
Int. J. Hematol.
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Iron overload is a common complication in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied the prevalence of iron overload using serum ferritin from 122 allogeneic HCT survivors who had survived a median of 1259 (range 134-4261) days. We also quantified iron overload by determining non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI), which reflects iron overload more directly than ferritin, and compared the results with those of the ferritin assay. Fifty-two patients (43 %) showed hyperferritinemia (HF) (serum ferritin >1000 ng/mL), and there was a moderate correlation between serum ferritin and the number of transfused red blood cell units (? = 0.71). In multivariate analyses, HF was a significant risk factor for liver dysfunction (P = 0.0001) and diabetes (P = 0.02), and was related to a lesser extent with performance status (P = 0.08). There was a significant correlation between serum ferritin and NTBI (? = 0.59); however, the association of NTBI with these outcomes was weaker than that of serum ferritin. In conclusion, serum ferritin is a good surrogate marker of iron overload after allogeneic HCT, and reflects organ damage more accurately than NTBI.
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Correlation between NIH composite skin score, patient-reported skin score, and outcome: results from the Chronic GVHD Consortium.
Blood
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There are no validated criteria to measure skin response in chronic GVHD. In a prospectively assembled, multicenter cohort of patients with chronic GVHD (N = 458), we looked for correlation of change in several different scales recommended by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus with clinician and patient perception of change and overall survival. Of the clinician scales, the NIH composite 0-3 skin score was the only one that correlated with both clinician and patient perception of improvement or worsening. Of the patient-reported scales, the skin subscale of the Lee Symptom Scale was the only one that correlated with both clinician and patient perception of improvement or worsening. At study entry, NIH skin score 3 and Lee skin symptom score > 15 were both associated with worse overall survival. Worsening of NIH skin score at 6 months was associated with worse overall survival. Improvement in the Lee skin symptom score at 6 months was associated with improved overall survival. Our findings support the use of the NIH composite 0-3 skin score and the Lee skin symptom score as simple and sensitive measures to evaluate skin involvement in clinical trials as well as in the clinical monitoring of patients with cutaneous chronic GVHD.
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Poor agreement between clinician response ratings and calculated response measures in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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In 2005, a National Institutes of Health consensus conference was held to refine methods for research in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease, including proposed objective response measures and a provisional algorithm for calculating organ-specific and overall response. In this study, we used weighted kappa statistics to evaluate the level of agreement between clinician response ratings and calculated response categories in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. The study included 290 patients who had paired enrollment and follow-up visits. Based on a set of objective measures, 37% of the patients had an overall complete or partial response, whereas clinicians reported an overall complete or partial response rate of 71% (slight to fair agreement, weighted kappa 0.20). Agreement rates between calculated organ-specific responses and clinician-reported changes in skin, mouth, and eyes were fair to moderate (weighted kappa, 0.28-0.54). We conclude that for both overall and organ-specific comparisons, clinician response ratings did not agree well with calculated response categories. Possible reasons for this discrepancy include a high clinical sensitivity for detecting response, a clinical predisposition to recognize selective improvements as overall response, the large change in objective measures proposed to define response, and the high incidence of progressive disease based on new manifestations. Conclusions from prior literature reporting high overall response rates based on clinician judgment would not be supported if the provisional algorithm had been applied to calculate response. Our analysis also highlights the need to define an overall response measure that incorporates both patient-reported and objective measures and accurately reflects the outcome in patients with a mixed response in which one organ or site improves, whereas another shows new involvement.
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Clinical benefit of response in chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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To determine whether changes in objective response measures proposed by the National Institutes of Health correlate with clinical benefit, such as symptom burden, quality of life, and survival outcomes, we analyzed data from a multicenter prospective cohort of 283 patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease requiring systemic treatment. The median follow-up time of survivors was 25.1 months (range, 5.4-47.7 months) after enrollment. Symptom measures included the Lee symptom scale and 10-point patient-reported symptoms. Quality-of-life measures included the Short Form-36, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplantation, and Human Activities Profile. Overall and organ-specific responses were calculated by comparing manifestations at the 6-month visit and those at the enrollment visit using a provisional algorithm. Complete or partial responses were considered "response," and stable or progressive disease was considered "no response." Overall response rate at 6 months was 32%. Organ-specific response rates were 45% for skin, 23% for eyes, 32% for mouth, and 51% for gastrointestinal tract. Response at 6 months, as calculated according to the provisional response algorithm, was correlated with changes in symptom burden in patients with newly diagnosed chronic graft-versus-host disease, but not with changes in quality of life or survival outcomes. Modification of the algorithm or validation of other more meaningful clinical endpoints is warranted for future clinical trials of treatment for chronic graft-versus-host disease.
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Phase II study of dose-modified busulfan by real-time targeting in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for myeloid malignancy.
Cancer Sci.
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We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with targeted oral busulfan (BU) and cyclophosphamide (CY) in a phase II study. Busulfan (1.0 mg/kg) was given initially in six doses. Based on the estimated concentration at steady state after the first dose of BU, subsequent (7th-16th) doses were adjusted to obtain a targeted overall concentration at steady state of 700-900 ng/mL. The primary endpoint was 1-year overall survival (OS). Fifty patients were registered and 46 (median age, 53 years; range, 18-62 years) received planned transplant, including 24 with AML, 16 with myelodysplastic syndrome, and six with CML. Fourteen patients were categorized as standard risk. Nineteen patients received transplant from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings, 27 from unrelated donors. The BU dose required reduction in 32 patients and escalation in six patients. One-year OS was 65% (95% confidence interval, 50-77%). Cumulative incidence of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome was 11%. One-year transplant-related mortality was 18%. Both OS and transplant-related mortality were favorable in this study, including patients of older age and with high risk diseases. Individual dose adjustment based on BU pharmacokinetics was feasible and effective in the current phase II study. This trial is registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry System (UMIN-CTR, ID:C000000156).
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Secondary treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease: a critical review.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Management of steroid-resistant or steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) poses one of the most vexing and difficult problems faced by transplantation physicians. In the current study, we used 10 criteria to evaluate 67 reports describing secondary treatment of patients with aGVHD. The goal of this exercise was not only to provide a critical summary of the literature but also to offer suggestions that could improve future studies. Areas especially in need of improvement include the use of a consistent treatment regimen, the assessment of response at a consistent prespecified time point, consideration of concomitant treatment in assessing response, documentation that selection bias was minimized, and the use of methods that test a formal statistical hypothesis based on a contemporaneous or historical benchmark. Our results suggest that previous published reports collectively offer little guidance in discerning the most effective treatments for patients with steroid-resistant or steroid-refractory aGVHD. Adherence to the proposed criteria in future reports would enable meaningful comparisons across studies and thereby accelerate progress in evaluating new treatments for patients with aGVHD.
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Direct use of esters in the Mukaiyama aldol reaction: a powerful and convenient alternative to aldehydes.
Org. Lett.
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An indium triiodide catalyst promoted the direct transformation from esters to ?-hydroxycarbonyl compounds using hydrosilanes and silyl enolates by a one-stage process. Various esters were applicable, and the high chemoselectivity of this system brings compatibility to many functional groups: alkenyl, alkynyl, chloro, and hydroxy.
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Long-term outcomes after transplantation of HLA-identical related G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells versus bone marrow.
Blood
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Between 1996 and 1999, 172 patients (median age, 42 years) with hematologic malignancies were randomly assigned to receive either HLA-identical related bone marrow or G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (G-PBMCs) after myeloablative conditioning. Early results showed that transplantation of G-PBMCs, compared with marrow, was associated with significantly superior 2-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival. Ten-year follow-up showed a sustained DFS benefit associated with G-PBMCs (mortality or relapse hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.0; P = .03), although the likelihood of overall survival was not significantly different between the 2 groups (mortality hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-1.2; P = .20). The 10-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD and the duration of systemic immunosuppression were similar in the 2 groups. In summary, transplantation of HLA-identical related G-PBMCs, compared with marrow, was associated with superior short-term and long-term DFS, and there was no evidence that this benefit was outweighed by GVHD-related late mortality.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.