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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Prostaglandin D2 acts through the Dp2 receptor to influence male germ cell differentiation in the foetal mouse testis.
Development
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Through intercellular signalling, the somatic compartment of the foetal testis is able to program primordial germ cells to undergo spermatogenesis. Fibroblast growth factor 9 and several members of the transforming growth factor ? superfamily are involved in this process in the foetal testis, counteracting the induction of meiosis by retinoic acid and activating germinal mitotic arrest. Here, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we show that prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), which is produced through both L-Pgds and H-Pgds enzymatic activities in the somatic and germ cell compartments of the foetal testis, plays a role in mitotic arrest in male germ cells by activating the expression and nuclear localization of the CDK inhibitor p21(Cip1) and by repressing pluripotency markers. We show that PGD2 acts through its Dp2 receptor, at least in part through direct effects in germ cells, and contributes to the proper differentiation of male germ cells through the upregulation of the master gene Nanos2. Our data identify PGD2 signalling as an early pathway that acts in both paracrine and autocrine manners, and contributes to the differentiation of germ cells in the foetal testis.
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Prostaglandin D2 synthase/GPR44: a signaling axis in PNS myelination.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Neuregulin 1 type III is processed following regulated intramembrane proteolysis, which allows communication from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. We found that the intracellular domain of neuregulin 1 type III upregulated the prostaglandin D2 synthase (L-pgds, also known as Ptgds) gene, which, together with the G protein-coupled receptor Gpr44, forms a previously unknown pathway in PNS myelination. Neuronal L-PGDS is secreted and produces the PGD2 prostanoid, a ligand of Gpr44. We found that mice lacking L-PGDS were hypomyelinated. Consistent with this, specific inhibition of L-PGDS activity impaired in vitro myelination and caused myelin damage. Furthermore, in vivo ablation and in vitro knockdown of glial Gpr44 impaired myelination. Finally, we identified Nfatc4, a key transcription factor for myelination, as one of the downstream effectors of PGD2 activity in Schwann cells. Thus, L-PGDS and Gpr44 are previously unknown components of an axo-glial interaction that controls PNS myelination and possibly myelin maintenance.
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Transcriptional regulation in adipogenesis through PPAR?-dependent and -independent mechanisms by prostaglandins.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Adipogenesis is controlled by complex mechanisms, and transcription factors are involved in its regulation. PPAR? is a ligand-dependent transcription factor and the most important one for adipogenesis. Although prostaglandin (PG) D2 metabolites have been reported as being the ligands of PPAR?, the endogenous PPAR? ligand in adipocytes remains unclear. Here, we show the methods for the general analysis of adipocyte differentiation and the protocols for promoter analysis, fluorescence EMSA, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay for the transcriptional regulation of the SREBP-1c-activated lipocalin-type PGD synthase gene in adipocytes. Moreover, we describe that PGD2 and its metabolites are involved in the regulation of adipogenesis through PPAR?-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
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Mast cell-derived prostaglandin D2 inhibits colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer in mice.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Compared with prostaglandin E2, which has an established role in cancer, the role of the COX metabolite prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) in chronic inflammation leading to tumorigenesis is uncertain. In this study, we investigated the role of PGD2 in colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) using genetically modified mice and an established model of inflammatory colon carcinogenesis. Systemic genetic deficiency in hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS) aggravated colitis and accelerated tumor formation in a manner associated with increased TNF? expression. Treatment with a TNF? receptor antagonist attenuated colitis regardless of genotype. Histologic analysis revealed that infiltrated mast cells strongly expressed H-PGDS in inflamed colons. Mast cell-specific H-PGDS deficiency also aggravated colitis and accelerated CAC. In contrast, treatment with a PGD2 receptor agonist inhibited colitis and CAC. Together, our results identified mast cell-derived PGD2 as an inhibitor of colitis and CAC, with implications for its potential use in preventing or treating colon cancer.
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Immunosuppression via adenosine receptor activation by adenosine monophosphate released from apoptotic cells.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Apoptosis is coupled with recruitment of macrophages for engulfment of dead cells, and with compensatory proliferation of neighboring cells. Yet, this death process is silent, and it does not cause inflammation. The molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory nature of the apoptotic process remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the culture supernatant of apoptotic cells activated the macrophages to express anti-inflammatory genes such as Nr4a and Thbs1. A high level of AMP accumulated in the apoptotic cell supernatant in a Pannexin1-dependent manner. A nucleotidase inhibitor and A2a adenosine receptor antagonist inhibited the apoptotic supernatant-induced gene expression, suggesting AMP was metabolized to adenosine by an ecto-5'-nucleotidase expressed on macrophages, to activate the macrophage A2a adenosine receptor. Intraperitoneal injection of zymosan into Adora2a- or Panx1-deficient mice produced high, sustained levels of inflammatory mediators in the peritoneal lavage. These results indicated that AMP from apoptotic cells suppresses inflammation as a 'calm down' signal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02172.001.
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Intestinal tumor suppression in ApcMin/+ mice by prostaglandin D2 receptor PTGDR.
Cancer Med
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Our earlier work showed that knockout of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS, an enzyme that produces prostaglandin D2) caused more adenomas in Apc(Min/+) mice. Conversely, highly expressed transgenic HPGDS allowed fewer tumors. Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) binds to the prostaglandin D2 receptor known as PTGDR (or DP1). PGD2 metabolites bind to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPARG). We hypothesized that Ptgdr or Pparg knockouts may raise numbers of tumors, if these receptors take part in tumor suppression by PGD2. To assess, we produced Apc(Min/+) mice with and without Ptgdr knockouts (147 mice). In separate experiments, we produced Apc(Min/+) mice expressing transgenic lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (PTGDS), with and without heterozygous Pparg knockouts (104 mice). Homozygous Ptgdr knockouts raised total numbers of tumors by 30-40% at 6 and 14 weeks. Colon tumors were not affected. Heterozygous Pparg knockouts alone did not affect tumor numbers in Apc(Min/+) mice. As mentioned above, our Pparg knockout assessment also included mice with highly expressed PTGDS transgenes. Apc(Min/+) mice with transgenic PTGDS had fewer large adenomas (63% of control) and lower levels of v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) mRNA in the colon. Heterozygous Pparg knockouts appeared to blunt the tumor-suppressing effect of transgenic PTGDS. However, tumor suppression by PGD2 was more clearly mediated by receptor PTGDR in our experiments. The suppression mechanism did not appear to involve changes in microvessel density or slower proliferation of tumor cells. The data support a role for PGD2 signals acting through PTGDR in suppression of intestinal tumors.
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Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase scavenges biliverdin in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) is the second major protein in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and belongs to the lipocalin superfamily composed of various secretory lipophilic ligand transporter proteins. However, the endogenous ligand of L-PGDS has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we purified L-PGDS from the CSF of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Lipocalin-type PG D synthase showed absorbance spectra with major peaks at 280 and 392?nm and a minor peak at around 660?nm. The absorbance at 392?nm of L-PGDS increased from 1 to 9 days and almost disappeared at 2 months after SAH, whereas the L-PGDS activity decreased from 1 to 7 days and recovered to normal at 2 months after SAH. These results indicate that some chromophore had accumulated in the CSF after SAH and bound to L-PGDS, thus inactivating it. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of L-PGDS after digestion of it with endoproteinase Lys-C revealed that L-PGDS had covalently bound biliverdin, a by-product of heme breakdown. These results suggest that L-PGDS acted as a scavenger of biliverdin, which is a molecule not found in normal CSF. This is the first report of identification of a pathophysiologically important endogenous ligand for this lipocalin superfamily protein in humans.
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Piromelatine exerts antinociceptive effect via melatonin, opioid, and 5HT1A receptors and hypnotic effect via melatonin receptors in a mouse model of neuropathic pain.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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An effective and safe treatment of insomnia in patients with neuropathic pain remains an unmet need. Melatonin and its analogs have been shown to have both analgesic and hypnotic effects; however, capacity of them on sleep disturbance with neuropathic pain as well as the precise mechanism is unclear.
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Practical evaluation of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and enzyme immunoassay method for the accurate quantitative analysis of prostaglandins.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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The accurate and robust measurement of prostaglandins (PG) concentration could help to understand the many physiological functions. The present study revealed that liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the PGs analysis can satisfy the requirements for both qualitative and quantitative performance as compared to competitive enzyme immunoassays.
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Characterization of four new designer drugs, 5-chloro-NNEI, NNEI indazole analog, ?-PHPP and ?-POP, with 11 newly distributed designer drugs in illegal products.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Our continuous survey of illegal products in Japan revealed the new distribution of 15 designer drugs. We identified four synthetic cannabinoids, i.e., NNEI (1), 5-fluoro-NNEI (2), 5-chloro-NNEI (3) and NNEI indazole analog (4), and seven cathinone derivatives, i.e., MPHP (5), ?-PHPP (6), ?-POP (7), 3,4-dimethoxy-?-PVP (8), 4-fluoro-?-PVP (9), ?-ethylaminopentiophenone (10) and N-ethyl-4-methylpentedrone (11). We also determined LY-2183240 (12) and its 2'-isomer (13), which were reported to inhibit endocannabinoid uptake, a methylphenidate analog, 3,4-dichloromethylphenidate (14), and an MDA analog, 5-APDB (15). No chemical and pharmaceutical data for compounds 3, 4, 6 and 7 had been reported, making this the first report on these compounds.
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Association of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase with disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid-space in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Fluids Barriers CNS
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a treatable cause of dementia, gait disturbance, and urinary incontinence in elderly patients with ventriculomegaly. Its unique morphological feature, called disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid-space hydrocephalus (DESH), may also be a diagnostic feature. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is a major cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein produced by arachnoid cells, and its concentration in the CSF is reportedly decreased in iNPH. L-PGDS acts as a prostaglandin D2-producing enzyme and behaves as a chaperone to prevent the neurotoxic aggregation of amyloid beta (A?) implicated in Alzheimer's disease, a major comorbidity of iNPH. The aim of this study was to confirm the L-PGDS decrease in DESH-type iNPH and to clarify its relationship with clinico-radiological features or other CSF biomarkers.
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Marine polyphenol phlorotannins promote non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice via the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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In psychopharmacology, researchers have been interested in the hypnotic effects of terrestrial plant polyphenols and their synthetic derivatives. Phlorotannins, a marine plant polyphenol, could have potential as a source of novel hypnotic drugs.
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?-Opioid receptor activation stimulates normal diet intake but conversely suppresses high-fat diet intake in mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The central opioid system is involved in a broadly distributed neural network that regulates food intake. Here, we show that activation of central ?-opioid receptor not only stimulated normal diet intake but conversely suppressed high-fat diet intake as well. [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE), an agonist selective for the ?-receptor, increased normal diet intake after central administration to nonfasted male mice. The orexigenic activity of DPDPE was inhibited by blockade of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), D-type prostanoid receptor 1 (DP(1)), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor type 1 (Y1) for PGD(2) and NPY, respectively, suggesting that this was mediated by the PGD(2)-NPY system. In contrast, DPDPE decreased high-fat diet intake in mice fed a high-fat diet. DPDPE-induced suppression of high-fat diet intake was blocked by antagonists of melanocortin 4 (MC(4)) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors but not by knockout of the L-PGDS gene. These results suggest that central ?-opioid receptor activation suppresses high-fat diet intake via the MC-CRF system, independent of the orexigenic PGD(2) system. Furthermore, orally administered rubiscolin-6, an opioid peptide derived from spinach Rubisco, suppressed high-fat diet intake. This suppression was also blocked by centrally administered naltrindole, an antagonist for the ?-receptor, suggesting that rubiscolin-6 suppressed high-fat diet intake via activation of central ?-opioid receptor.
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Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rat with chronic esophagitis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy improves subjective but not objective sleep parameters in patients with GERD. This study aimed to investigate the association between GERD and sleep, and the effect of PPI on sleep by using a rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis.
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Opposing Immunomodulatory Roles of Prostaglandin D2 during the Progression of Skin Inflammation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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The effects of PGD2 are extremely context dependent. It can have pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in clinically important pathological conditions. A greater mechanistic insight into the determinants of PGD2 activity during inflammation is thus required. In this study, we investigated the role of PGD2 in croton oil-induced dermatitis using transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing hematopoietic PGD synthase. Administration of croton oil caused tissue swelling and vascular leakage in the mouse ear. Compared with wild-type animals, TG mice produced more PGD2 and showed decreased inflammation in the early phase, but more severe manifestations during the late phase. Data obtained from bone marrow transplantation between wild-type and TG mice indicated that PGD2 produced by tissue resident cells in the TG mice attenuated early-phase inflammation, whereas PGD2 produced from hematopoietic lineage cells exacerbated late-phase inflammation. There are two distinct PGD2 receptors: D-prostanoid receptor (DP) and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2). In TG mice, treatment with a DP antagonist exacerbated inflammation in the early phase, whereas treatment with a CRTH2 antagonist attenuated inflammation during the late phase. In vitro experiments showed that DP agonism enhanced vascular endothelial barrier formation, whereas CRTH2 agonism stimulated neutrophil migration. Collectively, these results show that when hematopoietic PGD synthase is overexpressed, tissue resident cell-derived PGD2 suppresses skin inflammation via DP in the early phase, but hematopoietic lineage cell-derived PGD2 stimulates CRTH2 and promotes inflammation during the late phase. DP-mediated vascular barrier enhancement or CRTH2-mediated neutrophil activation may be responsible for these effects. Thus, PGD2 represents opposite roles in inflammation, depending on the disease phase in vivo.
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Endogenous prostaglandin d2 and its metabolites protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury by activating nrf2.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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We recently demonstrated that glucocorticoids markedly upregulate the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in cardiomyocytes and protect hearts from ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by activating lipocalin-type prostaglandin D (PGD) synthase (L-PGDS)-derived PGD2 biosynthesis. We examined a downstream mechanism of cardioprotection elicited by PGD2 biosynthesis. Acute PGD2 treatment did not protect hearts against I/R injury. We then speculated that PGD2 and its metabolite 15-deoxy-?12,14-PGJ2 activate gene expression networks to mediate the glucocorticoid-mediated cardioprotection. Using an unbiased approach, we identified that glucocorticoids induce a number of well-known erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) target genes in the heart in an L-PGDS-dependent manner and that the cardioprotective effect of glucocorticoids against I/R injury was not seen in Nrf2-knockout hearts. We showed relatively low expression of PGD2 receptors (ie, DP1 and DP2) in the heart but abundant expression of PGF2? receptor (FP), which binds PGF2? and PGD2 with equal affinity. Glucocorticoids also failed to induce the expression of L-PGDS-dependent Nrf2 target genes in FP-knockout hearts. PGD2 acted through its metabolite 15-deoxy-?12,14-PGJ2 in the heart as evidenced by the glucocorticoid-mediated activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?. In turn, glucocorticoids failed to induce the expression of L-PGDS-dependent Nrf2 target genes in hearts pretreated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? antagonist GW9662, and glucocorticoid-mediated cardioprotection against I/R injury was compromised in FP-knockout mice and GW9662-treated mice. In conclusion, PGD2 protects heart against I/R injury by activating Nrf2 predominantly via FP receptor. In addition, we propose activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? by the dehydrated metabolite of PGD2 (15-deoxy-?12,14-PGJ2) as another mechanism by which glucocorticoids induce cardioprotection.
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New insights into the catalytic mechanism of Bombyx mori prostaglandin E synthase gained from structure-function analysis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) catalyzes the isomerization of PGH2 to PGE2. We previously reported the identification and structural characterization of Bombyx mori PGES (bmPGES), which belongs to Sigma-class glutathione transferase. Here, we extend these studies by determining the structure of bmPGES in complex with glutathione sulfonic acid (GTS) at a resolution of 1.37 Å using X-ray crystallography. GTS localized to the glutathione-binding site. We found that electron-sharing network of bmPGES includes Asn95, Asp96, and Arg98. Site-directed mutagenesis of these residues to create mutant forms of bmPGES mutants indicate that they contribute to catalytic activity. These results are, to our knowledge, the first to reveal the presence of an electron-sharing network in bmPGES.
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A mouse model mimicking human first night effect for the evaluation of hypnotics.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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In humans, a first night effect (FNE) is characterized by increased sleep latency and decreased total sleep time in an unfamiliar environment, but the mechanism and treatment options for this universally experienced acute insomnia are unclear. We continuously recorded electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) and measured plasma corticosterone levels to develop a mouse FNE model by inducing acute insomnia in mice that have been placed in unfamiliar cage environments. The sleep latency of mice moved to clean cages (MCC) was longer than that for mice moved to dirty ones (MDC). As compared to MDC mice, MCC mice showed stronger decreases in the amount of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) and REM sleep, with a lower power density of NREM sleep, increased fragmentation and decreased stage transitions from NREM sleep to wake, and higher variation in plasma corticosterone levels. Treatment of MCC mice with zolpidem, diazepam, raclopride, pyrilamine, except SCH23390 shortened NREM sleep latency. In addition, zolpidem significantly increased NREM and REM sleep with the increase in slow wave activity (1.00-2.75Hz), while raclopride significantly increased NREM and REM sleep without changing the EEG power density in MCC mice, whereas diazepam increased sleep with a drastic decrease in power density of the frequency band between 1.00 and 4.00Hz, diazepam also increased the frequency band between 9.75 and 24.75Hz during NREM sleep. These results indicate that a MCC mouse can mimic a FNE phenotype of humans and that zolpidem and raclopride may be useful drugs to prevent acute insomnia, including FNE.
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Prostaglandin D2 is crucial for seizure suppression and postictal sleep.
Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Epilepsy is a neurological disorder with the occurrence of seizures, which are often accompanied by sleep. Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is produced by hematopoietic or lipocalin-type PGD synthase (H- or L-PGDS) and involved in the regulation of physiological sleep. Here, we show that H-PGDS, L/H-PGDS or DP1 receptor (DP1R) KO mice exhibited more intense pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in terms of latency of seizure onset, duration of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and number of seizure spikes. Seizures significantly increased the PGD2 content of the brain in wild-type mice. This PTZ-induced increase in PGD2 was attenuated in the brains of L- or H-PGDS KO and abolished in L/H-PGDS KO mice. Postictal non-rapid eye movement sleep was observed in the wild-type and H-PGDS or DP2R KO, but not in the L-, L/H-PGDS or DP1R KO, mice. These findings demonstrate that PGD2 produced by H-PGDS and acting on DP1R is essential for seizure suppression and that the L-PGDS/PGD2/DP1R system regulates sleep that follows seizures.
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Bofutsushosan, a Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, attenuates progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Obesity-induced liver disease (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD) is now the commonest cause of chronic liver disease in affluent nations. There are presently no proven treatments for NAFLD or its more severe stage, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bofutsushosan (BTS), a Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, long used as an anti-obesity medicine in Japan and other Asian countries, has been shown to reduce body weight and improve insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic steatosis. The precise mechanism of action of BTS, however, remains unclear. To evaluate the ability of BTS to prevent the development of NASH, and determine the mediators and pathways involved.
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GABA transporter-1 inhibitor NO-711 alters the EEG power spectra and enhances non-rapid eye movement sleep during the active phase in mice.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1) constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA in the CNS and regulates GABAergic transmission. Compounds that inhibit GAT1 are targets often used for the treatment of epilepsy; however sedation has been reported as a side effect of these agents, indicating potential sedative and/or hypnotic uses for these compounds. In the current study, we observed the sleep behaviors of mice treated with NO-711, a selective GAT1 inhibitor, in order to elucidate the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation during the active phase. The data revealed that NO-711 at a high dose of 10mg/kg caused a marked enhancement of EEG activity in the frequency ranges of 3-25Hz during wakefulness as well as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. During the non-REM (NREM) sleep, NO-711 (10mg/kg) elevated EEG activity in the frequency ranges of 1.5-6.75Hz. Similar changes were found in mice treated with a low dose of 3mg/kg. NO-711 administered i.p. at a dose of 1, 3 or 10mg/kg significantly shortened the sleep latency of NREM sleep, increased the amount of NREM sleep and the number of NREM sleep episodes. NO-711 did not affect the sleep latency and the amount of REM sleep. NO-711 dose-dependently increased c-Fos expression in sleep-promoting nucleus of the ventrolateral preoptic area and median preoptic area. However, c-Fos expression was decreased in the wake-promoting nuclei, tuberomammillary nucleus and lateral hypothalamus. These results indicate that NO-711 can increase NREM sleep in mice.
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Mast cell maturation is driven via a group III phospholipase A2-prostaglandin D2-DP1 receptor paracrine axis.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Microenvironment-based alterations in phenotypes of mast cells influence the susceptibility to anaphylaxis, yet the mechanisms underlying proper maturation of mast cells toward an anaphylaxis-sensitive phenotype are incompletely understood. Here we report that PLA2G3, a mammalian homolog of anaphylactic bee venom phospholipase A2, regulates this process. PLA2G3 secreted from mast cells is coupled with fibroblastic lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase (L-PGDS) to provide PGD2, which facilitates mast-cell maturation via PGD2 receptor DP1. Mice lacking PLA2G3, L-PGDS or DP1, mast cell-deficient mice reconstituted with PLA2G3-null or DP1-null mast cells, or mast cells cultured with L-PGDS-ablated fibroblasts exhibited impaired maturation and anaphylaxis of mast cells. Thus, we describe a lipid-driven PLA2G3-L-PGDS-DP1 loop that drives mast cell maturation.
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Anti-inflammatory role of PGD2 in acute lung inflammation and therapeutic application of its signal enhancement.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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We investigated the role of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) signaling in acute lung injury (ALI), focusing on its producer-effector interaction in vivo. Administration of endotoxin increased edema and neutrophil infiltration in the WT mouse lung. Gene disruption of hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS) aggravated all of the symptoms. Experiments involving bone marrow transplantation between WT and H-PGDS-deficient mice showed that PGD2 derived from alveolar nonhematopoietic lineage cells (i.e., endothelial cells and epithelial cells) promotes vascular barrier function during the early phase (day 1), whereas neutrophil-derived PGD2 attenuates its own infiltration and cytokine expression during the later phase (day 3) of ALI. Treatment with either an agonist to the PGD2 receptor, DP, or a degradation product of PGD2, 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-PGJ2, exerted a therapeutic action against ALI. Data obtained from bone marrow transplantation between WT and DP-deficient mice suggest that the DP signal in alveolar endothelial cells is crucial for the anti-inflammatory reactions of PGD2. In vitro, DP agonism directly enhanced endothelial barrier formation, and 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-PGJ2 attenuated both neutrophil migration and cytokine expression. These observations indicate that the PGD2 signaling between alveolar endothelial/epithelial cells and infiltrating neutrophils provides anti-inflammatory effects in ALI, and suggest the therapeutic potential of these signaling enhancements.
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Mast cells contribute to double-stranded RNA-induced augmentation of airway eosinophilia in a murine model of asthma.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Clinical studies showed the contribution of viral infection to the development of asthma. Although mast cells have multiple roles in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, their role of in the virus-associated pathogenesis of asthma remains unknown. Most respiratory viruses generate double-stranded (ds) RNA during their replication. dsRNA provokes innate immune responses. We recently showed that an administration of polyinocinic polycytidilic acid (poly IC), a mimetic of viral dsRNA, during allergen sensitization augments airway eosinophilia and hyperresponsiveness in mice via enhanced production of IL-13.
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Crystal structure of a Bombyx mori sigma-class glutathione transferase exhibiting prostaglandin E synthase activity.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are members of a major family of detoxification enzymes. Here, we report the crystal structure of a sigma-class GST of Bombyx mori, bmGSTS1, to gain insight into the mechanism catalysis.
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FASTER: an unsupervised fully automated sleep staging method for mice.
Genes Cells
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Identifying the stages of sleep, or sleep staging, is an unavoidable step in sleep research and typically requires visual inspection of electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) data. Currently, scoring is slow, biased and prone to error by humans and thus is the most important bottleneck for large-scale sleep research in animals. We have developed an unsupervised, fully automated sleep staging method for mice that allows less subjective and high-throughput evaluation of sleep. Fully Automated Sleep sTaging method via EEG/EMG Recordings (FASTER) is based on nonparametric density estimation clustering of comprehensive EEG/EMG power spectra. FASTER can accurately identify sleep patterns in mice that have been perturbed by drugs or by genetic modification of a clock gene. The overall accuracy is over 90% in every group. 24-h data are staged by a laptop computer in 10 min, which is faster than an experienced human rater. Dramatically improving the sleep staging process in both quality and throughput FASTER will open the door to quantitative and comprehensive animal sleep research.
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A prostaglandin D2 metabolite is elevated in the urine of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and increases further from 8 years old.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscle wasting disease caused by muscle dystrophin deficiency. Downstream of the primary dystrophin deficiency is not well elucidated. Here, the hypothesis that prostaglandin D2 (PGD2)-mediated inflammation is involved in the pathology of DMD was examined by measuring tetranor PGDM, a major PGD2 metabolite, in urine of DMD patients.
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Role of the basal ganglia in the control of sleep and wakefulness.
Curr. Opin. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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The basal ganglia (BG) act as a cohesive functional unit that regulates motor function, habit formation, and reward/addictive behaviors, but the debate has only recently started on how the BG maintain wakefulness and suppress sleep to achieve all these fundamental functions of the BG. Neurotoxic lesioning, pharmacological approaches, and the behavioral analyses of genetically modified animals revealed that the striatum and globus pallidus are important for the control of sleep and wakefulness. Here, we discuss anatomical and molecular mechanisms for sleep-wake regulation in the BG and propose a plausible model in which the nucleus accumbens integrates behavioral processes with wakefulness through adenosine and dopamine receptors.
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Drug transporters on arachnoid barrier cells contribute to the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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The subarachnoid space, where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flows over the brain and spinal cord, is lined on one side by arachnoid barrier (AB) cells that form part of the blood-CSF barrier. However, despite the fact that drugs are administered into the CSF and CSF drug concentrations are used as a surrogate for brain drug concentration following systemic drug administration, the tight-junctioned AB cells have never been examined for whether they express drug transporters that would influence CSF and central nervous system drug disposition. Hence, we characterized drug transporter expression and function in AB cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in mouse AB cells but not other meningeal tissue. The Gene Expression Nervous System Atlas (GENSAT) database and the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas confirmed these observations. Microarray analysis of mouse and human arachnoidal tissue revealed expression of many drug transporters and some drug-metabolizing enzymes. Immortalized mouse AB cells express functional P-gp on the apical (dura-facing) membrane and BCRP on both apical and basal (CSF-facing) membranes. Thus, like blood-brain barrier cells and choroid plexus cells, AB cells highly express drug transport proteins and likely contribute to the blood-CSF drug permeation barrier.
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Essential roles of GABA transporter-1 in controlling rapid eye movement sleep and in increased slow wave activity after sleep deprivation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1) constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA and regulates GABAergic transmission in the brain. However, the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation remains elusive. In the current study, we characterized the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and responses to sleep deprivation in GAT1 knock-out (KO) mice. GAT1 KO mice exhibited dominant theta-activity and a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies across all vigilance stages. Under baseline conditions, spontaneous rapid eye movement (REM) sleep of KO mice was elevated both during the light and dark periods, and non-REM (NREM) sleep was reduced during the light period only. KO mice also showed more state transitions from NREM to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness, as well as more number of REM and NREM sleep bouts than WT mice. During the dark period, KO mice exhibited more REM sleep bouts only. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. However, slow wave activity, the intensity component of NREM sleep was briefly elevated in WT mice but remained completely unchanged in KO mice, compared with their respective baselines. These results indicate that GAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of REM sleep and homeostasis of NREM sleep.
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Roles of adrenergic ?1 and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the mediation of the desynchronization effects of modafinil in a mouse EEG synchronization model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Synchronized electroencephalogram (EEG) activity is observed in pathological stages of cognitive impairment and epilepsy. Modafinil, known to increase the release of catecholamines, is a potent wake-promoting agent, and has shown some abilities to desynchronize EEG,but its receptor mechanisms by which modafinil induces desynchoronization remain to be elucidated. Here we used a pharmacological EEG synchronization model to investigate the involvement of adrenergic ?1 receptors (R, ?1R) and dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptors (D1Rs and D2Rs) on modafinil-induced desynchronization in mice.
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Elevated CSF histamine levels in multiple sclerosis patients.
Fluids Barriers CNS
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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BACKGROUND: Histamine is an ubiquitous inflammatory mediator of numerous physiological processes. Histamine and its receptors have been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS) disease pathogenesis. We prospectively enrolled 36 MS patients and 19 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) histamine analysis. FINDINGS: CSF histamine levels in MS patient samples were significantly higher (median: 35.6 pg/ml) than in controls (median: 5.5 pg/ml; Beta = 0.525, p < 0.001). In addition, histamine increased with age (Pearsons correlation, p < 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Histamine may be an important factor for both the initiation and maintenance of chronic inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. Our observation encourages a deeper investigation of the role of histamine in MS.
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The lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase knockout mouse model of insulin resistance and obesity demonstrates early hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity.
J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Obesity and diabetes are closely associated with hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In this study, the diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mouse was used to test the hypothesis that chronically elevated metabolic parameters associated with the development of obesity such as cholesterol and glucose can aggravate basal HPA axis activity. Because the lipocalin-type prostaglandin D(2) synthase (L-PGDS) knockout (KO) mouse is a model of accelerated insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and obesity, it was further hypothesized that HPA activity would be greater in this model. Starting at 8 weeks of age, the L-PGDS KO and C57BL/6 mice were maintained on a low-fat or high-fat diet. After 20 or 37 weeks, fasting metabolic parameters and basal HPA axis hormones were measured and compared between genotypes. Correlation analyses were performed to identify associations between obesity-related chronic metabolic changes and changes in the basal activity of the HPA axis. Our results have identified strong positive correlations between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, glucose, and HPA axis hormones that increase with age in the C57BL/6 mice. These data confirm that obesity-related elevations in cholesterol and glucose can heighten basal HPA activity. Additionally, the L-PGDS KO mice show early elevations in HPA activity with no age-related changes relative to the C57BL/6 mice.
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EP2 and EP4 receptors on muscularis resident macrophages mediate LPS-induced intestinal dysmotility via iNOS upregulation through cAMP/ERK signals.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
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Intestinal resident macrophages play an important role in gastrointestinal dysmotility by producing prostaglandins (PGs) and nitric oxide (NO) in inflammatory conditions. The causal correlation between PGs and NO in gastrointestinal inflammation has not been elucidated. In this study, we examined the possible role of PGE(2) in the LPS-inducible inducible NO synthase (iNOS) gene expression in murine distal ileal tissue and macrophages. Treatment of ileal tissue with LPS increased the iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression, which lead to intestinal dysmotility. However, LPS did not induce the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in tissue from macrophage colony-stimulating factor-deficient op/op mice, indicating that these genes are expressed in intestinal resident macrophages. iNOS and COX-2 protein were also expressed in dextran-phagocytized macrophages in the muscle layer. CAY10404, a COX-2 inhibitor, diminished LPS-dependent iNOS gene upregulation in wild-type mouse ileal tissue and also in RAW264.7 macrophages, indicating that PGs upregulate iNOS gene expression. EP(2) and EP(4) agonists upregulated iNOS gene expression in ileal tissue and isolated resident macrophages. iNOS mRNA induction mediated by LPS was decreased in the ileum isolated from EP(2) or EP(4) knockout mice. In addition, LPS failed to decrease the motility of EP(2) and EP(4) knockout mice ileum. EP(2)- or EP(4)-mediated iNOS expression was attenuated by KT-5720, a PKA inhibitor and PD-98059, an ERK inhibitor. Forskolin or dibutyryl-cAMP mimics upregulation of iNOS gene expression in macrophages. In conclusion, COX-2-derived PGE(2) induces iNOS expression through cAMP/ERK pathways by activating EP(2) and EP(4) receptors in muscularis macrophages. NO produced in muscularis macrophages induces dysmotility during gastrointestinal inflammation.
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Acute administration of fluoxetine normalizes rapid eye movement sleep abnormality, but not depressive behaviors in olfactory bulbectomized rats.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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In humans, depression is associated with altered rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, the exact nature of the relationship between depressive behaviors and sleep abnormalities is debated. In this study, bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) was carried out to create a model of depression in rats. The sleep-wake profiles were assayed using a cutting-edge sleep bioassay system, and depressive behaviors were evaluated by open field and forced swimming tests. The monoamine content and monoamine metabolite levels in the brain were determined by a HPLC-electrochemical detection system. OBX rats exhibited a significant increase in REM sleep, especially between 15:00 and 18:00 hours during the light period. Acute treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) immediately abolished the OBX-induced increase in REM sleep, but hyperactivity in the open field test and the time spent immobile in the forced swimming test remained unchanged. Neurochemistry studies revealed that acute administration of fluoxetine increased serotonin (5-HT) levels in the hippocampus, thalamus, and midbrain and decreased levels of the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The ratio of 5-HIAA to 5-HT decreased in almost all regions of the brain. These results indicate that acute administration of fluoxetine can reduce the increase in REM sleep but does not change the depressive behaviors in OBX rats, suggesting that there was no causality between REM sleep abnormalities and depressive behaviors in OBX rats.
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Prostagladin D2 is a mast cell-derived antiangiogenic factor in lung carcinoma.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2011
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It is well established that prostaglandins (PGs) are involved in tumor angiogenesis and growth, yet the role of prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) remains virtually unknown. Here, we show that host hematopoietic PGD(2) synthase (H-PGDS) deficiency enhances Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) progression, accompanied by increased vascular leakage, angiogenesis, and monocyte/mast cell infiltration. This deficiency can be rescued by hematopoietic reconstitution with bone marrow from H-PGDS-naive (WT) mice. In tumors on WT mice, c-kit(+) mast cells highly express H-PGDS. Host H-PGDS deficiency markedly up-regulated the expression of proangiogenic factors, including TNF-? in the tumor. In mast cell-null Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice, adoptive transfer of H-PGDS-deficient mast cells causes stronger acceleration in tumor angiogenesis and growth than in WT mast cells. In response to LLC growth, H-PGDS-deficient mast cells produce TNF-? excessively. This response is suppressed by the administration of a synthetic PGD(2) receptor agonist or a degradation product of PGD(2), 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-PGJ(2). Additional TNF-? deficiency partially counteracts the tumorigenic properties seen in H-PGDS-deficient mast cells. These observations identify PGD(2) as a mast cell-derived antiangiogenic factor in expanding solid tumors. Mast cell-derived PGD(2) governs the tumor microenvironment by restricting excessive responses to vascular permeability and TNF-? production.
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[Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase inhibitors for the treatment of duchenne muscular dystrophy].
Brain Nerve
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe X-linked muscle disease, characterized by progressive skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness. DMD is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which encodes for the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. DMD is one of the most common types of muscular dystrophies, affecting approximately 1 in 3,500 boys. There is no complete cure for this disease. Clinical trials for gene transfer therapy as a treatment for DMD have been performed but mainly in animal models. Hematopoietic prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (H-PGDS) was found to be induced in grouped necrotic muscle fibers of DMD patients and animal models, mdx mice, and DMD dogs. We found an orally active H-PGDS inhibitor (HQL-79) and determined the 3D structure of the inhibitor-human H-PGDS complex by X-ray crystallography. Oral administration of HQL-79 markedly suppressed prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) production, reduced necrotic muscle volume, and improved muscle strength in mdx dystrophic mice. Based on the high-resolution 3D structures of the inhibitor-H-PGDS complex, we designed alternative H-PGDS inhibitors, which were 100- to 3000-times more potent than HQL-79, as assessed by in vitro and in vivo analyses. We used these novel inhibitors for the treatment of DMD dogs and confirmed that oral administration of these inhibitors prevented skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness by decreasing PGD2 production. These results indicate that PGD2, synthesized by H-PGDS, is involved in the expansion of muscle necrosis in DMD. Thus, inhibition of H-PGDS by using inhibitors is a novel therapy for DMD.
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Rapid degradation of cyclooxygenase-1 and hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase through ubiquitin-proteasome system in response to intracellular calcium level.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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Cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and hematopoietic prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (H-PGDS) proteins, which are both involved in the arachidonate cascade, were stable in human megakaryocytic MEG-01 cells. In contrast, once the intracellular calcium level was increased by treatment with a calcium ionophore, both protein levels rapidly decreased with a half-life of less than 30 and 120 min for COX-1 and H-PGDS, respectively. In the presence of a proteasome inhibitor, COX-1 and H-PGDS proteins accumulated within 10 and 30 min, respectively, and concurrently appeared as the high-molecular-mass ubiquitinated proteins within 30 and 60 min, respectively, after an increase in the intracellular calcium level. The ubiquitination of these proteins was also observed when ADP, instead of a calcium ionophore, was used as an inducer to elevate the intracellular calcium level. When the entry of calcium ion into the cells was inhibited by ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), the ubiquitination of COX-1 and H-PGDS was clearly suppressed; and the addition of CaCl(2) to the medium cleared the EGTA-mediated suppression of the ubiquitination. These results indicate that COX-1 and H-PGDS were rapidly ubiquitinated and degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome system in response to the elevation of the intracellular calcium level.
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Tetranor PGDM analyses for the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: positive and simple diagnosis and evaluation of drug effect.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset, progressive motor neuronal degenerative disease occurring as sporadically and as a familial disorder. The patients with ALS typically become progressively paralyzed and develop respiratory failure that eventually leads to death within 3-5years. For this disease, there is no effective diagnostic method and also drug. This report describes a simple and useful diagnostic biomarker for ALS. Our findings suggest that the combination analysis of a metabolite of prostaglandin D2, 11,15-dioxo-9-hydroxy-,2,3,4,5-tetranorprostan-1,20-dioic acid (tetranor PGDM and tPGDM) with creatinine is the diagnostic approach for ALS with high accuracy. tPGDM has the potential to be an important diagnostic tool in the pre-symptomatic stages and progression evaluation of ALS, and also to be a biomarker for the evaluation of drug effect.
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Structural insight into the stereoselective production of PGF2? by Old Yellow Enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi.
J. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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Old yellow enzyme (OYE) is an NADPH oxidoreductase capable of reducing a variety of compounds. It contains flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as a prosthetic group. A ternary complex structure of OYE from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcOYE) with FMN and one of the substrates, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, shows a striking movement around the active site upon binding of the substrate. From a structural comparison of other OYE complexed with 12-oxophytodienoate, we have constructed a complex structure with another substrate, prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)), to provide a proposed stereoselective reaction mechanism for the reduction of PGH(2) to prostaglandin F(2?) by TcOYE.
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PGD2 induces eotaxin-3 via PPAR? from sebocytes: a possible pathogenesis of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) is a chronic intractable pruritic dermatosis characterized by massive eosinophil infiltrates involving the pilosebaceous units. Recently, EPF has been regarded as an important clinical marker of HIV infection, and its prevalence is increasing in number. The precise mechanism by which eosinophils infiltrate into the pilosebaceous units remains largely unknown. Given that indomethacin, a COX inhibitor, can be successfully used to treat patients with EPF, we can assume that COX metabolites such as prostaglandins (PGs) are involved in the etiology of EPF.
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Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-Pgds) is expressed in the early embryonic gonad and participates to the initial nuclear translocation of the SOX9 protein.
Dev. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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In mammals, the Prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2) ) signaling pathway is involved in male gonadal development, regulating Sox9 gene expression and SOX9 protein subcellular localization through lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase (L-Pgds) activity. Nevertheless, because L-Pgds is downstream of Sox9, its expression cannot explain the initial nuclear translocation of the SOX9 protein. Here, we show that another source of PGD(2) , hematopoietic-Pgds (H-Pgds) enzyme is expressed in somatic and germ cells of the embryonic gonad of both sexes, as early as embryonic day (E) 10.5, before the onset of L-Pgds expression. Inhibition of H-Pgds activity by the specific HQL-79 inhibitor leads to impaired nuclear translocation of SOX9 protein in E11.5 Sertoli cells. Furthermore, analysis of H-Pgds(-/-) male embryonic gonads confirms abnormal subcellular localization of SOX9 protein at the E11.5 early stage of mouse testicular differentiation suggesting a role for H-Pgds-produced PGD(2) in the initial nuclear translocation of SOX9.
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Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of mouse prostaglandin F2? synthase, AKR1B3.
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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Aldo-keto reductase 1B3 (AKR1B3) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)), which is a common intermediate of various prostanoids, to form PGF(2?). AKR1B3 also reduces PGH(2) to PGD(2) in the absence of NADPH. AKR1B3 produced in Escherichia coli was crystallized in complex with NADPH by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal was tetragonal, belonging to space group P4(1)2(1)2 or P4(3)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 107.62, c = 120.76 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution at 100 K using a synchrotron-radiation source.
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Arousal effect of caffeine depends on adenosine A2A receptors in the shell of the nucleus accumbens.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Caffeine, the most widely used psychoactive compound, is an adenosine receptor antagonist. It promotes wakefulness by blocking adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) in the brain, but the specific neurons on which caffeine acts to produce arousal have not been identified. Using selective gene deletion strategies based on the Cre/loxP technology in mice and focal RNA interference to silence the expression of A(2A)Rs in rats by local infection with adeno-associated virus carrying short-hairpin RNA, we report that the A(2A)Rs in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are responsible for the effect of caffeine on wakefulness. Caffeine-induced arousal was not affected in rats when A(2A)Rs were focally removed from the NAc core or other A(2A)R-positive areas of the basal ganglia. Our observations suggest that caffeine promotes arousal by activating pathways that traditionally have been associated with motivational and motor responses in the brain.
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miR-124a is required for hippocampal axogenesis and retinal cone survival through Lhx2 suppression.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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MicroRNA-124a (miR-124a) is the most abundant microRNA expressed in the vertebrate CNS. Despite past investigations into the role of miR-124a, inconsistent results have left the in vivo function of miR-124a unclear. We examined the in vivo function of miR-124a by targeted disruption of Rncr3 (retinal non-coding RNA 3), the dominant source of miR-124a. Rncr3(-/-) mice exhibited abnormalities in the CNS, including small brain size, axonal mis-sprouting of dentate gyrus granule cells and retinal cone cell death. We found that Lhx2 is an in vivo target mRNA of miR-124a. We also observed that LHX2 downregulation by miR-124a is required for the prevention of apoptosis in the developing retina and proper axonal development of hippocampal neurons. These results suggest that miR-124a is essential for the maturation and survival of dentate gyrus neurons and retinal cones, as it represses Lhx2 translation.
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Prostaglandin D2 and sleep/wake regulation.
Sleep Med Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is the most potent endogenous sleep-promoting substance. PGD2 is produced by lipocalin-type PGD synthase localized in the leptomeninges, choroid plexus, and oligodendrocytes in the brain, and is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid as a sleep hormone. PGD2 stimulates DP1 receptors localized in the leptomeninges under the basal forebrain and the hypothalamus. As a consequence, adenosine is released as a paracrine sleep-promoting molecule to activate adenosine A2A receptor-expressing sleep-promoting neurons and to inhibit adenosine A1 receptor-possessing arousal neurons. PGD2 activates a center of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation in the ventrolateral preoptic area, probably mediated by adenosine signaling, which activation inhibits the histaminergic arousal center in the tuberomammillary nucleus via descending GABAergic and galaninergic projections. The administration of a lipocalin-type PGD synthase inhibitor (SeCl4), DP1 antagonist (ONO-4127Na) or adenosine A2A receptor antagonist (caffeine) suppresses both NREM and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, indicating that the PGD2-adenosine system is crucial for the maintenance of physiological sleep.
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Effects of synthetic cannabinoids on electroencephalogram power spectra in rats.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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Several synthetic cannabinoids have recently been distributed as psychoactive adulterants in many herbal products on the illegal drug market around the world. However, there is little information on pharmacology and toxicology of such compounds. Although ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC), a psychoactive cannabinoid of marijuana, was reported to affect electroencephalograms (EEG) of rats, the effects of synthetic cannabinoids are unknown. We examined the pharmacological activities of three synthetic cannabinoids; cannabicyclohexanol (CCH), CP-47,497 and JWH-018; by analyzing EEG power spectra and locomotor activity after intraperitoneal administration to rats and compared them with those of ?(9)-THC. The three compounds significantly increased the EEG power in the frequency range of 5.0-6.0 Hz for the first 3h, while ?(9)-THC decreased the power spectra in the wide range of 7.0-20.0 Hz during the first hour. These results indicate that the effect of the three compounds on EEG is different from that of ?(9)-THC. Additionally, CCH, CP-47,497 and JWH-018 significantly decreased the locomotor activity for 11.5h, 11h and 4.5h, respectively, after administration which was longer than that of ?(9)-THC (3.5h). Furthermore, all three compounds significantly reduced the total amounts of locomotor activity during a 3-h, 6-h and 12-h period after injection, whereas no statistical difference was observed for the ?(9)-THC injection. Among the three compounds, CCH and CP-47,497 exerted a longer duration of the change in the EEG power spectra and suppression of the locomotor activity than JWH-018.
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A novel role of prostaglandin E2 in neuropathic pain: blockade of microglial migration in the spinal cord.
Glia
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
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Neuropathic pain produced by damage to or dysfunction of the nervous system is a common and severely disabling state that affects millions of people worldwide. Recent evidence indicates that activated microglia are key cellular intermediaries in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and that ATP serves as the mediator. However, the in vivo mechanism underlying the retention of activated microglia in the injured region has not yet been completely elucidated. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is the principal proinflammatory prostanoid and plays versatile roles by acting via four PGE receptor subtypes, EP1-EP4. In the present study, we investigated the role of PGE(2) in spinal microglial activation in relation to neuropathic pain by using genetic and pharmacological methods. Mice deficient in microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 impaired the activation of microglia and the NMDA-nitric oxide (NO) cascade in spinal neurons in the dorsal horn and did not exhibit mechanical allodynia after peripheral nerve injury. The intrathecal injection of indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ONO-8713, a selective EP1 antagonist, or 7-nitroindole, a neuronal NO synthase inhibitor, attenuated mechanical allodynia and the increase in activated microglia observed in the established neuropathic-pain state. We further demonstrated that ATP-induced microglial migration was blocked in vitro by PGE(2) via EP2 and by S-nitrosoglutathione, an NO donor. Taken together, the present study suggests that PGE(2) participated in the maintenance of neuropathic pain in vivo not only by activating spinal neurons, but also by retaining microglia in the central terminals of primary afferent fibers via EP2 subtype and via EP1-mediated NO production.
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High-Quality Protein Crystal Growth of Mouse Lipocalin-Type Prostaglandin D Synthase in Microgravity.
Cryst Growth Des
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) catalyzes the isomerization of PGH(2) to PGD(2) and is involved in the regulation of pain and of nonrapid eye movement sleep and the differentiation of male genital organs and adipocytes, etc. L-PGDS is secreted into various body fluids and binds various lipophilic compounds with high affinities, acting also as an extracellular transporter. Mouse L-PGDS with a C65A mutation was previously crystallized with citrate or malonate as a precipitant, and the X-ray crystallographic structure was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. To obtain high-quality crystals, we tried, unsuccessfully, to crystallize the C65A mutant in microgravity under the same conditions used in the previous study. After further purifying the protein and changing the precipitant to polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000, high-quality crystals were grown in microgravity. The precipitant solution was 40% (w/v) PEG 8000, 100 mM sodium chloride, and 100 mM HEPES-NaOH (pH 7.0). Crystals grew on board the International Space Station for 11 weeks in 2007, yielding single crystals of the wild-type L-PGDS and the C65A mutant, both of which diffracted at around 1.0 Å resolution. The crystal quality was markedly improved through the use of a high-viscosity precipitant solution in microgravity, in combination with the use of a highly purified protein.
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Crocin promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Crocus sativus L. (saffron) has been traditionally used for the treatment of insomnia and other diseases of the nervous systems. Two carotenoid pigments, crocin and crocetin, are the major components responsible for the various pharmacological activities of C. sativus L. In this study, we examined the sleep-promoting activity of crocin and crocetin by monitoring the locomotor activity and electroencephalogram after administration of these components to mice. Crocin (30 and 100 mg/kg) increased the total time of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep by 60 and 170%, respectively, during a 4-h period from 20:00 to 24:00 after its intraperitoneal administration at a lights-off time of 20:00. Crocetin (100 mg/kg) also increased the total time of non-REM sleep by 50% after the administration. These compounds did not change the amount of REM sleep or show any adverse effects, such as rebound insomnia, after the induction of sleep.
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The role of adenosine in the regulation of sleep.
Curr Top Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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This paper presents an overview of the current knowledge about the role of adenosine in the sleep-wake regulation with a focus on adenosine in the central nervous system, regulation of adenosine levels, adenosine receptors, and manipulations of the adenosine system by the use of pharmacological and molecular biological tools. The endogenous somnogen prostaglandin (PG) D(2) increases the extracellular level of adenosine under the subarachnoid space of the basal forebrain and promotes physiological sleep. Adenosine is neither stored nor released as a classical neurotransmitter and is thought to be formed inside cells or on their surface, mostly by breakdown of adenine nucleotides. The extracellular concentration of adenosine increases in the cortex and basal forebrain during prolonged wakefulness and decreases during the sleep recovery period. Therefore, adenosine is proposed to act as a homeostatic regulator of sleep and to be a link between the humoral and neural mechanisms of sleep-wake regulation. Both the adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)R) and A(2A)R are involved in sleep induction. The A(2A)R plays a predominant role in the somnogenic effects of PGD(2). By use of gene-manipulated mice, the arousal effect of caffeine was shown to be dependent on the A(2A)R. On the other hand, inhibition of wake-promoting neurons via the A(1)R also mediates the sleep-inducing effects of adenosine, whereas activation of A(1)R in the lateral preoptic area induces wakefulness, suggesting that A(1)R regulates the sleep-wake cycle in a site-dependent manner. The potential therapeutic applications of agonists and antagonists of these receptors in sleep disorders are briefly discussed.
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Silica crystals and aluminum salts regulate the production of prostaglandin in macrophages via NALP3 inflammasome-independent mechanisms.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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Particulates such as silica crystal (silica) and aluminum salts (alum) activate the inflammasome and induce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages. These particulates also induce the production of immunoglobulin E via a T helper 2 (Th2) cell-associated mechanism. However, the mechanism involved in the induction of type 2 immunity has not been elucidated. Here, we showed that silica and alum induced lipopolysaccharide-primed macrophages to produce the lipid mediator prostaglandin E? (PGE?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Macrophages deficient in the inflammasome components caspase 1, NALP3, and ASC revealed that PGE? production was independent of the NALP3 inflammasome. PGE? expression was markedly reduced in PGE synthase-deficient (Ptges?/?) macrophages, and Ptges?/? mice displayed reduced antigen-specific serum IgE concentrations after immunization with alum or silica. Our results indicate that silica and alum regulate the production of PGE? and that the induction of PGE? by particulates controls the immune response in vivo.
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Catalytic mechanism of the primary human prostaglandin F2? synthase, aldo-keto reductase 1B1--prostaglandin D2 synthase activity in the absence of NADP(H).
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Aldo-keto reductase 1B1 and 1B3 (AKR1B1 and AKR1B3) are the primary human and mouse prostaglandin F(2?) (PGF(2?)) synthases, respectively, which catalyze the NADPH-dependent reduction of PGH(2), a common intermediate of various prostanoids, to form PGF(2?). In this study, we found that AKR1B1 and AKR1B3, but not AKR1B7 and AKR1C3, also catalyzed the isomerization of PGH(2) to PGD(2) in the absence of NADPH or NADP(+). Both PGD(2) and PGF(2?) synthase activities of AKR1B1 and AKR1B3 completely disappeared in the presence of NADP(+) or after heat treatment of these enzymes at 100 °C for 5 min. The K(m), V(max), pK and optimum pH values of the PGD(2) synthase activities of AKR1B1 and AKR1B3 were 23 and 18 ?M, 151 and 57 nmol·min(-1)·(mg protein)(-1), 7.9 and 7.6, and pH 8.5 for both AKRs, respectively, and those of PGF(2?) synthase activity were 29 and 33 ?M, 169 and 240 nmol·min(-1)·(mg protein)(-1), 6.2 and 5.4, and pH 5.5 and pH 5.0, respectively, in the presence of 0.5 mm NADPH. Site-directed mutagenesis of the catalytic tetrad of AKR1B1, composed of Tyr, Lys, His and Asp, revealed that the triad of Asp43, Lys77 and His110, but not Tyr48, acts as a proton donor in most AKR activities, and is crucial for PGD(2) and PGF(2?) synthase activities. These results, together with molecular docking simulation of PGH(2) to the crystallographic structure of AKR1B1, indicate that His110 acts as a base in concert with Asp43 and Lys77 and as an acid to generate PGD(2) and PGF(2?) in the absence of NADPH or NADP(+) and in the presence of NADPH, respectively.
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Dual functions of prostaglandin D2 in murine contact hypersensitivity via DP and CRTH2.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2011
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Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) exerts its effects through two distinct receptors: the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) and the D prostanoid (DP) receptor. Our previous study demonstrated that CRTH2 mediates contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in mice. However, the function of DP receptor remains to be fully established. In this study, we examine the pathophysiological roles of PGD2 using DP-deficient (DP(-/-)) and CRTH2/DP-deficient (CRTH2(-/-)/DP(-/-)) mice to elucidate receptor-mediated PGD2 action in CHS. We observed profound exacerbation of CHS in DP(-/-) mice. CRTH2(-/-)/DP(-/-) mice showed similar exacerbation, but to a lesser extent. These symptoms were accompanied by increased production of interferon-? and IL-17. The increase in IL-17 producing ?? T cells was marked and presumably contributed to the enhanced CHS. DP deficiency promoted the in vivo migration of dendritic cells to regional lymph nodes. A DP agonist added to DCs in vitro was able to inhibit production of IL-12 and IL-1?. Interestingly, production of IL-10 in dendritic cells was elevated via the DP pathway, but it was lowered by the CRTH2 pathway. Collectively, PGD2 signals through CRTH2 to mediate CHS inflammation, and conversely, DP signals to exert inhibitory effects on CHS. Thus, we report opposing functions for PGD2 that depend on receptor usage in allergic reactions.
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Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase is associated with coronary vasospasm and vasomotor reactivity in response to acetylcholine.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) catalyzes the biosynthesis of PGD(2), which acts as an anticoagulant, vasodilator, and inflammatory mediator. We examined the serum L-PGDS level, coronary macro- and microvasomotor functions, and their relationship in patients with chest pain and angiographically normal coronary arteries.
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Expression and detrimental role of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase in spinal cord contusion injury.
Glia
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2) ) is a potent inflammatory mediator, which is implicated in both the initiation and resolution of inflammation in peripheral non-neural tissues. Its role in the central nervous system has not been fully elucidated. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with an acute inflammatory response, which contributes to secondary tissue damage that worsens functional loss. We show here, with the use of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS) deficient mice and a HPGDS selective inhibitor (HQL-79), that PGD(2) plays a detrimental role after SCI. We also show that HPGDS is expressed in macrophages in the injured mouse spinal cord and contributes to the increase in PGD(2) in the contused spinal cord. HPGDS(-/-) mice also show reduced secondary tissue damage and reduced expression of the proinflammatory chemokine CXCL10 as well as an increase in IL-6 and TGF?-1 expression in the injured spinal cord. This was accompanied by a reduction in the expression of the microglia/macrophage activation marker Mac-2 and an increase in the antioxidant metallothionein III. Importantly, HPGDS deficient mice exhibit significantly better locomotor recovery after spinal cord contusion injury than wild-type (Wt) mice. In addition, systemically administered HPGDS inhibitor (HQL-79) also enhanced locomotor recovery after SCI in Wt mice. These data suggest that PGD(2) generated via HPGDS has detrimental effects after SCI and that blocking the activity of this enzyme can be beneficial.
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Fc?RI, but not Fc?R, signals induce prostaglandin D2 and E2 production from basophils.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Prostaglandin (PG) D2 and PGE2 are arachidonic acid metabolites that are generated though an isomerization reaction catalyzed by PG synthases. PGs have been implicated in immunologic reactions in addition to a wide range of physiological functions. It has long been thought that basophils, in contrast to mast cells, do not synthesize PGs, although they do release leukotrienes and platelet-activating factor. Here, we show that basophils function as a source of PGD2 and PGE2. In vitro-cultured basophils from mouse bone marrow produced both PGD2 and PGE2 in response to IgE + antigen (Ag), but not to IgG + Ag. Release of PGs was almost completely abrogated in cultured basophils from FcR?-chain(-/-) mice, indicating the involvement of Fc?RI. Basophils freshly isolated from bone marrow cells (primary basophils) were also capable of secreting PGD2 and PGE2. Although the amount of PGD2 released from primary basophils was lower than that from mast cells, the capability of primary basophils to generate PGE2 was more potent than that of mast cells. Transcripts and proteins for both hematopoietic-type PGD synthase and PGE synthase were detected in basophils. In addition, human basophils, like mouse basophils, also produced PGD2 through IgE-mediated stimulation. Thus, basophils could be an important source of PGD2/PGE2 and may contribute to allergic inflammation and immune responses.
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A novel and comprehensive mouse model of human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with the full range of dysmetabolic and histological abnormalities induced by gold thioglucose and a high-fat diet.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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The search for effective treatments of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), now the most common chronic liver disease in affluent countries, is hindered by a lack of animal models having the range of anthropometric and pathophysiological features as human NASH.
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Increased expression of lipocalin-type-prostaglandin D synthase in ulcerative colitis and exacerbating role in murine colitis.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2010
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The pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) is unclear, but enhancement of disease activity by usage of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs suggests involvement of prostanoid in its pathophysiology. However, biological effect of prostaglandin (PG) D(2) on intestinal inflammation remains unknown. We investigated the expression of enzymes for PGD(2) synthesis, prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS), and its relation to the activity of colitis in UC patients. The role of lipocalin-type PGDS (L-PGDS) using a murine colitis model was also assessed. Tissue samples were obtained by colonic biopsies from patients with UC. Expression levels of mRNAs for L-PGDS and hematopoietic-type PGDS were investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. COX-2 and L-PGDS expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Localization of L-PGDS expression was also determined by in situ hybridization. In experimental study, mice were treated with dextran sodium sulfate in the drinking water to induce colitis. The degree of colonic inflammation was compared with L-PGDS(-/-) mice and control mice. The level of L-PGDS mRNA expression was increased in UC patients in parallel with disease activity. Colocalization of L-PGDS and cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 was observed in lamina proprial infiltrating cells and muscularis mucosa in UC patients. The level of hematopoietic PGDS mRNA expression did not differ from control mucosa. Dextran sodium sulfate treatment to L-PGDS(-/-) mice showed lower disease activity than control mice. We reported for the first time the presence of L-PGDS in the COX-2-expressing cells in the mucosa of active UC patients and that only L-PGDS increased with disease activity. An animal model study suggests that PGD(2) derived from L-PGDS-expressing cells plays proinflammatory roles in colitis.
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Improvement in the quality of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase crystals in a microgravity environment.
J Synchrotron Radiat
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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Human hematopoietic prostaglandin synthase, one of the better therapeutic target enzymes for allergy and inflammation, was crystallized with 22 inhibitors and in three inhibitor-free conditions in microgravity. Most of the space-grown crystals showed better X-ray diffraction patterns than the terrestrially grown ones, indicating the advantage of a microgravity environment on protein crystallization, especially in the case of this protein.
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Structure of the inhibitor complex of old yellow enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi.
J Synchrotron Radiat
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2010
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Old yellow enzyme (OYE) is an NADPH oxidoreductase which contains flavin mononucleotide as prosthetic group. The X-ray structures of OYE from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcOYE) which produces prostaglandin (PG) F(2?) from PGH(2) have been determined in the presence or absence of menadione. The binding motif of menadione, known as one of the inhibitors for TcOYE, should accelerate the structure-based development of novel anti-chagasic drugs that inhibit PGF(2?) production specifically.
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High-quality crystals of human haematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase with novel inhibitors.
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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Human haematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS; EC 5.3.99.2) produces prostaglandin D(2), an allergic and inflammatory mediator, in mast cells and Th2 cells. H-PGDS has been crystallized with novel inhibitors with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) in the low nanomolar range by the counter-diffusion method onboard the Russian Service Module on the International Space Station. The X-ray diffraction of a microgravity-grown crystal of H-PGDS complexed with an inhibitor with an IC(50) value of 50 nM extended to 1.1 A resolution at 100 K using SPring-8 synchrotron radiation, which is one of the highest resolutions obtained to date for this protein.
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Essential role of dopamine D2 receptor in the maintenance of wakefulness, but not in homeostatic regulation of sleep, in mice.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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Dopamine (DA) and its D(2) receptor (R) are involved in cognition, reward processing, and drug addiction. However, their roles in sleep-wake regulation remain unclear. Herein we investigated the role of D(2)R in sleep-wake regulation by using D(2)R knock-out (KO) mice and pharmacological manipulation. Compared with WT mice, D(2)R KO mice exhibited a significant decrease in wakefulness, with a concomitant increase in non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) and REM sleep and a drastic decrease in the low-frequency (0.75-2 Hz) electroencephalogram delta power of NREM sleep, especially during the first 4 h after lights off. The KO mice had decreased mean episode duration and increased episode numbers of wake and NREM sleep, many stage transitions between wakefulness and NREM sleep during the dark period, suggesting the instability of the wake stage in these D(2)R KO mice. When the KO mice were subjected to a cage change or an intraperitoneal saline injection, the latency to sleep in the KO mice decreased to half of the level for WT mice. The D(2)R antagonist raclopride mimicked these effects in WT mice. When GBR12909, a dopamine transport inhibitor, was administered intraperitoneally, it induced wakefulness in WT mice in a dose-dependent manner, but its arousal effect was attenuated to one-third in the D(2)R KO mice. However, these 2 genotypes showed an identical response in terms of sleep rebound after 2, 4, and 6 h of sleep deprivation. These results indicate that D(2)R plays an essential role in the maintenance of wakefulness, but not in homeostatic regulation of NREM sleep.
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Suppression of adipocyte differentiation by aldo-keto reductase 1B3 acting as prostaglandin F2alpha synthase.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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Prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) suppresses adipocyte differentiation by inhibiting the function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. However, PGF(2alpha) synthase (PGFS) in adipocytes remains to be identified. Here, we studied the expression of members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B family acting as PGFS during adipogenesis of mouse 3T3-L1 cells. AKR1B3 mRNA was expressed in preadipocytes, and its level increased about 4-fold at day 1 after initiation of adipocyte differentiation, and then quickly decreased the following day to a level lower than that in the preadipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA levels of Akr1b8 and 1b10 were clearly lower than that level of Akr1b3 in preadipocytes and remained unchanged during adipogenesis. The transient increase in Akr1b3 during adipogenesis was also observed by Western blot analysis. The mRNA for the FP receptor, which is selective for PGF(2alpha), was also expressed in preadipocytes. Its level increased about 2-fold within 1 h after the initiation of adipocyte differentiation and was maintained at almost the same level throughout adipocyte differentiation. The small interfering RNA for Akr1b3, but not for Akr1b8 or 1b10, suppressed PGF(2alpha) production and enhanced the expression of adipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, fatty acid-binding protein 4 (aP2), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Moreover, an FP receptor agonist, Fluprostenol, suppressed the expression of those adipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 cells; whereas an FP receptor antagonist, AL-8810, efficiently inhibited the suppression of adipogenesis caused by the endogenous PGF(2alpha). These results indicate that AKR1B3 acts as the PGFS in adipocytes and that AKR1B3-produced PGF(2alpha) suppressed adipocyte differentiation by acting through FP receptors.
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Estradiol regulation of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase promoter activity: evidence for direct and indirect mechanisms.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2010
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In the CNS, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is predominantly a non-neuronal enzyme responsible for the production of PGD(2), an endogenous sleep promoting substance. We have previously demonstrated that estradiol differentially regulates L-PGDS transcript levels in the rodent brain. In hypothalamic nuclei, estradiol increases L-PGDS transcript expression, whereas in the ventrolateral preoptic area L-PGDS gene expression is reduced after estradiol treatment. In the present study, we have used an immortalized glioma cell line transfected with a L-PGDS reporter construct and estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ERbeta expression plasmids to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying estradiol regulation of L-PGDS gene expression. We found that physiologically relevant concentrations of estradiol evoked an inverted U response in cells expressing ERalpha. The most effective concentration of estradiol (10(-11)M) increased the promoter activity 3-fold over baseline. Expression of ERbeta did not increase activity over control and when ERbeta was co-expressed with ERalpha there was a significant attenuation of the promoter activity. While ERalpha significantly increased L-PGDS promoter activity, our previous in vivo studies demonstrate a greater magnitude of change in L-PGDS gene expression in the presences of estradiol. This led us to ask whether estradiol is signaling via a paracrine factor released by the neighboring neurons. Conditioned media from estradiol treated neurons applied to the glioma cell line resulted in a significant 7-fold increase in L-PGDS promoter activity supporting the possibility that neuronal-glial interactions are involved in estradiol regulation of L-PGDS.
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Dendritic cells express hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase and function as a source of prostaglandin D2 in the skin.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2009
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Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), an arachidonic acid metabolite, has been implicated in allergic responses. A major source of PGD2 in the skin is mast cells that express hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS). In this study, we show the expression of H-PGDS in human dendritic cells (DCs) and the regulatory mechanisms by which DCs produce PGD2. We detected H-PGDS in epidermal Langerhans cells, dermal DCs, plasmacytoid DCs, and myeloid DCs. Monocyte-derived DCs rapidly secreted PGD2 when stimulated with the calcium ionophore A23187. More importantly, pretreatment of monocyte-derived DCs with PMA (phorbol 12-myrisate 13-acetate) synergistically enhanced the rapid PGD2 secretion induced by A23187, whereas PMA alone did not induce PGD2 secretion. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduced H-PGDS expression, but interferon-gamma followed by LPS induced significant PGD2 production in a delayed time course at 6 hours. This effect was associated with inhibition of LPS-induced H-PGDS reduction. Interestingly, an irritant compound, SDS, also induced a rapid PGD2 release. PGD2 synergistically enhanced CCL22/macrophage-derived chemokine synthesis in interferon-gamma-treated human keratinocytes. In addition, bone marrow-derived DCs from wild-type mice stimulated lymph node cells to produce higher amounts of interleukin-17 than did DCs from mice lacking the H-PGDS gene. Thus, DCs could be an important source of skin PGD2 and may mediate or regulate skin inflammation by releasing PGD2 in response to various stimuli, contributing to the innate and/or acquired immune responses.
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De novo synthesis, uptake and proteolytic processing of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase, beta-trace, in the kidneys.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2009
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Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is a multifunctional protein that produces prostaglandin D(2) and binds and transports various lipophilic substances after secretion into various body fluids as beta-trace. L-PGDS has been proposed to be a useful diagnostic marker for renal injury associated with diabetes or hypertension, because the urinary and plasma concentrations are increased in patients with these diseases. However, it remains unclear whether urinary L-PGDS is synthesized de novo in the kidney or taken up from the blood circulation. In crude extracts of monkey kidney and human urine, we found L-PGDS with its original N-terminal sequence starting from Ala23 after the signal sequence, and also its N-terminal-truncated products starting from Gln31 and Phe34. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody 5C11, which recognized the amino-terminal Ala23-Val28 loop of L-PGDS, revealed that both the mRNA and the intact form of L-PGDS were localized in the cells of Henles loop and the glomeruli of the kidney, indicating that L-PGDS is synthesized de novo in these tissues. However, truncated forms of L-PGDS were found in the lysosomes of tubular cells, as visualized by immunostaining with 10A5, another monoclonal antibody, which recognized the three-turn alpha-helix between Arg156 and Thr173. These results suggest that L-PGDS is taken up by tubular cells and actively degraded within their lysosomes to produce the N-terminal-truncated form.
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[Molecular mechanisms of insomnia].
Nippon Rinsho
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2009
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Prostaglandin (PG) D2 and adenosine are potent endogenous somnogens and their sleep-inducing mechanisms are well characterized. We examined the contribution of these somnogens to physiological sleep by the combination of pharmacological tools and gene-knockout (KO) mice. Complete insomnia was observed in wild-type mice after an intraperitoneal injection of SeCl4, an inhibitor of PGD synthase (PGDS), or caffeine, an antagonist of adenosine A2A receptors. The SeCl4-induced insomnia was not observed in PGDS- or DP1 receptor-KO mice and the caffeine-induced insomnia, in A(2A) receptor-KO mice. A DP1 antagonist, ONO-4127Na, reduced sleep of rats by 30% during infusion into the subarachnoid space of the basal forebrain. These results indicate that the PGD2/ adenosine system plays a critical role in the regulation of physiological sleep.
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Increased expression and cellular localization of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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Immunological responses in the host can result in different disease outcomes of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. Prostaglandin E2 derived from cyclooxygenase (COX) and prostaglandin E synthase contribute to gastric protection. Recently, prostaglandin D2 was shown to be involved in host immunity by chemotactic activity through chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2), but its role in H. pylori-induced gastritis has not been clarified. We determined the expression levels of mRNAs for haematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS) and lipocalin-type PGDS (L-PGDS), MIP-1 alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-4, and CDX2 in H. pylori-induced gastritis mucosa by quantitative RT-PCR. We found that L-PGDS was constitutively expressed in the epithelium of the glandular base. L-PGDS, but not H-PGDS, was induced on fibroblasts close to infiltrating cells in the H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa. These fibroblasts co-expressed COX-2. The level of L-PGDS mRNA expression decreased as gastritis became more severe. In most of the H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa, CCR5(+) cells had more actively infiltrated than had CRTH2(+) cells. However, the expression level of IFN-gamma was lower in the mucosa of the CRTH2(+) cells-dominantly infiltrating group than that of the less CRTH2-infiltrating group. Exogenously added PGD2 decreased the H. pylori-induced expression of IFN-gamma in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. The data suggest that PGD2 derived from the gastric mucosa and fibroblasts plays protective roles against inflammatory changes in H. pylori-induced gastritis.
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