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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Prognosis-related factors concerning oral and general conditions for homebound older adults in Japan.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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The present study examined the relationship between oral function, such as eating/swallowing, and life prognosis among a homebound elderly population, considering physical and mental function.
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Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40-79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals.
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High Performance, Low Temperature Solution-Processed Barium and Strontium Doped Oxide Thin Film Transistors.
Chem Mater
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Amorphous mixed metal oxides are emerging as high performance semiconductors for thin film transistor (TFT) applications, with indium gallium zinc oxide, InGaZnO (IGZO), being one of the most widely studied and best performing systems. Here, we investigate alkaline earth (barium or strontium) doped InBa(Sr)ZnO as alternative, semiconducting channel layers and compare their performance of the electrical stress stability with IGZO. In films fabricated by solution-processing from metal alkoxide precursors and annealed to 450 °C we achieve high field-effect electron mobility up to 26 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). We show that it is possible to solution-process these materials at low process temperature (225-200 °C yielding mobilities up to 4.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) and demonstrate a facile "ink-on-demand" process for these materials which utilizes the alcoholysis reaction of alkyl metal precursors to negate the need for complex synthesis and purification protocols. Electrical bias stress measurements which can serve as a figure of merit for performance stability for a TFT device reveal Sr- and Ba-doped semiconductors to exhibit enhanced electrical stability and reduced threshold voltage shift compared to IGZO irrespective of the process temperature and preparation method. This enhancement in stability can be attributed to the higher Gibbs energy of oxidation of barium and strontium compared to gallium.
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Supervised machine learning-based classification of oral malodor based on the microbiota in saliva samples.
Artif Intell Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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This study presents an effective method of classifying oral malodor from oral microbiota in saliva by using a support vector machine (SVM), an artificial neural network (ANN), and a decision tree. This approach uses concentrations of methyl mercaptan in mouth air as an indicator of oral malodor, and peak areas of terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) length polymorphisms (T-RFLPs) of the 16S rRNA gene as data for supervised machine-learning methods, without identifying specific species producing oral malodorous compounds.
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Identification of the microbiota in carious dentin lesions using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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While mutans streptococci have long been assumed to be the specific pathogen responsible for human dental caries, the concept of a complex dental caries-associated microbiota has received significant attention in recent years. Molecular analyses revealed the complexity of the microbiota with the predominance of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in carious dentine lesions. However, characterization of the dentin caries-associated microbiota has not been extensively explored in different ethnicities and races. In the present study, the bacterial communities in the carious dentin of Japanese subjects were analyzed comprehensively with molecular approaches using the16S rRNA gene. Carious dentin lesion samples were collected from 32 subjects aged 4-76 years, and the 16S rRNA genes, amplified from the extracted DNA with universal primers, were sequenced with a pyrosequencer. The bacterial composition was classified into clusters I, II, and III according to the relative abundance (high, middle, low) of Lactobacillus. The bacterial composition in cluster II was composed of relatively high proportions of Olsenella and Propionibacterium or subdominated by heterogeneous genera. The bacterial communities in cluster III were characterized by the predominance of Atopobium, Prevotella, or Propionibacterium with Streptococcus or Actinomyces. Some samples in clusters II and III, mainly related to Atopobium and Propionibacterium, were novel combinations of microbiota in carious dentin lesions and may be characteristic of the Japanese population. Clone library analysis revealed that Atopobium sp. HOT-416 and P. acidifaciens were specific species associated with dentinal caries among these genera in a Japanese population. We summarized the bacterial composition of dentinal carious lesions in a Japanese population using next-generation sequencing and found typical Japanese types with Atopobium or Propionibacterium predominating.
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Molecular analysis of fungal populations in patients with oral candidiasis using internal transcribed spacer region.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in the oral fungal flora and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. Conventional methods of fungal culture are time-consuming and not always conclusive. However, molecular genetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA is rapid, reproducible and simple to perform. In this study we examined the fungal flora in patients with oral candidiasis and investigated changes in the flora after antifungal treatment using length heterogeneity-polymerization chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis of ITS regions. Fifty-two patients with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (POC) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Fungal DNA from oral rinse was examined for fungal species diversity by LH-PCR. Fungal populations were quantified by real-time PCR and previously-unidentified signals were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Relationships between the oral fungal flora and treatment-resistant factors were also examined. POC patients showed significantly more fungal species and a greater density of fungi than control individuals. Sixteen fungi were newly identified. The fungal populations from both groups were composed predominantly of C. albicans, though the ratio of C. dubliniensis was significantly higher in POC patients than in controls. The diversity and density of fungi were significantly reduced after treatment. Furthermore, fungal diversity and the proportion of C. dubliniensis were positively correlated with treatment duration. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis and high fungal flora diversity might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. We therefore conclude that LH-PCR is a useful technique for diagnosing and assessing the severity of oral candidal infection.
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A Novel Gene Involved in the Survival of Streptococcus mutans under Stress Conditions.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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A Streptococcus mutans mutant defective in aciduricity was constructed by random-insertion mutagenesis. Sequence analysis of the mutant revealed a mutation in gidA, which is known to be involved in tRNA modification in Streptococcus pyogenes. Complementation of gidA by S. pyogenes gidA recovered the acid tolerance of S. mutans. Although the gidA-inactivated S. pyogenes mutant exhibited significantly reduced expression of multiple extracellular virulence proteins, the S. mutans mutant did not. On the other hand, the gidA mutant of S. mutans showed reduced ability to withstand exposure to other stress conditions (high osmotic pressure, high temperature, and bacitracin stress) besides an acidic environment. In addition, loss of GidA decreased the capacity for glucose-dependent biofilm formation by over 50%. This study revealed that gidA plays critical roles in the survival of S. mutans under stress conditions, including lower pH.
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Involvement of the novel two-component NsrRS and LcrRS systems in distinct resistance pathways against nisin A and nukacin ISK-1 in Streptococcus mutans.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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The novel two-component systems NsrRS and LcrRS are individually associated with resistance against the distinct lantibiotics nisin A and nukacin ISK-1 in Streptococcus mutans. NsrRS regulates the expression of NsrX, which is associated with nisin A binding, and LcrRS regulates the expression of the ABC transporter LctFEG.
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Gender differences in the association between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease: the Hisayama Study.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Periodontal disease and metabolic syndrome (MS) are more prevalent in males than in females. However, whether there is a gender difference in the association between these health conditions has not yet been investigated. This study examined the gender difference in this association, considering the definition of periodontal disease.
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Relationship of periodontal clinical parameters with bacterial composition in human dental plaque.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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More than 600 bacterial species have been identified in the oral cavity, but only a limited number of species show a strong association with periodontitis. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive outline of the microbiota in dental plaque related to periodontal status. Dental plaque from 90 subjects was sampled, and the subjects were clustered based on bacterial composition using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA genes. Here, we evaluated (1) periodontal clinical parameters between clusters; (2) the correlation of subgingival bacterial composition with supragingival bacterial composition; and (3) the association between bacterial interspecies in dental plaque using a graphical Gaussian model. Cluster 1 (C1) having high prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in subgingival plaque showed increasing values of the parameters. The values of the parameters in Cluster 2a (C2a) having high prevalence of non-pathogenic bacteria were markedly lower than those in C1. A cluster having low prevalence of non-pathogenic bacteria in supragingival plaque showed increasing values of the parameters. The bacterial patterns between subgingival plaque and supragingival plaque were significantly correlated. Chief pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, formed a network with other pathogenic species in C1, whereas a network of non-pathogenic species, such as Rothia sp. and Lautropia sp., tended to compete with a network of pathogenic species in C2a. Periodontal status relates to non-pathogenic species as well as to pathogenic species, suggesting that the bacterial interspecies connection affects dental plaque virulence.
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Effect of xylitol gum on the level of oral mutans streptococci of preschoolers: block-randomised trial.
Int Dent J
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2011
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To assess the influence of xylitol chewing gum consumption on mutans streptococci level of 3-4 years old Japanese preschoolers.
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Antimicrobial and antifungal effects of tissue conditioners containing a photocatalyst.
Dent Mater J
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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This study examined the antimicrobial/antifungal ability of a tissue conditioner containing a photocatalyst for Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The photocatalyst was mixed with tissue conditioners powders at concentrations of 0, 10, 15, and 20 wt%. Tissue conditioners powders containing a photocatalyst were mixed with liquid to make test specimens. Test specimens inoculated by each microorganism were irradiated by ultraviolet light for 0-, 2- and 4 hours. The antimicrobial/antifungal effects were evaluated by the CFU technique. The CFU values of each microorganism for tissue conditioners containing a photocatalyst showed significant decrease following UV-irradiation. The improvement in antimicrobial/antifungal effects was concomitant with the increase of the mixing ratio and the irradiation time. Therefore, the results indicated that tissue conditioners containing a photocatalyst might have photocatalytic ability.
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Enteral tube feeding alters the oral indigenous microbiota in elderly adults.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Enteral tube feeding is widely used to maintain nutrition for elderly adults with eating difficulties, but its long-term use alters the environment of the oral ecosystem. This study characterized the tongue microbiota of tube-fed elderly adults by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles of 44 tube-fed subjects were compared with those of 54 subjects fed orally (average age, 86.4 ± 6.9 years). Bar-coded pyrosequencing data were also obtained for a subset of the subjects from each group (15 tube-fed subjects and 16 subjects fed orally). The T-RFLP profiles demonstrated that the microbiota of the tube-fed subjects was distinct from that of the subjects fed orally (permutational multivariate analysis of variance [perMANOVA], P < 0.001). The pyrosequencing data revealed that 22 bacterial genera, including Corynebacterium, Peptostreptococcus, and Fusobacterium, were significantly more predominant in tube-fed subjects, whereas the dominant genera in the subjects fed orally, such as Streptococcus and Veillonella, were present in much lower proportions. Opportunistic pathogens rarely detected in the normal oral microbiota, such as Corynebacterium striatum and Streptococcus agalactiae, were often found in high proportions in tube-fed subjects. The oral indigenous microbiota is disrupted by the use of enteral feeding, allowing health-threatening bacteria to thrive.
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Involvement of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 in globular adiponectin-induced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in RAW 264 cell.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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We previously demonstrated that treatment with a globular type of adiponectin (gAd) induced expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) via the MEK/ERK signaling pathway in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264. In the present study, we investigated whether suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) has roles in the regulation of gAd-induced G-CSF generation. Intracellular G-CSF generation induced by gAd treatment peaked after 10h and then attenuated. SOCS1 mRNA and protein were expressed at 1h and 4h after gAd treatment, respectively. Overexpression of SOCS1 reduced G-CSF generation and phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK in gAd-treated cells. While gAd treatment induced the translocation of STAT3 to the nucleus under control conditions, STAT3 stayed in the cytosol when SOCS1 was overexpressed. Additionally, knockdown of SOCS1 by interfering RNA caused levels of G-CSF to continue to rise beyond 10h after gAd treatment. These results suggest that SOCS1 is involved in providing negative feedback for gAd-induced production of G-CSF.
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Relationship between receiving a workplace oral health examination including oral health instruction and oral health status in the Japanese adult population.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Dental caries and periodontal disease are highly prevalent in the Japanese adult population. Oral examination is an effective method to find various oral health problems in their early stages. However, workplace oral examination is not common in Japan. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between receiving workplace oral health examination, including oral health instruction, and oral health status in the Japanese adult population.
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Characterization of MbrC involved in bacitracin resistance in Streptococcus mutans.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Streptococcus mutans, a major etiological agent of dental caries, is resistant to bacitracin. Microarray analysis revealed that mbrA and mbrB, encoding a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter, are prominently induced in the presence of bacitracin. On the basis of the latest report that MbrC, a putative response regulator in a two-component signaling system, binds the promoter region of mbrA and thus regulates its transcription, we cut into the mechanism by generating a mutant MbrC (D(54) N-MbrC) that substituted asparagine for aspartate at position 54, the predicted phosphorylation site. MbrC, but not the mutant D(54) N-MbrC, showed affinity for a DNA probe that contained the hypothetical mbrA promoter sequence. Furthermore, we introduced a point mutation (D(54) N-MbrC) into UA159; this mutant strain exhibited neither mbrA induction nor resistance in the presence of bacitracin. These data suggest that the aspartate residue at position 54 of MbrC is a promising candidate for phosphorylation in a bacitracin-sensing system and indispensable for S. mutans bacitracin resistance.
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Streptococcus mutans diacylglycerol kinase homologue: a potential target for anti-caries chemotherapy.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Aciduricity is a major cariogenic characteristic of Streptococcus mutans, and various genes have been implicated in this ability of S. mutans. Sixteen S. mutans mutant strains, each defective in a different gene, were constructed and their aciduricity was assessed. Of the mutants, the diacylglycerol kinase (Dgk) homologue mutant and the glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase mutant strains displayed distinctly attenuated aciduricity when grown at pH 5.5. Considering the delayed growth rate of the latter at neutral pH, the dgk homologue appeared to be a gene responding specifically to pH reduction among the 16 genes tested. Two known eukaryotic Dgk inhibitors, R59949 and R59022, were selected as candidate inhibitors of the S. mutans Dgk homologue. R59949, but not R59022, significantly reduced the growth of S. mutans at pH <5.4. R59949 did not affect either the final pH of the medium or the internal pH of the organism. Furthermore, R59949 inhibited about 20?% of Dgk kinase activity. Novel derivatives of R59949 may be useful for preventing the development of dental caries caused by S. mutans.
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Effectiveness of the salivary occult blood test as a screening method for periodontal status.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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Community-based periodontal examinations are not popular despite the high prevalence of periodontal disease among adults. This study examines the effectiveness of a novel salivary occult blood test (SOBT) as a screening method for periodontal status.
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Diacylglycerol kinase alpha regulates globular adiponectin-induced reactive oxygen species.
Free Radic. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2010
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It has previously been reported that the globular form of adiponectin (gAd), mature adipocyte-derived cytokine, induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264. This study investigated whether diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), enzymes functioning in sub-cellular signalling pathways, had a role on gAd-induced ROS generation in RAW 264 cells. Administration of R59022, a specific inhibitor for DGK, reduced gAd-induced ROS generation and NO release. RAW 264 cell expressed DGK? mRNA. Depression of DGK? mRNA by RNA interference significantly reduced the ROS generation in response to gAd treatment. Interestingly, transfection with the DGK?-specific small interfering RNA attenuated the expression level of Nox1 mRNA in gAd-treated RAW 264 cells. In addition, the DGK? knockdown with siRNA suppressed gAd-induced NO release.
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Involvement of the JAK-STAT pathway and SOCS3 in the regulation of adiponectin-generated reactive oxygen species in murine macrophage RAW 264 cells.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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Adiponectin is a protein hormone produced by differentiating adipocytes and has been proposed to have anti-diabetic and immunosuppressive properties. We previously reported that the globular form of adiponectin (gAd) induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), followed by caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in RAW 264 cells. Here, we demonstrate that gAd-induced ROS generation and apoptosis were diminished by suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). The phosphorylation level of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 detected by Western blotting was highest at 20 min in gAd-treated RAW 264 cells. This phosphorylation was inhibited by AG490, a specific inhibitor of janus-activator kinase (JAK). The gAd-induced ROS and NO were reduced by administration of AG490 and Jak-2-specific siRNA in RAW 264 cells. The gAd stimulation transiently induced SOCS3 mRNA expression and protein production. We examined SOCS3-overexpressing RAW 264 cells to investigate the role of the JAK-STAT pathway in gAd-induced ROS and NO generation. SOCS3 overexpression significantly reduced both ROS and NO generation. Additionally, gAd-induced caspase activation and apoptotic cell death were reduced in SOCS3 transfectants compared with vector control transfectants. These results suggest that the JAK-STAT pathway, which can be suppressed by SOCS3 expression, is involved in gAd-induced ROS and NO generation followed by apoptotic cell death.
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Prediction of plausible bacterial composition based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms using a Monte Carlo method.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2010
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We have developed a new approach for the estimation of bacterial proportional compositions in microbiota based on terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) data and a Monte Carlo algorithm. This program estimates proportional compositions by minimizing distances between peak values and the relative abundance of each group, containing several species, estimated from peak areas of capillary electrophoresis for T-RFLP analysis. Oral bacteria in 36 saliva samples obtained from three individuals were analyzed using the program. Upon comparison, the estimated proportional composition obtained from one of the samples matched that from a clone library. Additionally, comparisons among the bacterial proportional compositions of saliva samples obtained from three individuals four times per day for 3 days revealed that the types of microbiota present in each individual did not change within each 24-h time period and were distinguishable from those in other individuals.
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Relationship between obesity and physical fitness and periodontitis.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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Obesity and exercise are important elements associated with lifestyle-related diseases, and studies suggested that these factors may also be related to periodontitis. This study investigates the relationship between obesity and physical fitness and periodontitis.
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Microfloral characterization of the tongue coating and associated risk for pneumonia-related health problems in institutionalized older adults.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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To characterize a comprehensive outline of the oral microflora related to pneumonia in older adults.
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Equipment and monitoring in continuous renal replacement therapy.
Contrib Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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Continuous renal replacement therapy is expected to improve unfavorable status in critical care. As precise volume control is most important to maintain the damaged circulation system, blood and solution control should be carried out precisely. Recently, further technical development was achieved in this area, and quality of these products--including disposable kits--has been improved. Nevertheless, incidental and accidental errors in human and equipment are sometimes happen. In order to decrease it, the staff understands the system of treatment and is familiar to the routine check point.
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Relationship between oral malodor and the global composition of indigenous bacterial populations in saliva.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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Oral malodor develops mostly from the metabolic activities of indigenous bacterial populations within the oral cavity, but whether healthy or oral malodor-related patterns of the global bacterial composition exist remains unclear. In this study, the bacterial compositions in the saliva of 240 subjects complaining of oral malodor were divided into groups based on terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles using hierarchical cluster analysis, and the patterns of the microbial community composition of those exhibiting higher and lower malodor were explored. Four types of bacterial community compositions were detected (clusters I, II, III, and IV). Two parameters for measuring oral malodor intensity (the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air and the organoleptic score) were noticeably lower in cluster I than in the other clusters. Using multivariate analysis, the differences in the levels of oral malodor were significant after adjustment for potential confounding factors such as total bacterial count, mean periodontal pocket depth, and tongue coating score (P < 0.001). Among the four clusters with different proportions of indigenous members, the T-RFLP profiles of cluster I were implicated as the bacterial populations with higher proportions of Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Rothia, and Treponema species than those of the other clusters. These results clearly correlate the global composition of indigenous bacterial populations with the severity of oral malodor.
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Relationship between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease in Japanese adults.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2009
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Metabolic syndrome is becoming a common disorder worldwide. Studies have shown a relationship between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease, although information on the relationship is limited.
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The inhibitory effects of mushroom extracts on sucrose-dependent oral biofilm formation.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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Mushrooms contain large quantities of alpha-glucans. Shiitake (Lentinula edodes), Japans most popular edible mushroom, has been reported to contain about 6% (weight/dried weight) of alpha-(1,3)-glucan. This glucan is one of the major components of oral biofilm formed by the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. We found that extracts from shiitake and other edible mushrooms could reduce preformed biofilms of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in the presence of dextranase. We also investigated the alpha-glucanase activities of shiitake mushroom extracts and their effects on biofilm formation. The extracts possessed alpha-glucanase activity and degraded water-insoluble glucans from mutans streptococci. The extracts strongly inhibited the sucrose-dependent formation of biofilms by S. mutans and S. sobrinus in the presence of dextranase. Our results suggest that some components of mushrooms, including alpha-glucanases, might inhibit the sucrose-induced formation of oral biofilms.
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Influence of oral health on febrile status in long-term hospitalized elderly patients.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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Many elderly patients have various health problems and are susceptible to recurrent fever. We examined the influence of oral health on the febrile status of 271 long-term hospitalized elderly patients over 1 year. In dentate patients, those with > or =20 teeth had a significantly higher risk for fever than those with 1-9 teeth; multivariate logistic regression analysis: odds ratio (OR)=5.44, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.37-21.66. In edentate patients, those with moderate or much tongue plaque had a significantly higher risk for fever than those with no or slight tongue plaque; multivariate analysis: OR=5.14, 95% CI=1.77-14.88. These results suggest that oral health status related to febrile status differs between dentate and edentate patients in the elderly population.
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Anti-inflammatory activity of a globular adiponectin function on RAW 264 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.
FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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Adiponectin is an adipokine with potent anti-inflammatory properties. We previously reported that a globular adiponectin (gAd) suppresses Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activity, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect of gAd. In this study, we investigated whether gAd is able to modulate the effect of A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide on cytokine induction in a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264). The phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and IkappaB kinase alpha/beta and the degradation of IkappaB, which were induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide intoxication, were clearly reduced in gAd-pretreated RAW 264 cells compared with the untreated cells. Expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA were assessed by real-time PCR. Cell-free supernatants were collected after 12 h of stimulation and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for TNF-alpha and IL-10. Pretreatment with gAd significantly inhibited the A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha mRNA expression and protein secretion. In contrast, pretreatment with gAd significantly enhanced the A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-10 mRNA expression and protein secretion. These data suggest a mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of gAd in local inflammatory lesions, such as periodontitis.
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The serotype-specific glucose side chain of rhamnose-glucose polysaccharides is essential for adsorption of bacteriophage M102 to Streptococcus mutans.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
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Bacteriophage M102 is a virulent siphophage that propagates in some serotype c Streptococcus mutans strains, but not in S. mutans of serotype e, f or k. The serotype of S. mutans is determined by the glucose side chain of rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide (RGP). Because the first step in the bacteriophage infection process is adsorption of the phage, it was investigated whether the serotype specificity of phage M102 was determined by adsorption. M102 adsorbed to all tested serotype c strains, but not to strains of different serotypes. Streptococcus mutans serotype c mutants defective in the synthesis of the glucose side chain of RGP failed to adsorb phage M102. These results suggest that the glucose side chain of RGP acts as a receptor for phage M102.
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Relationship between intake of green tea and periodontal disease.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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Green tea is a very popular beverage, and in vitro studies have shown that green tea polyphenols inhibit the growth and cellular adherence of periodontal pathogens and their production of virulence factors. We investigated the epidemiologic relationship between the intake of green tea and periodontal disease.
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Globular adiponectin-induced RAW 264 apoptosis is regulated by a reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway involving Bcl-2.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Globular adiponectin (gAd), a truncated form of adipocyte-derived cytokine, stimulates RAW 264 cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which trigger an apoptotic cascade. In this study, we investigated the generation of intracellular and mitochondrial ROS in gAd-stimulated RAW 264 cells. Treatment with gAd efficiently induced the generation of intracellular and mitochondrial ROS, as detected by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and MitoSOX fluorescence, respectively. Furthermore, gAd treatment significantly increased 8-oxoguanine, a specific indicator of oxidative DNA damage. The transfection of RAW 264 cells with iNOS- and gp91(phox)-specific small interfering RNA reduced markedly the generation of intracellular, but not mitochondrial, ROS. Quantitative PCR revealed that the expression ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax was reduced in a time-dependent manner in gAd-treated RAW 264 cells. The overexpression of Bcl-2 markedly inhibited gAd-induced apoptosis in RAW 264 cells and also reduced both the intracellular and the mitochondrial ROS generation induced by gAd treatment. Moreover, the overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly suppressed gAd-induced NO secretion and NOS activity. In addition, the inhibition of NOS activity partially reduced the oxidative DNA damage induced by gAd. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the gAd-induced apoptotic pathway acting via ROS/RNS generation involves Bcl-2.
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Involvement of Ca(2+) in globular adiponectin-induced reactive oxygen species.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Globular adiponectin (gAd) induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264. We investigated the role of Ca(2+) in gAd-induced ROS and NO generation. Pretreatment with BAPTA-AM, a selective chelator of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)), partially reduced gAd-induced generation of ROS and NO in gAd-treated RAW 264 cells. The lowest [Ca(2+)](i) occurred 30min after gAd treatment, after which [Ca(2+)](i) increased continually and exceeded the initial level. The mitochondrial Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](m)) detected by Rhod-2 fluorescence started to increase at 6h after gAd treatment. Pretreatment with a NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium, prevented the reduction of [Ca(2+)](i) in the early phase after gAd treatment. Calcium depletion by BAPTA-AM had no effect on the gAd-induced [Ca(2+)](m) oscillation. The administration of a specific calmodulin inhibitor, calmidazolium, significantly suppressed gAd-induced ROS and NO generation and NOS activity.
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Kinase activity of the dgk gene product is involved in the virulence of Streptococcus mutans.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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C-terminal deletion of the diacylglycerol kinase (Dgk) homologue of the cariogenic oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans resulted in loss of aciduricity. To confirm the role of the C terminus of the Dgk homologue in aciduricity, various mutants of S. mutans UA159 with a C-terminally truncated Dgk homologue were constructed. The deletion of one or two amino acid residues at the C terminus had no effect on the acid-tolerance properties of mutants. When further amino acid residues at the C terminus were removed, mutants became more acid-sensitive. The mutant with deletion of eight amino acid residues at the C terminus did not grow at pH 5.5, suggesting that the C-terminal tail of the Dgk homologue was indispensable for tolerance to acid stress in S. mutans. Kinase activity assays revealed that deletion of the C-terminal amino acids of Dgk led to a reduction of kinase activity for undecaprenol. A truncated mutant that had completely lost kinase activity was unable to grow at pH 5.5. These results suggest that the acid tolerance of S. mutans is closely related to kinase activity of the Dgk homologue. Additionally, the dgk deletion mutant exhibited markedly reduced levels of smooth-surface carious lesions in pathogen-free rats, despite there being no difference between the mutant and the parental organism in the extent of total smooth surface plaque. The results suggest that Dgk activity may play a direct role in the virulence of S. mutans.
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The ecological proportion of indigenous bacterial populations in saliva is correlated with oral health status.
ISME J
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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To obtain deeper insights into the etiology of oral disease, an understanding of the composition of the surrounding bacterial environments that lead to health or disease is required, which is attracting increasing attention. In this study, the bacterial compositions in the saliva of 200 subjects aged 15-40 years were depicted as peak patterns by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The subjects were classified into three clusters by partitioning around medoids clustering based on their T-RFLP profiles, and the clinical oral health parameters of the clusters were compared. The clustering of the T-RFLP profiles in this study was mainly based on differences in the abundance distribution of the dominant terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) detected in most of the subjects. Predicted from the sizes of the TRFs, the characteristically more predominant members of each were Prevotella and Veillonella species in cluster I; Streptococcus species in cluster II and Neisseria, Haemophilus or Aggregatibacter species and Porphyromonas species in cluster III. The parameters associated with periodontal disease were significantly different among the clusters. Clusters I and II had a higher percentage of sites of periodontal pockets greater than 4 mm than cluster III, and cluster I contained sites exhibiting bleeding on probing more often than cluster II or III; no significant differences were observed in other parameters. These results suggest that the abundance distribution of commensal bacteria in saliva is correlated with periodontal health, and might be involved in the susceptibility of an individual to periodontal disease.
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Interrelationship of oral health status, swallowing function, nutritional status, and cognitive ability with activities of daily living in Japanese elderly people receiving home care services due to physical disabilities.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol
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Malnutrition and cognitive impairment lead to declines in activities of daily living (ADL). Nutritional status and cognitive ability have been shown to correlate with oral health status and swallowing function. However, the complex relationship among the factors that affect decline in ADL is not understood. We examined direct and indirect relationships among oral health status, swallowing function, nutritional status, cognitive ability, and ADL in Japanese elderly people living at home and receiving home care services because of physical disabilities.
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Bacterial adhesion affinities of various implant abutment materials.
Clin Oral Implants Res
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To investigate bacterial adhesion to various abutment materials.
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Compositional stability of a salivary bacterial population against supragingival microbiota shift following periodontal therapy.
PLoS ONE
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Supragingival plaque is permanently in contact with saliva. However, the extent to which the microbiota contributes to the salivary bacterial population remains unclear. We compared the compositional shift in the salivary bacterial population with that in supragingival plaque following periodontal therapy. Samples were collected from 19 patients with periodontitis before and after periodontal therapy (mean sample collection interval, 25.8 ± 2.6 months), and their bacterial composition was investigated using barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic community analysis using the UniFrac distance metric revealed that the overall bacterial community composition of saliva is distinct from that of supragingival plaque, both pre- and post-therapy. Temporal variation following therapy in the salivary bacterial population was significantly smaller than in the plaque microbiota, and the post-therapy saliva sample was significantly more similar to that pre-therapy from the same individual than to those from other subjects. Following periodontal therapy, microbial richness and biodiversity were significantly decreased in the plaque microbiota, but not in the salivary bacterial population. The operational taxonomic units whose relative abundances changed significantly after therapy were not common to the two microbiotae. These results reveal the compositional stability of salivary bacterial populations against shifts in the supragingival microbiota, suggesting that the effect of the supragingival plaque microbiota on salivary bacterial population composition is limited.
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Factors associated with dry mouth in dependent Japanese elderly.
Gerodontology
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OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with dry mouth. BACKGROUND: Dry mouth adversely affects oropharyngeal health, particularly in elderly, and can lead to pneumonia. A better understanding of the epidemiology of dry mouth is therefore important in improving treatment strategies and oral health in high-risk elderly patients. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 383 dependent Japanese elderly individuals (65-84 [n = 167] and ?85 [n = 216] years) at eight long-term care facilities and hospitals. Thirty-four potential factors associated with dry mouth were examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. The primary outcome was dry mouth, as diagnosed by tongue dorsum moisture. RESULTS: We identified that body mass index and severity of physical disability were identified as a potential factors associated with dry mouth in the super-elderly (?85 years) group, whereas severity of physical disability, outcome measurement time, high daily water consumption, mouth breathing, use of antidepressants and diuretics, and high frequency of daily brushing (?2 times per day; Odds ratio: 5.56; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.52-20.00) were associated with dry mouth in the 65- to 84-year-old group. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify a link between frequency of daily brushing and dry mouth and suggests that tooth brushing should be encouraged in high-risk dependent Japanese elderly (65-84 years), particularly those taking antidepressants and/or diuretics.
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Continual Gram-negative bacterial challenge accelerates stroke onset in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Clin. Exp. Hypertens.
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This study examined the effects of continual Gram-negative bacterial challenge on stroke onset. Stroke onset occurred significantly earlier in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) injected with a bacterial cell suspension of Gram-negative rods or lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) than in uninjected controls. Paralysis of the hindlimb, piloerection, hypokinesis, and hyperkinesis were observed in LPS-injected SHRSP but not in uninjected controls during stroke onset. The serum levels of NOx, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine increased in LPS-injected SHRSP. These results suggest that continual Gram-negative bacterial challenge induces accelerated stroke onset in SHRSP, probably caused by oxidative stress responses derived from LPSs.
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Relationship between nutrition status and dental occlusion in community-dwelling frail elderly people.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
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This study aimed to determine the risk of malnutrition in some communities where the frail elderly receive public long-term care insurance. We also clarified the dental problems in those at risk of malnutrition.
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Relationship between normal serum creatinine concentration and periodontal disease in Japanese middle-aged males.
J. Periodontol.
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Periodontitis has been shown to be closely related to diabetes, which was recently found to be associated with lower serum creatinine. Conversely, several studies have suggested a positive relationship between periodontitis and abnormally high concentrations of serum creatinine associated with renal dysfunction, seemingly contradicting the above. This study evaluates periodontal status and serum levels of creatinine within the normal range to resolve this apparent contradiction.
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Effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds.
J Breath Res
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The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). For this study, 42 subjects were randomly assigned to receive oil samples containing L. salivarius WB21 or a placebo for two weeks. Oral assessment and saliva collection were performed on days 1 and 15. Bacterial analysis was performed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In both the experimental and placebo groups, the average probing depth, number of periodontal pockets, and the percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) decreased while stimulated salivary flow increased on day 15. BOP was reduced in the experimental group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.010). In the experimental group, total bacterial numbers decreased, and the number of L. salivarius increased. The number of Prevotella intermedia, which is correlated with hydrogen sulfide concentration in mouth air, increased in the placebo group and did not change in the experimental group. T-RFLP analysis found that the peak area proportions representing Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum decreased in the experimental group, although there was no significant change in the bacterial composition. Thus we observed oil drops containing L. salivarius WB21 improved BOP and inhibited the reproduction of total and VSC-producing periodontopathic bacteria compared with the placebo group, but also showed the limit of its efficacy in controlling VSCs producing and periodontal pathogens.
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Discrimination of the oral microbiota associated with high hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan production.
Sci Rep
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Both hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl mercaptan (CH(3)SH) are frequently detected in large amounts in malodorous mouth air. We investigated the bacterial composition of saliva of 30 subjects with severe oral malodor exhibiting extreme CH(3)SH/H(2)S ratios (high H(2)S but low CH(3)SH concentrations, n 5 14; high CH(3)SH but low H2S concentrations, n 5 16) and 13 subjects without malodor, using barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic community analysis with the UniFrac distance metric revealed a distinct bacterial community structure in each malodor group. The H2S group showed higher proportions of the genera Neisseria, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas and SR1 than the other two groups, whereas the CH(3)SH group had higher proportions of the genera Prevotella, Veillonella,Atopobium, Megasphaera, and Selenomonas. Our results suggested that distinct bacterial populations in the oral microbiota are involved in production of high levels of H2S and CH3SH in the oral cavity.
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Periodontal status and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged Japanese.
J. Periodontol.
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of various lifestyle-related diseases. Although some studies have reported a significant relationship between periodontal status and MetS, little information exists about the nature of the relationship between periodontal health status and MetS.
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