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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Prognostic prediction of glioblastoma by quantitative assessment of the methylation status of the entire MGMT promoter region.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation is reported to be a prognostic and predictive factor of alkylating chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients. Methylation specific PCR (MSP) has been most commonly used when the methylation status of MGMT is assessed. However, technical obstacles have hampered the implementation of MSP-based diagnostic tests. We quantitatively analyzed the methylation status of the entire MGMT promoter region and applied this information for prognostic prediction using sequencing technology.
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Voxel-based clustered imaging by multiparameter diffusion tensor images for glioma grading.
Neuroimage Clin
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Gliomas are the most common intra-axial primary brain tumour; therefore, predicting glioma grade would influence therapeutic strategies. Although several methods based on single or multiple parameters from diagnostic images exist, a definitive method for pre-operatively determining glioma grade remains unknown. We aimed to develop an unsupervised method using multiple parameters from pre-operative diffusion tensor images for obtaining a clustered image that could enable visual grading of gliomas. Fourteen patients with low-grade gliomas and 19 with high-grade gliomas underwent diffusion tensor imaging and three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging before tumour resection. Seven features including diffusion-weighted imaging, fractional anisotropy, first eigenvalue, second eigenvalue, third eigenvalue, mean diffusivity and raw T2 signal with no diffusion weighting, were extracted as multiple parameters from diffusion tensor imaging. We developed a two-level clustering approach for a self-organizing map followed by the K-means algorithm to enable unsupervised clustering of a large number of input vectors with the seven features for the whole brain. The vectors were grouped by the self-organizing map as protoclusters, which were classified into the smaller number of clusters by K-means to make a voxel-based diffusion tensor-based clustered image. Furthermore, we also determined if the diffusion tensor-based clustered image was really helpful for predicting pre-operative glioma grade in a supervised manner. The ratio of each class in the diffusion tensor-based clustered images was calculated from the regions of interest manually traced on the diffusion tensor imaging space, and the common logarithmic ratio scales were calculated. We then applied support vector machine as a classifier for distinguishing between low- and high-grade gliomas. Consequently, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic curves from the 16-class diffusion tensor-based clustered images that showed the best performance for differentiating high- and low-grade gliomas were 0.848, 0.745, 0.804 and 0.912, respectively. Furthermore, the log-ratio value of each class of the 16-class diffusion tensor-based clustered images was compared between low- and high-grade gliomas, and the log-ratio values of classes 14, 15 and 16 in the high-grade gliomas were significantly higher than those in the low-grade gliomas (p < 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). These classes comprised different patterns of the seven diffusion tensor imaging-based parameters. The results suggest that the multiple diffusion tensor imaging-based parameters from the voxel-based diffusion tensor-based clustered images can help differentiate between low- and high-grade gliomas.
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Treatment for infection of artificial dura mater using free fascia lata.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Synthetic artificial dura mater materials, such as expanded polytetrafluoroethylene sheets, are widely used in dura mater reconstruction in cases involving brain tumors or trauma surgery. In patients with postoperative infection related to the use of artificial dura mater, surgical debridement of the infected wound and removal of the artificial dura mater materials are necessary to control infection. In cases involving cerebrospinal fluid leakage, dura mater reconstruction must be performed immediately. Many useful techniques for performing dura mater reconstruction to treat postoperative infection have been reported; however, some have drawbacks with respect to the need for microvascular anastomosis or difficulties in obtaining watertight closure. We successfully treated 6 patients with postoperative artificial dura mater infection using free thigh fascia lata. Some surgeons believe that the use of free fascia in infected wounds is dangerous because free fascia is a non-vascularized tissue. However, performing complete debridement and covering such free fascia with well-vascularized tissue allow the fascia to become vascularized and tolerant of infection. Therefore, if the blood flow in the scalp is acceptable after a sufficient debridement, free fascia lata can be used for reconstruction in patients with postoperative infection of artificial dura mater. Furthermore, skull reconstruction can be performed safely and easily with solid-type artificial bone, sometimes combined with tissue expansion, thus resulting in good aesthetic outcomes.
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Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation: Treatment outcomes of five cases.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation (PPTID) is a rare disease, first classified by the World Health Organization in 2000. The number of available studies on the treatment of PPTID is currrently limited and the optimal management for this disease has not yet been determined. We retrospectively evaluated the treatment outcomes for PPTID at our institute and analyzed the roles of radiation therapy and chemotherapy for this disease. The clinical data on five patients diagnosed with PPTID since 2000 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with cerebrospinal dissemination at diagnosis received biopsy-only surgery, craniospinal and whole-ventricular irradiation and chemotherapy. Patients with locally limited disease at diagnosis received local or whole-ventricular irradiation after surgery. The median relapse-free and overall survival were 72.9 and 94.1 months, respectively. Two of the five patients developed a relapse of cerebrospinal dissemination after treatment and succumbed to the disease. All the patients who received both craniospinal and whole-ventricular irradiation exhibited evidence of cerebral white matter abnormalities in magnetic resonance imaging and developed neurocognitive disorders after treatment. Although PPTID may be aggressive and has cerebrospinal fluid seeding potential, PPTID patients may survive long-term, even after recurrence. Considering the long survival time and the late adverse effects due to intensive treatment, the irradiation field and usage of chemotherapy after surgery require optimization.
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Estimation of proliferative potentiality of central neurocytoma: correlational analysis of minimum ADC and maximum SUV with MIB-1 labeling index.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Central neurocytoma was initially believed to be benign tumor type, although atypical cases with more aggressive behavior have been reported. Preoperative estimation for proliferating activity of central neurocytoma is one of the most important considerations for determining tumor management.
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Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?
Neuroradiology
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated.
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Intraoperative dorsal language network mapping by using single-pulse electrical stimulation.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The preservation of language function during brain surgery still poses a challenge. No intraoperative methods have been established to monitor the language network reliably. We aimed to establish intraoperative language network monitoring by means of cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). Subjects were six patients with tumors located close to the arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the language-dominant left hemisphere. Under general anesthesia, the anterior perisylvian language area (AL) was first defined by the CCEP connectivity patterns between the ventrolateral frontal and temporoparietal area, and also by presurgical neuroimaging findings. We then monitored the integrity of the language network by stimulating AL and by recording CCEPs from the posterior perisylvian language area (PL) consecutively during both general anesthesia and awake condition. High-frequency electrical stimulation (ES) performed during awake craniotomy confirmed language function at AL in all six patients. Despite an amplitude decline (?32%) in two patients, CCEP monitoring successfully prevented persistent language impairment. After tumor removal, single-pulse ES was applied to the white matter tract beneath the floor of the removal cavity in five patients, in order to trace its connections into the language cortices. In three patients in whom high-frequency ES of the white matter produced naming impairment, this "eloquent" subcortical site directly connected AL and PL, judging from the latencies and distributions of cortico- and subcortico-cortical evoked potentials. In conclusion, this study provided the direct evidence that AL, PL, and AF constitute the dorsal language network. Intraoperative CCEP monitoring is clinically useful for evaluating the integrity of the language network.
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Differential Gene Expression in Relation to the Clinical Characteristics of Human Brain Arteriovenous Malformations.
Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the central nervous system are considered as congenital disorders. They are composed of abnormally developed dilated arteries and veins and are characterized microscopically by the absence of a capillary network. We previously reported DNA fragmentation and increased expression of apoptosis-related factors in AVM lesions. In this article, we used microarray analysis to examine differential gene expression in relation to clinical manifestations in 11 AVM samples from Japanese patients. We categorized the genes with altered expression into four groups: death-related, neuron-related, inflammation-related, and other. The death-related differentially expressed genes were MMP9, LIF, SOD2, BCL2A1, MMP12, and HSPA6. The neuron-related genes were NPY, S100A9, NeuroD2, S100Abeta, CAMK2A, SYNPR, CHRM2, and CAMKV. The inflammation-related genes were PTX3, IL8, IL6, CXCL10, GBP1, CHRM3, CXCL1, IL1R2, CCL18, and CCL13. In addition, we compared gene expression in those with or without clinical characteristics including deep drainer, embolization, and high-flow nidus. We identified a small number of genes. Using these microarray data we are able to generate and test new hypotheses to explore AVM pathophysiology. Microarray analysis is a useful technique to study clinical specimens from patients with brain vascular malformations.
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Retrospective analysis of bevacizumab in combination with Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide in patients with second recurrence of glioblastoma.
Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Bevacizumab has been reported to be effective for recurrent glioblastoma. In our hospital, ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide (ICE) is the second-line chemotherapy for first recurrence of glioblastoma after temozolomide failure. In the present analysis, we retrospectively investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of bevacizumab combined with ICE in patients with glioblastoma at second relapse during ICE treatment. Between 2010 and 2012, tumor progressions were diagnosed in consecutive 8 patients who were treated with ICE for the first recurrence of glioblastoma. These patients were administered 3 cycles of 10 mg/kg bevacizumab every two weeks in combination with ICE treatment. The objective response rate of bevacizumab combination was 75% in Neuro-Oncology Working Group (RANO criteria), including complete response and partial response. Median progression free survival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS) after second relapse were 3.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5-18.5 months) and 6.0 months (95% CI, 3.2-19.7 months), respectively. The 6-month PFS rates were 25% (95% CI, 0-55.0%). The median OS after initial diagnosis was 23.3 months (95% CI, 16.2-55.8 months). The grade 2 or 3 hematologic adverse events were identified in 7 of 8 patients, most of which might be due to ICE chemotherapy. The results of our retrospective analysis suggest that combination treatment with bevacizumab and ICE may be safe and beneficial in patients with recurrent glioblastoma.
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Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor with rapid recurrence of pilocytic astrocytoma component.
Brain Tumor Pathol
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) rarely has aggressive behavior with recurrence. The authors describe a case of DNT with rapid re-growth and features of pilocytic astrocytoma. A 19-year-old girl presented with a 3-year history of complex partial seizure, which was presumably because of DNT located in the left parietal lobe. The tumor was resected, although a tiny residual lesion with cystic space enlarged with ring enhancement identified on MRI 14 days after surgery resulted in re-excision. The recurrent tumor was eventually proved to be predominantly composed of pilocytic astrocytoma. DNT is known to recur only rarely as a tumor with morphologically different components, and no cases of recurrent DNT with rapidly-growing pilocytic astrocytoma have hitherto been reported in the literature. This phenomenon may be histological "replacement" at recurrence.
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Organizing intracerebral hematoma mimicking a recurrent brain tumor on FDG-PET.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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A man underwent resection of low-grade astrocytoma, followed by radiation therapy at the age of 14 years old. He had been followed up for 33 years with no finding of recurrent disease on brain images until the most recent CT and MRI scans showed a mass at the postoperative site in the left parieto-occipital lobe. 18F-FDG PET/CT showed increased uptake in the mass. Resection was conducted, and microscopic examination of the whole mass demonstrated an organizing hematoma. A provisional diagnosis of organizing hematoma should be considered, along with other benign and malignant causes of increased FDG uptake.
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Usefulness of Tumor Blood Flow Imaging by Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Videoangiography in Hemangioblastoma Surgery.
World Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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OBJECTIVE: Hemangioblastomas remain a surgical challenge because of their arteriovenous malformation-like character. Recently, indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography has been applied to neurosurgical vascular surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of tumor blood flow imaging by intraoperative ICG videoangiography in surgery for hemangioblastomas. METHODS: Twenty intraoperative ICG videoangiography procedures were performed in 12 patients with hemangioblastomas. Seven lesions were located in the cerebellum, two lesions were in the medulla oblongata, and three lesions were in the spinal cord. RESULTS: Ten procedures were performed before or during dissection, and 10 procedures were performed after tumor resection. ICG videoangiography could provide dynamic images of blood flow in the tumor and its related vessels under surgical view. Interpretation of these dynamic images of tumor blood flow was useful for discrimination of transit feeders (feeders en passage) and also for estimation of unexposed feeders covered with brain parenchyma. Postresection ICG videoangiography could confirm complete tumor resection and normalized blood flow in surrounding vessels. CONCLUSIONS: In surgery for hemangioblastomas, careful interpretation of dynamic ICG images can provide useful information on transit feeders and unexposed hidden vessels that cannot be directly visualized by ICG.
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Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for acoustic neuromas: safety and effectiveness over 8 years of experience.
Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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Little information is available about long-term outcomes of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (hypo-FSRT) for acoustic neuromas. In this study, the safety and effectiveness of hypo-FSRT for unilateral acoustic neuroma were reviewed over 8 years of experience at our institution.
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F11-mediated inhibition of RhoA signalling enhances the spread of vaccinia virus in vitro and in vivo in an intranasal mouse model of infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2009
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The cortical actin cytoskeleton beneath the plasma membrane represents a physical barrier that vaccinia virus has to overcome during its exit from an infected cell. Previous observations using overexpression and pharmacological approaches suggest that vaccinia enhances its release by modulating the cortical actin cytoskeleton by inhibiting RhoA signalling using the viral protein F11. We have now examined the role of F11 and its ability to interact with RhoA to inhibit its downstream signalling in the spread of vaccinia infection both in vitro and in vivo. Live cell imaging over 48 hours reveals that loss of F11 or its ability to bind RhoA dramatically reduces the rate of cell-to-cell spread of the virus in a cell monolayer. Cells infected with the DeltaF11L virus also maintained their cell-to-cell contacts, and did not undergo virus-induced motility as observed during wild-type infections. The DeltaF11L virus is also attenuated in intranasal mouse models of infection, as it is impaired in its ability to spread from the initial sites of infection to the lungs and spleen. Loss of the ability of F11 to bind RhoA also reduces viral spread in vivo. Our results clearly establish that viral-mediated inhibition of RhoA signalling can enhance the spread of infection not only in cell monolayers, but also in vivo.
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Endogenous tenascin-C enhances glioblastoma invasion with reactive change of surrounding brain tissue.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2009
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Tenascin-C is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein implicated in embryogenesis, wound healing and tumor progression. We previously revealed that tenascin-C expression is correlated with the prognosis of patients with glioblastoma. However, the exact role of endogenous tenascin-C in regulation of glioblastoma proliferation and invasion remains to be established. We show here that endogenous tenascin-C facilitates glioblastoma invasion, followed by reactive change of the surrounding brain tissue. Although shRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous tenascin-C does not affect proliferation of glioblastoma cells, it abolishes cell migration on a two-dimensional substrate and tumor invasion with brain tissue changes in a xenograft model. The tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that associates with integrins, was decreased in tenascin-C-knockdown cells. In the analysis of clinical samples, tenascin-C expression correlates with the volume of peritumoral reactive change detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Interestingly, glioblastoma cells with high tenascin-C expression infiltrate brain tissue in an autocrine manner. Our results suggest that endogenous tenascin-C contributes the invasive nature of glioblastoma and the compositional change of brain tissue, which renders tenascin-C as a prime candidate for anti-invasion therapy for glioblastoma.
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Angioplasty and stent deployment in acute sinus thrombosis following endovascular treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulae.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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We report on the successful treatment of acute sinus thrombosis associated with endovascular treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) by sinus angioplasty with stent deployment. A 76-year-old man presented with intracerebral hemorrhage, Cognard type IIa+b DAVF of the left sigmoid sinus, and type IIa DAVF of the torcular herophili. During transvenous sinus embolization, acute thrombosis of the stenotic lesion in the left transverse sinus occurred. The thrombosis caused isolated sinus and cortical venous reflux (CVR). The patient was treated by stent-supported sinus angioplasty, which led to an immediate improvement of the sinus thrombosis and associated CVR.
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Arachnoid cyst of the velum interpositum originating from tela choroidea.
Surg Neurol Int
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Arachnoid cysts originating from the velum interpositum are very rare, and their existence as a clinicopathologic entity remains controversial. We report a case of a patient with an arachnoid cyst of the velum interpositum presenting with memory disturbance, focusing on the anatomical origin of the lesion and the physiological mechanisms causing memory disturbance.
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Outcomes of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for metastatic brain tumors with high risk factors.
J. Neurooncol.
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The present study aimed to analyze outcomes of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HFSRT) delivered in five fractions to metastatic brain tumors. Between June 2008 and June 2011, 39 consecutive patients with 46 brain metastases underwent HFSRT at Kyoto University Hospital. Selection criteria included high risk factors such as eloquent location, history of whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), or large tumor size. Given these factors, fractionated schedules were preferable in terms of radiobiology. The prescribed dose at the isocenter was basically 35 Gy in five fractions. Brainstem lesions with a history of WBRT were treated with 20-25 Gy in five fractions. Planning target volume was covered by the 80 % isodose line of the prescribed dose to the isocenter. Local-control probability and overall survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. For the analysis of local control, the response criteria were defined as follows: complete response (CR) was defined as no visible gross tumor or absence of contrast enhancement, partial response (PR) as more than a 30 % decrease in size, progressive disease as more than a 20 % increase in size, and stable disease (SD) as all other responses. Local control was defined as a status of CR, PR, or SD. Only patients with at least 3 months or longer follow-up (21 patients, 27 tumors) were included in the analysis. Median age and Karnofsky performance status were 59 years (range, 39-84 years) and 90 (range, 40-100), respectively. Tumor volumes and maximum diameters ranged from 0.08 to 15.38 cm(3) (median, 3.67 cm(3)) and from 3 to 34 mm (median, 18 mm), respectively. The median follow-up period was 329 days (range, 120-1,321 days). Local-control probabilities at 6 and 12 months were 92.1 and 86.7 %, respectively. Overall survival after HFSRT at 6 and 12 months was 85.4 and 64.5 %, respectively. Grade 3 radiation necrosis was observed in one patient according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. The patient was successfully managed conservatively. HFSRT for metastatic brain tumors yields high local-control probabilities without increasing severe adverse events despite high risk factors.
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In vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging reveals differential activation of Rho-family GTPases in glioblastoma cell invasion.
J. Cell. Sci.
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Two-photon excitation microscopy was used to visualized two different modes of invasion at perivascular and intraparenchymal regions of rat C6 glioblastoma cells that were orthotopically implanted into rat brains. Probes based on the principle of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) further revealed that glioblastoma cells penetrating the brain parenchyma showed higher Rac1 and Cdc42 activities and lower RhoA activity than those advancing in the perivascular regions. This spatial regulation of Rho-family GTPase activities was recapitulated in three-dimensional spheroid invasion assays with rat and human glioblastoma cells, in which multipod glioblastoma cells that invaded the gels and led the other glioblastoma cells exhibited higher Rac1 and Cdc42 activities than the trailing glioblastoma cells. We also studied the Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Zizimin1 (also known as DOCK9) as a possible contributor to this spatially controlled activation of Rho-family GTPases, because it is known to play an essential role in the extension of neurites. We found that shRNA-mediated knockdown of Zizimin1 inhibited formation of pseudopodia and concomitant invasion of glioblastoma cells both under a 3D culture condition and in vivo. Our results suggest that the difference in the activity balance of Rac1 and Cdc42 versus RhoA determines the mode of glioblastoma invasion and that Zizimin1 contributes to the invasiveness of glioblastoma cells with high Rac1 and Cdc42 activities.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.