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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Implementation of cervical cancer screening and prevention in China-challenges and reality.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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This article summarizes great efforts that Chinese scholars had made in fighting against cervical cancer from aspects of the epidemiology, etiology, population-based screening studies, novel screening technology development, guideline, strategy and policy making and population delivery. After decades of continuous efforts, Chinese scientists successfully translated their scientific discovery to appropriate screening product development and eventually, delivered it to the whole population. We hope our experience could serve as a 'case-story' for cancer prevention in other low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, challenges confronted in the prevention and control of cervical cancer in China are reviewed as well to appeal for future multi-collaborations and potential solutions to acquire the final success of the campaign.
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Common Polymorphisms in the GSK3? Gene May Contribute to the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer Disease: A Meta-Analysis.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Although it is well known that GSK3? participates in the proliferation and survival of various tumor cells, its role in diseases of the central nervous system has been sparsely documented. In the past few years, studies regarding the relationship between GSK3? rs334558 T>C and rs6438552 C>T polymorphisms and Alzheimer disease (AD) risk have yielded contradictory results. As such, this meta-analysis seeks to satisfy the need to further investigate this relationship.
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The Influence of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes on Visual Screening and Diagnosis of Cervical Precancer and Cancer.
J Low Genit Tract Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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To examine the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes on the sensitivity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) for screening, and colposcopy for diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe (CIN2+).
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Coping with esophageal cancer approaches worldwide.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on approaches to the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of esophageal cancer in Europe, South Africa, Kenya, Australia, and China; the molecular classification of esophageal cancers (including cancers at the gastroesophageal junction); the Japanese classification; the scope of the Human Variome Project; and the topographic-anatomic subclassification of adenocarcinomas of the gastroesophageal junction.
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Clinical evaluation of human papillomavirus detection by careHPV™ test on physician-samples and self-samples using the indicating FTA Elute® card.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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To make the clinical evaluation of a solid-state human papillomavirus (HPV) sampling medium in combination with an economical HPV testing method (careHPV™) for cervical cancer screening.
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Disconnective surgery in posterior quadrantic epilepsy: a series of 12 paediatric patients.
Epileptic Disord
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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To assess the surgical outcomes of temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) and parieto-occipital (PO) disconnection surgery for children with intractable posterior quadrantic epilepsy and a unilateral posterior quadrant lesion based on MRI and functional imaging abnormality in the TPO region on one side.
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p16 Immunohistochemistry Interpretation by Nonpathologists as an Accurate Method for Diagnosing Cervical Precancer and Cancer.
J Low Genit Tract Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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We conducted a pilot study of whether nonpathologists could accurately diagnose cervical precancer in biopsies using only a basic light microscope, evaluating p16 immunohistochemistry (p16 IHC) of biopsies, and video-based training for both.
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Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in high-risk Chinese populations: Possible role for vascular epithelial growth factor A.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Mechanisms involved in wound healing play some role in carcinogenesis in multiple organs, likely by creating a chronic inflammatory milieu. This study sought to assess the role of genetic markers in selected inflammation-related genes involved in wound healing (interleukin (IL)-1a, IL-1b, IL-1 Receptor type I (IL-1Ra), IL-1 Receptor type II (IL-1Rb), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily member (TNFRSF)1A, nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB)1, NF-kB2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, hypoxia induced factor (HIF)-1?, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)A and P-53) in risk to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
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Joint analysis of three genome-wide association studies of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese populations.
Chen Wu, Zhaoming Wang, Xin Song, Xiao-Shan Feng, Christian C Abnet, Jie He, Nan Hu, Xian-Bo Zuo, Wen Tan, Qimin Zhan, Zhibin Hu, Zhonghu He, Weihua Jia, Yifeng Zhou, Kai Yu, Xiao-Ou Shu, Jian-Min Yuan, Wei Zheng, Xue-Ke Zhao, She-Gan Gao, Zhi-Qing Yuan, Fu-You Zhou, Zong-Min Fan, Ji-Li Cui, Hong-Li Lin, Xue-Na Han, Bei Li, Xi Chen, Sanford M Dawsey, Linda Liao, Maxwell P Lee, Ti Ding, You-Lin Qiao, Zhihua Liu, Yu Liu, Dianke Yu, Jiang Chang, Lixuan Wei, Yu-Tang Gao, Woon-Puay Koh, Yong-Bing Xiang, Ze-Zhong Tang, Jin-Hu Fan, Jing-jing Han, Sheng-Li Zhou, Peng Zhang, Dong-Yun Zhang, Yuan Yuan, Ying Huang, Chunling Liu, Kan Zhai, Yan Qiao, Guangfu Jin, Chuanhai Guo, Jianhua Fu, Xiaoping Miao, Changdong Lu, Haijun Yang, Chaoyu Wang, William A Wheeler, Mitchell Gail, Meredith Yeager, Jeff Yuenger, Er-Tao Guo, Ai-li Li, Wei Zhang, Xue-Min Li, Liang-Dan Sun, Bao-Gen Ma, Yan Li, Sa Tang, Xiu-Qing Peng, Jing Liu, Amy Hutchinson, Kevin Jacobs, Carol Giffen, Laurie Burdette, Joseph F Fraumeni, Hongbing Shen, Yang Ke, Yixin Zeng, Tangchun Wu, Peter Kraft, Charles C Chung, Margaret A Tucker, Zhi-Chao Hou, Ya-Li Liu, Yan-Long Hu, Li Wang, Guo Yuan, Li-Sha Chen, Xiao Liu, Teng Ma, Hui Meng, Li Sun, Xin-Min Li, Xiu-Min Li, Jian-Wei Ku, Ying-Fa Zhou, Liu-Qin Yang, Zhou Wang, Yin Li, Qirenwang Qige, Wen-jun Yang, Guang-Yan Lei, Long-qi Chen, En-Min Li, Ling Yuan, Wen-Bin Yue, Ran Wang, Lu-Wen Wang, Xue-Ping Fan, Fang-Heng Zhu, Wei-Xing Zhao, Yi-min Mao, Mei Zhang, Guo-Lan Xing, Ji-Lin Li, Min Han, Jing-Li Ren, Bin Liu, Shu-Wei Ren, Qing-Peng Kong, Feng Li, Ilyar Sheyhidin, Wu Wei, Yan-Rui Zhang, Chang-Wei Feng, Jin Wang, Yu-Hua Yang, Hong-Zhang Hao, Qi-De Bao, Bao-Chi Liu, Ai-Qun Wu, Dong Xie, Wan-Cai Yang, Liang Wang, Xiao-Hang Zhao, Shu-Qing Chen, Jun-Yan Hong, Xue-Jun Zhang, Neal D Freedman, Alisa M Goldstein, Dongxin Lin, Philip R Taylor, Li-dong Wang, Stephen J Chanock.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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We conducted a joint (pooled) analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in individuals of Chinese ancestry (5,337 ESCC cases and 5,787 controls) with 9,654 ESCC cases and 10,058 controls for follow-up. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, study and two eigenvectors, two new loci achieved genome-wide significance, marked by rs7447927 at 5q31.2 (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-0.88; P = 7.72 × 10(-20)) and rs1642764 at 17p13.1 (per-allele OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.85-0.91; P = 3.10 × 10(-13)). rs7447927 is a synonymous SNP in TMEM173, and rs1642764 is an intronic SNP in ATP1B2, near TP53. Furthermore, a locus in the HLA class II region at 6p21.32 (rs35597309) achieved genome-wide significance in the two populations at highest risk for ESSC (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.22-1.46; P = 1.99 × 10(-10)). Our joint analysis identifies new ESCC susceptibility loci overall as well as a new locus unique to the population in the Taihang Mountain region at high risk of ESCC.
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Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33.
Zhaoming Wang, Bin Zhu, Mingfeng Zhang, Hemang Parikh, Jinping Jia, Charles C Chung, Joshua N Sampson, Jason W Hoskins, Amy Hutchinson, Laurie Burdette, Abdisamad Ibrahim, Christopher Hautman, Preethi S Raj, Christian C Abnet, Andrew A Adjei, Anders Ahlbom, Demetrius Albanes, Naomi E Allen, Christine B Ambrosone, Melinda Aldrich, Pilar Amiano, Christopher Amos, Ulrika Andersson, Gerald Andriole, Irene L Andrulis, Cecilia Arici, Alan A Arslan, Melissa A Austin, Dalsu Baris, Donald A Barkauskas, Bryan A Bassig, Laura E Beane Freeman, Christine D Berg, Sonja I Berndt, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Richard B Biritwum, Amanda Black, William Blot, Heiner Boeing, Paolo Boffetta, Kelly Bolton, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Paige M Bracci, Paul Brennan, Louise A Brinton, Michelle Brotzman, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Julie E Buring, Mary Ann Butler, Qiuyin Cai, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Federico Canzian, Guangwen Cao, Neil E Caporaso, Alfredo Carrato, Tania Carreon, Angela Carta, Gee-Chen Chang, I-Shou Chang, Jenny Chang-Claude, Xu Che, Chien-Jen Chen, Chih-Yi Chen, Chung-Hsing Chen, Constance Chen, Kuan-Yu Chen, Yuh-Min Chen, Anand P Chokkalingam, Lisa W Chu, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Graham A Colditz, Joanne S Colt, David Conti, Michael B Cook, Victoria K Cortessis, E David Crawford, Olivier Cussenot, Faith G Davis, Immaculata De Vivo, Xiang Deng, Ti Ding, Colin P Dinney, Anna Luisa Di Stefano, W Ryan Diver, Eric J Duell, Joanne W Elena, Jin-Hu Fan, Heather Spencer Feigelson, Maria Feychting, Jonine D Figueroa, Adrienne M Flanagan, Joseph F Fraumeni, Neal D Freedman, Brooke L Fridley, Charles S Fuchs, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Steven Gallinger, Yu-Tang Gao, Susan M Gapstur, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Reina Garcia-Closas, Julie M Gastier-Foster, J Michael Gaziano, Daniela S Gerhard, Carol A Giffen, Graham G Giles, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Edward L Giovannucci, Michael Goggins, Nalan Gokgoz, Alisa M Goldstein, Carlos González, Richard Gorlick, Mark H Greene, Myron Gross, H Barton Grossman, Robert Grubb, Jian Gu, Peng Guan, Christopher A Haiman, Göran Hallmans, Susan E Hankinson, Curtis C Harris, Patricia Hartge, Claudia Hattinger, Richard B Hayes, Qincheng He, Lee Helman, Brian E Henderson, Roger Henriksson, Judith Hoffman-Bolton, Chancellor Hohensee, Elizabeth A Holly, Yun-Chul Hong, Robert N Hoover, H Dean Hosgood, Chin-Fu Hsiao, Ann W Hsing, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Nan Hu, Wei Hu, Zhibin Hu, Ming-Shyan Huang, David J Hunter, Peter D Inskip, Hidemi Ito, Eric J Jacobs, Kevin B Jacobs, Mazda Jenab, Bu-Tian Ji, Christoffer Johansen, Mattias Johansson, Alison Johnson, Rudolf Kaaks, Ashish M Kamat, Aruna Kamineni, Margaret Karagas, Chand Khanna, Kay-Tee Khaw, Christopher Kim, In-Sam Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Yeul Hong Kim, Young-Chul Kim, Young Tae Kim, Chang Hyun Kang, Yoo Jin Jung, Cari M Kitahara, Alison P Klein, Robert Klein, Manolis Kogevinas, Woon-Puay Koh, Takashi Kohno, Laurence N Kolonel, Charles Kooperberg, Christian P Kratz, Vittorio Krogh, Hideo Kunitoh, Robert C Kurtz, Nilgun Kurucu, Qing Lan, Mark Lathrop, Ching C Lau, Fernando Lecanda, Kyoung-Mu Lee, Maxwell P Lee, Loic Le Marchand, Seth P Lerner, Donghui Li, Linda M Liao, Wei-Yen Lim, Dongxin Lin, Jie Lin, Sara Lindstrom, Martha S Linet, Jolanta Lissowska, Jianjun Liu, Börje Ljungberg, Josep Lloreta, Daru Lu, Jing Ma, Nuria Malats, Satu Mannisto, Neyssa Marina, Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Keitaro Matsuo, Katherine A McGlynn, Roberta Mckean-Cowdin, Lorna H McNeill, Robert R McWilliams, Beatrice S Melin, Paul S Meltzer, James E Mensah, Xiaoping Miao, Dominique S Michaud, Alison M Mondul, Lee E Moore, Kenneth Muir, Shelley Niwa, Sara H Olson, Nick Orr, Salvatore Panico, Jae Yong Park, Alpa V Patel, Ana Patiño-García, Sofia Pavanello, Petra H M Peeters, Beata Peplonska, Ulrike Peters, Gloria M Petersen, Piero Picci, Malcolm C Pike, Stefano Porru, Jennifer Prescott, Xia Pu, Mark P Purdue, You-Lin Qiao, Preetha Rajaraman, Elio Riboli, Harvey A Risch, Rebecca J Rodabough, Nathaniel Rothman, Avima M Ruder, Jeong-Seon Ryu, Marc Sanson, Alan Schned, Fredrick R Schumacher, Ann G Schwartz, Kendra L Schwartz, Molly Schwenn, Katia Scotlandi, Adeline Seow, Consol Serra, Massimo Serra, Howard D Sesso, Gianluca Severi, Hongbing Shen, Min Shen, Sanjay Shete, Kouya Shiraishi, Xiao-Ou Shu, Afshan Siddiq, Luis Sierrasesúmaga, Sabina Sierri, Alan Dart Loon Sihoe, Debra T Silverman, Matthias Simon, Melissa C Southey, Logan Spector, Margaret Spitz, Meir Stampfer, Pär Stattin, Mariana C Stern, Victoria L Stevens, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Daniel O Stram, Sara S Strom, Wu-Chou Su, Malin Sund, Sook Whan Sung, Anthony Swerdlow, Wen Tan, Hideo Tanaka, Wei Tang, Ze-Zhang Tang, Adonina Tardón, Evelyn Tay, Philip R Taylor, Yao Tettey, David M Thomas, Roberto Tirabosco, Anne Tjonneland, Geoffrey S Tobias, Jorge R Toro, Ruth C Travis, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Rebecca Troisi, Ann Truelove, Ying-Huang Tsai, Margaret A Tucker, Rosario Tumino, David Van Den Berg, Stephen K Van Den Eeden, Roel Vermeulen, Paolo Vineis, Kala Visvanathan, Ulla Vogel, Chaoyu Wang, Chengfeng Wang, Junwen Wang, Sophia S Wang, Elisabete Weiderpass, Stephanie J Weinstein, Nicolas Wentzensen, William Wheeler, Emily White, John K Wiencke, Alicja Wolk, Brian M Wolpin, Maria Pik Wong, Margaret Wrensch, Chen Wu, Tangchun Wu, Xifeng Wu, Yi-Long Wu, Jay S Wunder, Yong-Bing Xiang, Jun Xu, Hannah P Yang, Pan-Chyr Yang, Yasushi Yatabe, Yuanqing Ye, Edward D Yeboah, Zhihua Yin, Chen Ying, Chong-Jen Yu, Kai Yu, Jian-Min Yuan, Krista A Zanetti, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Wei Zheng, Baosen Zhou, Lisa Mirabello, Sharon A Savage, Peter Kraft, Stephen J Chanock, Meredith Yeager, Maria Terese Landi, Jianxin Shi, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Laufey T Amundadottir.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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Application of intraoperative frozen section examination in the management of female breast cancer in China: a nationwide, multicenter 10-year epidemiological study.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Intraoperative frozen section examination (IFSE) during breast cancer surgery can partly reflect the status of surgical treatment since the surgical method used directly determines the purpose of IFSE use in disease management. This study aims to investigate the application of, changing trends in, and factors influencing IFSE in the management of female breast cancer in China.
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Intracranial electroencephalography with subdural and/or depth electrodes in children with epilepsy: Techniques, complications, and outcomes.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Intracranial electroencephalographic monitoring with subdural and/or depth electrodes is widely used for the surgical localization of epileptic foci in patients with intractable partial epilepsy; however, data on safety and surgical outcome with this technique are still inadequate. The aims of this study were to assess the morbidity of intracranial recordings and the surgical outcomes in epileptic children. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data for 137 children with epilepsy (mean age at implantation: 12.6±3.8 years) who underwent intracranial monitoring with the implantation of strip or grid subdural electrodes and/or intracerebral depth electrodes from September 2004 to September 2011 at a tertiary epilepsy center in China. Complications were classified using five grades of severity (including mortality) and were further classified as either minor or severe. Outcome was classified according to Engel's classification. Regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for complications. The mean duration of implantation was 5.3±1.3 days. Among the 133 patients who underwent resection, 65 (48.9%) were seizure free (Engel Class I) at last known follow-up, which was >2 years after surgery for all patients. Also, 31 (23.3%) patients had a significant reduction in seizures (Engel Class II). Complications of any type were documented in 29 (21.7%) patients; 15 of these patients had intracranial hematoma. The results of multivariate analysis showed that the only independent risk factor for intracranial hematoma was number of electrode contacts. The most common pathologic diagnosis was focal cortical dysplasia (n=58). Our results showed that intracranial electroencephalographic monitoring in children provides good surgical outcomes and the level of risk is acceptable. When using this technique strategies such as using as few electrode contacts as possible should be adopted to minimize the risk of intracranial hematoma.
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The association between the upper digestive tract microbiota by HOMIM and oral health in a population-based study in Linxian, China.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Bacteria affect oral health, but few studies have systematically examined the role of bacterial communities in oral diseases. We examined this relationship in a large population-based Chinese cancer screening cohort.
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Spatially selective release of aptamer-captured cells by temperature mediation.
IET Nanobiotechnol
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Isolation of cells from heterogeneous biological samples is critical in both basic biological research and clinical diagnostics. Affinity-based methods, such as those that recognise cells by binding antibodies to cell membrane biomarkers, can be used to achieve specific cell isolation. Microfluidic techniques have been employed to achieve more efficient and effective cell isolation. By employing aptamers as surface-immobilised ligands, cells can be easily released and collected after specific capture. However, these methods still have limitations in cell release efficiency and spatial selectivity. This study presents an aptamer-based microfluidic device that not only achieves specific affinity cell capture, but also enables spatially selective temperature-mediated release and retrieval of cells without detectable damage. The specific cell capture is realised by using surface-patterned aptamers in a microchamber on a temperature-control chip. Spatially selective cell release is achieved by utilising a group of microheater and temperature sensor that restricts temperature changes, and therefore the disruption of cell-aptamer interactions, to a design-specified region. Experimental results with CCRF-CEM cells and sgc8c aptamers have demonstrated the specific cell capture and temperature-mediated release of selected groups of cells with negligible disruption to their viability.
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Human papillomavirus vaccine awareness, acceptability, and decision-making factors among Chinese college students.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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College students are recommended as the target groups for catch-up human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Systematical exploration of awareness, acceptability, and decision-making factors of HPV vaccination among Chinese college students has been limited.
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[Trend analysis of cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in Chinese women during 1989-2008].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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To evaluate the trend of cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates during 1989-2008 in Chinese women,so as to inform the development of relevant policies and strategies in China.
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The natural history of cervical cancer in chinese women: results from an 11-year follow-up study in china using a multistate model.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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It is important to understand the natural history of cervical cancer, which has implications for cancer prevention and management. However, a dearth of studies on the long-term development of cervical cancer exists in China.
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Challenges to effective cancer control in China, India, and Russia.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Cancer is one of the major non-communicable diseases posing a threat to world health. Unfortunately, improvements in socioeconomic conditions are usually associated with increased cancer incidence. In this Commission, we focus on China, India, and Russia, which share rapidly rising cancer incidence and have cancer mortality rates that are nearly twice as high as in the UK or the USA, vast geographies, growing economies, ageing populations, increasingly westernised lifestyles, relatively disenfranchised subpopulations, serious contamination of the environment, and uncontrolled cancer-causing communicable infections. We describe the overall state of health and cancer control in each country and additional specific issues for consideration: for China, access to care, contamination of the environment, and cancer fatalism and traditional medicine; for India, affordability of care, provision of adequate health personnel, and sociocultural barriers to cancer control; and for Russia, monitoring of the burden of cancer, societal attitudes towards cancer prevention, effects of inequitable treatment and access to medicine, and a need for improved international engagement.
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Quality of life in women with cervical precursor lesions and cancer: a prospective, 6-month, hospital-based study in China.
Chin J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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The overall survival of patients with cervical cancer has improved due to detection at an early stage and availability of comprehensive treatments in China. As patients' lives prolonged, it is important to understand their health-related quality of life (QoL) during and after treatment. We used the EQ-5D questionnaire to assess QoL of 194 patients with cervical lesions at Sichuan University West China Second Hospital between May 2010 and January 2011. Patients were surveyed before primary treatment and at 1, 3, and 6 months after primary treatment. Results showed a consistent decline in EQ-5D scores in the spectrum of cervical lesions at each time point after treatment (all P < 0.05). For patients with precursor lesions, there was an increasing trend along the timeline of treatment (P < 0.01). For patients with early-stage cervical cancer, EQ-5D scores declined in the first month (P = 0.01) and gradually increased to higher levels at 6 months post-treatment than those before treatment (P < 0.01). EQ-5D scores followed a similar trend in patients with advanced cervical cancer (P = 0.04), though they did not statistically rebound after 6 months (0.84 ± 0.19 vs. 0.86 ± 0.11, P = 0.62). Regarding advanced cervical cancer, EQ-5D scores for women above 40 years of age appeared to recover more rapidly and reached higher levels than those for women below 40 years (P = 0.03). Caution and extra care are recommended in the early period of cervical cancer treatment given the slight deterioration in the QoL, and in particular, for younger cervical cancer patients. Our study implies that health care providers may need to improve the health-related QoL of cervical cancer patients.
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Association between upper digestive tract microbiota and cancer-predisposing states in the esophagus and stomach.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The human upper digestive tract microbial community (microbiota) is not well characterized and few studies have explored how it relates to human health. We examined the relationship between upper digestive tract microbiota and two cancer-predisposing states, serum pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio (PGI/II; predictor of gastric cancer risk) and esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD; the precursor lesion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; ESCC) in a cross-sectional design.
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Potential impact of a 9-valent HPV vaccine in HPV-related cervical disease in 4 emerging countries (Brazil, Mexico, India and China).
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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We estimated the potential impact of an investigational 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (HPVs 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) in HPV-related cervical disease in Brazil, Mexico, India and China, to help to formulate recommendations on cervical cancer prevention and control.
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Multivitamin and mineral supplementation is associated with the reduction of fracture risk and hospitalization rate in Chinese adult males: a randomized controlled study.
J. Bone Miner. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Controversy exists in the literature regarding the efficacy of bone health-related nutrients, especially calcium and vitamin D, in preventing fractures. The aim of our present study was to determine the effect of multivitamin and mineral supplementation on fracture incidence among 3,318 participants from a nutritional intervention trial in Linxian, China. A total of 1,461 men and 1,857 women were enrolled and randomized to daily supplementation with 26 vitamins and minerals tablet or placebo pills for 6 years, followed by a 16-year post-interventional follow-up. The dates, sites, and causes of the fractures were collected retrospectively via a standardized questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of fracture incidence in the intervention versus the placebo group. A total of 221 fractures (57 in men and 164 in women) occurred during the entire study period of 21 years and 9 months. In men, the supplement reduced the risk of fracture by 63 % during the trial period, and this protective effect was sustained and statistically significant when analysis included both the trial period and 5- or 10-year post-intervention follow-up (years 0-11, P = 0.04; years 0-16, P = 0.02, respectively). The protection against fracture was not apparent >10 years after cessation of the intervention. In women, no significant effect of supplementation on fracture incidence was seen in any of the study periods. These results demonstrate that a 6-year multivitamin and mineral intervention was associated with significant reduction of fracture risk and fracture-related hospitalization in men, but not in women.
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Optimal positive cutoff points for careHPV testing of clinician- and self-collected specimens in primary cervical cancer screening: an analysis from rural China.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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careHPV, a lower-cost DNA test for human papillomavirus (HPV), is being considered for cervical cancer screening in low- and middle-income countries. However, not a single large-scaled study exists to investigate the optimal positive cutoff point of careHPV test. We pooled data for 9,785 women participating in two individual studies conducted from 2007 to 2011 in rural China. Woman underwent multiple screening tests, including careHPV on clinician-collected specimens (careHPV-C) and self-collected specimens (careHPV-S), and Hybrid Capture 2 on clinician-collected specimens (HC2-C) as a reference standard. The primary endpoint was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or more severe (CIN3+) (n = 127), and secondary endpoint was CIN2+ (n = 213). The area under the curves (AUCs) for HC2-C and careHPV-C were similar (0.954 versus 0.948, P = 0.166), and better than careHPV-S (0.878; P < 0.001 versus both). The optimal positive cutoff points for HC2-C, careHPV-C, and careHPV-S were 1.40, 1.74, and 0.85, respectively. At the same cutoff point, careHPV-C was not significantly less sensitive and more specific for CIN3+ than HC2-C, and careHPV-S was significantly less sensitive for CIN3+ than careHPV-C and HC2-C. Raising the cutoff point of careHPV-C from 1.0 to 2.0 could result in nonsignificantly lower sensitivity but significantly higher specificity. Similar results were observed using CIN2+ endpoint. careHPV using either clinician- or self-collected specimens performed well in detecting cervical precancer and cancer. We found that the optimal cutoff points of careHPV were 2.0 on clinician-collected specimens and 1.0 on self-collected specimens.
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Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and phospholipase A? group IIA (PLA2G2A) genes with susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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The prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2G2A) genes encode enzymes that are involved in arachidonic acid and prostaglandin biosynthesis. Dysregulation of both genes is associated with inflammation and carcinogenesis, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We therefore hypothesized that there is an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes and susceptibility to ESCC.
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Intractable occipital lobe epilepsy: clinical characteristics, surgical treatment, and a systematic review of the literature.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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We reported our experience in the surgical treatment of a relatively large cohort of patients with occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE). We also carried out a systematic review of the literature on OLE.
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Human papillomavirus-related psychosocial impact of patients with genital warts in China: a hospital-based cross-sectional study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Genital warts (GW) are the most common sexually transmitted infections. To date, few studies using a human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific questionnaire have focused on the impact of quality of life (QoL) among patients with GW in developing countries. The origins of GW related psychosocial burdens and variations between genders were poorly characterized as well.
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Outcome after anterior callosal section that spares the splenium in pediatric patients with drop attacks.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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We report on the efficacy and safety of extended, one-stage anterior callosal section that spares the splenium, which is performed in a large series of pediatric patients with drop attacks. Twenty-nine pediatric patients with drop attacks were studied (19 males and 10 females; mean age: 9.9 years). As presurgical factors, the age at surgery, age at seizure onset, age at drop attack onset, sex, hemiparesis, severe mental retardation, electroencephalograph abnormalities, magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, and (18)fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography abnormalities were analyzed. All patients had multiple seizure types, including drop attacks, atypical absence seizures, complex partial seizures, tonic seizures, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. All patients were developmentally impaired and had electroencephalograph results showing marked secondary bilateral synchrony. All patients received an extended, one-stage callosal section, leaving only the splenium intact. The mean follow-up time was 5.2 years. Seizure outcome (cessation of seizures or ? 90% seizure reduction) was achieved in 79.3% of patients with drop attacks. The families assessed the overall daily function as improved in 62.1% of the patients, unchanged in 24.1%, and worse in 13.8%. Family satisfaction with callosotomy was achieved in 82.8% of the patients. The majority of the patients had some degree of a transient acute postoperative disconnection syndrome that disappeared within 3 weeks. Postoperatively, patients showed a consistent increase in attention levels. We conclude that extended callosal sectioning that leaves the splenium intact should be considered a good palliative surgical option for pediatric patients with drop attacks and that diminishment of epileptic discharge synchrony is a good prognostic sign following callosotomy. We also found that the postoperative increase in attention levels was as useful as seizure control in improving the quality of life of these patients.
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A parallel study of careHPV and Hybrid Capture 2 human papillomavirus DNA testing for cervical cancer screening in rural China.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) has been demonstrated to be a feasible screening method for cervical cancer. Based upon HC2 technology, careHPV is a simple, rapid, accurate, and inexpensive screening test for women in low-resource settings. This study aims to characterize both the careHPV test and HC2 test, and to compare careHPV results of specimens stored in careHPV test collection medium (TCM) to HC2 results from partner specimens stored in Qiagen specimen transport medium and TCM. The positive rates of high-risk HPV in careHPV, HC2, and HC2 (TCM) were 13.2% (108/818), 13.2% (108/818), and 13.6% (111/818), respectively. The agreement rates of pairwise tests were 95.8% (95% CI: 94.5-97.2%), 96.7% (95% CI: 95.5-97.9%), and 97.2% (95% CI: 96.1-98.3%), respectively. The Kappa values of the pairwise tests were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76-0.88), 0.86 (95% CI: 0.81-0.91), and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.83-0.93), respectively. Based on these findings, although careHPV is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to the HC2 test, improvements on the careHPV test are still required prior to its implementation as a suitable screening method for women in low-resource settings. Further studies on the significance and applicability of the careHPV test must be performed.
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A prospective study of age trends of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in rural China.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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In China, high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) prevalence is unexpectedly high in older women, but the possible reasons have not been well studied yet. This study investigated the age trends of HR-HPV infection in a prospective study.
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Evaluation of routine biopsies in endoscopic screening for esophagogastric junction cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To explore whether routine biopsies at the high incidence spot of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) cancer are justified in endoscopic screening.
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Liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus testing: a pooled analysis using the data from 13 population-based cervical cancer screening studies from China.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of introducing HR-HPV testing in cytology regarding cervical cancer screening practice.
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Managing the changing burden of cancer in Asia.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Asia accounts for 60% of the world population and half the global burden of cancer. The incidence of cancer cases is estimated to increase from 6.1 million in 2008 to 10.6 million in 2030, due to ageing and growing populations, lifestyle and socioeconomic changes. Striking variations in ethnicity, sociocultural practices, human development index, habits and dietary patterns are reflected in the burden and pattern of cancer in different regions. The existing and emerging cancer patterns and burden in different regions of Asia call for political recognition of cancer as an important public health problem and for balanced investments in public and professional awareness. Prevention as well as early detection of cancers leads to both better health outcomes and considerable savings in treatment costs. Cancer health services are still evolving, and require substantial investment to ensure equitable access to cancer care for all sections of the population. In this review, we discuss the changing burden of cancer in Asia, along with appropriate management strategies. Strategies should promote healthy ageing via healthy lifestyles, tobacco and alcohol control measures, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, cancer screening services, and vertical investments in strengthening cancer healthcare infrastructure to improve equitable access to services.
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Comparison of HPV genotypes and viral load between different sites of genital tract: the significance for cervical cancer screening.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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To compare the consistency of HPV genotype and viral loads among different sites within the female genital tract, and to correlate these with clinical outcomes.
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A nation-wide multicenter 10-year (1999-2008) retrospective clinical study of endocrine therapy for Chinese females with breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Endocrine therapy (ET) is one of the main systemic treatments for patients with breast cancer. To our knowledge, few studies have addressed the performance of ET or relevant influencing factors in cancer treatment in China. By retrospectively analyzing the clinicopathological data on breast cancer collected from representative hospitals of 7 traditional areas in China in one random month from each year between year 1999 and 2008, we found that: 1) The rate of the use of hormone receptor (HR) testing was 83.8% (3529/4211), with the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) rate and/or the progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) rate being 67.9% (2395/3529), and the ER-PR rate being 32.1% (1134/3529). 2) Of the 1599 patients who had received ET, 999 patients (58.3%) were premenopausal while 600 (41.7%) were postmenopausal; 1598 patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT), whereas only 1 patient received palliative therapy. The medications mainly administered to patients were anti-estrogen agents (80.3% [1283/1598]), followed by AIs (15.5% [248/1598]). Of the 1598 patients receiving AHT, 1416 patients (88.6%) were positive for ER and/or PR, while 75 (4.7%) were negative for both and 108 patients (6.7%) had unknown HR status. The ratio of the use of endocrine therapy for breast cancer patients with ER+ and/or PR+ status was 60.0% (1416/2395). 3) Results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that geography, occupations, and history of chemotherapy and surgery were dependent factors affecting the application of ET in breast cancer treatment in China (P<0.001). In conclusion, the use of ET on Chinese women with breast cancer is increasingly and gradually accounted into the standardized process. Economic status, occupations, and history of chemotherapy and surgery were key factors affecting the application of ET. People residing in developed areas, engaging in mental labour, having history of chemotherapy and surgery are susceptible to accept ET.
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Body mass index and breast cancer defined by biological receptor status in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women: a multicenter study in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Few studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and breast cancer with consideration to estrogen/progesterone/human epidermal growth factor type 2 receptor status (ER/PR/HER2) in the breast tissue among Chinese pre- and post-menopausal women.
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[Population-attributable risk estimates for breast cancer in Chinese females].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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To estimate the contribution of known identified risk factors to breast cancer incidence and mortality in China, and provide evidence to support the prevention and control of breast cancer for Chinese females.
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Genotype distribution and behavioral risk factor analysis of human papillomavirus infection in uyghur women.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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We investigated the distribution of HPV genotypes in Uyghur women in Xinjiang region of China, and behavioral factors which could predispose them to HPV infection. In this cross-sectional study, women aged 15-59 years were recruited by cluster sampling method in Yutian region in 2009. Liquid-based cytology samples were analyzed centrally for HPV genotype with a linear array detector. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify behavioral risk factors for HPV infection. A total of 883 Uyghur women were recruited successfully. The prevalence of high-risk HPV and low-risk HPV were 7.25% and 1.58%, respectively; the most common HPVs were HPV16, 51, 31, 39 and 58. We found that age of first sexual intercourse was a strong predictor for HPV infection (odds ratio of 4.01 for ? 15 years versus ?25). Having sexual partners ? 3 was the second predictor (OR 3.69, 95% CI 2.24-7.16). Cleaning the vagina after sex showed an increased risk of HPV infection (OR 2.72; 95% CI 1.98-5.13); Using the condom showed protective factors for HPV infection (OR 0.36; 95%CI0.12-0.53). HPV16, 51, 31, 39 and 58 were the priority types; the age of first sexual intercourse was identified as a major risk factor for HPV infection. Other notable risks were number of sexual partners and cleaning the vagina after sex. Changing these behavioral risk factors could help to reduce the occurrence of cervical cancer in this population.
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Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Among Chinese Women: A 10-Year Nationwide Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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Background: The characteristics of established risk factors for breast cancer may vary among countries. A better understanding of local characteristics of risk factors may help in devising effective prevention strategies for breast cancer.Methods: Information on exposures to risk factors was collected from the medical charts of 4211 women with breast cancer diagnosed during 1999-2008. The distributions of these exposures among regions, and by menopausal status and birth period, were compared with the ?(2) test. Crude associations between the selected factors and breast cancer were estimated using the cases in the present study and a representative control population, which was selected from qualified published studies.Results: As compared with cases from less developed regions, those from more developed regions were significantly more likely to be nulliparous, had fewer childbirths (P < 0.05), and were less likely to have breastfed (P = 0.08). As compared with premenopausal cases, postmenopausal cases were more likely to be overweight and to have breastfed and had more childbirths (P < 0.05). The number of live births and rate of breastfeeding decreased in relation to birth period (P for trends <0.001). Overweight, late menopause, and family history of breast cancer were significantly associated with breast cancer among Chinese women.Conclusions: Breast cancer incidence was associated with nulliparity and history of breastfeeding. Population attributable risks should be assessed, especially for more developed areas and young women. The effects of body mass index, age at menopause, and family history of breast cancer should be given priority during assessment of breast cancer risk among Chinese women.
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A differential dielectric affinity glucose sensor.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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A continuous glucose monitor with a differential dielectric sensor implanted within the subcutaneous tissue that determines the glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid is presented. The device, created using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, consists of sensing and reference modules that are identical in design and placed in close proximity. Each module contains a microchamber housing a pair of capacitive electrodes residing on the device substrate and embedded in a suspended, perforated polymer diaphragm. The microchambers, enclosed in semi-permeable membranes, are filled with either a polymer solution that has specific affinity to glucose or a glucose-insensitive reference solution. To accurately determine the glucose concentration, changes in the permittivity of the sensing and the reference solutions induced by changes in glucose concentration are measured differentially. In vitro characterization demonstrated the sensor was capable of measuring glucose concentrations from 0 to 500 mg dL(-1) with resolution and accuracy of ~1.7 ?g dL(-1) and ~1.74 mg dL(-1), respectively. In addition, device drift was reduced to 1.4% (uncontrolled environment) and 11% (5 °C of temperature variation) of that from non-differential measurements, indicating significant stability improvements. Preliminary animal testing demonstrated that the differential sensor accurately tracks glucose concentration in blood. This sensor can potentially be used clinically as a subcutaneously implanted continuous monitoring device in diabetic patients.
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Measuring telomere length for the early detection of precursor lesions of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide; current early detection screening tests are inadequate. Esophageal balloon cytology successfully retrieves exfoliated and scraped superficial esophageal epithelial cells, but cytologic reading of these cells has poor sensitivity and specificity for detecting esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Measuring telomere length, a marker for chromosomal instability, may improve the utility of balloon cytology for detecting ESD and early ESCC.
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Prediagnostic plasma vitamin C and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Chinese population.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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China has some of the highest incidence rates for gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in the world. Prospective studies suggested that vitamin C may reduce risks; however, associations are unclear because of limited sample size.
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Epidemiological features of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women living in Mainland China.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Cancer of the cervix is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, more than 85% of the cases occurring in developing countries such as China. In China, since a national cancer registry is already set up but with geographically limited data generated, the burden of cervical cancer is believed to be underestimated. High- risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) prevalence among women attending routine cervical cancer screening programs has been shown to correlate well with cervical cancer incidence rates based on independently obtained HPV prevalence data as well as findings for the worldwide cervical cancer burden. Therefore, reviewing data on HR-HPV prevalence in population-based screening studies and hospital-based case studies will be important in the context of better understanding the cervical cancer burden and for the evaluation of the potential impact of HPV vaccination in the country. With the advent of prophylactic vaccines, significant progress is likely to be made in cervical cancer prevention. This article reviews available data on the HPV epidemiology over a 12-year time period (2001-2012) in mainland China under different epidemiological aspects: by age group of study population, by ethnicity, by geographic area, as well as time period. The authors also review the potential acceptability of HPV vaccination among Chinese women.
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[Prospective study on the relation between serum vitamin D levels and liver cirrhosis risk].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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To explore the relation between serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and liver cirrhosis. Methods A nested case control study was designed based on the Nutrition Intervention Trial (NIT) cohort, from which non-degraded serum samples and complete baseline and follow-up data were available for 282 individuals diagnosed with liver cirrhosis and 564 healthy controls. The serum samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect and quantify 25(OH)D, as well as hepatitis B virus surface antigen and core antibody and hepatitis C virus antibody. The study participants were divided into four groups according to quartile range of 25(OH)D concentration and logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate the relation with liver cirrhosis risk by estimating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
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A MEMS differential viscometric sensor for affinity glucose detection in continuous glucose monitoring.
J Micromech Microeng
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Micromachined viscometric affinity glucose sensors have been previously demonstrated using vibrational cantilever and diaphragm. These devices featured a single glucose detection module that determines glucose concentrations through viscosity changes of glucose-sensitive polymer solutions. However, fluctuations in temperature and other environmental parameters might potentially affect the stability and reliability of these devices, creating complexity in their applications in subcutaneously implanted continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). To address these issues, we present a MEMS differential sensor that can effectively reject environmental disturbances while allowing accurate glucose detection. The sensor consists of two magnetically driven vibrating diaphragms situated inside microchambers filled with a boronic-acid based glucose-sensing solution and a reference solution insensitive to glucose. Glucose concentrations can be accurately determined by characteristics of the diaphragm vibration through differential capacitive detection. Our in-vitro and preliminary in-vivo experimental data demonstrate the potential of this sensor for highly stable subcutaneous CGM applications.
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[Cost-effectiveness analysis on the once-in-a-lifetime cervical cancer screening program for women living in rural and urban areas of China].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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To estimate the cost-effectiveness of once-in-a-lifetime cervical cancer screening program and to predict the optimal modality for its operation on women living in rural and urban areas of China, based on Markov modeling and simulation.
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An evaluation of novel, lower-cost molecular screening tests for human papillomavirus in rural China.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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New, lower-cost tests that target high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) have been developed for cervical cancer screening in lower-resource settings but large, population-based screening studies are lacking. Women ages 25 to 65 years and living in rural China (n = 7,543) self-collected a cervicovaginal specimen, had 2 cervical specimens collected by a clinician, and underwent visual inspection after acetic acid (VIA). The self- and one clinician-collected specimens underwent HR-HPV DNA testing by careHPV (QIAGEN) and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; QIAGEN) and the other clinician-collected specimen was tested for HPV16, 18, and 45 E6 using OncoE6 (Arbor Vita Corporation). Women who screened positive for any test and a random sample of those negative on all tests underwent colposcopic evaluation. The percent test positive was 1.8% for HPV E6 oncoprotein, between 14% and 18% for HR-HPV DNA testing, and 7.3% for VIA. The sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or more severe (CIN3(+); n = 99) was 53.5% for OncoE6, 97.0% for both careHPV and HC2 testing of the clinician-collected specimen, 83.8% for careHPV testing and 90.9% for HC2 testing of the self-collected specimen, and 50.5% for VIA. OncoE6 had the greatest positive predictive value (PPV), at 40.8% for CIN3(+), compared with the other tests, which had a PPV of less than 10%. OncoE6 tested 70.3% positive for HPV16, 18, or 45-positive CIN3(+) and tested negative for all HPV16-, 18-, or 45-negative CIN3(+) (P < 0.0001). HPV E6 oncoprotein detection is useful for identifying women who have cervical precancer and cancer.
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[Role of HPV16/18/45 DNA testing of cervical specimens as a triage testing in cervical cancer screening].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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To evaluate the clinical performance of careHPV16/18/45 DNA testing of cervical specimens as a triage testing for women with positive findings during the cervical cancer screening.
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Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1 or worse among 4215 Chinese women in a population-based study.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2013
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To estimate the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical disease among sexually active women in a sample of Chinese women.
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[Comparison on the predictive values of four screening methods regarding cervical cancer].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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To compare the predictive values of 5% acetic acid stain and visual inspection, human papillomavirus (HPV) Self test, ThinPrep Pap and HPV direct test in screening for cervical cancer with biopsy as gold standard. Positive predictive values and negative predictive values were compared simultaneously by joint hypothesis tests and then either positive predictive values or negative predictive values of the any two screening tests were compared by marginal regression based on both GEE and weighted least square methods. Hochberg method was used for multiplicity adjustment. It was showed that HPV direct test had the highest negative predictive value and ThinPrep Pap the highest positive predictive value. 5% acetic acid stain and visual inspection had both the lowest positive predictive value and negative predictive value. Both HPV direct test and ThinPrep Pap were efficient, but the latter required compatible infrastructure and skilled caregivers to go with. Both 5% acetic acid stain and visual inspection were inexpensive, and their positive predictive value and negative predictive value were lower than HPV self-test. They also had similar positive predictive value with HPV direct test and similar negative predictive value with ThinPrep Pap. HPV self-test appeared to be efficient, suggesting that it had significant potential for screening program to be implemented in the rural areas of China since the test could be performed without speculum examination in low-resource regions.
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[Incidence and mortality of oral and pharyngeal cancers in China, 2003 to 2007].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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To analyze the incidence and mortality of oral and pharyngeal cancers from 32 cancer registration centers, 2003 to 2007.
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Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based quantitative bioassay on aptamer-functionalized nanopillars using large-area Raman mapping.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been used in a variety of biological applications due to its high sensitivity and specificity. Here, we report a SERS-based biosensing approach for quantitative detection of biomolecules. A SERS substrate bearing gold-decorated silicon nanopillars is functionalized with aptamers for sensitive and specific detection of target molecules. In this study, TAMRA-labeled vasopressin molecules in the picomolar regime (1 pM to 1 nM) are specifically captured by aptamers on the nanostructured SERS substrate and monitored by using an automated SERS signal mapping technique. From the experimental results, we show concentration-dependent SERS responses in the picomolar range by integrating SERS signal intensities over a scanning area. It is also noted that our signal mapping approach significantly improves statistical reproducibility and accounts for spot-to-spot variation in conventional SERS quantification. Furthermore, we have developed an analytical model capable of predicting experimental intensity distributions on the substrates for reliable quantification of biomolecules. Lastly, we have calculated the minimum needed area of Raman mapping for efficient and reliable analysis of each measurement. Combining our SERS mapping analysis with an aptamer-functionalized nanopillar substrate is found to be extremely efficient for detection of low-abundance biomolecules.
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Lower cost strategies for triage of human papillomavirus DNA-positive women.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Using human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for cervical cancer screening in lower-resource settings (LRS) will result in a significant number of screen-positive women. This analysis compares different triage strategies for detecting cervical precancer and cancer among HPV-positive women in LRS. This was a population-based study of women aged 25-65 years living in China (n?=?7,541). Each woman provided a self-collected and two clinician-collected specimens. The self-collected and one clinician-collected specimen were tested by two HPV DNA tests-careHPV™ and Hybrid Capture 2; the other clinician-collected specimen was tested for HPV16/18/45 E6 protein. CareHPV™-positive specimens were tested for HPV16/18/45 DNA. HPV DNA-positive women underwent visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and then colposcopic evaluation with biopsies. The performance for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer (CIN3+) among HPV DNA-positive women was assessed for different triage strategies: HPV16/18/45 E6 or DNA detection, VIA, colposcopic impression, or higher signal strength (?10 relative light units/positive control [rlu/pc]). The percent triage positive ranges were 14.8-17.4% for VIA, 17.8-20.9% for an abnormal colposcopic impression; 7.9-10.5% for HPV16/18/45 E6; 23.4-28.4% for HPV16/18/45 DNA; and 48.0-62.6% for higher signal strength (?10 rlu/pc), depending on the HPV test/specimen combination. The positivity for all triage tests increased with severity of diagnosis. HPV16/18/45 DNA detection was approximately 70% sensitive and had positive predictive values (PPV) of approximately 25% for CIN3+. HPV16/18/45 E6 detection was approximately 50% sensitive with a PPV of nearly 50% for CIN3+. Different triage strategies for HPV DNA-positive women provide important tradeoffs in colposcopy or treatment referral percentages and sensitivity for prevalent CIN3+.
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Impact and evaluation of International Cancer Control Congresses.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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International meetings on various aspects of cancer- its etiology, its diagnosis, its treatment, its palliation, and its prevention and control are held frequently. Many have similar themes, and many seek and receive the same speakers and audiences. A fundamental question arises: what difference does any individual meeting/congress/ conference make or add to our understanding of the relevant issues? While many meetings conduct evaluations at the end of the Congress, few use evaluation as a tool to guide design, implementation, and evaluation of both short and long term impacts, and address the question of "what difference did the Congress make". The International Cancer Control Congresses, which are held biennially in different regions of the world, took the opportunity to use evaluation in this way, and ask the relevant questions. This paper describes that evaluation session of the ICCC4, held in Seoul, Korea in November 2011, which was part of the larger evaluation issue.
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p16(INK4A) immunohistochemical staining and predictive value for progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1: A prospective study in China.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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p16(INK4A) is strongly expressed in tissues diagnosed as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer in women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV), but few prospective studies have evaluated p16(INK4A) as a marker for the risk of low-grade CIN (CIN1) progression. We investigated the prevalence of p16(INK4A) immunostaining by CIN grade and whether overexpression of p16(INK4A) in CIN1 predicts future risk for high-grade CIN in Chinese women. 6,557 Chinese women aged 30-49 years were screened from 2003 to 2005 using cytology and carcinogenic HPV test. Colposcopy was performed on women with any abnormal result. p16(INK4A) Immunostaining was performed on biopsies from all women with CIN1, as well as randomly selected women with normal or CIN grade 2 and worse (CIN2+) biopsies. Women with CIN1 were followed up without treatment. Colposcopy was performed on all untreated women at a 2-year interval. The prevalence of p16(INK4A) staining was 2.7%, 42.7%, 75.5%, 79.6% and 100% among women with normal, CIN1, 2, 3 and cancer biopsies respectively (P<0.001). HPV positivity was strongly associated with p16(INK4A) staining (OR=12.8; 95% CI: 5.2-31.6). p16(INK4A) staining of CIN1 biopsies at baseline was associated with an increased risk of finding high-grade CIN over two years of follow up (OR=1.43; 95% CI: 0.52, 3.91). The two-year cumulative incidence of CIN2+ for p16(INK4A) positive women was higher at 10.71% than for p16(INK4A) negative women at 1.30% (crude RR=8.25, 95%CI: 1.02, 66.62). p16(INK4A) overexpression is strongly associated with grade of CIN and risk of progression to high-grade CIN in women with low-grade lesions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Tobacco control challenges in East Asia: proposals for change in the worlds largest epidemic region.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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East Asia is one of the worlds largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three East Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHOs MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37-53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in East Asia.
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Effect of an educational intervention on HPV knowledge and vaccine attitudes among urban employed women and female undergraduate students in China: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Due to the potential of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for decreasing cervical cancer rates in Mainland China, where some of the highest incidences in the world have been reported, our study aimed to assess HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge, and to evaluate the effect of a brief educational intervention on HPV knowledge and vaccine acceptability in Chinese undergraduate students and employed women.
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Screening for Parkinson syndrome in a Chinese rural population: re-examination of a historic questionnaire.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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Standardized screening tools for Parkinson syndrome have not been developed for non-western populations. This study aimed to validate the Copiah County questionnaire (CCQ) as a screening instrument in a Chinese rural population.
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Genetic variants in DNA repair pathway genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma in a Chinese population.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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The DNA repair pathways help to maintain genomic integrity and therefore genetic variation in the pathways could affect the propensity to develop cancer. Selected germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the pathways have been associated with esophageal cancer and gastric cancer (GC) but few studies have comprehensively examined the pathway genes. We aimed to investigate associations between DNA repair pathway genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and GC, using data from a genome-wide association study in a Han Chinese population where ESCC and GC are the predominant cancers. In sum, 1942 ESCC cases, 1758 GC cases and 2111 controls from the Shanxi Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Genetics Project (discovery set) and the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials (replication set) were genotyped for 1675 SNPs in 170 DNA repair-related genes. Logistic regression models were applied to evaluate SNP-level associations. Gene- and pathway-level associations were determined using the resampling-based adaptive rank-truncated product approach. The DNA repair pathways overall were significantly associated with risk of ESCC (P = 6.37 × 10(-4)), but not with GC (P = 0.20). The most significant gene in ESCC was CHEK2 (P = 2.00 × 10(-6)) and in GC was CLK2 (P = 3.02 × 10(-4)). We observed several other genes significantly associated with either ESCC (SMUG1, TDG, TP53, GTF2H3, FEN1, POLQ, HEL308, RAD54B, MPG, FANCE and BRCA1) or GC risk (MRE11A, RAD54L and POLE) (P < 0.05). We provide evidence for an association between specific genes in the DNA repair pathways and the risk of ESCC and GC. Further studies are warranted to validate these associations and to investigate underlying mechanisms.
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Genetic variants in fas signaling pathway genes and risk of gastric cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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Populations in north central China are at high risk for gastric cancers (GC), and altered FAS-mediated cell signaling and/or apoptosis may contribute to this risk. We examined the association of 554 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 53 Fas signaling-related genes using a pathway-based approach in 1758 GC cases (1126 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCA) and 632 gastric noncardia adenocarcinomas (GNCA)), and 2111 controls from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of GC in ethnic Chinese. SNP associations with risk of overall GC, GCA and GNCA were evaluated using unconditional logistic regressions controlling for age, sex and study. Gene- and pathway-based associations were tested using the adaptive rank-truncated product (ARTP) method. Statistical significance was evaluated empirically by permutation. Significant pathway-based associations were observed for Fas signaling with risk of overall GC (p = 5.5E-04) and GCA (p = 6.3E-03), but not GNCA (p= 8.1E-02). Among examined genes in the Fas signaling pathway, MAP2K4, FAF1, MAPK8, CASP10, CASP8, CFLAR, MAP2K1, CAP8AP2, PAK2 and IKBKB were associated with risk of GC (nominal p < 0.05), and FAF1 and MAPK8 were significantly associated with risk of both GCA and GNCA (nominal p< 0.05). Our examination of genetic variation in the Fas signaling pathway is consistent with an association of altered Fas signaling and/or apoptosis with risk of GC. As one of the first attempts to investigate a pathway-level association, our results suggest that these genes and the Fas signaling pathway warrant further evaluation in relation to GC risk in other populations.
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Six-year regression and progression of cervical lesions of different human papillomavirus viral loads in varied histological diagnoses.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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This study aims to evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) viral loads as a biomarker for triage into colposcopy and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) therapy to reduce the colposcopy referral rate and CIN2 overtreatment in low-resource settings.
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Pooled analysis of the performance of liquid-based cytology in population-based cervical cancer screening studies in China.
Cancer Cytopathol
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2013
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Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been widely used for cervical cancer screening. Despite numerous studies and systematic reviews, to the authors knowledge few large studies to date have focused on biopsy-confirmed cervical lesions and controversy remains concerning its diagnostic accuracy. The objective of the current study was to assess LBC for detecting biopsy-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer.
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Clinical and pathologic features of multifocal and multicentric breast cancer in chinese women: a retrospective cohort study.
J Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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This study aims to analyze the clinical-pathological characteristics of multifocal and multicentric breast cancer (MMBC) in Chinese women.
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Agreement for HPV genotyping detection between self-collected specimens on a FTA cartridge and clinician-collected specimens.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The current method of transporting self-collected cervicovaginal specimen for HPV DNA testing relies on liquid based medium, which is challenging and expensive to transport. A novel, dry storage and transportation device, Whatman indicating FTA™ Elute Cartridge, avoids some of the pitfalls of liquid-based medium. This method has been shown to be comparable to liquid-based collection medium, but relative performance of self-collected (SC) and clinician-collected (CC) samples onto FTA cards has not been reported. The objective of this study is to compare the analytic performance of self- and clinician-collected samples onto FTA cartridges for the detection of carcinogenic HPV using Linear Array. There was a 91% agreement, 69% positive agreement, and kappa of 0.75 between the clinician-collected and self-collected specimens for detection of any carcinogenic HPV genotype. When the HPV results were categorized hierarchically according to cervical cancer risk, there was no difference in the distribution of the HPV results for the clinician- and self-collected specimens (p=0.7). This study concludes that FTA elute cartridge is a promising method of specimen transport for cervical cancer screening programs considering using self-collected specimen and HPV testing. Larger studies with clinical endpoints are now needed to assess the clinical performance.
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Genetic variants in sex hormone metabolic pathway genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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In China, esophageal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death where essentially all cases are histologically esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), in contrast to esophageal adenocarcinoma in the West. Globally, ESCC is 2.4 times more common among men than women and recently it has been suggested that sex hormones may be associated with the risk of ESCC. We examined the association between genetic variants in sex hormone metabolic genes and ESCC risk in a population from north central China with high-incidence rates. A total of 1026 ESCC cases and 1452 controls were genotyped for 797 unique tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 51 sex hormone metabolic genes. SNP-, gene- and pathway-based associations with ESCC risk were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and geographical location and the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) method. Statistical significance was determined through use of permutation for pathway- and gene-based associations. No associations were observed for the overall sex hormone metabolic pathway (P = 0.14) or subpathways (androgen synthesis: P = 0.30, estrogen synthesis: P = 0.15 and estrogen removal: P = 0.19) with risk of ESCC. However, six individual genes (including SULT2B1, CYP1B1, CYP3A7, CYP3A5, SHBG and CYP11A1) were significantly associated with ESCC risk (P < 0.05). Our examination of genetic variation in the sex hormone metabolic pathway is consistent with a potential association with risk of ESCC. These positive findings warrant further evaluation in relation to ESCC risk and replication in other populations.
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Perceptions and acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents: a multicenter national survey in China.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Prophylactic HPV vaccines target young adolescents to prevent related cervical lesions and even genital warts prior to onset of sexual activity. Parental consent is often essential for success of vaccination program for this age group. We conducted a national multicenter study to explore the acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents and associated factors in relevant parent decision making in China. A total of 2899 parents of young adolescents (11-17 years) participated in the survey between November 28, 2011 and May 9, 2012, but four were excluded from analysis because of inconsistencies in their given information in the questionnaire. Mothers accounted for 62.8% of the parent participants. The mean age of the parents was 40.40 (standard deviation, 4.68) years. Only 36.2% of the parents accepted the vaccine for their children. Knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine was a positive correlate with HPV vaccination acceptability (Ptrend=0.003). Grade of child (Ptrend=0.015), prior vaccination experience outside the National Expanded Program on Immunization (OR: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.19-1.72), fear of cervical cancer and/or genital warts (OR: 2.47; 95%CI: 2.00-3.05), and prior consultation regarding HPV vaccine information (OR: 2.35; 95%CI: 1.57-3.52) were also positively associated with higher HPV vaccine acceptability. The acceptability was lower in mothers (OR: 0.45; 95%CI: 0.37-0.54) and who had better education (Ptrend=0.009). 57.3% of the parents agreed that the most appropriate venue for HPV vaccination was the local center for disease prevention and control. In conclusion, our study indicates a low acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents in China. We understand there are many challenges in implementing HPV vaccination program. Our findings will serve as valuable references for future HPV vaccination policies and campaigns after HPV vaccines are approved in China.
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Genetic variants in epidermal growth factor receptor pathway genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival, and is frequently dysregulated in esophageal and gastric cancers. Few studies have comprehensively examined the association between germline genetic variants in the EGFR pathway and risk of esophageal and gastric cancers. Based on a genome-wide association study in a Han Chinese population, we examined 3443 SNPs in 127 genes in the EGFR pathway for 1942 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs), 1758 gastric cancers (GCs), and 2111 controls. SNP-level analyses were conducted using logistic regression models. We applied the resampling-based adaptive rank truncated product approach to determine the gene- and pathway-level associations. The EGFR pathway was significantly associated with GC risk (P?=?2.16×10(-3)). Gene-level analyses found 10 genes to be associated with GC, including FYN, MAPK8, MAP2K4, GNAI3, MAP2K1, TLN1, PRLR, PLCG2, RPS6KB2, and PIK3R3 (P<0.05). For ESCC, we did not observe a significant pathway-level association (P?=?0.72), but gene-level analyses suggested associations between GNAI3, CHRNE, PAK4, WASL, and ITCH, and ESCC (P<0.05). Our data suggest an association between specific genes in the EGFR signaling pathway and risk of GC and ESCC. Further studies are warranted to validate these associations and to investigate underlying mechanisms.
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Estimation of cancer incidence and mortality attributable to overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity in China.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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The objective was to provide an evidence-based, systematic assessment of the burden of cancer due to overweight/obesity and physical inactivity in China. This study evaluated the proportion of cancers of colon, rectum, pancreas, breast (postmenopausal), endometrium, and kidney attributable to overweight [30 kg/m(2) > body mass index (BMI) ? 25 kg/m(2))/obesity (BMI ? 30 kg/m(2)) and physical inactivity in China in 2005. Data of prevalence of overweight/obesity and lack of physical activity were derived from cross-sectional surveys among representative samples of Chinese population, and data of relative risks on cancers were derived from meta-analyses or large-scale studies from China and East Asian populations. The attributable fractions were calculated by combining both data of prevalence and relative risks. In China in 2005, 0.32% of cancer deaths and 0.65% of cancer cases were attributable to overweight and obesity combined. Lack of physical activity was responsible for 0.27% of cancer deaths and 0.39% of cancer cases. Future projections indicate that the contribution of overweight and obesity to the overall cancer burden will increase in the next decades. The largest increased attributable fractions will be for endometrial cancer. The increase in attributable fractions would be greater in men and in rural populations. Although the current burden of cancer associated with overweight/obesity and physical inactivity is still relatively small in China, it is expected to increase in the future.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.