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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Vessel Ultrasound Sonographic Assessment of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Efficacy in a Rat Balloon Injury Model.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2014
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We aimed to assess the therapeutic efficacy of differentially modified soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in vivo using vessel ultrasound sonography and to compare the sonography data with those from postmortem histomorphologic analyses to have a practical reference for future clinical applications.
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The small molecule probe PT-Yellow labels the renal proximal tubules in zebrafish.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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We report the development of a small fluorescent molecule, BDNCA3-D2, herein referred to as PT-Yellow. Soaking zebrafish embryos in PT-Yellow or intraperitoneal injection into adults results in non-toxic in vivo fluorescent labeling of the renal proximal tubules, the major site of blood filtrate reabsorption and a common target of injury in acute kidney injury. We demonstrate the applicability of this new compound as a rapid and simple readout for zebrafish kidney filtration and proximal tubule reabsorption function.
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Apolipoprotein E4 Affects Topographical Changes in Hippocampal and Cortical Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease Dementia: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) is a genetic risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Once AD manifests clinically, however, the effects of APOE4 are less clear. Therefore, we investigated the longitudinal effects of APOE4 on topographical changes in AD patient brain atrophy. We prospectively recruited 35 patients with AD (19 APOE4 carriers and 16 non-carriers), and 14 normal controls, then followed them for five years. We measured hippocampal deformities and cortical thickness. Hippocampal comparison between APOE4 carriers and non-carriers with AD showed carriers had rapid changes in the head and body, while non-carriers had rapid changes in a small portion of the body. Cortical thickness comparison between APOE4 carriers and non-carriers with AD dementia showed carriers had rapid thinning in the lateral frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, while no region showed more rapid cortical thinning in non-carriers than in carriers. These findings underlined the importance of the APOE4 allele for designing and interpreting future treatment trials in patients with AD dementia.
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Oenanthe javanica extract increases immunoreactivities of antioxidant enzymes in the rat kidney.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Oenanthe javanica is an aquatic perennial herb originated from East Asia. Nowadays, the effects of Oenanthe javanica have been proven in various disease models. Studies regarding the antioxidant effect of Oenanthe javanica in the kidney are still unclear.
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Effects of Amyloid and Small Vessel Disease on White Matter Network Disruption.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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There is growing evidence that the human brain is a large scale complex network. The structural network is reported to be disrupted in cognitively impaired patients. However, there have been few studies evaluating the effects of amyloid and small vessel disease (SVD) markers, the common causes of cognitive impairment, on structural networks. Thus, we evaluated the association between amyloid and SVD burdens and structural networks using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Furthermore, we determined if network parameters predict cognitive impairments. Graph theoretical analysis was applied to DTI data from 232 cognitively impaired patients with varying degrees of amyloid and SVD burdens. All patients underwent Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB) PET to detect amyloid burden, MRI to detect markers of SVD, including the volume of white matter hyperintensities and the number of lacunes, and detailed neuropsychological testing. The whole-brain network was assessed by network parameters of integration (shortest path length, global efficiency) and segregation (clustering coefficient, transitivity, modularity). A greater PiB retention ratio was not associated with any white matter network parameters. Greater white matter hyperintensity volumes or lacunae numbers were significantly associated with decreased network integration (increased shortest path length, decreased global efficiency) and increased network segregation (increased clustering coefficient, increased transitivity, increased modularity). Decreased network integration or increased network segregation were associated with poor performances in attention, language, visuospatial, memory, and frontal-executive functions. Our results suggest that amyloid burden disrupts white matter network integration, while SVD alters white matter network integration and segregation, which further predicts cognitive dysfunction.
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Investigating fluorescent dyes in fluorescence-assisted screenings.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Screening of bead-based peptide libraries against fluorescent dye-labeled target proteins was found to be significantly influenced by the dye characteristics. Commercially available red fluorescent dyes with net negative charges adversely showed strong interactions with library beads. The introduction of zwitterionic dyes significantly reduced the unwanted interactions, which sheds light upon using the right fluorescent probe for acquisition of reliable results in various fluorescence-assisted applications.
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Higher education affects accelerated cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease: a 5-year preliminary longitudinal study.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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ABSTRACT Background: Epidemiological studies have reported that higher education (HE) is associated with a reduced risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, after the clinical onset of AD, patients with HE levels show more rapid cognitive decline than patients with lower education (LE) levels. Although education level and cognition have been linked, there have been few longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between education level and cortical decline in patients with AD. The aim of this study was to compare the topography of cortical atrophy longitudinally between AD patients with HE (HE-AD) and AD patients with LE (LE-AD). Methods: We prospectively recruited 36 patients with early-stage AD and 14 normal controls. The patients were classified into two groups according to educational level, 23 HE-AD (>9 years) and 13 LE-AD (?9 years). Results: As AD progressed over the 5-year longitudinal follow-ups, the HE-AD showed a significant group-by-time interaction in the right dorsolateral frontal and precuneus, and the left parahippocampal regions compared to the LE-AD. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the preliminary longitudinal effect of HE accelerates cortical atrophy in AD patients over time, which underlines the importance of education level for predicting prognosis.
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An artificial tongue fluorescent sensor array for identification and quantitation of various heavy metal ions.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Herein, a small-molecule fluorescent sensor array for rapid identification of seven heavy metal ions was designed and synthesized, with its sensing mechanism mimicking that of a tongue. The photoinduced electron transfer and intramolecular charge transfer mechanism result in combinatorial interactions between sensor array and heavy metal ions, which lead to diversified fluorescence wavelength shifts and emission intensity changes. Upon principle component analysis (PCA), this result renders clear identification of each heavy metal ion on a 3D spatial dispersion graph. Further exploration provides a concentration-dependent pattern, allowing both qualitative and quantitative measurements of heavy metal ions. On the basis of this information, a "safe-zone" concept was proposed, which provides rapid exclusion of versatile hazardous species from clean water samples based on toxicity characteristic leaching procedure standards. This type of small-molecule fluorescent sensor array could open a new avenue for multiple heavy metal ion detection and simplified water quality analysis.
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Insulin-Based Regulation of Glucose-functionalized Nanoparticle Uptake in Muscle Cells.
J Mater Chem B Mater Biol Med
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Effective regulation of nanoparticle (NP) uptake facilitates the NP-based therapeutics and diagnostics. Here, we report the use of insulin and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) to modulate the cellular uptake of glucose-functionalized quantum dots (Glc-QDs) in C2C12 muscle cells. The cellular uptake of Glc-QDs can be modulated up to almost two-fold under insulin stimulation while be down-regulated in the presence of 2-DG. These results demonstrate the use of secondary regulators to control the cellular uptake of NPs through membrane protein recognition in a specific and fine-tunable fashion.
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Milk quality control: instant and quantitative milk fat determination with a BODIPY sensor-based fluorescence detector.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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The first fluorescent sensor for milk fat was developed. It exhibited a magnificent, yet selective turn-on feature towards fat molecules in a complicated milk matrix by a disaggregation-induced emission mechanism. Further construction of a handy fluorescence milk fat detector provided a convenient rapid tool to measure the fat amount quantitatively. This discovery may help enhance the milk quality control process.
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Effects of ischemic preconditioning on VEGF and pFlk-1 immunoreactivities in the gerbil ischemic hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Ischemia preconditioning (IPC) displays an important adaptation of the CNS to sub-lethal ischemia. In the present study, we examined the effect of IPC on immunoreactivities of VEGF-, and phospho-Flk-1 (pFlk-1) following transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated-group, ischemia-operated-group, IPC plus (+) sham-operated-group, and IPC+ischemia-operated-group). IPC was induced by subjecting gerbils to 2min of ischemia followed by 1day of recovery. In the ischemia-operated-group, a significant loss of neurons was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) alone 5days after ischemia-reperfusion, however, in all the IPC+ischemia-operated-groups, pyramidal neurons in the SP were well protected. In immunohistochemical study, VEGF immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated-group was increased in the SP at 1day post-ischemia and decreased with time. Five days after ischemia-reperfusion, strong VEGF immunoreactivity was found in non-pyramidal cells, which were identified as pericytes, in the stratum oriens (SO) and radiatum (SR). In the IPC+sham-operated- and IPC+ischemia-operated-groups, VEGF immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the SP. pFlk-1 immunoreactivity in the sham-operated- and ischemia-operated-groups was hardly found in the SP, and, from 2days post-ischemia, pFlk-1 immunoreactivity was strongly increased in non-pyramidal cells, which were identified as pericytes. In the IPC+sham-operated-group, pFlk-1 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in both pyramidal and non-pyramidal cells; in the IPC+ischemia-operated-groups, the similar pattern of VEGF immunoreactivity was found in the ischemic CA1, although the VEGF immunoreactivity was strong in non-pyramidal cells at 5days post-ischemia. In brief, our findings show that IPC dramatically augmented the induction of VEGF and pFlk-1 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal cells of the CA1 after ischemia-reperfusion, and these findings suggest that the increases of VEGF and Flk-1 expressions may be necessary for neurons to survive from transient ischemic damage.
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Predicting the Performance of Motor Imagery in Stroke Patients: Multivariate Pattern Analysis of Functional MRI Data.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Background. In a brain-computer interface for stroke rehabilitation, motor imagery is a preferred means for providing a gateway to an effector action or behavior. However, stroke patients often exhibit failure to comply with motor imagery, and therefore their motor imagery performance is highly variable. Objective. We sought to identify motor cortical areas responsible for motor imagery performance in stroke patients, specifically by using a multivariate pattern analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Methods. We adopted an imaginary finger tapping task in which motor imagery performance could be monitored for 12 chronic stroke patients with subcortical infarcts and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We identified the typical activation pattern elicited for motor imagery in healthy controls, as computed over the voxels within each searchlight in the motor cortex. Then we measured the similarity of each individual's activation pattern to the typical activation pattern. Results. In terms of activation levels, the stroke patients showed no activation in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1); in terms of activation patterns, they showed lower similarity to the typical activation pattern in the area than the healthy controls. Furthermore, the stroke patients were better able to perform motor imagery if their activation patterns in the bilateral supplementary motor areas and ipsilesional M1 were close to the typical activation pattern. Conclusions. These findings suggest functional roles of the motor cortical areas for compliance with motor imagery in stroke, which can be applied to the implementation of motor imagery-based brain-computer interface for stroke rehabilitation.
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In situ investigation of mammalian inorganic polyphosphate localization using novel selective fluorescent probes JC-D7 and JC-D8.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a polymer composed of many orthophosphates linked together by phosphoanhydride bonds. Recent studies demonstrate that in addition to its important role in the function of microorganisms, polyP plays multiple important roles in the pathological and physiological function of higher eukaryotes, including mammalians. However, due to the dramatically lower abundance of polyP in mammalian cells when comparing to microorganisms, its investigation poses an experimental challenge. Here, we present the identification of novel fluorescent probes that allow for specific labeling of synthetic polyP in vitro as well as endogenous polyP in living cells. These probes demonstrate high selectivity for the labeling of polyP that was not sensitive to a number of ubiquitous organic polyphosphates, notably RNA. Use of these probes allowed us to demonstrate the real time detection of polyP release from lysosomes in live cells. Furthermore, we have been able to detect the increased levels of polyP in cells with Parkinson's disease related mutations.
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Ultrasonographic features of vascular closure devices: initial and 6-month follow-up results.
Ultrasonography
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings for various types of vascular closure devices (VCDs) immediately after the angiographic procedure and at 6-month follow-up.
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?-catenin and its alteration in an experimental model of diabetic nephropathy.
Iran J Kidney Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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The aim of our study was to determine whether beta-catenin, a subunit of the cadherin protein complex in the podocyte cytoskeleton, would be altered by hyperglycemia and advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in glomerular epithelial cells and podocytes in vitro.
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Procarbazine, CCNU, and Vincristine Chemotherapy in Gliomatosis Cerebri.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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A 49-year-old female patient was admitted due to memory disturbances. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging suggested gliomatosis cerebri (GC), which had spread to both insular lobes, both frontal and basal ganglia and the brain stem. A stereotactic biopsy was performed at the high signal intensity area of the T2-weighted MR image, and the revealed a diffuse astrocytoma. Radiation therapy was judged not to be an appropriate treatment for the patient because of her cognitive impairment. A combinatorial chemotherapy regiment consisting of Procarbazine, CCNU, and Vincristine (PCV) was agreed upon after discussion. The patient underwent six cycles of PCV chemotherapy (a full dose was applied until the 3rd cycle, and dose then was reduced to 75% for the remaining cycles). Although the patient exhibited side effects such as bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal symptoms, these were managed by medication. Over the 28 months following initiation of treatment, the high signal area in the right frontal and temporal lobes in the T2-weighted MR image decreased, and the patient's cognitive function [global deterioration scale (GDS) 4 points, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) 25 point] also improved (GDS 1 points, MMSE 29 points). PCV chemotherapy can therefore be an alternative therapeutic option for patients with GC who cannot be treated with radiation therapy or other chemotherapies.
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Enhanced oral bioavailability and antiasthmatic efficacy of curcumin using redispersible dry emulsion.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Dry emulsion containing curcumin (DE-CUR) was prepared for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble curcumin, and its oral bioavailability and antiasthmatic efficacy was evaluated. After comparison of the solubility of curcumin in various oils, Plurol® Oleique CC497 was selected to be the oil phase due to its higher solubility of CUR than other oils. A dry emulsion prepared by spray-drying of a homogenized oil-in-water emulsion was well-reconstituted in water, fabricating similar particle distribution and in vitro release to that of a dispersed homogeneous emulsion before spraying. The release of DE-CUR was much higher than that of curcumin (85.3 vs. 1.7% release at 60 min). Consequently, DE-CUR resulted in 12.0- and 7.1-fold higher Cmax and AUC0-24h than curcumin. In a murine asthma model, DE-CUR effectively suppressed airway hyperresponsiveness and levels of T-helper cytokines such as interleukin-4, inteleukin-5, and interleukin-13. These findings demonstrate that the DE-CUR shows a potential for the development of functional foods or medicines including CUR.
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Enhanced oral bioavailability and controlled release of dutasteride by a novel dry elixir.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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To develop a solid dosage form of dutasteride for improving its oral bioavailability, a novel dry elixir (DE) system was fabricated. DEs incorporating dextrin and/or xanthan gum were prepared using spray-drying and evaluated by morphology, ethanol content, crystallinity, dissolution and oral bioavailability. DEs were spherical with a smooth surface and had an average particle size of 20-25 ?m. The ethanol content could be easily varied by controlling the spray-drying temperature. The dissolution profiles of dutasteride from each DE proved to be much faster than that of dutasteride powder due to the amorphous state and a high amount of incorporated ethanol. In particular, the pharmacokinetic profiles of dutasteride were significantly altered depending on the proportions of dextrin and xanthan gum. Blood concentrations of dutasteride from DE formulations were similar to those of market products and much greater than those of native dutasteride. Interestingly, the dissolution and pharmacokinetic profiles were easily controlled by changing the ratio of dextrin to xanthan gum. The data suggests that a DE using dextrin and/or xanthan gum could provide an applicable solid dosage form to improve the dissolution and bio-availability of dutasteride as well as to modulate its pharmacokinetics.
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Improved bioavailability and antiasthmatic efficacy of poorly soluble curcumin-solid dispersion granules obtained using fluid bed granulation.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The intestinal absorption and antiasthmatic efficacy of poorly water-soluble curcumin (CUR), which has low solubility and permeability, was increased by fabricating solid dispersion granules (SDGs). The SDG containing CUR (SDG-CUR) was prepared by dispersing CUR in excess Cremophor RH40 as a solubilizer and Ryoto sugar ester L-1695 as an absorption enhancer using fluid bed granulation. We evaluated the physicochemical properties such as crystallinity and dissolution, pharmacokinetics, and antiasthmatic efficacy of SDG-CUR. Our results showed that CUR was molecularly dispersed, and the dissolution of SDG-CUR was significantly higher than that of native CUR. In addition, the blood concentration of SDG-CUR in rats was much higher than that of native CUR. Compared to CUR, SDG-CUR showed a 9.1- and 13.1-fold increase in area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), respectively. Further, SDG-CUR effectively alleviated airway hyperresponsiveness and levels of T-helper 2 cytokines (interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interleukin-13) in a murine model of asthma. In conclusion, our results suggest that the SDGs could be considered as a potential oral formulation to enhance the absorption and efficacy of CUR.
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Spinal metastasis of thymic carcinoma as a rare manifestation: a summary of 7 consecutive cases.
Korean J Spine
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Thymic carcinomas are very rare tumors that are often associated with extrathoracic metastasis to other organs. However, it is well known that thymic carcinomas rarely metastasize to the spine, and the prognosis, treatment, and natural course of this disease are not yet standardized.
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Inhibition of tau aggregation by a rosamine derivative that blocks tau intermolecular disulfide cross-linking.
Amyloid
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Abnormal tau aggregates are presumed to be neurotoxic and are an important therapeutic target for multiple neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Growing evidence has shown that tau intermolecular disulfide cross-linking is critical in generating tau oligomers that serve as a building block for higher-order aggregates. Here we report that a small molecule inhibitor prevents tau aggregation by blocking the generation of disulfide cross-linked tau oligomers. Among the compounds tested, a rosamine derivative bearing mild thiol reactivity selectively labeled tau and effectively inhibited oligomerization and fibrillization processes in vitro. Our data suggest that controlling tau oxidation status could be a new therapeutic strategy for prevention of abnormal tau aggregation.
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Fractionated Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Benign Perioptic Tumors: Outcomes of 38 Patients in a Single Institute.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for perioptic lesions.
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A fluorescent probe for imaging symmetric and asymmetric cell division in neurosphere formation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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We report here a novel fluorescent chemical probe which stains distinct neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) by binding to acid ceramidase in mouse neurospheres. is distributed evenly or unevenly to the daughter cells during multiple mitoses enabling the live imaging of symmetric and asymmetric divisions of isolated NSPCs.
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Effect of transient cerebral ischemia on the expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the gerbil hippocampus proper.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily that has been implicated in multiple neuronal and inflammatory stress processes. In this study, we examined changes in RAGE immunoreactivity and its protein levels in the gerbil hippocampus (CA1-3 regions) after 5 min of transient global cerebral ischemia. The ischemic hippocampus was stained with cresyl violet, neuronal nuclei (a neuron-specific soluble nuclear antigen) antibody and Fluoro-Jade B (a marker for neuronal degeneration). 5 days after ischemia-reperfusion, delayed neuronal death occurred in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region. RAGE immunoreactivity was not detected in any regions of the CA1-3 regions of the sham-group; the immunoreactivity was markedly increased only in the CA1 region from 3 days after ischemia-reperfusion. On the other hand, RAGE immunoreactivity was newly expressed in astrocytes, not in microglia. Western blot analysis showed that RAGE protein level was highest at 5 days post-ischemia. In brief, both the RAGE immunoreactivity and protein level were distinctively increased in astrocytes in the ischemic CA1 region from 3 days after transient cerebral ischemia. These results indicate that the increase of RAGE expression in astrocytes after ischemia-reperfusion may be related to the ischemia-caused activation of astrocytes in the ischemic CA1 region.
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Diabetic conditions downregulate the expression of CD2AP in podocytes via PI3-K/Akt signaling.
Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Proteinuric conditions demonstrate structural and compositional changes of the foot processes and slit diaphragms between podocytes. CD2AP in podocytes serves as an adaptor protein binding to nephrin and podocin, anchoring these slit diaphragm proteins to actin filaments of podocyte cytoskeleton, and sending signals inward or outward.
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Clinical features and treatment outcome of chordoid meningiomas in a single institute.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Meningioma is the second most common primary central nervous system neoplasm. In contrast, chordoid meningioma is rare; due to the paucity of cases, little is known about its clinical features or treatment outcomes. The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes for patients with chordoid meningioma.
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A macrophage uptaking near-infrared chemical probe CDnir7 for in vivo imaging of inflammation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Visualization of macrophages in live animals has been of great interest for a better understanding of inflammation. We developed a near infrared (NIR) probe that can selectively detect macrophages and visualize inflammation in vivo using the IVIS spectrum, Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT) and Multi-Spectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT).
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CDr10b inhibits the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase induced by lipopolysaccharide.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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The pathophysiological processes of inflammation can lead to a host of diseases, such as periodontitis, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer. The dysregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activation play important roles in the development of certain inflammatory diseases. Here, we investigated the effects of CDr10b which is originally developed for a microglia staining probe on inflammation, by modulating NF-?B activation and iNOS and COX-2 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine macrophages. The CDr10b suppressed NF-?B activation and iNOS and COX-2 expression induced by LPS. All the results suggest that CDr10b is a promising novel agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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Chemical Targeting of GAPDH Moonlighting Function in Cancer Cells Reveals Its Role in Tubulin Regulation.
Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Glycolytic enzymes are attractive anticancer targets. They also carry out numerous, nonglycolytic "moonlighting" functions in cells. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of the triazine small molecule, GAPDS, that targets the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). GAPDS showed greater toxicity against cancer cells compared to a known GAPDH enzyme inhibitor. GAPDS also selectively inhibited cell migration and invasion. Our analysis showed that GAPDS treatment reduced GAPDH levels in the cytoplasm, which would modulate the secondary, moonlighting functions of this enzyme. We then used GAPDS as a probe to demonstrate that a moonlighting function of GAPDH is tubulin regulation, which may explain its anti-invasive properties. We also observed that GAPDS has potent anticancer activity in vivo. Our study indicates that strategies to target the secondary functions of anticancer candidates may yield potent therapeutics and useful chemical probes.
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Ginseng total saponin modulates the changes of ?-actinin-4 in podocytes induced by diabetic conditions.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The actin cytoskeleton in podocytes is essential for the maintenance of its normal structure and function. Its disruption is a feature of podocyte foot-process effacement and is associated with proteinuria. ?-Actinin-4 in podocytes serves as a linker protein binding the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton.
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Significance of longitudinal changes in the default-mode network for cognitive recovery after stroke.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Although a considerable number of patients suffer from cognitive impairments after stroke, the neural mechanism of cognitive recovery has not yet been clarified. Repeated resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in this study to examine longitudinal changes in the default-mode network (DMN) during the 6 months after stroke, and to investigate the relationship between DMN changes and cognitive recovery. Out of 24 initially recruited right-hemispheric stroke patients, 11 (eight males, mean age 55.7 years) successfully completed the repeated fMRI protocol. Patients underwent three fMRI sessions at 1, 3 and 6 months after stroke. Their DMNs were analysed and compared with those of 11 age-matched healthy subjects (nine males, mean age 56.2 years). Correlations between DMN connectivity and improvement of the cognitive performance scores were also assessed. The stroke patients were found to demonstrate markedly decreased DMN connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, medial frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobes at 1 month after stroke. At 3 months after stroke, the DMN connectivity of these brain areas was almost restored, suggesting that the period is critical for neural reorganization. The DMN connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the contralesional hemisphere showed a significant correlation with cognitive function recovery in stroke patients, and should be considered a compensatory process for overcoming cognitive impairment due to brain lesion. This is the first longitudinal study to demonstrate the changes in DMN during recovery after stroke and the key regions influencing cognitive recovery.
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Idiopathic hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis with an osteolytic lesion.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Idiopathic hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis (IHSP) is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disorder characterized by marked fibrosis of the spinal dura mater with unknown etiology. According to the location of the lesion, it might induce neurologic deficits by compression of spinal cord and nerve root. A 58-year old female with a 3-year history of progressive weakness in both lower extremities was referred to our institute. Spinal computed tomography (CT) scan showed an osteolytic lesion involving base of the C6 spinous process with adjacent epidural mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an epidural mass involving dorsal aspect of cervical spinal canal from C5 to C7 level, with low signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images and non-enhancement on T1 weighted-enhanced images. We decided to undertake surgical exploration. At the operation field, there was yellow colored, thickened fibrous tissue over the dura mater. The lesion was removed totally, and decompression of spinal cord was achieved. Symptoms improved partially after the operation. Histopathologically, fibrotic pachymeninges with scanty inflammatory cells was revealed, which was compatible with diagnosis of idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Six months after operation, motor power grade of both lower extremities was normal on physical examination. However, the patient still complained of mild weakness in the right lower extremity. Although the nature of IHSP is generally indolent, decompressive surgery should be considered for the patient with definite or progressive neurologic symptoms in order to prevent further deterioration. In addition, IHSP can present as an osteolytic lesion. Differential diagnosis with neoplastic disease, including giant cell tumor, is important.
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Brain topological correlates of motor performance changes after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Brain Connect
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) influences the brain temporally beyond the stimulation period and spatially beyond the stimulation site. Application of rTMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) has been shown to lead to plastic changes in interregional connectivity over the motor system as well as alterations in motor performance. With a sequential combination of rTMS over the M1 and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we sought changes in the topology of brain networks and specifically the association of brain topological changes with motor performance changes. In a sham-controlled parallel group experimental design, real or sham rTMS was administered to each of the 15 healthy subjects without prior motor-related dysfunctions, over the right M1 at a high frequency of 10 Hz. Before and after the intervention, fMRI data were acquired during a sequential finger motor task using the left, nondominant hand. Changes in the topology of brain networks were assessed in terms of global and local efficiency, which measures the efficiency in transporting information at global and local scales, respectively, provided by graph-theoretical analysis. Greater motor performance changes toward improvements after real rTMS were shown in individuals who exhibited more increases in global efficiency and more decreases in local efficiency. The enhancement of motor performance after rTMS is supposed to be associated with brain topological changes, such that global information exchange is facilitated, while local information exchange is restricted.
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Seoul criteria for PiB(-) subcortical vascular dementia based on clinical and MRI variables.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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The purpose of this study was to propose new criteria for differentiating Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-negative from PiB-positive subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) using clinical and MRI variables.
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Live cells imaging using a turn-on FRET-based BODIPY probe for biothiols.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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We designed a red-emitting turn-on FRET-based molecular probe 1 for selective detection of cysteine and homocysteine. Probe 1 shows significant fluorescence enhancement after cleavage of the 2, 4-dinitrobenzensulfonyl (DNBS) unit from the fluorophore upon thiols treatment. The precursor of probe 1, BNM153, is a moderate quantum yield FRET dye which contributes a minimum emission leakage from its donor part. We synthesized this assembly by connecting a low quantum yield (less than 1%) BODIPY donor to a high quantum yield BODIPY acceptor via a 1, 3-triazine bridge system. It is noteworthy that the majority of the non-radiative energy loss of donor (BDN) was converted to the acceptor (BDM)'s fluorescence output with minimum leaks of donor emission. The fluorescence sensing mechanism of probe 1 was illustrated by fluorescence spectroscopy, kinetic measurements, HPLC-MS analysis and DFT calculations. Probe 1 is pH-independent at the physiological pH range. Finally, live cells imaging demonstrated the utility of probe 1 as a biosensor for thiols.
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The role of phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholic acid in inflammation.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Phosphatidylcholine with deoxycholic acid (PC/DA) is widely used to reduce localized fat deposits with mild adverse effects. We previously demonstrated that PC induces lipolysis with mild PMN infiltration, while DA induces adipose tissue damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the pro-inflammatory responses of PC, DA, and PC/DA.
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White matter hyperintensities are associated with amyloid burden in APOE4 non-carriers.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Previous preclinical studies have suggested a close relationship between cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease. However, a direct correlation between CVD and amyloid burden has not yet been shown in humans. If there is a relationship between CVD and amyloid burden, it is possible that the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) genotype may have an effect on this relationship because APOE4 is a risk factor for the development of AD. We therefore evaluated the effects of APOE4 on the relationship between white matter hyperintensities (WMH), a marker of CVD, and amyloid burden, measured by 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET. We recruited 53 patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairments, who had both WMH on MRI and amyloid deposition assessed by PiB PET. Twenty-two of these patients were APOE4 carriers (41.5%). In the APOE4 non-carriers, a significant positive correlation was shown between the volume of WMH and PiB retention (? = 7.0 × 10-3, p = 0.034) while no significant correlation was found in APOE4 carriers (? = -9.0 × 10-3, p = 0.085). Statistical parametric mapping analyses in APOE4 non-carriers showed that WMH were associated with PiB retention in the bilateral medial occipitotemporal gyrus, cuneus, and superior cerebellum. Our results suggested that WMH are correlated with amyloid burden especially in the posterior brain regions in APOE4 non-carriers. However, this correlation was not observed in APOE4 carriers, perhaps because in these subjects the influence of APOE4 overrides the effect of CVD.
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Preoperative embolization of cerebellar hemangioblastoma with onyx: report of three cases.
Neurointervention
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Hemangioblastoma is a benign and highly vascular tumor. Complete surgical resection of highly vascular tumor such as hemangioblastoma may be challenging due to excessive bleeding. Preoperative embolization of these lesions may decrease the intraoperative blood loss and facilitate excision. We report three cases of cerebellar hemangioblastomas that were embolized using Onyx.
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Gold nanoparticles for nucleic acid delivery.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Gold nanoparticles provide an attractive and applicable scaffold for delivery of nucleic acids. In this review, we focus on the use of covalent and noncovalent gold nanoparticle conjugates for applications in gene delivery and RNA-interference technologies. We also discuss challenges in nucleic acid delivery, including endosomal entrapment/escape and active delivery/presentation of nucleic acids in the cell.
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Synergistic effects of ischemia and ?-amyloid burden on cognitive decline in patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer disease are significant causes of cognitive impairment in the elderly. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between CVD and ?-amyloid burden in living humans or their synergistic effects on cognition. Thus, there is a need for better understanding of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) before clinical deterioration begins.
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Efficacy and Tolerability of Anticholinergics in Korean Children with Overactive Bladder: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of various anticholinergics in Korean children with non-neurogenic overactive bladder (OAB). A total of 326 children (males:females= 157:169) aged under 18 yr (mean age 7.3±2.6 yr) who were diagnosed with OAB from 2008 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean duration of OAB symptoms before anticholinergic treatment was 16.9±19.0 months. The mean duration of medication was 5.6±7.3 months. Urgency urinary incontinence episodes per week decreased from 1.9±3.1 to 0.4±1.5 times (P<0.001). The median voiding frequency during daytime was decreased from 9.2±5.4 to 6.3±4.2 times (P<0.001). According to 3-day voiding diaries, the maximum and average bladder capacity were increased from 145.5±66.9 to 196.8±80.3 mL and from 80.8±39.6 to 121.8±56.5 mL, respectively (P<0.001). On uroflowmetry, maximum flow rate was increased from 17.6±8.4 to 20.5±8.2 mL/sec (P<0.001). Adverse effects were reported in 14 (4.3%) children and six children (1.8%) discontinued medication due to adverse effects. Our results indicate that anticholinergics are effective to improve OAB symptoms and tolerability was acceptable without severe complications in children.
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Outcome of conventional treatment and prognostic factor in elderly glioblastoma patients.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most life-threatening primary brain tumour. Especially in elderly patients, a poorer outcome is noticeable. Until now, the effectiveness of the conventional active treatment has been controversial. The purpose of this study is to find the optimal treatment for elderly patients with newly diagnosed GBM.
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DLG1 influences distal ureter maturation via a non-epithelial cell autonomous mechanism involving reduced retinoic acid signaling, Ret expression, and apoptosis.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The absence of Discs-large 1 (DLG1), the mouse ortholog of the Drosophila discs-large tumor suppressor, results in congenital hydronephrosis characterized by urinary tract abnormalities, reduced ureteric bud branching, and delayed disconnection of the ureter from the common nephric duct (CND). To define the specific cellular requirements for Dlg1 expression during urogenital development, we used a floxed Dlg1 allele and Pax2-Cre, Pax3-Cre, Six2-Cre, and HoxB7-Cre transgenes to generate cell type-restricted Dlg1 mutants. In addition, we used Ret(GFP) knockin and retinoic acid response element-lacZ transgenic mice to determine the effects of Dlg1 mutation on the respective morphogenetic signaling pathways. Mutation of Dlg1 in urothelium and collecting ducts (via HoxB7-Cre or Pax2-Cre) and in nephron precursors (via Pax2-Cre and Six2-Cre) resulted in no apparent abnormalities in ureteric bud branching or in distal ureter maturation, and no hydronephrosis. Mutation in nephrons, ureteric smooth muscle, and mesenchyme surrounding the lower urinary tract (via the Pax3-Cre transgene) resulted in congenital hydronephrosis accompanied by reduced branching, abnormal distal ureter maturation and insertion, and smooth muscle orientation defects, phenotypes very similar to those in Dlg1 null mice. Dlg1 null mice showed reduced Ret expression and apoptosis during ureter maturation and evidence of reduced retinoic acid signaling in the kidney. Taken together, these results suggest that Dlg1 expression in ureter and CND-associated mesenchymal cells is essential for ensuring distal ureter maturation by facilitating retinoic acid signaling, Ret expression, and apoptosis of the urothelium.
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Morphological examination of the obturator notch and canal in cervidae.
J. Vet. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate gross findings of the obturator notch (ON) and obturator canal (OC) in Cervidae. A total of 183 pelvic girdles from 26 species of deer were examined, and the obturator canal (OC) was classified into 4 types based on the degree of separation from the obturator foramen (OF). The deep ON was observed primarily in the subfamily Capreolinae (telemetacarpal deer). The small bony OC was frequently observed in Hydropotes inermis, Mazama gouazoubira and Ozotoceros bezoarticus. A canal without a tubercle or bony bridge structure was mainly observed in the subfamily Cervinae (plesiometacarpal deer). These results suggest that the deep ONs or the OCs separated by bony structures are more common in telemetacarpal rather than plesiometacarpal deer.
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Shape changes of the basal ganglia and thalamus in Alzheimer's disease: a three-year longitudinal study.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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A large number of Alzheimer's disease (AD) studies have focused on medial temporal and cortical atrophy, while changes in the basal ganglia or thalamus have received less attention.
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In vivo detection of macrophage recruitment in hind-limb ischemia using a targeted near-infrared fluorophore.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Macrophages are an essential component of the immune system and have protective and pathogenic functions in various diseases. Imaging of macrophages in vivo could furnish new tools to advance evaluation of disease and therapies. Critical limb ischemia is a disease in which macrophages have considerable pathogenic roles, and are potential targets for cell-based immunotherapy. We sought to develop a new near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging probe to target macrophages specifically in vivo in various pathological states, including hind-limb ischemia. We rapidly screened the photostable cyanine-based NIRF library against different blood cell lines. The identified monocyte/macrophage-selective hit was tested in vitro in live-cell labeling assay. Non-invasive NIRF imaging was performed with murine models of paw inflammation by lipopolysaccharide challenge and hind-limb ischemia with femoral artery ligation. in vivo macrophage targeting was further evaluated using intravital microscopy with Csf1r-EGFP transgenic mice and immunofluorescent staining with macrophage-specific markers. We discovered MF800, a Macrophage-specific near-infrared Fluorophore, which showed selective live-cell imaging performance in a panel of cell lines and primary human blood samples. MF800 outperforms the clinically-available NIRF contrast agent ICG for in vivo specificity in paw inflammation and hind-limb ischemia models. We observed a marked overlap of MF800-labeled cells and EGFP-expressing macrophages in intravital imaging of Csf1r-EGFP transgenic mice. In the histologic analysis, MF800-positive cells also expressed the macrophage markers CD68 and CD169. NIRF imaging showcased the potential of using MF800 to understand macrophage behavior in vivo, characterize macrophage-associated diseases, and may help in assessing therapeutic responses in the clinic.
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A Macrophage-Specific Fluorescent Probe for Intraoperative Lymph Node Staging.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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Successful identification of nodal metastases in patients with cancer is crucial to prescribe suitable treatment regimens that can improve recurrence-free survival. Although some new imaging technologies for nodal staging have been developed, such as nanoparticle-enhanced MRI and quantum-dot-based fluorescence imaging, sound technologies for intraoperative differentiation of metastatic and inflamed lymph nodes remain lacking. In this study, we illustrate the feasibility of using a macrophage-specific fluorescent probe (MFP) to visualize sentinel lymph nodes during surgery, highlighting abnormalities related to inflammation and tumor infiltration with signal enhancement and reduction methods using this technology. MFP was identified by high-throughput screening of fluorescent small-molecule libraries synthesized with a diversity-oriented approach. It selectively visualized monocyte and macrophage cell populations in vitro, by live-cell imaging and flow cytometry, as well as in vivo, for imaging-guided surgery. Collectively, this study provides preclinical proof of concept for an intraoperative imaging platform to accurately assess lymph node status, eliminating the need for invasive nodal dissections that can contribute to complications of cancer therapy. Cancer Res; 1-12. ©2013 AACR.
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Changes of podocyte p130Cas in diabetic conditions.
J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Proteinuria results from increased glomerular permeability and is associated with retraction and effacement of the highly specialized interdigitating podocyte foot processes. In podocytes (glomerular epithelial cells [GECs]), p130Cas localizes diffusely to the cytoplasm and connects focal adhesion proteins and kinases to the glomerular basement membrane and adapter proteins of slit diaphragm insertion sites.
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Fluorescent dye cocktail for multiplex drug-site mapping on human serum albumin.
ACS Comb Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Elucidating how molecules bind to HSA is fundamental for predicting drug incompatibilities. Through combinatorial screening, we identified a novel fluorescent dye (BD140) with turn-on fluorescence emission and specific binding at HSA drug site 2. We further combined it with dansylamide to develop a fluorescent dye cocktail for high-throughput mapping of the interaction between therapeutics at HSA drug-binding sites.
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Focused fluorescent probe library for metal cations and biological anions.
ACS Comb Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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A focused fluorescent probe library for metal cations was developed by combining metal chelators and picolinium/quinolinium moieties as combinatorial blocks connected through a styryl group. Furthermore, metal complexes derived from metal chelators having high binding affinities for metal cations were used to construct a focused probe library for phosphorylated biomolecules. More than 250 fluorescent probes were screened for identifying an ultraselective probe for dTTP.
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Multiplexed imaging of nanoparticles in tissues using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Imaging of nanomaterials in biological tissues provides vital information for the development of nanotherapeutics and diagnostics. Multiplexed imaging of different nanoparticles (NPs) greatly reduces costs, the need to use multiple animals, and increases the biodistribution information that can enhance diagnostic applications and accelerate the screening of potential therapeutics. Various approaches have been developed for imaging NPs; however, the readout of existing imaging techniques relies on specific properties of the core material or surface ligands, and these techniques are limited because of the relatively small number of NPs that can be simultaneously measured in a single experiment. Here, we demonstrate the use of laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) in an imaging format to investigate surface chemistry dictated intraorgan distribution of NPs. This new LDI-MS imaging method enables multiplexed imaging of NPs with potentially unlimited readouts and without additional labeling of the NPs. It provides the capability to detect and image attomole levels of NPs with almost no interferences from biomolecules. Using this new imaging approach, we find that the intraorgan distributions of same-sized NPs are directly linked to their surface chemistry.
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Tellurium Compound AS101 Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by VLA-4 Inhibition and Suppression of Monocyte and T Cell Infiltration into the CNS.
Neuromolecular Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) involving demyelinating and neurodegenerative processes. Several of the major pathological CNS alterations and behavioral deficits of MS are recapitulated in the experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) mouse model in which the disease process is induced by administration of myelin peptides. Development of EAE requires infiltration of inflammatory cytokine-generating monocytes and macrophages, and auto-reactive T cells, into the CNS. Very late antigen-4 (VLA-4, ?4?1) is an integrin molecule that plays a role in inflammatory responses by facilitating the migration of leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier during inflammatory disease, and antibodies against VLA-4 exhibit therapeutic efficacy in mouse and monkey MS models. Here, we report that the tellurium compound AS101 (ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-o,o) tellurate) ameliorates EAE by inhibiting monocyte and T cell infiltration into the CNS. CD49d is an alpha subunit of the VLA-4 (?4?1) integrin. During the peak stage of EAE, AS101 treatment effectively ameliorated the disease process by reducing the number of CD49d(+) inflammatory monocyte/macrophage cells in the spinal cord. AS101 treatment markedly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. In contrast, AS101 treatment did not affect the peripheral populations of CD11b(+) monocytes and macrophages. AS101 treatment reduced the infiltration of CD4(+) and CD49(+)/VLA4 T cells. In addition, treatment of T cells from MS patients with AS101 resulted in apoptosis, while such treatment did not affect T cells from healthy donors. These results suggest that AS101 reduces accumulation of leukocytes in the CNS by inhibiting the activity of the VLA-4 integrin and provide a rationale for the potential use of Tellurium IV compounds for the treatment of MS.
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Localized cortical thinning in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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To investigate differences in cortical thickness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome and healthy controls.
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Replenishable dendrimer-nanoparticle hybrid membranes for sustained release of therapeutics.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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We report a versatile hybrid membrane for sustained release therapeutic delivery systems. Chemically-directed assembly of a hybrid membrane of nanoparticles and dendrimers was integrated with a fluidic delivery device and a refillable drug reservoir, providing continuous sustained release.
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Brain Gray Matter Deficits in Patients with Chronic Primary Insomnia.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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To investigate the structural changes in patients with chronic primary insomnia and the relationships with clinical features of insomnia.
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Ratiometric Fluorescent Probes for Hydrogen Peroxide from a Focused Library.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Light shifting: Ratiometric fluorescent probes for hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) were developed through a focused library strategy. One of the probes in the library, showed a redshift of over 100?nm and an increase of over 30-fold in the emission intensity ratio. This probe was utilized to detect H2 O2 generated during glucose oxidation.
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Ginseng total saponin modulates podocyte p130Cas in diabetic condition.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Proteinuric conditions demonstrate structural and compositional changes of the foot processes and slit diaphragms between podocytes. p130Cas in podocytes serves as an adapter protein anchoring glomerular basement membrane to actin filaments of podocyte cytoskeleton. To investigate the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on the pathologic changes of podocyte p130Cas induced by diabetic conditions, we cultured mouse podocytes under: 1) normal glucose (5 mM, control); 2) high glucose (HG, 30 mM); 3) advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGE)-added; or 4) HG plus AGE-added conditions and treated with GTS. In confocal imaging, p130Cas colocalized with zonula occludens-1 and synaptopodin connecting to F-actin. However, diabetic conditions relocalized p130Cas molecules at perinuclear cytoplasmic area and reduced the intensity of p130Cas. In Western blotting, diabetic conditions, especially HG plus AGE-added condition, decreased cellular p130Cas protein levels at 24 and 48 h. GTS improved such quantitative and qualitative changes. These findings imply that HG and AGE have an influence on the redistribution and amount of p130Cas of podocytes, which can be reversed by GTS.
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Neural stem cell isolation from the whole mouse brain using the novel FABP7-binding fluorescent dye, CDr3.
Stem Cell Res
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Methods for the isolation of live neural stem cells from the brain are limited due to the lack of well-defined cell surface markers and tools to detect intracellular markers. To date most methods depend on the labeling of extracellular markers using antibodies, with intracellular markers remaining inaccessible in live cells. Using a novel intracellular protein FABP7 (Fatty Acid Binding Protein-7) selective fluorescent chemical probe CDr3, we have successfully isolated high FABP7 expressing cells from the embryonic and adult mouse brains. These cells are capable of forming neurospheres in culture, express neural stem cell marker genes and differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Characterization of cells sorted with Aldefluor or antibodies against CD133 or SSEA-1 showed that the cells isolated by CDr3 exhibit a phenotype distinct from the cells sorted with conventional methods. FABP7 labeling with CDr3 represents a novel method for rapid isolation of neural stem cells based on the expression of a single intracellular marker.
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Scaffolding proteins DLG1 and CASK cooperate to maintain the nephron progenitor population during kidney development.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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DLG1 (discs-large homolog 1) and CASK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase) interact at membrane-cytoskeleton interfaces and function as scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules, receptors, and other scaffolding proteins at intercellular and synaptic junctions. Dlg1-null mice exhibit hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and occasionally hypoplastic kidneys, whereas Cask-null mice do not. To investigate whether DLG1 and CASK cooperate in the developing urogenital system, we generated mice deficient in both DLG1 and CASK either 1) globally, 2) in metanephric mesenchyme, or 3) in nephron progenitors. With each approach, Dlg1;Cask double-knockout (DKO) kidneys were severely hypoplastic and dysplastic and demonstrated rapid, premature depletion of nephron progenitors/stem cells. Several cellular and molecular defects were observed in the DKO kidneys, including reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of cells in the nephrogenic zone and a progressive decrease in the number of cells expressing SIX2, a transcription factor essential for maintaining nephron progenitors. Fgf8 expression was reduced in early-stage DKO metanephric mesenchyme, accompanied by reduced levels of components of the Ras pathway, which is activated by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Moreover, Dlg1(+/-);Cask(-/-) (het/null) kidneys were moderately hypoplastic and demonstrated impaired aggregation of SIX2-positive cells around the ureteric bud tips. Nephron progenitor-specific het/null mice survived with small kidneys but developed glomerulocystic kidney disease and renal failure. Taken together, these results suggest that DLG1 and CASK play critical cooperative roles in maintaining the nephron progenitor population, potentially via a mechanism involving effects on FGF signaling.
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The N-glycoform of sRAGE is the key determinant for its therapeutic efficacy to attenuate injury-elicited arterial inflammation and neointimal growth.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Signaling of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been implicated in the development of injury-elicited vascular complications. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) acts as a decoy of RAGE and has been used to treat pathological vascular conditions in animal models. However, previous studies used a high dose of sRAGE produced in insect Sf9 cells (sRAGE(Sf9))and multiple injections to achieve the therapeutic outcome. Here, we explore whether modulation of sRAGE N-glycoform impacts its bioactivity and augments its therapeutic efficacy. We first profiled carbohydrate components of sRAGE produced in Chinese hamster Ovary cells (sRAGE(CHO)) to show that a majority of its N-glycans belong to sialylated complex types that are not shared by sRAGE(Sf9). In cell-based NF-?B activation and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration assays, sRAGE(CHO) exhibited a significantly higher bioactivity relative to sRAGE(Sf9) to inhibit RAGE alarmin ligand-induced NF-?B activation and VSMC migration. We next studied whether this N-glycoform-associated bioactivity of sRAGE(CHO) is translated to higher in vivo therapeutic efficacy in a rat carotid artery balloon injury model. Consistent with the observed higher bioactivity in cell assays, sRAGE(CHO) significantly reduced injury-induced neointimal growth and the expression of inflammatory markers in injured vasculature. Specifically, a single dose of 3 ng/g of sRAGE(CHO) reduced neointimal hyperplasia by over 70%, whereas the same dose of sRAGE(Sf9) showed no effect. The administered sRAGE(CHO) is rapidly and specifically recruited to the injured arterial locus, suggesting that early intervention of arterial injury with sRAGE(CHO) may offset an inflammatory circuit and reduce the ensuing tissue remodeling. Our findings showed that the N-glycoform of sRAGE is the key determinant underlying its bioactivity and thus is an important glycobioengineering target to develop a highly potent therapeutic sRAGE for future clinical applications.
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Effects of APOE ?4 on brain amyloid, lacunar infarcts, and white matter lesions: a study among patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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The relationship between the apolipoprotein E ?4 allele (APOE4) and factors associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is unclear. We aimed to examine the effects of APOE4 on brain amyloid beta using Pittsburg compound B (PiB) and subcortical cerebrovascular disease, as assessed by lacunes and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in subcortical VCI (SVCI) patients. We recruited 230 subjects with normal cognition, 111 subjects with cognitive impairment due to clinically defined Alzheimers disease (ADCI), and 134 subjects with clinically defined SVCI. A PiB retention ratio greater than 1.5 was considered to be PiB positive. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether APOE4 increased the risk for each cognitive impairment group. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate whether APOE4 was associated with brain amyloid beta, lacunes, and WMH. APOE4 did not increase the risk of PiB(-) SVCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-2.84), whereas APOE4 increased the risk of PiB(+) SVCI (OR, 4.52; 95% CI, 1.70-11.97) and PiB(+) ADCI (odds ratio, 4.84; 95% CI, 2.54-7.91). In SVCI patients, APOE4 was positively associated with PiB retention ratio, whereas APOE4 was not associated with the number of lacunes or with WMH volume. Our results suggest that amyloid beta burden can occur in patients with and without subcortical cerebrovascular disease, and that it is associated with APOE4. However APOE4 might be independent of subcortical cerebrovascular disease.
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Onyx Embolization of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula, using Scepter C Balloon Catheter: a Case Report.
Neurointervention
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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We report our experience using Onyx for embolization of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) under dual lumen balloon catheter flow arrest. Transfemoral cerebral angiography revealed a superior sagittal sinus (SSS) DAVF that was supplied via multiple branches of the external carotid arteries, the right anterior cerebral arteries, and the meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery. There was no anterograde venous drainage through the SSS, and venous drainage was almost retrograde through the medullary and cortical veins. Under general anesthesia, a transvenous approach was utilized to place the microcatheter close to the fistula site. After intravenous embolization with various coils, DAVF was partially occluded; Balloon catheter gained access to the DAVF via the right middle meningeal artery. We injected Onyx through the Scepter C catheter, after which DAVF was nearly completely occluded. Balloon-assisted Onyx embolization is a feasible and effective approach for the management of DAVF.
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The N-end rule proteolytic system in autophagy.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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The N-end rule pathway is a cellular proteolytic system that utilizes specific N-terminal residues as degradation determinants, called N-degrons. N-degrons are recognized and bound by specific recognition components (N-recognins) that mediate polyubiquitination of low-abundance regulators and selective proteolysis through the proteasome. Our earlier work identified UBR4/p600 as one of the N-recognins that promotes N-degron-dependent proteasomal degradation. In this study, we show that UBR4 is associated with cellular cargoes destined to autophagic vacuoles and is degraded by the lysosome. UBR4 loss causes multiple misregulations in autophagic pathways, including an increased formation of LC3 puncta. UBR4-deficient mice die during embryogenesis primarily due to defective vascular development in the yolk sac (YS), wherein UBR4 is associated with a bulk lysosomal degradation system that absorbs maternal proteins from the YS cavity and digests them into amino acids. Our results suggest that UBR4 plays a role not only in selective proteolysis of short-lived regulators through the proteasome, but also bulk degradation through the lysosome. Here, we discuss a possible mechanism of UBR4 as a regulatory component in the delivery of cargoes destined to interact with the autophagic core machinery.
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Chronic administration of small nonerythropoietic peptide sequence of erythropoietin effectively ameliorates the progression of postmyocardial infarction-dilated cardiomyopathy.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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The cardioprotective properties of erythropoietin (EPO) in preclinical studies are well documented, but erythropoietic and prothrombotic properties of EPO preclude its use in chronic heart failure (CHF). We tested the effect of long-term treatment with a small peptide sequence within the EPO molecule, helix B surface peptide (HBSP), that possesses tissue-protective, but not erythropoietic properties of EPO, on mortality and cardiac remodeling in postmyocardial infarction-dilated cardiomyopathy in rats. Starting 2 weeks after permanent left coronary artery ligation, rats received i.p. injections of HBSP (60 µg/kg) or saline two times per week for 10 months. Treatment did not elicit an immune response, and did not affect the hematocrit. Compared with untreated rats, HBSP treatment reduced mortality by 50% (P < 0.05). Repeated echocardiography demonstrated remarkable attenuation of left ventricular dilatation (end-diastolic volume: 41 versus 86%; end-systolic volume: 44 versus 135%; P < 0.05), left ventricle functional deterioration (ejection fraction: -4 versus -63%; P < 0.05), and myocardial infarction (MI) expansion (3 versus 38%; P < 0.05). A hemodynamic assessment at study termination demonstrated normal preload independent stroke work (63 ± 5 versus 40 ± 4; P < 0.05) and arterioventricular coupling (1.2 ± 0.2 versus 2.7 ± 0.7; P < 0.05). Histologic analysis revealed reduced apoptosis (P < 0.05) and fibrosis (P < 0.05), increased cardiomyocyte density (P < 0.05), and increased number of cardiomyocytes in myocardium among HBSP-treated rats. The results indicate that HBSP effectively reduces mortality, ameliorates the MI expansion and CHF progression, and preserves systolic reserve in the rat post-MI model. There is also a possibility that HBSP promoted the increase of the myocytes number in the myocardial wall remote from the infarct. Thus, HBSP peptide merits consideration for clinical testing.
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The Effectiveness of Early Tracheostomy (within at least 10 Days) in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Patients.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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This study aimed to determine the optimal time for tracheostomy by evaluating the benefits and safety of early versus late tracheostomy in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients.
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Effects of cerebrovascular disease and amyloid beta burden on cognition in subjects with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and amyloid burden are the most frequent pathologies in subjects with cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between CVD, amyloid burden, and cognition are largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate whether CVD (lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, and microbleeds) and amyloid burden (Pittsburgh compound B [PiB] retention ratio) contribute to cognitive impairment independently or interactively. We recruited 136 patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment who underwent magnetic resonance imaging, PiB-positron emission tomography, and neuropsychological testing. The number of lacunes was associated with memory, frontal dysfunctions, and disease severity. The volume of white matter hyperintensities and the PiB retention ratio were associated only with memory dysfunction. There was no direct correlation between CVD markers and PiB retention ratio except that the number of lacunes was negatively correlated with the PiB retention ratio. In addition, there were no interactive effects of CVD and PiB retention ratio on cognition. Our findings suggest that CVD and amyloid burden contribute independently and not interactively to specific patterns of cognitive dysfunction in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.
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Pathogenesis of cerebral microbleeds: In vivo imaging of amyloid and subcortical ischemic small vessel disease in 226 individuals with cognitive impairment.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are a neuroimaging marker of small vessel disease (SVD) with relevance for understanding disease mechanisms in cerebrovascular disease, cognitive impairment, and normal aging. It is hypothesized that lobar CMBs are due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and deep CMBs are due to subcortical ischemic SVD. We tested this hypothesis using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of subcortical SVD and in vivo imaging of amyloid in patients with cognitive impairment.
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Topographic distribution of cortical thinning in subtypes of multiple system atrophy.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Despite the predominant degeneration of subcortical structures, recent studies have suggested the evidence of cortical involvement in multiple system atrophy (MSA). This study aimed to identify the different topographic pattern of cortical thinning in MSA according to clinical subtypes, and the association of cortical thinning with cerebellar atrophy and other disease related metrics.
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UBR box N-recognin-4 (UBR4), an N-recognin of the N-end rule pathway, and its role in yolk sac vascular development and autophagy.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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The N-end rule pathway is a proteolytic system in which destabilizing N-terminal residues of short-lived proteins act as degradation determinants (N-degrons). Substrates carrying N-degrons are recognized by N-recognins that mediate ubiquitylation-dependent selective proteolysis through the proteasome. Our previous studies identified the mammalian N-recognin family consisting of UBR1/E3?, UBR2, UBR4/p600, and UBR5, which recognize destabilizing N-terminal residues through the UBR box. In the current study, we addressed the physiological function of a poorly characterized N-recognin, 570-kDa UBR4, in mammalian development. UBR4-deficient mice die during embryogenesis and exhibit pleiotropic abnormalities, including impaired vascular development in the yolk sac (YS). Vascular development in UBR4-deficient YS normally advances through vasculogenesis but is arrested during angiogenic remodeling of primary capillary plexus associated with accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. In the YS, UBR4 marks endoderm-derived, autophagy-enriched cells that coordinate differentiation of mesoderm-derived vascular cells and supply autophagy-generated amino acids during early embryogenesis. UBR4 of the YS endoderm is associated with a tissue-specific autophagic pathway that mediates bulk lysosomal proteolysis of endocytosed maternal proteins into amino acids. In cultured cells, UBR4 subpopulation is degraded by autophagy through its starvation-induced association with cellular cargoes destined to autophagic double membrane structures. UBR4 loss results in multiple misregulations in autophagic induction and flux, including synthesis and lipidation/activation of the ubiquitin-like protein LC3 and formation of autophagic double membrane structures. Our results suggest that UBR4 plays an important role in mammalian development, such as angiogenesis in the YS, in part through regulation of bulk degradation by lysosomal hydrolases.
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