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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
DEPLETION OF AUTOPHAGY-RELATED GENES ATG3 AND ATG5 IN Tenebrio molitor LEADS TO DECREASED SURVIVABILITY AGAINST AN INTRACELLULAR PATHOGEN, Listeria monocytogenes.
Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Macroautophagy (autophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process involved in physiological and developmental processes including cell survival, death, and innate immunity. Homologues of most of 36 originally discovered autophagy-related (ATG) genes in yeast have been characterized in higher eukaryotes including insects. In this study, the homologues of ATG3 (TmATG3) and ATG5 (TmATG5) were isolated from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor by expressed sequence tag and RNAseq approaches. The cDNA of TmATG3 and TmATG5 comprise open-reading frame sizes of 963 and 792 bp encoding polypeptides of 320 and 263 amino acid residues, respectively. TmATG3 and TmATG5 mRNA are expressed in all developmental stages, and mainly in fat body and hemocytes of larvae. TmATG3 and TmATG5 showed an overall sequence identity of 58-95% to other insect Atg proteins. There exist clear one-to-one orthologs of TmATG3 and TmATG5 in Tribolium and that they clustered together in the gene tree. Depletion of TmATG3 and TmATG5 by RNA interference led to a significant reduction in survival ability of T. molitor larvae against an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. Six days post-Listeria challenge, the survival rate in the dsEGFP-injected (where EGFP is enhanced green fluorescent protein) control larvae was significantly higher (55%) compared to 4 and 3% for TmATG3 and TmATG5 double-stranded RNA injected larvae, respectively. These data suggested that TmATG3 and TmATG5 may play putative role in mediating autophagy-based clearance of Listeria in T. molitor model.
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Resolution enhancement in coherent x-ray diffraction imaging by overcoming instrumental noise.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We report that reference objects, strong scatterers neighboring weak phase objects, enhance the phase retrieval and spatial resolution in coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CDI). A CDI experiment with Au nano-particles exhibited that the reference objects amplified the signal-to-noise ratio in the diffraction intensity at large diffraction angles, which significantly enhanced the image resolution. The interference between the diffracted x-ray from reference objects and a specimen also improved the retrieval of the phase of the diffraction signal. The enhancement was applied to image NiO nano-particles and a mitochondrion and confirmed in a simulation with a bacteria phantom. We expect that the proposed method will be of great help in imaging weakly scattering soft matters using coherent x-ray sources including x-ray free electron lasers.
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Organic Field-Effect Transistors: Dramatic Inversion of Charge Polarity in Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Organic Field-Effect Transistors via a Simple Nitrile Group Substitution (Adv. Mater. 43/2014).
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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A record-breaking high electron mobility (up to 7.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) ) is demonstrated with a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based semiconductor (PDPP-CNTVT), of which a vinylene unit is simply incorporated with only one nitrile group, as described by Y.-H. Kim, Y.-Y. Noh, as described by S.-K. Kwon, and co-workers on page 7300. Both the strong electron-withdrawing property of the nitrile group and its low steric-hindrance effect in the conjugation backbone can help the hole-dominant polymer (PDPP-TVT) to be converted dramatically into an outstanding electron-dominant semiconductor.
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Anatomical heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease: Based on cortical thickness on MRIs.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Because the signs associated with dementia due to Alzheimer disease (AD) can be heterogeneous, the goal of this study was to use 3-dimensional MRI to examine the various patterns of cortical atrophy that can be associated with dementia of AD type, and to investigate whether AD dementia can be categorized into anatomical subtypes.
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Arrayed waveguide collimators for integrating free-space optics on polymeric waveguide devices.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Array-type optical devices are important for wavelength-division multiplexing optical communication system to achieve small footprint, mass production, and reliability. For fabricating transmitter module in an array configuration, it is difficult to achieve a passive alignment of isolator, collimating lens, and laser diode. To facilitate array isolator integration, a waveguide collimator is proposed in this work by using a low-contrast, large-core polymer waveguide. The diffraction of a guided mode propagating through a free-space region is suppressed by enlarging the guided mode. The fiber coupling loss due to the enlarged mode was overcome by incorporating an adiabatic taper structure. The excess loss of waveguide collimator including the loss through a 400-?m free-propagation region was less than 1.0 dB.
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Association between body mass index and cortical thickness: among elderly cognitively normal men and women.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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ABSTRACT Background: There is increasing evidence of a relationship between underweight or obesity and dementia risk. Several studies have investigated the relationship between body weight and brain atrophy, a pathological change preceding dementia, but their results are inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cortical atrophy among cognitively normal participants. Methods: We recruited cognitively normal participants (n = 1,111) who underwent medical checkups and detailed neurologic screening, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the health screening visits between September 2008 and December 2011. The main outcome was cortical thickness measured using MRI. The number of subjects with five BMI groups in men/women was 9/9, 148/258, 185/128, 149/111, and 64/50 in underweight, normal, overweight, mild obesity, and moderate to severe obesity, respectively. Linear and non-linear relationships between BMI and cortical thickness were examined using multiple linear regression analysis and generalized additive models after adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Among men, underweight participants showed significant cortical thinning in the frontal and temporal regions compared to normal weight participants, while overweight and mildly obese participants had greater cortical thicknesses in the frontal region and the frontal, temporal, and occipital regions, respectively. However, cortical thickness in each brain region was not significantly different in normal weight and moderate to severe obesity groups. Among women, the association between BMI and cortical thickness was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that underweight might be an important risk factor for pathological changes in the brain, while overweight or mild obesity may be inversely associated with cortical atrophy in cognitively normal elderly males.
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Higher education affects accelerated cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease: a 5-year preliminary longitudinal study.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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ABSTRACT Background: Epidemiological studies have reported that higher education (HE) is associated with a reduced risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, after the clinical onset of AD, patients with HE levels show more rapid cognitive decline than patients with lower education (LE) levels. Although education level and cognition have been linked, there have been few longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between education level and cortical decline in patients with AD. The aim of this study was to compare the topography of cortical atrophy longitudinally between AD patients with HE (HE-AD) and AD patients with LE (LE-AD). Methods: We prospectively recruited 36 patients with early-stage AD and 14 normal controls. The patients were classified into two groups according to educational level, 23 HE-AD (>9 years) and 13 LE-AD (?9 years). Results: As AD progressed over the 5-year longitudinal follow-ups, the HE-AD showed a significant group-by-time interaction in the right dorsolateral frontal and precuneus, and the left parahippocampal regions compared to the LE-AD. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the preliminary longitudinal effect of HE accelerates cortical atrophy in AD patients over time, which underlines the importance of education level for predicting prognosis.
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Stable charge storing in two-dimensional MoS2 nanoflake floating gates for multilevel organic flash memory.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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In this study, we investigated chemically exfoliated two-dimensional (2-D) nanoflakes of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as charge-storing elements for use in organic multilevel memory devices (of the printed/flexible non-volatile type) based on organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) containing poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The metallic MoS2 nanoflakes were exfoliated in 2-methoxyethanol by the lithium intercalation method and were deposited as nano-floating gates between polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate), used as bilayered gate dielectrics, by a simple spin-coating and low temperature (<150 °C) process. In the developed OFET memory devices, electrons could be trapped/detrapped in the MoS2 nano-floating gates by modulating the charge carrier density in the active channel through gate bias control. Optimal memory characteristics were achieved by controlling the thickness and concentration of few-layered MoS2 nanoflakes, and the best device showed reliable non-volatile memory properties: a sufficient memory window of ?23 V, programming-reading-erasing cycling endurance of >10(2) times, and most importantly, quasi-permanent charge-storing characteristics, i.e., a very long retention time (longer than the technological requirement of commercial memory devices (>10 years)). In addition, we successfully developed multilevel memory cells (2 bits per cell) by controlling the gate bias magnitude.
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Identification and characterization of novel associations in the CASP8/ALS2CR12 region on chromosome 2 with breast cancer risk.
Wei-Yu Lin, Nicola J Camp, Maya Ghoussaini, Jonathan Beesley, Kyriaki Michailidou, John L Hopper, Carmel Apicella, Melissa C Southey, Jennifer Stone, Marjanka K Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Laura J Van't Veer, Emiel J Th Rutgers, Kenneth Muir, Artitaya Lophatananon, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Pornthep Siriwanarangsan, Peter A Fasching, Lothar Haeberle, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Olivia Fletcher, Nichola Johnson, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Joe Dennis, Elinor J Sawyer, Timothy Cheng, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Frederik Marme, Harald M Surowy, Barbara Burwinkel, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Florence Menegaux, Claire Mulot, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Javier Benitez, M Pilar Zamora, José Ignacio Arias Perez, Primitiva Menéndez, Anna González-Neira, Guillermo Pita, M Rosario Alonso, Nuria Alvarez, Daniel Herrero, Hoda Anton-Culver, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Alfons Meindl, Peter Lichtner, Rita K Schmutzler, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Hiltrud Brauch, Thomas Brüning, Yon-Dschun Ko, , Daniel C Tessier, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, Heli Nevanlinna, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Sofia Khan, Keitaro Matsuo, Hidemi Ito, Hiroji Iwata, Akiyo Horio, Natalia V Bogdanova, Natalia N Antonenkova, Thilo Dörk, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Anna H Wu, Chiu-Chen Tseng, David Van Den Berg, Daniel O Stram, Patrick Neven, Els Wauters, Hans Wildiers, Diether Lambrechts, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Siranoush Manoukian, Bernardo Bonanni, Fergus J Couch, Xianshu Wang, Celine Vachon, Kristen Purrington, Graham G Giles, Roger L Milne, Catriona McLean, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Soo Hwang Teo, Cheng Har Yip, Norhashimah Hassan, Eranga Nishanthie Vithana, Vessela Kristensen, Wei Zheng, Sandra Deming-Halverson, Martha J Shrubsole, Jirong Long, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Saila Kauppila, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Sandrine Tchatchou, Peter Devilee, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Christi J van Asperen, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Jonine Figueroa, Jolanta Lissowska, Louise Brinton, Kamila Czene, Hatef Darabi, Mikael Eriksson, Judith S Brand, Maartje J Hooning, Antoinette Hollestelle, Ans M W van den Ouweland, Agnes Jager, Jingmei Li, Jianjun Liu, Keith Humphreys, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Lu, Yu-Tang Gao, Hui Cai, Simon S Cross, Malcolm W R Reed, William Blot, Lisa B Signorello, Qiuyin Cai, Paul D P Pharoah, Barbara Perkins, Mitul Shah, Fiona M Blows, Daehee Kang, Keun-Young Yoo, Dong-Young Noh, Mikael Hartman, Hui Miao, Kee Seng Chia, Thomas Choudary Putti, Ute Hamann, Craig Luccarini, Caroline Baynes, Shahana Ahmed, Mel Maranian, Catherine S Healey, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna Durda, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Valerie Gaborieau, Paul Brennan, James McKay, Susan Slager, Amanda E Toland, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Chen-Yang Shen, Chia-Ni Hsiung, Pei-Ei Wu, Shian-Ling Ding, Alan Ashworth, Michael Jones, Nick Orr, Anthony J Swerdlow, Helen Tsimiklis, Enes Makalic, Daniel F Schmidt, Quang M Bui, Stephen J Chanock, David J Hunter, Rebecca Hein, Norbert Dahmen, Lars Beckmann, Kirsimari Aaltonen, Taru A Muranen, Tuomas Heikkinen, Astrid Irwanto, Nazneen Rahman, Clare A Turnbull, Quinten Waisfisz, Hanne E J Meijers-Heijboer, Muriel A Adank, Rob B van der Luijt, Per Hall, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Alison Dunning, Douglas F Easton, Angela Cox.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Previous studies have suggested that polymorphisms in CASP8 on chromosome 2 are associated with breast cancer risk. To clarify the role of CASP8 in breast cancer susceptibility, we carried out dense genotyping of this region in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 1 Mb region around CASP8 were genotyped in 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 600 controls of European origin from 41 studies participating in the BCAC as part of a custom genotyping array experiment (iCOGS). Missing genotypes and SNPs were imputed and, after quality exclusions, 501 typed and 1232 imputed SNPs were included in logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry principal components. The SNPs retained in the final model were investigated further in data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising in total 10 052 case and 12 575 control subjects. The most significant association signal observed in European subjects was for the imputed intronic SNP rs1830298 in ALS2CR12 (telomeric to CASP8), with per allele odds ratio and 95% confidence interval [OR (95% confidence interval, CI)] for the minor allele of 1.05 (1.03-1.07), P = 1 × 10(-5). Three additional independent signals from intronic SNPs were identified, in CASP8 (rs36043647), ALS2CR11 (rs59278883) and CFLAR (rs7558475). The association with rs1830298 was replicated in the imputed results from the combined GWAS (P = 3 × 10(-6)), yielding a combined OR (95% CI) of 1.06 (1.04-1.08), P = 1 × 10(-9). Analyses of gene expression associations in peripheral blood and normal breast tissue indicate that CASP8 might be the target gene, suggesting a mechanism involving apoptosis.
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Serum adiponectin but not leptin at diagnosis as a predictor of breast cancer survival.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Limited numbers of epidemiological studies have examined the relationship between adipokines and breast cancer survival. Preoperative serum levels of obesity-related adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) were here measured in 370 breast cancer patients, recruited from two hospitals in Korea. We examined the association between those adipokines and disease-free survival (DFS). The TNM stage, ER status and histological grade were aslo assessed in relation to breast cancer survival. Elevated adiponectin levels were associated with reduced DFS of breast cancer (Ptrend=0.03) among patients with normal body weight, predominantly in postmenopausal women. There was no association of leptin with breast cancer survival. In conclusion, our study suggests that high levels of adiponectin at diagnosis are associated with breast cancer survival among women with normal body weight.
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Regulating charge injection in ambipolar organic field-effect transistors by mixed self-assembled monolayers.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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We report on a technique using mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to finely regulate ambipolar charge injection in polymer organic field-effect transistors. Differing from the other works that employ single SAM specifically for efficient charge injection in p-type and n-type transistors, we blend two different SAMs of alkyl- and perfluoroalkyl thiols at different ratios and apply them to ambipolar OFETs and inverter. Thanks to the utilization of ambipolar semiconductor and one SAM mixture, the device and circuit fabrications are facile with only one step for semiconductor deposition and another for SAM treatment. This is much simpler with respect to the conventional scheme for the unipolar-device-based complementary circuitry that demands separate deposition and processing for individual p-channel and n-channel transistors. Our results show that the mixed-SAM treatments not only improve ambipolar charge injection manifesting as higher hole- and electron-mobility and smaller threshold voltage but also gradually tune the device characteristics to reach a desired condition for circuit application. Therefore, this simple but useful approach is promising for ambipolar electronics.
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Immunohistochemical features associated with sensitivity to lapatinib-plus-capecitabine and resistance to trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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To identify immunohistochemical (IHC) features associated with sensitivity to lapatinib-plus-capecitabine (LX) and resistance to trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2-positive metastatic breast cancer.
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Development of high-performance printed organic field-effect transistors and integrated circuits.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Organic electronics is regarded as an important branch of future microelectronics especially suited for large-area, flexible, transparent, and green devices, with their low cost being a key benefit. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), the primary building blocks of numerous expected applications, have been intensively studied, and considerable progress has recently been made. However, there are still a number of challenges to the realization of high-performance OFETs and integrated circuits (ICs) using printing technologies. Therefore, in this perspective article, we investigate the main issues concerning developing high-performance printed OFETs and ICs and seek strategies for further improvement. Unlike many other studies in the literature that deal with organic semiconductors (OSCs), printing technology, and device physics, our study commences with a detailed examination of OFET performance parameters (e.g., carrier mobility, threshold voltage, and contact resistance) by which the related challenges and potential solutions to performance development are inspected. While keeping this complete understanding of device performance in mind, we check the printed OFETs' components one by one and explore the possibility of performance improvement regarding device physics, material engineering, processing procedure, and printing technology. Finally, we analyze the performance of various organic ICs and discuss ways to optimize OFET characteristics and thus develop high-performance printed ICs for broad practical applications.
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Dramatic Inversion of Charge Polarity in Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Organic Field-Effect Transistors via a Simple Nitrile Group Substitution.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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A record-breaking high electron mobility of 7.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for n-channel polymer OFETs is reported. By the incorporation of only one nitrile group as an electron-withdrawing function in the vinyl linkage of the DPP-based copolymer, a dramatic inversion of majority charge-carriers from holes to electrons is achieved.
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A New Isolated Mediastinal Lymph Node or Small Pulmonary Nodule Arising during Breast Cancer Surveillance Following Curative Surgery: Clinical Factors That Differentiate Malignant from Benign Lesions.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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A newly isolated mediastinal lymph node (LN) or a small pulmonary nodule, which appears during breast cancer surveillance, may pose a diagnostic dilemma with regard to malignancy. We conducted this study to determine which clinical factors were useful for the differentiation of malignant lesions from benign lesions under these circumstances.
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Low-crosstalk high-density polymeric integrated optics incorporating self-assembled scattering monolayer.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Highly integrated optical components are strongly demanded because they enable wavelength-division multiplexing optical communication systems to achieve smaller footprints, lower power consumption, and enhanced reliability. Variable optical attenuator (VOA) arrays are often used with optical switches in cascaded form for reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer systems. Although VOAs and optical switches based on polymer waveguide technology are commercially available, it is still not viable to integrate these two array devices on a single chip because of significant interchannel crosstalk. In this work, we resolved the issue of crosstalk and integrated the arrays of optical switch and VOA on a single chip by incorporating a self-assembled scattering monolayer (SASM). The SASM was effective for scattering the planar guided mode; consequently, the crosstalk into an adjacent channel was significantly reduced, to less than -35 dB.
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Genome-wide association analysis in East Asians identifies breast cancer susceptibility loci at 1q32.1, 5q14.3 and 15q26.1.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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In a three-stage genome-wide association study among East Asian women including 22,780 cases and 24,181 controls, we identified 3 genetic loci newly associated with breast cancer risk, including rs4951011 at 1q32.1 (in intron 2 of the ZC3H11A gene; P=8.82×10(-9)), rs10474352 at 5q14.3 (near the ARRDC3 gene; P=1.67×10(-9)) and rs2290203 at 15q26.1 (in intron 14 of the PRC1 gene; P=4.25×10(-8)). We replicated these associations in 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls of European ancestry (P=0.030, 0.004 and 0.010, respectively). Data from the ENCODE Project suggest that variants rs4951011 and rs10474352 might be located in an enhancer region and transcription factor binding sites, respectively. This study provides additional insights into the genetics and biology of breast cancer.
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Validation of risk assessment models for predicting the incidence of breast cancer in korean women.
J Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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The Gail model is one of the most widely used tools to assess the risk of breast cancer. However, it is known to overestimate breast cancer risk for Asian women. Here, we validate the Gail model and the Korean model using Korean data, and subsequently update and revalidate the Korean model using recent data.
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A thienoisoindigo-naphthalene polymer with ultrahigh mobility of 14.4 cm(2)/V·s that substantially exceeds benchmark values for amorphous silicon semiconductors.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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By considering the qualitative benefits associated with solution rheology and mechanical properties of polymer semiconductors, it is expected that polymer-based electronic devices will soon enter our daily lives as indispensable elements in a myriad of flexible and ultra low-cost flat panel displays. Despite more than a decade of research focused on designing and synthesizing state-of-the-art polymer semiconductors for improving charge transport characteristics, the current mobility values are still not sufficient for many practical applications. The confident mobility in excess of ?10 cm(2)/V·s is the most important requirement for enabling the realization of the aforementioned near-future products. We report on an easily attainable donor-acceptor (D-A) polymer semiconductor: poly(thienoisoindigo-alt-naphthalene) (PTIIG-Np). An unprecedented mobility of 14.4 cm(2)/V·s, by using PTIIG-Np with a high-k gate dielectric poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)), is achieved from a simple coating processing, which is of a magnitude that is very difficult to obtain with conventional TFTs by means of molecular engineering. This work, therefore, represents a major step toward truly viable plastic electronics.
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Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.
Roger L Milne, Barbara Burwinkel, Kyriaki Michailidou, Jose-Ignacio Arias-Perez, M Pilar Zamora, Primitiva Menéndez-Rodríguez, David Hardisson, Marta Mendiola, Anna González-Neira, Guillermo Pita, M Rosario Alonso, Joe Dennis, Qin Wang, Manjeet K Bolla, Anthony Swerdlow, Alan Ashworth, Nick Orr, Minouk Schoemaker, Yon-Dschun Ko, Hiltrud Brauch, Ute Hamann, , Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Sandrine Tchatchou, Keitaro Matsuo, Hidemi Ito, Hiroji Iwata, Kazuo Tajima, Jingmei Li, Judith S Brand, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Diether Lambrechts, Gilian Peuteman, Marie-Rose Christiaens, Ann Smeets, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katazyna Durda, Mikael Hartman, Miao Hui, Wei Yen Lim, Ching Wan Chan, Federick Marme, Rongxi Yang, Peter Bugert, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Jonine D Figueroa, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Henrik Flyger, Maartje J Hooning, Mieke Kriege, Ans M W van den Ouweland, Linetta B Koppert, Olivia Fletcher, Nichola Johnson, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Julian Peto, Wei Zheng, Sandra Deming-Halverson, Martha J Shrubsole, Jirong Long, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Mervi Grip, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Malcolm W R Reed, Marjanka K Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Sten Cornelissen, Linde Braaf, Daehee Kang, Ji-Yeob Choi, Sue K Park, Dong-Young Noh, Jacques Simard, Martine Dumont, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Peter A Fasching, Alexander Hein, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Jacopo Azzollini, Monica Barile, Elinor Sawyer, Ian Tomlinson, Michael Kerin, Nicola Miller, John L Hopper, Daniel F Schmidt, Enes Makalic, Melissa C Southey, Soo Hwang Teo, Cheng Har Yip, Kavitta Sivanandan, Wan-Ting Tay, Chen-Yang Shen, Chia-Ni Hsiung, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Ming-Feng Hou, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Marie Sanchez, Claire Mulot, William Blot, Qiuyin Cai, Heli Nevanlinna, Taru A Muranen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Anna H Wu, Chiu-Chen Tseng, David Van Den Berg, Daniel O Stram, Natalia Bogdanova, Thilo Dörk, Kenneth Muir, Artitaya Lophatananon, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Pornthep Siriwanarangsan, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Lu, Yu-Tang Gao, Ben Zhang, Fergus J Couch, Amanda E Toland, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, James McKay, Xianshu Wang, Janet E Olson, Celine Vachon, Kristen Purrington, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Peter Devilee, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Kamila Czene, Mikael Eriksson, Keith Humphreys, Hatef Darabi, Shahana Ahmed, Mitul Shah, Paul D P Pharoah, Per Hall, Graham G Giles, Javier Benitez, Alison M Dunning, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Douglas F Easton.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.10, P = 2.9 × 10(-6)], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.07, P = 1.7 × 10(-6)) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07-1.12, P = 5.1 × 10(-17)). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05-1.10, P = 1.0 × 10(-8)); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04-1.07, P = 2.0 × 10(-10)). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act.
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Solution-processed barium salts as charge injection layers for high performance N-channel organic field-effect transistors.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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N-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have generally shown lower field-effect mobilities (?FET) than their p-type counterparts. One of the reasons is the energetic misalignment between the work function (WF) of commonly used charge injection electrode, i.e. gold (Au), and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of n-channel electron-transporting organic semiconductors. Here, we report barium salts as solution-processed interlayers, to improve the electron-injection and/or hole-blocking in top-gate/bottom-contact n-channel OFETs, based on poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-dithiophene)} (P(NDI2OD-T2)) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM). Two different barium salts, barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2) and barium chloride (Ba(Cl)2), are employed as the ultrathin interlayer (?2 nm); and they effectively tune the WF of Au from 4.9 eV, to as low as 3.5 eV. The resulting n-channel OFETs exhibit significantly improved ?FET, approaching 2.6 cm(2)/(V s) and 0.1 cm(2)/(V s) for the best P(NDI2OD-T2) and PC61BM devices, respectively, with Ba(OH)2 as interlayer.
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Simultaneous enhancement of electron injection and air stability in N-type organic field-effect transistors by water-soluble polyfluorene interlayers.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Here, we report the simultaneous attainment of efficient electron injection and enhanced stability under ambient conditions for top-gate/bottom-contact (TG/BC), n-type, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using water-soluble polyfluorene derivatives (WPFs). When inserting the WPF interlayers between a semiconductor and the BC Au electrodes, initially the ambipolar (6,6)-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) OFETs were fully converted to unipolar charge transport characteristics that were exclusively n-type with significantly increased electron mobilities as high as 0.12 cm(2)/(V s) and a decreased threshold voltage. These improvements were mostly attributed to the interfacial dipoles of WPF layers that aligned to form a favorable energy band structure for efficient electron injection and to effectively block counter charge carriers. These were confirmed when values for the reduced work function of metal electrodes with WPFs and their correlated contact resistance were measured via the ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and the transmission-line method, respectively. Moreover, the WPF interlayers played an important role in air stability of PCBM OFETs that exhibited higher and appreciably enhanced by increasing the ethylene-oxide side chain lengths of WPFs, which presumably was due to the water/oxygen/ion capturing effects in the hydrophilic interlayers.
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Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.
Nichola Johnson, Frank Dudbridge, Nick Orr, Lorna Gibson, Michael E Jones, Minouk J Schoemaker, Elizabeth J Folkerd, Ben P Haynes, John L Hopper, Melissa C Southey, Gillian S Dite, Carmel Apicella, Marjanka K Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Laura J Van T Veer, Femke Atsma, Kenneth Muir, Artitaya Lophatananon, Peter A Fasching, Matthias W Beckmann, Arif B Ekici, Stefan P Renner, Elinor Sawyer, Ian Tomlinson, Michael Kerin, Nicola Miller, Barbara Burwinkel, Frederik Marme, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Emilie Cordina, Florence Menegaux, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Henrik Flyger, Roger Milne, M Pilar Zamora, José Ignacio Arias Perez, Javier Benitez, Leslie Bernstein, Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas, Christina Clarke Dur, Hermann Brenner, Heiko Muller, Volker Arndt, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Alfons Meindl, Joerg Heil, Claus R Bartram, Rita K Schmutzler, Hiltrud Brauch, Christina Justenhoven, Yon-Dschun Ko, Heli Nevanlinna, Taru A Muranen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Keitaro Matsuo, Thilo Dörk, Natalia V Bogdanova, Natalia N Antonenkova, Annika Lindblom, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Jonathan Beesley, Anna H Wu, David Van Den Berg, Chiu-Chen Tseng, Diether Lambrechts, Dominiek Smeets, Patrick Neven, Hans Wildiers, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Stefan Nickels, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Bernardo Bonanni, Valeria Pensotti, Fergus J Couch, Janet E Olson, Xianshu Wang, Zachary Fredericksen, Vernon S Pankratz, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto, Chris Haiman, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Penny Soucy, Soo Teo, Cheng Har Yip, Sze Yee Phuah, Belinda K Cornes, Vessela N Kristensen, Grethe Grenaker Alnæs, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Wei Zheng, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Mervi Grip, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Anna Marie Mulligan, Peter Devillee, Jonine Figueroa, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Mark E Sherman, Per Hall, Nils Schoof, Maartje Hooning, Antoinette Hollestelle, Rogier A Oldenburg, Madeleine Tilanus-Linthorst, Jianjun Liu, Angie Cox, Ian W Brock, Malcolm Wr Reed, Simon S Cross, William Blot, Lisa B Signorello, Paul Dp Pharoah, Alison M Dunning, Mitul Shah, Daehee Kang, Dong-Young Noh, Sue K Park, Ji-Yeob Choi, Mikael Hartman, Hui Miao, Wei Yen Lim, Anthony Tang, Ute Hamann, Asta Försti, Thomas Rüdiger, Hans Ulrich Ulmer, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna Durda, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Valerie Gaborieau, Paul Brennan, James McKay, Susan Slager, Amanda E Toland, Celine Vachon, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Chen-Yang Shen, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Chiun-Sheng Huang, Ming-Feng Hou, Anna González-Neira, Daniel C Tessier, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, Craig Luccarini, Joe Dennis, Kyriaki Michailidou, Manjeet K Bolla, Jean Wang, Douglas F Easton, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Mitch Dowsett, Alan Ashworth, Anthony J Swerdlow, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Olivia Fletcher.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age <=50 years.
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A multi-institutional study on the association between BRCA1/BRCA2 mutational status and triple-negative breast cancer in familial breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 12-24 % of all breast cancers. Here, we studied 221 familial breast and/or ovarian cancer patients from 37 hospitals using a comprehensive approach to identify large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) as well as sequence variants, and investigated the association between BRCA1/2 mutational status and TNBC. We performed direct sequencing or mutation scanning followed by direct sequencing. Then, 143 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative patients were screened for LGRs. In this study, the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations was high (36.9 %). The prevalence of BRCA1 mutations was similar to that of BRCA2 mutations: 49.4 versus 50.6 %, respectively. TNBC was diagnosed in 35.2 % of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and 57.1 % of BRCA1 mutation carriers. Conversely, two-thirds of TNBC patients carried BRCA1/2 mutation(s), and about half were BRCA1 mutation carriers. When stratified by the mutated gene, TNBC prevalence in BRCA1 mutation carriers was significantly lower when there was a family history of ovarian cancer. Our multinomial logistic regression model demonstrated that no single factor was sufficient, and at least two factors, such as a patient with family history of both breast cancer and ovarian cancer or a patient diagnosed at a relatively young age (<40 years) with a TNBC phenotype, are necessary to indicate BRCA1/2 genetic testing in this population. Our results suggest that TNBC is a strong predictor for the presence of a BRCA1 mutation in this population, but additional risk factors should also be evaluated to ascertain a 10 % or higher prior probability of BRCA1/2 mutation testing.
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The basic facts of korean breast cancer in 2011: results of a nationwide survey and breast cancer registry database.
J Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Breast cancer is the second most frequent malignancy in Korean women, with a continuously increasing incidence. The Korean Breast Cancer Society has constructed a nationwide breast cancer database through an online registration program. The aim of the present study was to report the fundamental facts on Korean breast cancer in 2011, and to analyze the changing patterns in clinical characteristics and breast cancer management in Korea over the last 10 years. Data on newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, including the total number of cases, age, stage, and type of surgery, for the year 2011 were collected from 84 hospitals and clinics nationwide using a questionnaire survey. Additional data relating to the changing patterns of breast cancer in Korea were collected from the online breast cancer registry database and analyzed. According to nationwide survey data, a total of 16,967 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2011. The crude incidence of female breast cancer, including invasive cancer and in situ cancer, was 67 cases per 100,000 women. Analysis of the survey and registry data gave equivalent results in terms of age distribution, stage, and type of surgery. The median age at diagnosis was 50 years, and the proportion of postmenopausal women (51.3%) was higher than that of premenopausal women (48.7%) with breast cancer. The incidence of stage 0 and stage I breast cancer increased continuously over the last 10 years (56.3% in 2011), and breast conserving surgery (65.7%) was performed more frequently than total mastectomy (33.8%). The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries increased approximately 8-fold. We conclude that the clinical characteristics of breast cancer have changed over the past 10 years in Korea, and surgical management has changed accordingly. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of breast cancer in Korea.
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Two major cuticular proteins are required for assembly of horizontal laminae and vertical pore canals in rigid cuticle of Tribolium castaneum.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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The insect exoskeleton is composed of cuticle primarily formed from structural cuticular proteins (CPs) and the polysaccharide chitin. Two CPs, TcCPR27 and TcCPR18, are major proteins present in the elytron (highly sclerotized and pigmented modified forewing) as well as the pronotum (dorsal sclerite of the prothorax) and ventral abdominal cuticle of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both CPs belong to the CPR family, which includes proteins that have an amino acid sequence motif known as the Rebers & Riddiford (R&R) consensus sequence. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 resulted in insects with shorter, wrinkled, warped and less rigid elytra than those from control insects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of CPs in cuticle assembly, we analyzed for the precise localization of TcCPR27 and the ultrastructural architecture of cuticle in TcCPR27- and TcCPR18-deficient elytra. Transmission electron microscopic analysis combined with immunodetection using gold-labeled secondary antibody revealed that TcCPR27 is present in dorsal elytral procuticle both in the horizontal laminae and in vertical pore canals. dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of TcCPR27 resulted in abnormal electron-lucent laminae and pore canals in elytra except for the boundary between these two structures in which electron-dense molecule(s) apparently accumulated. Insects subjected to RNAi for TcCPR18 also had disorganized laminae and pore canals in the procuticle of elytra. Similar ultrastructural defects were also observed in other body wall regions with rigid cuticle such as the thorax and legs of adult T. castaneum. TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are required for proper formation of the horizontal chitinous laminae and vertical pore canals that are critical for formation and stabilization of rigid adult cuticle.
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Heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer: mammographic, US, and MR imaging features according to androgen receptor expression.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Our aim was to determine whether triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) with and without androgen receptor (AR) expression have distinguishing imaging features on mammography, breast ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.
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The association of self-leadership, health behaviors, and posttraumatic growth with health-related quality of life in patients with cancer.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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We tried to evaluate the association of self-leadership, effective health behaviors, and posttraumatic growth with health-related quality of life (HRQOL).
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Organic field-effect transistors by a solvent vapor annealing process.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) attracts great interests from scientific research and industrial application because of its low-cost fabrication and excellent mechanical flexibility. Yet the charge carrier mobility of typical OFET is still around 1-5 cm2/Vs and needs to be further enhanced, ideally by cost effective processes or treatments. Here we review one of the straightforward but effective methods, solvent vapor annealing (SVA), to improve the crystallinity of organic semiconductor film leading enhancement of charge carrier mobility in OFETs. We start by introducing the basic mechanism of SVA, followed by experimental works on small molecules and then conjugated polymers. Along with those examples, we discuss the important factors in using SVA to form highly crystalline conjugated molecule films or organic single crystals to achieve high performance OFETs.
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Alkylated fullerene derivatives for solution-processable organic thin-film transistors and bulkheterojunction solar cells.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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In this paper, we report synthesis and characterization of alkylated fullerene derivatives for solution-processable organic thin film transistors and solar cells. Their physical, thermal, and semiconducting properties have been studied. Organic thin-film transistors fabricated from C60TH-Oc exhibit electron mobilities as high as 3.2 x 10(-2) cm2 V(-1) s(-1) with 32 V of a threshold voltage. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) was observed in a layered structure P3HT:C60TH-Oc (PCE = 0.44%), which was a twice value of P3HT:C60TH-Dd (PCE = 0.23%).
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Breast cancer: early prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using parametric response maps for MR imaging.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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To prospectively compare the performance of dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using parametric response map (PRM) analysis with that using pharmacokinetic parameters (transfer constant [K(trans)], rate constant [kep ], and relative extravascular extracellular space [ve]) in the early prediction of pathologic responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer patients.
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Macromolecular structures probed by combining single-shot free-electron laser diffraction with synchrotron coherent X-ray imaging.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Nanostructures formed from biological macromolecular complexes utilizing the self-assembly properties of smaller building blocks such as DNA and RNA hold promise for many applications, including sensing and drug delivery. New tools are required for their structural characterization. Intense, femtosecond X-ray pulses from X-ray free-electron lasers enable single-shot imaging allowing for instantaneous views of nanostructures at ambient temperatures. When combined judiciously with synchrotron X-rays of a complimentary nature, suitable for observing steady-state features, it is possible to perform ab initio structural investigation. Here we demonstrate a successful combination of femtosecond X-ray single-shot diffraction with an X-ray free-electron laser and coherent diffraction imaging with synchrotron X-rays to provide an insight into the nanostructure formation of a biological macromolecular complex: RNA interference microsponges. This newly introduced multimodal analysis with coherent X-rays can be applied to unveil nano-scale structural motifs from functional nanomaterials or biological nanocomplexes, without requiring a priori knowledge.
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Amyloid burden, cerebrovascular disease, brain atrophy, and cognition in cognitively impaired patients.
Alzheimers Dement
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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We investigated the independent effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) pathologies on brain structural changes and cognition.
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Seoul criteria for PiB(-) subcortical vascular dementia based on clinical and MRI variables.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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The purpose of this study was to propose new criteria for differentiating Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-negative from PiB-positive subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) using clinical and MRI variables.
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Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging of elemental distributions in nanoscale binary compounds.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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We report quantitative determination of elemental distribution in binary compounds with nano meter scale spatial resolution using x-ray Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging (FCDI). We show that the quantitative magnitude and phase values of the x-ray wave exiting an object determined by FCDI can be utilized to obtain full-field atomic density maps of each element independently. The proposed method was demonstrated by reconstructing the density maps of Pt and NiO in a Pt-NiO binary compound with about 18 nm spatial resolution.
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Low rates of additional cancer detection by magnetic resonance imaging in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients who undergo preoperative mammography and ultrasonography.
J Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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We evaluated the efficacy of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting additional malignancies in breast cancer patients newly diagnosed by breast ultrasonography and mammography.
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Correlation of sleep disturbance and cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease.
J Mov Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Cognitive impairment is a common nonmotor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) and is associated with high mortality, caregiver distress, and nursing home placement. The risk factors for cognitive decline in PD patients include advanced age, longer disease duration, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, hallucinations, excessive daytime sleepiness, and nontremor symptoms including bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, and gait disturbance. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine which types of sleep disturbances are related to cognitive function in PD patients.
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Benzodipyrrolidone (BDP)-based polymer semiconductors containing a series of chalcogen atoms: comprehensive investigation of the effect of heteroaromatic blocks on intrinsic semiconducting properties.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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In order to determine the effects of actual 'chalcogen atoms' on semiconducting properties for application in a variety of optoelectronic devices, a class of donor (D)-acceptor (A) polymer semiconductors, namely PBDP-Fu, PBDP-Th, and PBDP-Se, containing the recently formulated benzodipyrrolidone (BDP) accepting unit and furan (Fu), thiophene (Th), or selenophene (Se) as a donating unit has been synthesized, characterized, and used in an active layer of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). With the LUMO levels being comparatively consistent for all three polymers (-3.58 to -3.60 eV) due to the dominant BDP contribution to the polymer backbone, the HOMO energies are somewhat sensitive to the structurally distinctive feature of the donor counits used. Utilizing a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), it is apparent that further crystalline domains occur with edge-on orientation for the polymers (PBDP-Th and PBDP-Se) with relatively heavier chalcogen atoms such as Th and Se, compared with PBDP-Fu which has a rather amorphous nature. Investigation of their OFET performance indicates that all the polymers show well balanced ambipolar operations. The desirable morphological structures of both the PBDP-Th and PBDP-Se result in higher mobilities in OFETs than those of PBDP-Fu. In particular, 200 °C annealed PBDP-Se OFETs results in ambipolarity being mobile for both holes of up to 1.7 × 10(-2) cm(2)/V·s and electrodes of up to 1.9 × 10(-2) cm(2)/V·s. In addition, OFETs with PBDP-Th show nearly equivalent charge carrier mobilities for both holes (?(h) = 1.2 × 10(-2) cm(2)/V·s) and electrons (?(e) = 1.1 × 10(-2) cm(2)/V·s). Consequently, we systematically demonstrate how the manipulation of existing heteroaromatics can modulate the electronic properties of conjugated D-A polymers, elucidating structure-property relationships that are desirable for the rational design of next generation materials.
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Breast MR imaging screening in women with a history of breast conservation therapy.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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To retrospectively investigate the outcomes of single-screening breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in women who had a history of breast conservation therapy (BCT) for breast cancers and who had previous negative mammography and ultrasonographic (US) findings.
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Evidence that breast cancer risk at the 2q35 locus is mediated through IGFBP5 regulation.
Maya Ghoussaini, Stacey L Edwards, Kyriaki Michailidou, Silje Nord, Richard Cowper-Sal Lari, Kinjal Desai, Siddhartha Kar, Kristine M Hillman, Susanne Kaufmann, Dylan M Glubb, Jonathan Beesley, Joe Dennis, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Ed Dicks, Qi Guo, Marjanka K Schmidt, Mitul Shah, Robert Luben, Judith Brown, Kamila Czene, Hatef Darabi, Mikael Eriksson, Daniel Klevebring, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Diether Lambrechts, Bernard Thienpont, Patrick Neven, Hans Wildiers, Annegien Broeks, Laura J Van't Veer, Emiel J Th Rutgers, Fergus J Couch, Janet E Olson, Emily Hallberg, Celine Vachon, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Lorna Gibson, Heli Nevanlinna, Taru A Muranen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Per Hall, Jingmei Li, Jianjun Liu, Keith Humphreys, Daehee Kang, Ji-Yeob Choi, Sue K Park, Dong-Young Noh, Keitaro Matsuo, Hidemi Ito, Hiroji Iwata, Yasushi Yatabe, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Florence Menegaux, Marie Sanchez, Barbara Burwinkel, Frederik Marme, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Anna H Wu, Chiu-Chen Tseng, David Van Den Berg, Daniel O Stram, Javier Benitez, M Pilar Zamora, Jose Ignacio Arias Perez, Primitiva Menéndez, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Lu, Yu-Tang Gao, Qiuyin Cai, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Malcolm W R Reed, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Sandrine Tchatchou, Elinor J Sawyer, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Soo Hwang Teo, Cheng Har Yip, Daphne S C Lee, Tien Y Wong, Maartje J Hooning, John W M Martens, J Margriet Collée, Carolien H M van Deurzen, John L Hopper, Melissa C Southey, Helen Tsimiklis, Miroslav K Kapuscinski, Chen-Yang Shen, Pei-Ei Wu, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Shou-Tung Chen, Grethe Grenaker Alnæs, Anne-Lise Borresen-Dale, Graham G Giles, Roger L Milne, Catriona McLean, Kenneth Muir, Artitaya Lophatananon, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Pornthep Siriwanarangsan, Mikael Hartman, Hui Miao, Shaik Ahmad Bin Syed Buhari, Yik Ying Teo, Peter A Fasching, Lothar Haeberle, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Anthony Swerdlow, Alan Ashworth, Nick Orr, Minouk J Schoemaker, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Jonine Figueroa, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Hiltrud Brauch, Thomas Brüning, Yon-Dschun Koto, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Bernardo Bonanni, Sara Volorio, Thilo Dörk, Natalia V Bogdanova, Sonja Helbig, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Peter Devilee, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Christi J van Asperen, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna Durda, Susan Slager, Amanda E Toland, Christine B Ambrosone, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Valerie Gaborieau, Paul Brennan, James McKay, Ute Hamann, Diana Torres, Wei Zheng, Jirong Long, Hoda Anton-Culver, Susan L Neuhausen, Craig Luccarini, Caroline Baynes, Shahana Ahmed, Mel Maranian, Catherine S Healey, Anna González-Neira, Guillermo Pita, M Rosario Alonso, Nuria Alvarez, Daniel Herrero, Daniel C Tessier, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, Ines de Santiago, Jason Carroll, Carlos Caldas, Melissa A Brown, Mathieu Lupien, Vessela N Kristensen, Paul D P Pharoah, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Juliet D French, Douglas F Easton, Alison M Dunning, .
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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GWAS have identified a breast cancer susceptibility locus on 2q35. Here we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 101,943 subjects from 50 case-control studies. We genotype 276 SNPs using the 'iCOGS' genotyping array and impute genotypes for a further 1,284 using 1000 Genomes Project data. All but two, strongly correlated SNPs (rs4442975 G/T and rs6721996 G/A) are excluded as candidate causal variants at odds against >100:1. The best functional candidate, rs4442975, is associated with oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) disease with an odds ratio (OR) in Europeans of 0.85 (95% confidence interval=0.84-0.87; P=1.7 × 10(-43)) per t-allele. This SNP flanks a transcriptional enhancer that physically interacts with the promoter of IGFBP5 (encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5) and displays allele-specific gene expression, FOXA1 binding and chromatin looping. Evidence suggests that the g-allele confers increased breast cancer susceptibility through relative downregulation of IGFBP5, a gene with known roles in breast cell biology.
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Phase II randomized trial of neoadjuvant metformin plus letrozole versus placebo plus letrozole for estrogen receptor positive postmenopausal breast cancer (METEOR).
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy with an aromatase inhibitor has shown efficacy comparable to that of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with postmenopausal breast cancer. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the antidiabetic drug metformin has anti-tumor activity. This prospective, multicenter, phase II randomized, placebo controlled trial was designed to evaluate the direct anti-tumor effect of metformin in non-diabetic postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor (ER) positive breast cancer.
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A Major Facilitator Superfamily protein encoded by TcMucK gene is not required for cuticle pigmentation, growth and development in Tribolium castaneum.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Insect cuticle pigmentation and sclerotization (tanning) are vital physiological processes for insect growth, development and survival. We have previously identified several colorless precursor molecules as well as enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and processing to yield the mature intensely colored body cuticle pigments. A recent study indicated that the Bombyx mori (silkmoth) gene, BmMucK, which encodes a protein orthologous to a Culex pipiens quiquefasciatus (Southern house mosquito) cis,cis, muconate transporter, is a member of the "Major Facilitator Superfamily" (MFS) of transporter proteins and is associated with the appearance of pigmented body segments of naturally occurring body color mutants of B. mori. While RNA interference of the BmMucK gene failed to result in any observable phenotype, RNAi using a dsRNA for an orthologous gene from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, was reported to result in molting defects and darkening of the cuticle and some body parts, leading to the suggestion that orthologs of MucK genes may differ in their functions among insects. To verify the role and essentiality of the ortholog of this gene in development and body pigmentation function in T. castaneum we obtained cDNAs for the orthologous gene (TcMucK) from RNA isolated from the GA-1 wild-type strain of T. castaneum. The sequence of a 1524 nucleotides-long cDNA for TcMucK which encodes the putatively full-length protein, was assembled from two overlapping RT-PCR fragments and the expression profile of this gene during development was analyzed by real-time PCR. This cDNA encodes a 55.8 kDa protein consisting of 507 amino acid residues and includes 11 putative transmembrane segments. Transcripts of TcMucK were detected throughout all of the developmental stages analyzed. The function of this gene was explored by injection of two different double-stranded RNAs targeting different regions of the TcMucK gene (dsTcMucKs) into young larvae to down-regulate transcripts during subsequent stages of insect development until the adult stage. RNA interference of TcMucK had no observable effects on larval, pupal or adult pigmentation. In addition, it did not affect larval-larval, larval-pupal and pupal-adult molting or survival. Thus, in contrast to the results of Zhao et al. (2012), our study demonstrates that TcMucK is not essential for growth, development or cuticle pigmentation of T. castaneum.
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White matter hyperintensities are associated with amyloid burden in APOE4 non-carriers.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Previous preclinical studies have suggested a close relationship between cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease. However, a direct correlation between CVD and amyloid burden has not yet been shown in humans. If there is a relationship between CVD and amyloid burden, it is possible that the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) genotype may have an effect on this relationship because APOE4 is a risk factor for the development of AD. We therefore evaluated the effects of APOE4 on the relationship between white matter hyperintensities (WMH), a marker of CVD, and amyloid burden, measured by 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET. We recruited 53 patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairments, who had both WMH on MRI and amyloid deposition assessed by PiB PET. Twenty-two of these patients were APOE4 carriers (41.5%). In the APOE4 non-carriers, a significant positive correlation was shown between the volume of WMH and PiB retention (? = 7.0 × 10-3, p = 0.034) while no significant correlation was found in APOE4 carriers (? = -9.0 × 10-3, p = 0.085). Statistical parametric mapping analyses in APOE4 non-carriers showed that WMH were associated with PiB retention in the bilateral medial occipitotemporal gyrus, cuneus, and superior cerebellum. Our results suggested that WMH are correlated with amyloid burden especially in the posterior brain regions in APOE4 non-carriers. However, this correlation was not observed in APOE4 carriers, perhaps because in these subjects the influence of APOE4 overrides the effect of CVD.
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Blood viscosity in subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment with versus without cerebral amyloid burden.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) is a common form of dementia, attributed to ischemic small-vessel disease. Blood viscosity (BV) may contribute to the pathophysiology of SVaD. However, SVaD patients with coexisting amyloid deposition may not show differences in BV because their small-vessel disease may result from amyloid angiopathy independently of BV. We, therefore, hypothesized that BV might show different changes compared with control subjects in subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) that refers to the prodromal stage of SVaD according to cerebral amyloid burden detected by the [(11)C] Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET (positron emission tomography), and apolipoprotein 4 (ApoE4) genotype (a known risk factor for vascular and parenchymal amyloid).
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Synergistic effects of ischemia and ?-amyloid burden on cognitive decline in patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer disease are significant causes of cognitive impairment in the elderly. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between CVD and ?-amyloid burden in living humans or their synergistic effects on cognition. Thus, there is a need for better understanding of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) before clinical deterioration begins.
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Low adherence to upfront and extended adjuvant letrozole therapy among early breast cancer patients in a clinical practice setting.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and causes of early discontinuation and non-adherence to upfront and extended adjuvant letrozole therapy in breast cancer patients.
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Validation and comparison of CS-IHC4 scores with a nomogram to predict recurrence in hormone receptor-positive breast cancers.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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The aim of this study was to both develop and validate a nomogram based on the Ki-67 index to predict recurrence. We constructed a nomogram using the Cox proportional hazards model with 953 N0 and N1 postoperative hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer patients and validated it in an external cohort of 895 patients. A prognostic model that used classical variables, Adjuvant! Online, St. Gallen risk stratification, and the four immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers (IHC4 score) was created and assessed by the likelihood ratio ?(2) (LR-?(2)) test using the bootstrapping method. The nomogram showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.75 (95% CI 0.72-0.77) in the training set. The validation set showed good discrimination with an AUC of 0.63 (95% CI 0.60-0.66). In the LR-?(2) test, the nomogram score was found to be more informative than the IHC4 with clinical score (CS) [LR-?(2) 13.365 (1 d.f.); 95% CI 2.50-24.23 for CS-IHC4 + nomogram score vs. CS-IHC4] on distant recurrence-free survival. This study implies that the amount of prognostic information contained in the nomogram is superior to that in the CS-IHC4 score in HR-positive N0 and N1 breast cancer patients (NCT1273415).
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The DUSP26 phosphatase activator adenylate kinase 2 regulates FADD phosphorylation and cell growth.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2), which balances adenine nucleotide pool, is a multi-functional protein. Here we show that AK2 negatively regulates tumour cell growth. AK2 forms a complex with dual-specificity phosphatase 26 (DUSP26) phosphatase and stimulates DUSP26 activity independently of its AK activity. AK2/DUSP26 phosphatase protein complex dephosphorylates fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) and regulates cell growth. AK2 deficiency enhances cell proliferation and induces tumour formation in a xenograft assay. This anti-growth function of AK2 is associated with its DUSP26-stimulating activity. Downregulation of AK2 is frequently found in tumour cells and human cancer tissues showing high levels of phospho-FADD(Ser194). Moreover, reconstitution of AK2 in AK2-deficient tumour cells retards both cell proliferation and tumourigenesis. Consistent with this, AK2(+/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts exhibit enhanced cell proliferation with a significant alteration in phospho-FADD(Ser191). These results suggest that AK2 is an associated activator of DUSP26 and suppresses cell proliferation by FADD dephosphorylation, postulating AK2 as a negative regulator of tumour growth.
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A Web-based self-management exercise and diet intervention for breast cancer survivors: Pilot randomized controlled trial.
Int J Nurs Stud
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Regular exercise and dietary practices have been shown to affect the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and survival of breast cancer patients.
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Persistent topological surface state at the interface of Bi2Se3 film grown on patterned graphene.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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We employed graphene as a patternable template to protect the intrinsic surface states of thin films of topological insulators (TIs) from environment. Here we find that the graphene provides high-quality interface so that the Shubnikov de Haas (SdH) oscillation associated with a topological surface state could be observed at the interface of a metallic Bi2Se3 film with a carrier density higher than ? 10(19) cm(-3). Our in situ X-ray diffraction study shows that the Bi2Se3 film grows epitaxially in a quintuple layer-by-layer fashion from the bottom layer without any structural distortion by interfacial strain. The magnetotransport measurements including SdH oscillations stemming from multiple conductance channels reveal that the topological surface state, with the mobility as high as ? 0.5 m(2)/(V s), remains intact from the graphene underneath without degradation. Given that the graphene was prepatterned on arbitrary insulating substrates, the TI-based microelectronic design could be exploited. Our study thus provides a step forward to observe the topological surface states at the interface without degradation by tuning the interface between TI and graphene into a measurable current for device application.
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Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast: a case series of six patients and literature review.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a very rare and indolent tumor with a favorable prognosis, despite its triple-negative status. Due to its rarity, there has been no consensus regarding treatments, and treatment guidelines have not been established. Here, we report on six patients with ACC of the breast. All of the patients initially presented with localized disease and no axillary lymph node metastases. Although some of our patients developed local recurrence or distant metastases, all patients had a favorable clinical course, and to date, none of the patients has died from complications of her disease. Here, we described the clinicopathologic features of ACC of the breast and review the current literature.
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Shape changes of the basal ganglia and thalamus in Alzheimer's disease: a three-year longitudinal study.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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A large number of Alzheimer's disease (AD) studies have focused on medial temporal and cortical atrophy, while changes in the basal ganglia or thalamus have received less attention.
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Heterogeneity of epidemiological factors by breast tumor subtypes in Korean women: a case-case study.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Breast cancer is heterogeneous in clinical behavior by subtypes; however, it is unclear how this heterogeneity is related to epidemiological factors. To evaluate the differences in epidemiological factors by breast tumor subtypes, we investigated the associations of epidemiological factors between tumor subtypes in Korean women. From the Seoul Breast Cancer Study, a total of 3,058 patients with breast cancer were included in the analyses. Tumor subtypes were classified based on hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) statuses. The epidemiological factors of each subtype were compared through case-case analyses using multivariate a polytomous logistic regression model adjusted for age and recruiting centers. The distribution of the subtypes was as follows: 1,714 HR+ HER2- (56.0%), 414 HR+ HER2+ (13.5%), 423 HR- HER2+ (13.9%) and 507 HR- HER2- (16.6%) patients with breast cancer. There were significant differences in age, menopausal status, age at menarche, number of children, age at first full-term pregnancy (FFTP), duration of breastfeeding and duration of endogenous estrogen exposure between tumor subtypes (p?
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The associations between immunity-related genes and breast cancer prognosis in Korean women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We investigated the role of common genetic variation in immune-related genes on breast cancer disease-free survival (DFS) in Korean women. 107 breast cancer patients of the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS) were selected for this study. A total of 2,432 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 283 immune-related genes were genotyped with the GoldenGate Oligonucleotide pool assay (OPA). A multivariate Cox-proportional hazard model and polygenic risk score model were used to estimate the effects of SNPs on breast cancer prognosis. Harrell's C index was calculated to estimate the predictive accuracy of polygenic risk score model. Subsequently, an extended gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA-SNP) was conducted to approximate the biological pathway. In addition, to confirm our results with current evidence, previous studies were systematically reviewed. Sixty-two SNPs were statistically significant at p-value less than 0.05. The most significant SNPs were rs1952438 in SOCS4 gene (hazard ratio (HR)?=?11.99, 95% CI?=?3.62-39.72, P?=?4.84E-05), rs2289278 in TSLP gene (HR?=?4.25, 95% CI?=?2.10-8.62, P?=?5.99E-05) and rs2074724 in HGF gene (HR?=?4.63, 95% CI?=?2.18-9.87, P?=?7.04E-05). In the polygenic risk score model, the HR of women in the 3rd tertile was 6.78 (95% CI?=?1.48-31.06) compared to patients in the 1st tertile of polygenic risk score. Harrell's C index was 0.813 with total patients and 0.924 in 4-fold cross validation. In the pathway analysis, 18 pathways were significantly associated with breast cancer prognosis (P<0.1). The IL-6R, IL-8, IL-10RB, IL-12A, and IL-12B was associated with the prognosis of cancer in data of both our study and a previous study. Therefore, our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in immune-related genes have relevance to breast cancer prognosis among Korean women.
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Brain-metastatic Triple-negative Breast Cancer Cells Regain Growth Ability by Altering Gene Expression Patterns.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Backgroud/Aim: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) frequently metastasizes to the brain (BrM). However, genes responsible for BrM of TNBC are yet to be identified.
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Inkjet-printing-based soft-etching technique for high-speed polymer ambipolar integrated circuits.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Here, we report the so-called soft-etching process based on an inkjet-printing technique for realizing high-performance printed and flexible organic electronic circuits with conjugated polymer semiconductors. The soft-etching process consists of selective etching of the gate made of a dielectric polymer and deposition of another gate dielectric layer. The method enables the use of a more desirable polymer dielectric layer for the p-channel and n-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in complementary integrated circuits. We fabricated high-performance ambipolar complementary inverters and ring oscillators (ROs) using poly([N,N-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5-(2,2-bithiophene)) (P(NDI2OD-T2)) as the active layer as well as poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) and polystyrene ((PS)/P(VDF-TrFE)) as dielectric materials for the p-channel (pull-up transistor) and n-channel (pull-down transistor) OFETs, respectively. The PS dielectric polymer was selectively etched by inkjetting of n-butyl acetate as an orthogonal solvent for P(NDI2OD-T2). Employing this methodology, the five-stage ambipolar ROs with P(NDI2OD-T2) exhibited an oscillation frequency of ?16.7 kHz, which was much higher than that of non-soft-etched ROs with a single dielectric layer (P(VDF-TrFE); ?3 kHz).
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High performance and stable N-channel organic field-effect transistors by patterned solvent-vapor annealing.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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We report the fabrication of high-performance, printed, n-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on an N,N-dialkyl-substituted-(1,7&1,6)-dicyanoperylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) derivative, PDI-RCN2, optimized by the solvent-vapor annealing (SVA) process. We performed a systematic study on the influence of solubility and the chemical structure of a solvent used for the SVA process on the ordering and orientation of PDI-RCN2 molecules in the thin film. The PDI-RCN2 film showed improved crystallinity under vapor annealing with the aliphatic 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) as a marginal solvent. The n-type OFETs with DCE-vapor-annealed PDI-RCN2 show highly improved charge-carrier mobility of ~0.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and higher stability under gate bias stress than the pristine OFETs. This large performance improvement was mainly attributed to increased crystallinity of the semiconductor thin film, enhancing ?-? stacking. We also introduced a new method to pattern crystallinity of a certain region in the semiconducting film by selective exposure to the solvent vapor using a shadow mask. The crystal-patterned PDI-RCN2 OFETs exhibit decreased off-currents by ~10× and improved gate bias stability by minimizing crosstalk, reducing leakage current between devices, and reducing the density of charge trap states of the organic semiconductor.
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Conjugated polymer chain and crystallite orientation induced by vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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We report a method for controlling the orientations of conjugated polymers in the active layer of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) by annealing the film at the melting temperature in a vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) template under various load pressures. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) [P3HT] molecules are effectively aligned in the melting state annealing at 240 °C for 30 min, as a result of intermolecular ?-? and CH3-? interactions between the polymer and the VA-CNTs, which are separated from the conjugated polymer film after cooling to room temperature. In-plane and out-of-plane X-ray diffraction results show that the melt-annealed P3HT film with VA-CNTs has better crystallite ordering than a pristine 80 °C baked film and a melt-annealed film without VA-CNTs, and a larger number of crystallites in the treated P3HT film are oriented in the [100] direction, which is normal to the substrate. When we used the melt-aligned P3HT film with VA-CNTs as the active layer in OTFTs, the P3HT OTFT exhibits a better field-effect mobility value of 0.12 cm(2)/(V s) than a simply melt-annealed device without VA-CNTs [0.06 cm(2)/(V s)].
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Fine-Scale Mapping of the FGFR2 Breast Cancer Risk Locus: Putative Functional Variants Differentially Bind FOXA1 and E2F1.
Kerstin B Meyer, Martin O'Reilly, Kyriaki Michailidou, Saskia Carlebur, Stacey L Edwards, Juliet D French, Radhika Prathalingham, Joe Dennis, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Ines de Santiago, John L Hopper, Helen Tsimiklis, Carmel Apicella, Melissa C Southey, Marjanka K Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Laura J van 't Veer, Frans B Hogervorst, Kenneth Muir, Artitaya Lophatananon, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Pornthep Siriwanarangsan, Peter A Fasching, Michael P Lux, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Olivia Fletcher, Nichola Johnson, Elinor J Sawyer, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Federick Marme, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Barbara Burwinkel, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Florence Menegaux, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Roger L Milne, M Pilar Zamora, Jose I Arias, Javier Benitez, Susan Neuhausen, Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas, Christina C Dur, Hermann Brenner, Heiko Muller, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Alfons Meindl, Rita K Schmutzler, Christoph Engel, Nina Ditsch, Hiltrud Brauch, Thomas Brüning, Yon-Dschun Ko, , Heli Nevanlinna, Taru A Muranen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Keitaro Matsuo, Hidemi Ito, Hiroji Iwata, Yasushi Yatabe, Thilo Dörk, Sonja Helbig, Natalia V Bogdanova, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Anna H Wu, Chiu-Chen Tseng, David Van Den Berg, Daniel O Stram, Diether Lambrechts, Bernard Thienpont, Marie-Rose Christiaens, Ann Smeets, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Bernardo Bonanni, Loris Bernard, Fergus J Couch, Janet E Olson, Xianshu Wang, Kristen Purrington, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto, Catriona McLean, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Soo-Hwang Teo, Cheng-Har Yip, Sze-Yee Phuah, Vessela Kristensen, Grethe Grenaker Alnæs, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Wei Zheng, Sandra Deming-Halverson, Martha Shrubsole, Jirong Long, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Saila Kauppila, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Sandrine Tchatchou, Peter Devilee, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline M Seynaeve, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Jonine Figueroa, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Kamila Czene, Hartef Darabi, Kimael Eriksson, Maartje J Hooning, John W M Martens, Ans M W van den Ouweland, Carolien H M van Deurzen, Per Hall, Jingmei Li, Jianjun Liu, Keith Humphreys, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Lu, Yu-Tang Gao, Hui Cai, Angela Cox, Malcolm W R Reed, William Blot, Lisa B Signorello, Qiuyin Cai, Paul D P Pharoah, Maya Ghoussaini, Patricia Harrington, Jonathan Tyrer, Daehee Kang, Ji-Yeob Choi, Sue K Park, Dong-Young Noh, Mikael Hartman, Miao Hui, Wei-Yen Lim, Shaik A Buhari, Ute Hamann, Asta Försti, Thomas Rüdiger, Hans-Ulrich Ulmer, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska, Katarzyna Durda, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Valerie Gaborieau, Paul Brennan, James McKay, Celine Vachon, Susan Slager, Florentia Fostira, Robert Pilarski, Chen-Yang Shen, Chia-Ni Hsiung, Pei-Ei Wu, Ming-Feng Hou, Anthony Swerdlow, Alan Ashworth, Nick Orr, Minouk J Schoemaker, Bruce A J Ponder, Alison M Dunning, Douglas F Easton.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of European ancestry, 9 Asian ancestry studies (n = 13,983), and 2 African ancestry studies (n = 2,028) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified three statistically independent risk signals within the locus. Within risk signals 1 and 3, genetic analysis identified five and two variants, respectively, highly correlated with the most strongly associated SNPs. By using a combination of genetic fine mapping, data on DNase hypersensitivity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to study protein-DNA binding, we identified rs35054928, rs2981578, and rs45631563 as putative functional SNPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that FOXA1 preferentially bound to the risk-associated allele (C) of rs2981578 and was able to recruit ER? to this site in an allele-specific manner, whereas E2F1 preferentially bound the risk variant of rs35054928. The risk alleles were preferentially found in open chromatin and bound by Ser5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, suggesting that the risk alleles are associated with changes in transcription. Chromatin conformation capture demonstrated that the risk region was able to interact with the promoter of FGFR2, the likely target gene of this risk region. A role for FOXA1 in mediating breast cancer susceptibility at this locus is consistent with the finding that the FGFR2 risk locus primarily predisposes to estrogen-receptor-positive disease.
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Establishment and characterization of seven human breast cancer cell lines including two triple-negative cell lines.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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Permanently growing cell lines can be invaluable because of their usefulness in a variety of experimental situations. We report the characteristics of seven cell lines designated, SNU-306, SNU-334, SNU-1528, SNU-1553, SNU-1581, SNU-1958 and SNU-2372, which were established from three primary carcinomas, two pleural effusion, one pericardial effusion and one ascitic fluid samples obtained from seven Korean breast carcinoma patients. The histopathology of the primary tumors and their in vitro growth characteristics are described. DNA fingerprinting analysis and genetic alterations in the p53 and EGFR genes were conducted. The expression levels of the ER-?, PR, C-erbB2, E-cadherin, COX-2, MDR and MXR genes were investigated and sensitivity to anticancer drugs was screened. Growth was as adherent cells (four cell lines), floating aggregates (one cell line) and both (two cell lines). All lines were free of mycoplasma or bacteria and were proven unique by DNA fingerprinting analysis using 18 microsatellite markers. Estrogen receptor (ER) mRNA was highly expressed in five cell lines and low or undetectable in SNU-1958 and SNU-2372. Progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA was expressed only in the SNU-306. SNU-1958 and SNU-2372 were hormone receptor-negative and C-erbB2-negative (triple-negative). SNU-1528 had an in-frame deletion of 42 base pairs of p53 gene and showed over 20-fold resistance for taxol compared to the other cell lines. There were no mutation in the EGFR gene; COX-2 was expressed in four cell lines and MXR was expressed in two cell lines. These well-characterized seven breast cancer cell lines, which include two triple-negative cell lines, will be useful for the study of breast cancer biology.
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Prognostic effect of preoperative Serum estradiol level in postmenopausal breast cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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The prognostic role of serum estrogen level in breast cancer patients is unclear. We investigated the prognostic importance of preoperative serum estradiol (E2) level in postmenopausal women according to their estrogen receptor (ER) status.
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Synthesis of poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) derivatives containing an oxadiazole pendant group and their applications to organic electronic devices.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives with 2,5-diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-diyl (OXD) as the side chain, poly[2-{4-[5-(4-(heptyloxy)phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yI]phenyl-oxy}-1,4-phenylene-vinylene] (OXH-PPV), poly[2-{4-[5-(4-(heptyloxy)phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadia-zole-2-yl]phenyl-oxy}-1,4-phenylenevinylene-co-2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (OXH-PPV-co-MEH-PPV), and poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyl-oxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV), were synthesized via a modified Gilch route. The electron-deficient oxadiazole moiety was introduced on the side chain of the polymer backbone to increase the electron-affinity of the polymers. The electroluminescent (EL) properties of the resulting polymers as an active layer, were investigated by the fabrication of single-layer LEDs and the devices using OXH-PPV-co-MEH-PPV showed better EL properties than those using pure MEH-PPV. Also, to investigate the switching properties of the resulting polymers as an active layer, OFET devices were fabricated in a top-contact/bottom-gate configuration. The resulting FETs exhibited typical p-channel characteristics, field-effect mobility of 6.5 x 10(-4) - 7.0 x 10(-5) cm2 V(-1) s(-1), and on-off ratio of about 10(4)-10(5).
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Coherent X-ray scattering beamline at port 9C of Pohang Light Source II.
J Synchrotron Radiat
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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The coherent X-ray scattering beamline at the 9C port of the upgraded Pohang Light Source (PLS-II) at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory in Korea is introduced. This beamline provides X-rays of 5-20?keV, and targets coherent X-ray experiments such as coherent diffraction imaging and X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. The main parameters of the beamline are summarized, and some preliminary experimental results are described.
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Efficient charge injection in p-type polymer field-effect transistors with low-cost molybdenum electrodes through V2O5 interlayer.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Here we report high-performance polymer OFETs with a low-cost Mo source/drain electrode by efficient charge injection through the formation of a thermally deposited V2O5 thin film interlayer. A thermally deposited V2O5 interlayer is formed between a regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rr-P3HT) or a p-type polymer semiconductor containing dodecyl-substituted thienylenevinylene (TV) and dodecylthiophene (PC12TV12T) and the Mo source/drain electrode. The P3HT or PC12TV12T OFETs with the bare Mo electrode exhibited lower charge carrier mobility than those with Au owing to a large barrier height for hole injection (0.5-1.0 eV). By forming the V2O5 layer, the P3HT or PC12TV12T OFETs with V2O5 on the Mo electrode exhibited charge carrier mobility comparable to that of a pristine Au electrode. Best P3HT or PC12TV12T OFETs with 5 nm thick V2O5 on Mo electrode show the charge carrier mobility of 0.12 and 0.38 cm(2)/(V s), respectively. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy results exhibited the work-function of the Mo electrode progressively changed from 4.3 to 4.9 eV with an increase in V2O5 thickness from 0 to 5 nm, respectively. Interestingly, the V2O5-deposited Mo exhibits comparable Rc to Au, which mainly results from the decreased barrier height for hole carrier injection from the low-cost metal electrode to the frontier molecular orbital of the p-type polymer semiconductor after the incorporation of the transition metal oxide hole injection layer, such as V2O5. This enables the development of large-area, low-cost electronics with the Mo electrodes and V2O5 interlayer.
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Cerebellar atrophy in patients with subcortical-type vascular cognitive impairment.
Cerebellum
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Recent studies suggest that the role of the cerebellum extends into cognitive regulation and that subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) can result in cerebellar atrophy. However, there has been no evaluation of the cerebellar volume in the preclinical stage of SVaD. We aimed to compare cerebellar volume among patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) and evaluate which factors could have contributed to the cerebellar volume. Participants were composed of 355 patients with aMCI, svMCI, Alzheimers disease (AD), and SVaD. Cerebellar volumes were measured using automated methods. A direct comparison of the cerebellar volume in SVaD and AD groups showed that the SVaD group had a statistically smaller cerebellar volume than the AD group. Additionally, the svMCI group had a smaller cerebellar volume than the aMCI group, with the number of lacunes (especially in the supratentorial regions) being associated with cerebellar volume. Cerebellar volumes were associated with some neuropsychological tests, digit span backward and ideomotor apraxia. These findings suggest that cerebellar atrophy may be useful in differentiating subtypes of dementia and the cerebellum plays a potential role in cognition.
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Association between chronological change of reproductive factors and breast cancer risk defined by hormone receptor status: results from the Seoul Breast Cancer Study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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Lifestyle factors have been chronologically changed into western style ones, which could result in the rapid increase of breast cancer incidence in Korea. It is plausible that reproductive factors through hormonal mechanisms are differentially related to the risk of breast cancer subtypes. We investigated the association of reproductive risk factors on breast cancer by birth year groups and also evaluated the differential associations on the hormone receptor-defined subtypes. Using the data from the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SeBCS), a multicenter case-control study, 3,332 breast cancer patients and 3,620 control subjects were analyzed. The distribution of subtypes among cases was as follows: 61.0 % estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, 51.9 % progesterone receptor (PR)-positive, and 43.4 % both ER/PR-positive status, respectively. Polytomous logistic regression and Wald tests for heterogeneity have been used across the subtypes. The frequencies of reproductive-related risk factors including early age at menarche, nulligravid, age at first full-term pregnancy (FFTP), duration of estrogen exposure before FFTP (EEBF), less number of children, never breastfeeding, and short duration of breastfeeding has increased as women were born later in both cases and controls, respectively (p trend < 0.0001. Among breast cancer patients, either ER- or PR-positive subtypes were increased in women born in 1960s compared to women born in 1940s. Early age at menarche increased the risk of breast cancer regardless of the subtypes while nulligravid, late age at FFTP, and longer duration of EEBP were associated with hormone receptor-positive cancer risk only (p heterogeneity < 0.05), which associations were stronger among women born later. Our results suggest that the associations of age at menarche, parity, age at FFTP, and duration of EEBF with breast cancer risk were different based on the hormone receptor status and birth year groups in Korea.
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A New Classification System for Ischemia Using a Combination of Deep and Periventricular White Matter Hyperintensities.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS) group developed a new classification system for ischemia using a combination of deep and periventricular white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the validity of the CREDOS ischemia classification system. A total of 352 patients with cognitive impairments were included. Their WMH scores were rated using the CREDOS WMH visual rating scale. These patients were divided into 3 groups according to the CREDOS ischemia classification system. The volume of WMH was also automatically measured. The number of lacunes and microbleeds (MBs) were counted. The CREDOS ischemia classification system was revised with factor analysis using vascular risk factors and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) markers (WMH volume, lacunes, and MBs). External validation was performed in another group of patients with cognitive impairment using multinomial logistic regression analysis. The CREDOS WMH visual rating scale showed excellent correlation with the automatically measured volume of WMH. The factor analysis showed that the severe group was expanded to D3P1 and D3P2 in the revised CREDOS ischemia classification system. In the validation group, the presence of vascular risk factors and the severity of CVD markers could be distinguished according to the revised CREDOS ischemia classification. We validated a newly developed classification system for ischemia. This simple visual classification system was capable of providing information on vascular risk factors and CVD markers by simply rating WMH on magnetic resonance imaging.
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New breast cancer risk variant discovered at 10q25 in East Asian women.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Recently, 41 new genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer risk were identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in European descendants. Most of these risk variants have not been directly replicated in Asian populations.
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Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning X-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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We report a study of the oxidation process of individual PtNi nanoparticles (NPs) conducted with a novel scanning multi-layer Laue lens X-ray microscope. The elemental maps reveal that alloyed PtNi NPs were transformed into Pt/NiO core-shell NPs by thermal oxidation. The observations furthermore indicate that a coalescence of Pt/NiO core-shell NPs occurred during oxidation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.