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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A polymorphism (-455G>A) in the ?-fibrinogen gene is associated with an increased risk of cerebral infarction in the Chinese population: A meta-analysis.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Previous studies have investigated the association between a polymorphism (-455G>A) in the ?-fibrinogen gene and the risk of cerebral infarction. However, these results are controversial. To shed light on these inconclusive findings, we performed a meta-analysis of studies relating the ?-fibrinogen genetic polymorphism (-455G>A) to the risk of cerebral infarction.
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The Fluence Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Inflammation, Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes, and Synovial Apoptosis in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis.
Photomed Laser Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) operating at low and high fluences on joint inflammation, fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), and synovial apoptosis in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Background data: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by pronounced inflammation and FLS proliferation within affected joints. Certain data indicate that LLLT is effective in patients with inflammation caused by RA; however, the fluence effects of LLLT on synovium are unclear. Methods: Monoarthritis was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300?g) via intraarticular injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the tibiotarsal joint. Animals were irradiated 72?h after CFA administration with a 780?nm GaAlAs laser at 4.5?J/cm(2) (30 mW, 30?sec/spot) and 72?J/cm(2) (80 mW, 180?sec/spot) daily for 10 days. After LLLT, the animals were euthanized and their arthritic ankles were collected for histopathological analysis, immunoassays of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)3 and 5B5, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Results: LLLT at a fluence of 4.5?J/cm(2) significantly reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells and expressions of TNF-?-, MMP3- and 5B5-like immunoreactivities, as well as resulting in more TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells in the synovium. No significant changes were observed in these biochemicals and inflammation in arthritic animals treated with 72?J/cm(2). Conclusions: LLLT with low fluence is highly effective in reducing inflammation to sites of injury by decreasing the numbers of FLS, inflammatory cells, and mediators in the CFA-induced arthritic model. These data will be of value in designing clinical trials of LLLT for RA.
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Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus using HbA1c in Asians: Relationship between HbA1c and Retinopathy in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Context: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ?6.5% (47.5 mmol/mol) has recently been included as a criterion for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. It is unclear whether this criterion is appropriate in Asians. Objective: To examine the relationship between HbA1c and diabetes-specific moderate-retinopathy in Asian ethnic groups. Design, setting and participants: Four independent population: based cross-sectional studies (2004-2011) in Singapore representing the three major Asian ethnic groups (n=13,170 adults aged ?25 years, Chinese =5,834, Malays=3,596, and Indians=3,740). Main outcome: Moderate-retinopathy was assessed from digital retinal photographs and defined as level >43 using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for detecting moderate-retinopathy were compared across ethnic groups at different HbA1c cut-points. Results: HbA1c levels were higher in Indians and Malays compared to Chinese (p<0.001). The prevalence of moderate-retinopathy below HbA1c <6.5% was <1% in all ethnic groups. At HbA1c ?6.5%, the sensitivity for detecting moderate-retinopathy was lower in Chinese compared to Indians and Malays (75.8% vs. 86.0%, 85.3%), but specificity (89.7% vs. 71.9%, 76.3%) was higher; however, PPV and NPV were similar among Chinese, Indians, and Malays (10.5%, 12.3%, 12.4%; 99.6%, 99.1%, 99.2%). The AUCs were similar across all three ethnic groups (0.861, 0.851 and 0.853). Conclusions: Our study supports the use of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes in Asians. Despite some inter-ethnic variation in the relationship of HbA1c and retinopathy, a cut-point of 6.5% performs reasonably well in the three major Asian ethnic groups.
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Interfacial Adsorption of Peptides in Oil-in-Water Emulsions Costabilized by Tween 20 and Antioxidative Potato Peptides.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Previous studies have shown that soybean oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions prepared with potato protein hydrolysate (PPH) are remarkably stable against oxidative changes. It was hypothesized that partitioning of peptides at the emulsion interface plays an important role in this phenomenon. The present study was conducted to examine the structural characteristics of the interfacial membrane. As revealed by atomic force microscopy, oil droplets costabilized with PPH and Tween 20 were more uniform than those stabilized with Tween 20 only (control). Confocal laser scanning microscopy images indicated the existence of peptides directly anchored into the interfacial membrane. The adsorbed peptides were mostly short oligopeptides composed of two to seven amino acids, of which Ser-Phe-Asp-Leu(Ile)-Lys matched the sequence of patatin. The adsorption of these peptides appeared to both improve the integrity of the interface and contribute to the oxidative stability of the emulsions. Furthermore, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy illustrated the morphology of the interfacial membrane as a noncontinuous short fibril structure. Partitioning of antioxidative peptides in the interfacial membrane provided steric hindrances and electrostatic effects to inhibit oxidation.
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Immunogenicity study of Globo H analogues with modification at the reducing or non-reducing end of the tumor antigen.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Globo H-based therapeutic cancer vaccines have been tested in clinical trials for the treatment of late stage breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. In this study, we explored Globo H analogue antigens with an attempt to enhance the antigenic properties in vaccine design. The Globo H analogues with modification at the reducing or non-reducing end were synthesized using chemoenzymatic methods, and these modified Globo H antigens were then conjugated with the carrier protein diphtheria toxoid cross-reactive material (CRM) 197 (DT), and combined with a glycolipid C34 as an adjuvant designed to induce a class switch to form the vaccine candidates. After Balb/c mice injection, the immune response was studied by a glycan array and the results showed that modification at the C-6 position of reducing end glucose of Globo H with the fluoro, azido or phenyl group elicited IgG antibody response to specifically recognize Globo H (GH) and the GH-related epitopes, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA3) (also called Gb5) and stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 (SSEA4). However, only the modification of Globo H with the azido group at the C-6 position of the non-reducing end fucose could elicit a strong IgG immune response. Moreover, the antibodies induced by these vaccines were shown to recognize GH expressing tumor cells (MCF-7) and mediate the complement-dependent cell cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Our data suggest a new potential approach to cancer vaccine development.
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The impact of IKZF1 deletion on the prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: An updated meta-analysis.
Cancer Biomark
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Various studies have reported that IKZF1 deletion (IKZF1-d) is a poor prognostic factor for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients, however they do not agree on the level of significance for this deletion.
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A rare case of mixed mucinous cystadenoma with serous cystadenoma of the pancreas treated by laparoscopic central pancreatectomy.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Mixed mucinous cystadenoma with serous cystadenoma of the pancreas is rare. There have been only two previous case reports in the English-language literature. We present a case of a 46-year-old woman who was diagnosed with mixed mucinous cystadenoma with serous cystadenoma of the pancreas. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic neoplasm in the dorsal/proximal body of the pancreas with a clear-margin multilocular cavity and enhanced internal septum. The patient underwent laparoscopic central pancreatectomy. The diagnosis of mixed mucinous cystadenoma with serous cystadenoma of the pancreas was confirmed by pathological examination. The patient was followed up for 3 months and there were no signs of recurrence, or pancreatic exocrine or endocrine insufficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case treated by laparoscopic central pancreatectomy.
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A Test of the Stress-Buffering Model of Social Support in Smoking Cessation: Is the Relationship Between Social Support and Time to Relapse Mediated by Reduced Withdrawal Symptoms?
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Social support has been linked to quitting smoking, but the mechanisms by which social support affects cessation are poorly understood. The current study tested a stress-buffering model of social support, which posits that social support protects or "buffers" individuals from stress related to quitting smoking. We hypothesized that social support would be negatively associated with risk of relapse, and that this effect would be mediated by reduced withdrawal and depressive symptoms (i.e., cessation-related stress) over time. Further, we predicted that trait neuroticism would moderate this mediational effect, such that individuals high in negative affectivity would show the greatest stress-buffering effects of social support.
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Antagonistic interaction between cordyceps sinensis and exercise on protection in fulminant hepatic failure.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Herb supplements are widely used by Asian athletes; however, there are no studies evaluated the co-effects of exercise and herb supplements on hepatic failure. In this study, D-GalN/LPS-induced fulminant hepatic failure was used to examine whether there are synergistic or antagonistic effects of exercise and Cordyceps sinensis (CS). Mice were randomly divided into eight groups: control, swimming exercise for four weeks, D-GalN/LPS challenge, swimming exercise plus D-GalN/LPS, 20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg CS pretreated for four weeks plus D-GalN/LPS, and swimming exercise combined with 20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg CS pretreatment plus D-GalN/LPS. Either exercise or 40 mg/kg CS pretreatment alone significantly decreased D-GalN/LPS-induced TNF-?, AST, NO, apoptotic-related proteins, and hepatocyte apoptosis. Exercise or 40 mg/kg CS alone increased the IL-10 and D-GalN/LPS-suppressed Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) level. However, no protective or worse effect was observed in the mice treated with exercise preconditioning combined 40 mg/kg CS compared to those receive exercise alone or CS alone. TNF-?, AST, NO level, caspase-3 activity, and hepatocytes apoptosis were not significantly different in the exercise combined with 40 mg/kg CS compared to mice challenged with D-GalN/LPS. The IL-10 level was significantly decreased after D-GalN/LPS stimulation in the mice received exercise combined with 40 mg/kg CS, indicating the combination strongly reduced the anti-inflammatory effect. In summary, preconditioning exercise or CS pretreatment alone can protect mice from septic liver damage, but in contrast, the combination of exercise and CS does not produce any benefit. The antagonistic interactions between exercise and CS imply taking CS is not recommended for people who undertake regular exercise.
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Piecewise cause-specific association analyses of multivariate untied or tied competing risks data.
Int J Biostat
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Abstract In this paper we extend the bivariate hazard ratio to multivariate competing risks data and show that it is equivalent to the cause-specific cross hazard ratio. Two approaches are proposed to estimate these two equivalent association measures. One extends the plug-in estimator, and the other adapts the pseudo-likelihood estimator for bivariate survival data to multivariate competing risks data. The asymptotic properties of the extended estimators are established by using empirical processes techniques. The extended plug-in and pseudo-likelihood estimators have comparable performance with the existing U-statistic when the data have no tied events. However, in many applications, there are tied events in which all the three estimators are found to produce biased results. To our best knowledge, we are not aware of any association analysis for multivariate competing risks data that has considered tied events. Hence we propose a modified U-statistic to specifically handle tied observations. The modified U-statistic clearly outperforms the other estimators when there are rounding errors. All methods are applied to the Cache County Study to examine mother-child and sibship associations in dementia among this aging population, where the event times are rounded to the nearest integers. The modified U performs consistently with our simulation results and provides more reliable results in the presence of tied events.
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NIR Photocleavage of the Si-C Bond in Axial Si-Phthalocyanines.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The use of light-triggered photolysis provides a powerful tool for unique syntheses and for applications that require remote operation such as drug delivery or molecular switches. Here, we describe the photochemistry of a recently developed alkylsilicon phthalocyanine Pc 227, which undergoes an exchange of the alkyl ligand for a ligand derived from the solvent when the axial Si-C bond is photolyzed in a solvent with low-energy visible light. In this work with methanol as the solvent, we investigate the formation of the methoxy analogue of the therapeutic drug Pc 4, (termed Pc 233) upon irradiation. Using steady-state spectroscopy and characterization of the photoproducts, the competing pathways between direct ligand exchange on the central silicon atom and delocalization of the radical produced by homolysis on the phthalocyanine ring is observed. The delocalized radical intermediate is quite long-lived. At long times this intermediate decomposes without significant formation of Pc 233. The results of this investigation provide insights into recent work utilizing Pc 227 for drug delivery applications and for future work on the use of phthalocyanines as long-wavelength phototriggers.
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Fast quantification of endogenous carbohydrates in plasma using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Objective: Endogenous carbohydrates in biosamples are frequently highlighted as the most differential metabolites in many metabolomics studies. A simple, fast, simultaneous quantitative method for 16 endogenous carbohydrates in plasma has been developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Method: In order to quantify 16 endogenous carbohydrates in plasma, various conditions, including columns, chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometry conditions, and plasma preparation methods, were investigated. Different conditions in this quantified analysis were performed and optimized. The reproducibility, precision, recovery, and stability of the method were verified. Result: The results indicated that a methanol/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) mixture could effectively and reproducibly precipitate rat plasma proteins. Cold organic solvents coupled with vortex for 1 min and incubated at -20°C for 20 min were the most optimal conditions for protein precipitation and extraction. The results, according to the linearity, recovery, precision, and stability, showed that the method was satisfactory in the quantification of endogenous carbohydrates in rat plasma. Conclusion: The quantified analysis of endogenous carbohydrates in rat plasma performed excellently in the sensitivity, high throughput and simple sample preparation, which met the requirement of quantification in specific expanded metabolomic studies after the global metabolic profiling research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Comparison of Nonlocking Plates and Locking Plates for Intraarticular Calcaneal Fracture.
Foot Ankle Int
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The optimal treatment of displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures remains challenging. Currently, there is no uniform method to treat such fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the radiographic and clinical outcome of nonlocking plates and locking plates in the treatment of intraarticular calcaneal fractures.
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Blood-Brain Barrier Permeable Gold Nanoparticles: An Efficient Delivery Platform for Enhanced Malignant Glioma Therapy and Imaging.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains a formidable obstacle in medicine, preventing efficient penetration of chemotherapeutic and diagnostic agents to malignant gliomas. Here, a transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide-modified gold nanoparticle platform (TAT-Au NP) with a 5 nm core size is demonstrated to be capable of crossing the BBB efficiently and delivering cargoes such as the anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) and Gd(3+) contrast agents to brain tumor tissues. Treatment of mice bearing intracranial glioma xenografts with pH-sensitive Dox-conjugated TAT-Au NPs via a single intravenous administration leads to significant survival benefit when compared to the free Dox. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that TAT-Au NPs are capable of delivering Gd(3+) chelates for enhanced brain tumor imaging with a prolonged retention time of Gd(3+) when compared to the free Gd(3+) chelates. Collectively, these results show promising applications of the TAT-Au NPs for enhanced malignant brain tumor therapy and non-invasive imaging.
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Serum Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in post-stroke depression.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Depression is a frequent mood disorder that affects around a third of stroke patients and has been associated with poorer outcome. Our aim was to determine whether there is a relationship between serum Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and post-stroke depression (PSD).
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Role of wavelength dependent sensitivity in affecting the crosstalk mitigation of homogeneous multicore fiber: an analytical estimation approach.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The mitigation of both crosstalk and its wavelength dependent sensitivity for homogeneous multicore fiber (MCF) is theoretically investigated using an analytical evaluation approach. It is found there exists a performance trade-off between the crosstalk mitigation and its wavelength dependent sensitivity suppression. After characterizing the fabricated homogeneous MCFs, we verify that although the increasing core pitch can mitigate the crosstalk, the wavelength dependent sensitivity is drastically degraded from 0.07dB/nm to 0.11dB/nm, which is harmful to the dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) transmission over C + L band using MCF.
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Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of the rat Pax6 5a orthologous splicing variant.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Pax6 functions as a pleiotropic regulator in eye development and neurogenesis. Its splice variant Pax6 5a has been cloned in many vertebrate species including human and mouse, but never in rat. This study focused on the cloning and characterization of the Pax6 5a orthologous splicing variant in rat. It was cloned from Sprague-Dawley rats 10 days post coitum (E10) by RT-PCR and was sequenced for comparison with Pax6 sequences in the GenBank by BLAST. The rat Pax6 5a was revealed to contain an additional 42 bp insertion at the paired domain. At the nucleotide level, the rat Pax6 5a coding sequence (1,311 bp) had a higher degree of homology to the mouse (96% identical) than to the human (93% identical) sequence. At the amino acid (aa) level, rat PAX6 5a shares 99.8% identity with the mouse sequence and 99.5% with the human sequence. The splice variant is preferentially expressed in the rat E10 embryonic headfolds and not in the trunk of neurula. Its effects on the proliferation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were preliminarily evaluated by the MTT assay. Both pLEGFP-Pax6 5a-transfected cells and pLEGFP-Pax6-transfected cells exhibited a similar growth curve (P>0.05), suggesting that the Pax6 5a has a similar effect on the proliferation of rMSCs as Pax6.
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Three cases of laparoscopic total gastrectomy with intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy for gastric cancer in remnant stomach.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Gastric cancer in remnant stomach is a rare tumor but with poor prognosis. Compared with conventional open surgery, laparoscopic gastrectomy has potential benefits for these patients due to advantages resulting from its minimally invasive approach. Herein, we report on three patients with gastric cancer in remnant stomach who underwent laparoscopic total gastrectomy with intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy successfully. The operative time was 280, 250 and 225 minutes, the estimated blood loss was 100, 80 and 50 ml and the length of postoperative hospital stay was seven, eight and nine days respectively. Our experience has suggested that laparoscopic total gastrectomy with intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy can be a safe, feasible and promising option for patients with gastric cancer in remnant stomach.
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The art of attraction: applications of multifunctional magnetic nanomaterials for malignant glioma.
Expert Opin Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Malignant gliomas remain one of medicine's most daunting unsolved clinical problems. The development of new technologies is urgently needed to improve the poor prognosis of patients suffering from these brain tumors. Magnetic nanomaterials are appealing due to unique properties that allow for noninvasive brain tumor diagnostics and therapeutics in one multifunctional platform.
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Cordyceps sinensis prevents apoptosis in mouse liver with D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has long been considered to be an herbal medicine and has been used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The present study examined the cytoprotective properties of C. sinensis on D(+)-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice were randomly assigned into control, GalN/LPS, CS 20 mg and CS 40 mg groups (C. sinensis, oral gavage, five days/week, four weeks). After receiving saline or C. sinensis, mice were intraperitoneally given GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (10 ?g/kg). The effects of C. sinensis on TNF-?, IL-10, AST, NO, SOD, and apoptoticrelated proteins after the onset of endotoxin intoxication were determined. Data demonstrated that GalN/LPS increased hepatocyte degeneration, circulating AST, TNF-?, IL-10, and hepatic apoptosis and caspase activity. C. sinensis pre-treatment reduced AST, TNF-?, and NO and increased IL-10 and SOD in GalN/LPS induced fulminant hepatic failure. C. sinensis attenuated the apoptosis of hepatocytes, as evidenced by the TUNEL and capase-3, 6 activity analyses. In summary, C. sinensis alleviates GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by modulating the cytokine response and inhibiting apoptosis.
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Durable Therapeutic Efficacy Utilizing Combinatorial Blockade against IDO, CTLA-4, and PD-L1 in Mice with Brain Tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common form of malignant glioma in adults. Although protected by both the blood-brain and blood-tumor barriers, GBMs are actively infiltrated by T cells. Previous work has shown that IDO, CTLA-4, and PD-L1 are dominant molecular participants in the suppression of GBM immunity. This includes IDO-mediated regulatory T-cell (Treg; CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)) accumulation, the interaction of T-cell-expressed, CTLA-4, with dendritic cell-expressed, CD80, as well as the interaction of tumor- and/or macrophage-expressed, PD-L1, with T-cell-expressed, PD-1. The individual inhibition of each pathway has been shown to increase survival in the context of experimental GBM. However, the impact of simultaneously targeting all three pathways in brain tumors has been left unanswered.
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Systematic review and meta-analysis of safety and efficacy of laparoscopic resection for gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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To evaluate the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic resection for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the stomach with systematic review and meta-analysis.
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Skin rash related to once-daily boosted darunavir-containing antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected Taiwanese: incidence and associated factor.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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The study aimed to investigate the incidence of and associated factors with skin rashes among HIV-infected Taiwanese patients who received once-daily darunavir (DRV) boosted by ritonavir (RTV) (800/100 mg) plus 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs).
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Eicosapentaenoic acid protects against palmitic acid-induced endothelial dysfunction via activation of the AMPK/eNOS pathway.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Recent studies have shown that free fatty acids are associated with chronic inflammation, which may be involved in vascular injury. The intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can decrease cardiovascular disease risks, but the protective mechanisms of EPA on endothelial cells remain unclear. In this study, primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with palmitic acid (PA) were used to explore the protective effects of EPA. The results revealed that EPA attenuated PA-induced cell death and activation of apoptosis-related proteins, such as caspase-3, p53 and Bax. Additionally, EPA reduced the PA-induced increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species, the activation of NADPH oxidase, and the upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). EPA also restored the PA-mediated reduction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. Using AMPK siRNA and the specific inhibitor compound C, we found that EPA restored the PA-mediated inhibitions of eNOS and AKT activities via activation of AMPK. Furthermore, the NF-?B signals that are mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were involved in protective effects of EPA. In summary, these results provide new insight into the possible molecular mechanisms by which EPA protects against atherogenesis via the AMPK/eNOS-related pathway.
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Expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 3f is associated with prognosis in gastric carcinomas.
Oncol Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Eukaryotic initiation factor 3f (eIF3f) expression, which plays an important role in human cancer, is significantly decreased in various types of cancers. The aim of this study was to detect the expression of eIF3f in gastric carcinoma (GC), which until now has not been reported.
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Effectiveness of tigecycline-based versus colistin- based therapy for treatment of pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a critical setting: a matched cohort analysis.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Colistin and tigecycline have both been shown good in vitro activity among multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB). A comparative study of colistin versus tigecycline for MDRAB pneumonia is lacking.
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Near infrared light-triggered drug generation and release from gold nanoparticle carriers for photodynamic therapy.
Small
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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A photoprecursor Pc 227 is covalently bound onto gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) to produce the known photodynamic therapy (PDT) drug Pc 4 upon 660 nm photoirradiation. The photochemical formation of the photoproduct Pc 4 is identified by spectroscopy, chromatography, and mass spectrometry and its PDT efficacy is equal to Pc 4 when administered non-covalently by Au NPs, with the added benefit of improved covalent delivery and targeted NIR-triggered release from the covalent Pc 227-Au NP conjugate, while during transport the attached Pc 227 is quenched by the Au NP and PDT inactivated.
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Plasma levels of glutamate during stroke is associated with development of post-stroke depression.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Depression is a frequent mood disorder that affects around 33% of stroke patient. Our aim was to test the possible association between plasma glutamate and the development of post-stroke depression (PSD) in Chinese patients.
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Role of Ras, ERK, and Akt in glucocorticoid-induced differentiation of embryonic rat somatotropes in vitro.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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This study investigated the roles of Ras, ERK, and Akt in the glucocorticoid-induced differentiation of growth hormone-producing pituitary cells in vitro. Pituicytes isolated from day-18 rat embryos were cultured with 50 mM dexamethasone in addition to specific inhibitors of Ras (manumycin; 0.5, 5, 50 nM), ERK (U0126, 10 ?M), or Akt (LY294002, 25 ?M). Differentiation was assessed using immunofluorescent staining of intracellular growth hormone. Radioimmunoassay and Western blot analyses were used to determine levels of secreted and intracellular growth hormone, respectively. Manumycin reduced the fraction of growth hormone-positive cells and dexamethasone-induced growth hormone secretion in a dose-dependent manner (both P < 0.001). In the absence of dexamethasone, LY294002 and U0126 did not alter the fraction of growth hormone-positive cells or intracellular growth hormone protein expression or secretion. Both LY294002 and U0126 alone significantly attenuated the fraction of dexamethasone-treated GH-positive cells and the secretion of GH compared to those of cells treated only with dexamethasone (50 nM for 44 h or 48 h) (all P < 0.05). Dexamethasone treatment alone did not change GH protein levels. Treatment of cells with a combination of LY294402 and U0126 significantly attenuated the fraction of dexamethasone-treated GH-positive cells, GH protein levels, and GH secretion compared to cells treated with dexamethasone alone (all P < 0.05). Moreover, dexamethasone-induced phosphorylation of GTP-Ras, ERK, and Akt was significantly attenuated by exposure to the respective inhibitors (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results indicate that Ras, ERK, and Akt are key effectors in the glucocorticoid-induced differentiation of growth hormone-secreting cells.
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Puerarin protects endothelial cells from oxidized low density lipoprotein induced injuries via the suppression of LOX-1 and induction of eNOS.
Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induced injury of endothelial cells is considered to be the first step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate some of the effects and mechanisms of puerarin on oxLDL-induced endothelial injuries. We measured cell viability, and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), nitric oxide (NO), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) to evaluate the protective effects of puerarin. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). The expression of lectin-like low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), p38MAPK, and protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylation, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) nuclear translocation, and inhibitor of ?B (I?B) degradation were detected using quantitative real-time PCR or Western blot. The results showed that oxLDL significantly decreased cell viability, increased LDH and IL-8 release, inhibited NO production, and induced COX-2 expression. Pretreatment with puerarin led to a strong inhibition of these effects. OxLDL stimulated the expression of LOX-1, the overproduction of ROS, the phosphorylation of p38MAPK, the dephosphorylation of PKB, activation of NF-?B, and the degradation of I?B. These oxLDL-induced effects were suppressed after puerarin pretreatment. These results suggest that puerarin inhibits oxLDL-induced endothelial cell injuries, at least in part, via inhibition of the LOX-1-mediated p38MAPK-NF-?B inflammatory and the PKB-eNOS signaling pathways.
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Emotion acceptance behavior therapy for anorexia nervosa: A pilot study.
Int J Eat Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary effectiveness of Emotion Acceptance Behavior Therapy (EABT), an outpatient psychotherapeutic intervention for anorexia nervosa (AN) based on a disorder-specific model of symptom maintenance that emphasizes emotion avoidance. EABT combines standard behavioral interventions that are central to the clinical management of AN with evidence-supported strategies to increase emotion awareness, decrease emotion avoidance, and encourage resumption of valued activities and relationships outside the eating disorder.
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Resveratrol enhances chemosensitivity in mouse melanoma model through connexin 43 upregulation.
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Although current studies indicate that resveratrol exhibits potential antitumor activities, the precise mechanisms of its beneficial effects combined with chemotherapy are not fully understood. This work is warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanism of antitumor effects by the combination therapy of resveratrol and cisplatin. The presence of functional gap junctions is highly relevant for the success of chemotherapy. Gap junctions mediate cell communication by allowing the passage of molecules from one cell to another. Connexin (Cx) 43 is ubiquitous and reduced in a variety of tumor cells. Cx43 may influence the response of tumor cells to treatments by facilitating the passage of antitumor drugs or death signals between neighboring tumor cells. Following resveratrol treatment, dose-dependent upregulation of Cx43 expressions was observed. In addition, gap junction intercellular communication was increased. To study the mechanism underlying these resveratrol-induced Cx43 expressions, we found that resveratrol induced a significant increase in mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways. The MAPK inhibitors significantly reduced the expression of Cx43 protein after resveratrol treatment. Specific knockdown of Cx43 resulted in a reduction of cell death after resveratrol and cisplatin treatment. Our results suggest that treatment of resveratrol in tumor leads to increase Cx43 gap junction communication and enhances the combination of resveratrol and cisplatin therapeutic effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.
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Antiretroviral therapy (ART) management of Low-Level Viremia in Taiwan (ALLEVIATE).
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This retrospective study aimed to investigate that if switch of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) would result in viral suppression (<40 copies/mL) at 48 weeks for patients with persistent low-level viremia after having received cART for six months or more at two hospitals designated for HIV care in Taiwan.
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Safety, tolerability and effectiveness of HIV non-occupational prophylaxis in Taiwan.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Increasing numbers of new HIV infection is an important issue of public health in Taiwan. We aim to evaluate the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of HIV non-occupational prophylaxis (nPEP) in Taiwan.
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Safety of rilpivirine plus nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors in HIV-infected Taiwanese with a higher prevalence of hepatitis virus infection.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing rilpivirine plus 2 NRTIs are effective antiretroviral (ARV) regimens for ARV-naive HIV-infected patients who had baseline plasma HIV RNA load (PVL) <5 log10 copies/mL and as switch therapy for those with viral suppression. In this study, we aimed to assess the short-term safety of rilpivirine-containing regimens among HIV-infected patients who initiated or switched to rilpivirine plus two NRTIs in Taiwan.
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Lipid-lowering agents for dyslipidemia in patients who were infected with HIV in Taoyuan, Taiwan.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There is no doubt that highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased the total mortality of HIV-infected populations drastically, and HIV has become a chronic and manageable condition. However, complications after long-term treatment of ART tarnished the great efforts. We aimed to study the effects of add-on lipid-lowering agents on ART for patients who developed hyperlipidemia after HIV treatment. The risk factors for failure to normalize lipid profile were analyzed.
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Influence of the Time of Day and Fasting Duration on Glucose Level following a 1-Hour, 50-Gram Glucose Challenge Test in Pregnant Women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Previous studies have shown that the time of day (TD) of glucose measurement and the fasting duration (FD) influence the glucose levels in adults. Few studies have examined the effects of the TD and FD on the glucose level following a 1-hour, 50-gram glucose challenge test (GCT) in pregnant women in screening for or diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the TD (morning, afternoon, night) and the FD (the time of the last food ingestion as follows: ?1 hour, 1-2 hours, and >2 hours) by examining their combined effects on the glucose levels following a 50-gram GCT in pregnant women.
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Protective effects of let-7a and let-7b on oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced endothelial cell injuries.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lectin-like low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1) is a receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in endothelial cells. The activation of LOX-1 by oxLDL stimulates the apoptosis and dysfunction of endothelial cells, and contributes to atherogenesis. However, the regulatory factors for LOX-1 are still unclear. MicroRNAs are small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expressions at a post-transcriptional level. The let-7 family is the second microRNA been discovered, which plays important roles in cardiovascular diseases. Let-7a and let-7b were predicted to target LOX-1 3'-UTR and be highly expressed in endothelial cells. The present study demonstrated that LOX-1 was a target of let-7a and let-7b. They inhibited the expression of LOX-1 by targeting the positions of 310-316 in LOX-1 3'-UTR. Over-expression of let-7a and let-7b inhibited the oxLDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis, NO deficiency, ROS over-production, LOX-1 upregulation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) downregulation. Moreover, we found that oxLDL treatment induced p38MAPK phosphorylation, NF-?B nuclear translocation, I?B degradation and PKB dephosphorylation. Let-7a or let-7b over-expression attenuated these alterations significantly. The present study may provide a new insight into the protective properties of let-7a and let-7b in preventing the endothelial dysfunction associated with cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis.
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MYC expression in concert with BCL2 and BCL6 expression predicts outcome in Chinese patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent studies provide convincing evidence that a combined immunohistochemical or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) score of MYC, BCL2, BCL6 proteins and MYC translocations predicted outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). However, by far, all these researches are based on Western populations. Therefore, we investigate the prognostic relevance of MYC-, BCL2- and BCL6-rearrangements and protein expression by immunohistochemistry and FISH from 336 de novo DLBCL, NOS treated with CHOP or R-CHOP. Breaks in MYC and BCL6, and fusion in IGH/BCL2 were detected in 9.7%, 20.0%, and 11.1% of the cases, respectively, and were not significantly associated with clinical outcomes. Protein overexpression of MYC (?40%), BCL2 (?70%) and BCL6 (?50%) was encountered in 51%, 51% and 36% of the tumors, respectively. On the basis of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 expression, double-hit scores (DHSs) and triple-hit score (THS) were assigned to all patients with DLBCL. Patients with high MYC/BCL2 DHS, high MYC/BCL6 DHS and high THS had multiple adverse prognostic factors including high LDH level, poor performance status, advanced clinical stage, high International Prognostic Index (IPI) score, and non-germinal center B-cell. In univariate analysis, high MYC/BCL2 DHS, high MYC/BCL6 DHS and high THS were associated with inferior OS and PFS in both CHOP and R-CHOP cohorts (P<0.05). The highly significant correlations with OS and PFS were maintained in multivariate models that controlled for IPI (P<0.05). DLBCLs with high DHSs and high THS share the clinical features and poor prognosis of double-hit lymphoma (P>0.05). These data together suggest that the immunohistochemical DHSs and THS defined a large subset of DLBCLs with double-hit biology and was strongly associated with poor outcome in patients treated with R-CHOP or CHOP.
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Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus among adults at high risk for HIV transmission two decades after implementation of nationwide hepatitis B virus vaccination program in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) after implementation of universal neonatal HBV vaccination and catch-up vaccination programs remains rarely investigated among the adults who were born in the vaccination era (in or after 1986) and engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors.
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Fibrin-binding, peptide amphiphile micelles for targeting glioblastoma.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Glioblastoma-targeted drug delivery systems facilitate efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to malignant gliomas, while minimizing systemic toxicity and side effects. Taking advantage of the fibrin deposition that is characteristic of tumors, we constructed spherical, Cy7-labeled, targeting micelles to glioblastoma through the addition of the fibrin-binding pentapeptide, cysteine-arginine-glutamic acid-lysine-alanine, or CREKA. Conjugation of the CREKA peptide to Cy7-micelles increased the average particle size and zeta potential. Upon intravenous administration to GL261 glioma bearing mice, Cy7-micelles passively accumulated at the brain tumor site via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and Cy7-CREKA-micelles displayed enhanced tumor homing via active targeting as early as 1 h after administration, as confirmed via in vivo and ex vivo imaging and immunohistochemistry. Biodistribution of micelles showed an accumulation within the liver and kidneys, leading to micelle elimination via renal clearance and the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Histological evaluation showed no signs of cytotoxicity or tissue damage, confirming the safety and utility of this nanoparticle system for delivery to glioblastoma. Our findings offer strong evidence for the glioblastoma-targeting potential of CREKA-micelles and provide the foundation for CREKA-mediated, targeted therapy of glioma.
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Let-7 in cardiovascular diseases, heart development and cardiovascular differentiation from stem cells.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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The let-7 family is the second microRNA found in C. elegans. Recent researches have found it is highly expressed in the cardiovascular system. Studies have revealed the aberrant expression of let-7 members in cardiovascular diseases, such as heart hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), myocardial infarction (MI), arrhythmia, angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. Let-7 also participates in cardiovascular differentiation of embryonic stem cells. TLR4, LOX-1, Bcl-xl and AGO1 are by now the identified target genes of let-7. The circulating let-7b is suspected to be the biomarker of acute MI and let-7i, the biomarker of DCM. Further studies are necessary for identifying the gene targets and signaling pathways of let-7 in cardiovascular diseases. Let-7 might be a potential therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases. This review focuses on the research progresses regarding the roles of let-7 in cardiovascular development and diseases.
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An Extract of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Reduces Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Mice.
Toxins (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Cisplatin is used as a treatment for various types of solid tumors. Renal injury severely limits the use of cisplatin. Renal cell apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation contribute to cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Previously, we found that an extract of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Lycogen™) inhibited proinflammatory cytokines and the production of nitric oxide in activated macrophages in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model. Here, we evaluated the effect of Lycogen™, a potent anti-inflammatory agent, in mice with cisplatin-induced renal injury. We found that attenuated renal injury correlated with decreased apoptosis due to a reduction in caspase-3 expression in renal cells. Oral administration of Lycogen™ significantly reduced the expression of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? in mice with renal injury. Lycogen™ reduces renal dysfunction in mice with cisplatin-induced renal injury. The protective effects of the treatment included blockage of the cisplatin-induced elevation in serum urea nitrogen and creatinine. Meanwhile, Lycogen™ attenuated body weight loss and significantly prolonged the survival of mice with renal injury. We propose that Lycogen™ exerts anti-inflammatory activities that represent a promising strategy for the treatment of cisplatin-induced renal injury.
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Quality of life among patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm undergoing endografting in Taiwan.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Background:The use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) as a treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has started to become popular in Taiwan. Quality of life is considered an indicator of clinical outcome, and self-management and health literacy have been identified as significant contributors to quality of life. However, the research on these three variables, and relationships among them in AAA patients who have undergone EVAR, is limited.Aims:The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between self-management, health literacy and quality of life in AAA patients who have undergone EVAR in Taiwan.Methods:This study uses a cross-sectional design with convenience sampling. A total of 105 patients were sampled in the outpatient clinic when they returned for a follow-up visit to a veterans general hospital in Taiwan between May 2011 and June 2012. Four questionnaires (demographic, self-management, health literacy, quality of life) were used to collect data. Regarding the relationship among these variables, Pearson correlations and hierarchical logistic regression were used to analyze the relationship.Results:Self-management has a 73% mediation effect and an indirect effect of 13.51 on the relationship between health literacy and quality of life, while education and exercise habit has a 57% mediation effect and an indirect effect of 6.20 on this same relationship.Conclusion:These findings can be used to identify specific populations who have more risk for worse outcomes. They can then be provided with education to promote exercise behavior and to enhance self-management to achieve better quality of life.
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Laparoscopic transduodenal local resection of periampullary neuroendocrine tumor: a case report.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Studies on laparoscopic transduodenal local resection have not been readily available. Only three cases have been reported in the English-language literature. We describe herein a case of 25-year-old woman with periampullary neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a duodenal papilla mass originated from the submucosa and close to the ampulla. The periampullary tumor was successfully managed with laparoscopic transduodenal local resection without any procedure-related complications. Pathological examination showed a NET (Grade 2) with negative margin. The patient was followed up for six months without signs of recurrence. This case suggests that laparoscopic transduodenal local resection is a feasible procedure in selected patients with periampullary tumor.
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Immunization of fucose-containing polysaccharides from Reishi mushroom induces antibodies to tumor-associated Globo H-series epitopes.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Carbohydrate-based vaccines have shown therapeutic efficacy for infectious disease and cancer. The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) containing complex polysaccharides has been used as antitumor supplement, but the mechanism of immune response has rarely been studied. Here, we show that the mice immunized with a l-fucose (Fuc)-enriched Reishi polysaccharide fraction (designated as FMS) induce antibodies against murine Lewis lung carcinoma cells, with increased antibody-mediated cytotoxicity and reduced production of tumor-associated inflammatory mediators (in particular, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). The mice showed a significant increase in the peritoneal B1 B-cell population, suggesting FMS-mediated anti-glycan IgM production. Furthermore, the glycan microarray analysis of FMS-induced antisera displayed a high specificity toward tumor-associated glycans, with the antigenic structure located in the nonreducing termini (i.e., Fuc?1-2Gal?1-3GalNAc-R, where Gal, GalNAc, and R represent, respectively, D-galactose, D-N-acetyl galactosamine, and reducing end), typically found in Globo H and related tumor antigens. The composition of FMS contains mainly the backbone of 1,4-mannan and 1,6-?-galactan and through the Fuc?1-2Gal, Fuc?1-3/4Man, Fuc?1-4Xyl, and Fuc?1-2Fuc linkages (where Man and Xyl represent d-mannose and d-xylose, respectively), underlying the molecular basis of the FMS-induced IgM antibodies against tumor-specific glycans.
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[Causes of death of advanced schistosomiasis patients in Huacao Town, Shanghai].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To explore the causes of death of advanced schistosomiasis patients in Huacao Town, Shanghai, so as to improve the relief measures for advanced schistosomiasis patients.
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A preclinical evaluation of neural stem cell-based cell carrier for targeted antiglioma oncolytic virotherapy.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Oncolytic adenoviral virotherapy (OV) is a highly promising approach for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In practice, however, the approach is limited by poor viral distribution and spread throughout the tumor mass.
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Strategies to Avoid Returning to Smoking (STARTS): A randomized controlled trial of postpartum smoking relapse prevention interventions.
Contemp Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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The majority of women who quit smoking during pregnancy relapse postpartum and many experience increased depressive symptoms and concerns about body shape and weight. Given the relationship of weight concerns and negative mood to smoking relapse, interventions designed to address the postpartum experience are indicated. However, there are several challenges to research with postpartum women. We describe the rationale of a randomized controlled trial of postpartum smoking relapse prevention intervention and discuss methods to address the specific challenges to recruiting, retaining and conducting health behavior interventions among postpartum former smokers. Pregnant women who had quit smoking for at least one month prior to the 34week of pregnancy and who were motivated to stay quit postpartum were recruited. Women were randomized either to a postpartum specific intervention designed to address concerns about mood, stress and weight using cognitive-behavioral techniques or to a support-only condition designed to control for time and attention. Intervention continues through six months postpartum and women complete follow-up assessments at 12-, 24- and 52-weeks after delivery. Women (n=300) who had quit smoking as a result of pregnancy were recruited and are being followed. The intervention described in this report is designed to address stress, negative mood and concerns about weight that mediate smoking relapse postpartum to sustain abstinence and improve maternal and infant health.
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Systematic review and meta-analysis of laparoscopic and open gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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The use of laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains a controversial topic, mainly because of doubts about its oncologic validity. This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence.
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Metabonomics identifies serum metabolite markers of colorectal cancer.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Recent studies suggest that biofluid-based metabonomics may identify metabolite markers promising for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis. We report here a follow-up replication study, after a previous CRC metabonomics study, aiming to identify a distinct serum metabolic signature of CRC with diagnostic potential. Serum metabolites from newly diagnosed CRC patients (N = 101) and healthy subjects (N = 102) were profiled using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) and ultraperformance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOFMS). Differential metabolites were identified with statistical tests of orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (VIP > 1) and the Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05). With a total of 249 annotated serum metabolites, we were able to differentiate CRC patients from the healthy controls using an orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) in a learning sample set of 62 CRC patients and 62 matched healthy controls. This established model was able to correctly assign the rest of the samples to the CRC or control groups in a validation set of 39 CRC patients and 40 healthy controls. Consistent with our findings from the previous study, we observed a distinct metabolic signature in CRC patients including tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, urea cycle, glutamine, fatty acids, and gut flora metabolism. Our results demonstrated that a panel of serum metabolite markers is of great potential as a noninvasive diagnostic method for the detection of CRC.
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Institutional incentives for altruism: gifting blood in China.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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In mainland China, the motivation behind voluntary blood donation is a relatively new and understudied behavior. In recent times provincial governments in China have implemented various institutional incentive measures. However, little is known regarding the effectiveness of such measures. This qualitative study investigated the nature and outcomes of some identified institutionalized mechanisms, in particular how these were created and distributed in the form of incentives for voluntary blood donation.
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Multiple intravenous infusions of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells reverse hyperglycemia in experimental type 2 diabetes rats.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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The worldwide rapid increase in diabetes poses a significant challenge to current therapeutic approaches. Single-dose mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) infusion ameliorates hyperglycemia but fails to restore normoglycemia in diabetic animals. We therefore hypothesized that multiple intravenous MSC infusions may reverse hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2D) rats. We administered serial allogenous bone-marrow derived MSC infusions (1 × 10(6)cells/infusion) via the tail vein once every 2 weeks to T2D rats, induced by high-fat diet and streptozocin (STZ) administration. Hyperglycemia decreased only transiently after a single infusion in early-phase (1 week) T2D rats, but approximated normal levels after at least three-time infusions. This normal blood level was maintained for at least 9 weeks. Serum concentrations of both insulin and C-peptide were dramatically increased after serial MSC infusions. Oral glucose tolerance tests revealed that glucose metabolism was significantly ameliorated. Immunofluorescence analysis of insulin/glucagon staining revealed the restoration of islet structure and number after multiple MSC treatments. When multiple-MSC treatment was initiated in late-phase (5 week) T2D rats, the results were slightly different. The results of this study suggested that a multiple-MSC infusion strategy offers a viable clinical option for T2D patients.
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Influence of food intake on the predictive value of the gestational diabetes mellitus screening test.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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To investigate the influence of prior food ingestion on the predictive value of a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus.
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Replication of british rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility Loci in two unrelated chinese population groups.
Clin. Dev. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Previous genome-wide association study by WTCCC identified many susceptibility loci of common autoimmune diseases in British, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Because of the genetic heterogeneity of RA, it is necessary to replicate these susceptibility loci in other populations. Here, three SNPs with strong RA association signal in the British were analyzed in Han Chinese, and two SNPs (rs6457617 and rs11761231) were genotyped in the test cohort firstly. The rs6457617 was significantly associated with RA in the test cohort. The individuals bearing the homozygous genotype CC had 0.39-fold risk than these bearing the wild-type genotype TT (P = 0.004, OR 0.39, [95% CI 0.21-0.74]). And the protective effect of allele C was confirmed in another validation cohort with 1514 samples (P genotye?CC/TT = 5.9 ×??10(-10), OR 0.34, [95% CI 0.24-0.48]). The rs6457617 can be used as a tagSNP of HLA-DQA1?03 which encoded MHC-II ? chain. Since MHC restriction is important for primary T-cells in positive selection and negative selection stages, MHC protein polymorphisms may be implicated in shaping the T-cell repertoire, including the emergence of a T-cell clone involved in the inflammatory arthritis.
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Drug-loaded nanoparticle systems and adult stem cells: a potential marriage for the treatment of malignant glioma?
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Despite all recent advances in malignant glioma research, only modest progress has been achieved in improving patient prognosis and quality of life. Such a clinical scenario underscores the importance of investing in new therapeutic approaches that, when combined with conventional therapies, are able to effectively eradicate glioma infiltration and target distant tumor foci. Nanoparticle-loaded delivery systems have recently arisen as an exciting alternative to improve targeted anti-glioma drug delivery. As drug carriers, they are able to efficiently protect the therapeutic agent and allow for sustained drug release. In addition, their surface can be easily manipulated with the addition of special ligands, which are responsible for enhancing tumor-specific nanoparticle permeability. However, their inefficient intratumoral distribution and failure to target disseminated tumor burden still pose a big challenge for their implementation as a therapeutic option in the clinical setting. Stem cell-based delivery of drug-loaded nanoparticles offers an interesting option to overcome such issues. Their ability to incorporate nanoparticles and migrate throughout interstitial barriers, together with their inherent tumor-tropic properties and synergistic anti-tumor effects make these stem cell carriers a good fit for such combined therapy. In this review, we will describe the main nanoparticle delivery systems that are presently available in preclinical and clinical studies. We will discuss their mechanisms of targeting, current delivery methods, attractive features and pitfalls. We will also debate the potential applications of stem cell carriers loaded with therapeutic nanoparticles in anticancer therapy and why such an attractive combined approach has not yet reached clinical trials.
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[The clinical comparison of totally laparoscopic versus open total gastrectomy for gastric cancer].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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To investigate the feasibility, safety and oncological effect of totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy (TLTG).
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Nanoparticle-programmed self-destructive neural stem cells for glioblastoma targeting and therapy.
Small
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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A 3-step glioblastoma-tropic delivery and therapy method using nanoparticle programmed self-destructive neural stem cells (NSCs) is demonstrated in vivo: 1) FDA-approved NSCs for clinical trials are loaded with pH-sensitive MSN-Dox; 2) the nanoparticle conjugates provide a delayed drug-releasing mechanism and allow for NSC migration towards a distant tumor site; 3) NSCs eventually undergo cell death and release impregnated MSN-Dox, which subsequently induces toxicity towards surrounding glioma cells.
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Chondroprotective activity of a detoxicated traditional Chinese medicine (Fuzi) of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx against severe-stage osteoarthritis model induced by mono-iodoacetate.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Fuzi is an effective but toxic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) derived from Aconitum carmichaeli. In our previous study, detoxicated Fuzi (d-Fuzi) has been originally developed with no toxicity but significant efficacy. However, whether d-Fuzi can be used for therapy of osteoarthritis (OA), remain unknown.Materials and methods: Severe OA model was established by intra-articular mono-iodoacetate (MIA) injection (1.25mg) into rats and orally treated with 2g/ml d-Fuzi at a dosage of 7ml/kg body weight for 28 days. In vivo, the articular radiographic and histopathologic analyses were performed to qualitatively assess the chondroprotective effect of d-Fuzi, followed by quantitative measurements of bone density and Mankin scores. In vitro, such effect on chondrocyte viability after MIA attack was evaluated. Hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS) was performed for chemical analysis of d-Fuzi.Results: d-Fuzi was demonstrated to possess chondroprotective activity on MIA-induced OA model by in vivo preventing the articular degeneration and the reducing of bone density and Mankin score, as well as by in vitro promoting the chondrocyte proliferation and inhibiting the MIA-induced chondrocyte damage. A total of 23 compounds were identified in d-Fuzi, most of which were deduced as the non-toxic derivatives of aconite alkaloids.Conclusions: This is the first report regarding chondroprotective effect and chemical profile of d-Fuzi, originally revealing its great anti-OA potential and thereby providing a promising TCM candidate for OA therapy.
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Activated apoptotic and anti-survival effects on rat hearts with fructose induced metabolic syndrome.
Cell Biochem. Funct.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Consumption of fructose has been linked to the development of metabolic syndrome, whereas the cardiomyopathic changes and cardiac apoptosis of dietary high-fructose intake have not yet been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-fructose on cardiac apoptotic and survival pathways. Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (CON), which received a standard chow diet, and a fructose-induced metabolic syndrome group (FIMS), which received a 50% fructose-content diet for 13 weeks. Histopathological analysis, TUNEL assays and Western blotting were performed on the excised hearts from both groups. The blood pressure, glucose, insulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly increased in the FIMS group, compared with the CON group. The abnormal myocardial architecture, enlarged interstitial space and increased cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed in the FIMS group. The TNF-?, TNF receptor 1, Fas ligand, Fas receptor, FADD, and activated caspase-3 and 8 protein levels (Fas pathway) and the Bax, Bak, Bax/Bcl-2, Bak/Bcl-xL, cytosolic cytochrome c, and activated caspase-3 and nine protein levels (mitochondria pathway) were increased in the FIMS group compared with those in the CON group. The IGFI, IGFI-R, p-PI3K, p-Akt, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein levels (survival pathway) were all significantly decreased in the FIMS group compared with those in the CON group. High-fructose intake elevated blood pressure and glucose levels; moreover, high-fructose diet activated cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways and suppressed the survival pathway, which might provide one possible mechanism for developing heart failure in patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Interleukin-8 prevents oxidative stress-induced human endothelial cell senescence via telomerase activation.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Senescence is an irreversible growth arrest which can be triggered by stresses such as oxidative reaction, telomere shortening, DNA damage, or oncogene signaling. Oxidative stress accelerates vascular endothelial cell senescence, and may promote atherosclerosis in humans. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been shown to play an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis, and has close relationship with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to determine if IL-8 might be able to prevent oxidative stress-induced senescence of endothelial cells and the mechanisms. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and stimulated with hydrogen peroxide in the absence or presence of IL-8. After ex vivo cultivation, HUVECs became senescent as determined by acidic beta-galactosidase staining. IL-8 dose-dependently inhibited the onset of HUVEC senescence. Western blots indicated that IL-8 attenuated the oxidative stress induced high-expression of cell cycle regulation protein and inhibited the activation of p38 and NF-?B pathway. IL-8 also increased telomerase activity which was accompanied with upregulation of the catalytic subunit, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), whereas these effects were significantly attenuated by SB 225002 (selective non-peptide CXCR2 antagonist). In conclusion, IL-8 exerted protective effects against endothelial senescence, which may be related to the activation of telomerase.
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Multifunctional nanoparticles for brain tumor imaging and therapy.
Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Brain tumors are a diverse group of neoplasms that often carry a poor prognosis for patients. Despite tremendous efforts to develop diagnostic tools and therapeutic avenues, the treatment of brain tumors remains a formidable challenge in the field of neuro-oncology. Physiological barriers including the blood-brain barrier result in insufficient accumulation of therapeutic agents at the site of a tumor, preventing adequate destruction of malignant cells. Furthermore, there is a need for improvements in brain tumor imaging to allow for better characterization and delineation of tumors, visualization of malignant tissue during surgery, and tracking of response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Multifunctional nanoparticles offer the potential to improve upon many of these issues and may lead to breakthroughs in brain tumor management. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of nanoparticles for brain tumors with an emphasis on innovative approaches in tumor targeting, tumor imaging, and therapeutic agent delivery. Clinically feasible nanoparticle administration strategies for brain tumor patients are also examined. Furthermore, we address the barriers towards clinical implementation of multifunctional nanoparticles in the context of brain tumor management.
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Concomitant early gallbladder carcinoma with primary sarcomatoid hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Concomitant primary sarcomatoid hepatocellular carcinoma (SHC) with gallbladder carcinoma is a rare type of hepatobillary disease. To the best of our knowledge, this coexistence has rarely been reported. An 80-year-old male presented with right-sided epigastric pain and a low fever. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed a hypodense lesion in the right lobe of the liver and a regular intraluminal polypoid mass in the gallbladder. The patient underwent a partial hepatectomy of the right lobe of the liver and a cholecystectomy. Following pathological examination, the patient was diagnosed with SHC combined with gallbladder adenocarcinoma. The patient and his family refused post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The patient succumbed to intrahepatic and lung metastases at six months post-surgery. In conclusion, concomitant gallbladder carcinoma and SHC may occur. Surgery-based multimodal treatment is the preferred strategy for compound tumors. Adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy may be necessary for the high risk hepatobiliary malignancies.
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Elevated cerebrospinal fluid nitrite level in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with neurosyphilis.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis coinfection is a common phenomenon. A percentage of neurosyphilis cases is asymptomatic in HIV-infected patients. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis is more difficult because of the alteration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) presentation by the HIV itself. The CSF levels of the degradation products of nitric oxide (NO; e.g., nitrate and nitrite) are reportedly elevated in animals and patients with bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that an elevated CSF nitrite concentration may be present in patients coinfected with HIV and neurosyphilis.
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Season of birth is associated with adult body mass index in patients with bipolar disorder.
Chronobiol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Cardiovascular risk factors, such as abdominal obesity and obesity in general, are very prevalent among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Although long-term use of psychotropic medications is an important determinant of these risk factors, other evidence suggests that early development may interact with the mood disorder diathesis to exponentially increase the risk of obesity. The goal of our study was to test whether season of birth is associated with adult body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity in individuals with bipolar disorder. We compared season of birth effects on BMI in 375 adult patients with bipolar disorder and 196 adult patients with unipolar major depression. We found a significant season of birth effect on BMI in patients with bipolar disorder, but not unipolar. In patients with bipolar disorder, season of birth was also associated with waist circumference, with a stronger effect in males. Season of birth affects adult BMI and waist circumference in patients with bipolar disorder, but not in patients with unipolar depression. Our results suggest that early environmental factors, yet to be identified, interact with specific neurobiological features of bipolar disorder to determine stable traits and disease risk factors in adult life.
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Isolated splenic metastases from gastric carcinoma: a case report and literature review.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Isolated metastases to the spleen from gastric carcinoma is very rare. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We herein present a case of isolated splenic metastases in a 62-year-old man, occurring 12 mo after total gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma. The patient underwent a laparoscopic exploration, during which two lesions were found at the upper pole of the spleen, without involvement of other organs. A laparoscopic splenectomy was performed. Histological examination confirmed that the splenic tumor was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma similar to the primary gastric lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient has been well for 9 mo, with no tumor recurrence. The clinical data of 18 cases of isolated splenic metastases from gastric carcinoma treated by splenectomy were summarized after a literature review. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of isolated splenic metastases undergoing laparoscopic splenectomy.
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Coordinated genetic scaling of the human eye: shared determination of axial eye length and corneal curvature.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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To examine the extent to which the two major determinants of refractive error, corneal curvature and axial length, are scaled relative to one another by shared genetic variants, along with their relationship to the genetic scaling of height.
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Biodiesel production from waste chicken fat with low free fatty acids by an integrated catalytic process of composite membrane and sodium methoxide.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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An integrated process of catalytic composite membranes (CCMs) and sodium methoxide was developed to produce biodiesel from waste chicken fat. The free fatty acids (FFAs) in the chicken oil were converted to methyl esters by esterification with methanol using a novel sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES)/PES/non-woven fabric (NWF) CCMs in a flow-through catalytic membrane reactor. The CCM is that the NWF fibers were fully embedded in SPES/PES with a homogeneous and microporous structure. The oil obtained after esterification was carried out by transesterification of sodium methoxide. The results showed that the FFAs conversion obtained by CCMs with the acid capacity of 25.28 mmol (H(+)) was 92.8% at the residence time 258s. The CCMs present a good stability during the continuous running of 500 h. The conversion of transesterification was 98.1% under the optimum conditions. The quality of the biodiesel met the international standards.
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Expression and prognostic significance of livin, caspase-3, and ki-67 in the progression of human ampullary carcinoma.
Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Livin is a new member of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins family of proteins that interacts with downstream caspases, such as caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-9, however, its role in human ampullary carcinoma has not been clearly defined. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate tissue samples from patients with ampullary carcinomas (n=71) using antibodies against livin, Ki-67 (a proliferation marker), and caspase-3. Livin was detected in 33/71 cases (in the cytoplasm of all and in the nucleus of only 2 cases). High livin expression correlated with cell differentiation, tumor-node-metastasis stage, and lymph node metastasis (P=0.001, P<0.001, and P=0.028, respectively). Caspase-3 and Ki-67 expression were significantly associated with differentiation (P<0.001, P=0.008, respectively). There was a significant negative correlation between livin and caspase-3 (r=-0.575, P<0.001), and a positive correlation between livin and Ki-67 (r=0.308, P=0.009). Survival of patients with high livin expression was shorter compared with that of patients with low livin expression (P=0.001). Expression of caspase-3 was not associated with overall survival in this cohort (P=0.335). Livin expression was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio 2.693, P=0.017), as was lymph node metastasis (hazard ratio 4.959; P<0.001). In this study livin expression significantly correlated with the proliferation marker Ki-67, but was negatively correlated with caspase-3 expression. These data suggest that livin may be a valuable prognostic factor for human ampullary carcinoma.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.