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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Complete sequence of an ovarian cancer inbred Sprague-Dawley rat model mitochondrial genome.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Abstract The Sprague-Dawley rat strain is a commonly used model for ovarian cancer disease study. We sequenced this rat strain mitochondrial genome for the first time (GenBank Accession No. KM114604). Its mitogenome was 16,312?bp and coding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. A total of 96 SNPs were examined when compared to reference BN sequence.
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Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies by qRT-PCR in the blister beetle Mylabris cichorii.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The blister beetle Mylabris cichorii L. (Coleoptera: Meloidae) is a traditional medicinal insect recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. It synthesizes cantharidin, which kills cancer cells efficiently. Only males produce large amounts of cantharidin. Reference genes are required as endogenous controls for the analysis of differential gene expression in M. cichorii. Our study chose 10 genes as candidate reference genes. The stability of expression of these genes was analyzed by quantitative PCR and determined with two algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder. We recommend UBE3A and RPL22e as suitable reference genes in females and UBE3A, TAF5, and RPL22e in males.
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Fluorescence spectroscopy of UV-MALDI matrices and implications of ionization mechanisms.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) has been widely used in the mass analysis of biomolecules; however, there are a lot of debates about the ionization mechanisms. Previous studies have indicated that S1-S1 annihilation might be a key process in the generation of primary ions. This study investigates S1-S1 annihilation by examining the time-resolved fluorescence spectra of 12 matrices. No S1-S1 annihilation was observed in six of these matrices (3-hydroxy-picolinic acid, 6-aza-2-thiothymine, 2,4-dihydroxy-acetophenone, 2,6-dihydroxy-acetophenone, 2,4,6-trihydroxy-acetophenone, and ferulic acid). We observed two matrix molecules reacting in an electronically excited state (S1) in five of these matrices (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 2,5-dihydroxy-acetophenone, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid), and S1-S1 annihilation was a possible reaction. Among these five matrices, no S1-S1 annihilation was observed for 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid in typical peak power region of nanosecond laser pulses in MALDI, but a very small value of reaction rate constant was observed only in the high peak power region. The excited-state lifetime of sinapinic acid was too short to determine whether the molecules reacted in an electronically excited state. No correlation was observed between the ion generation efficiency of MALDI and S1-S1 annihilation. The results indicate that the proposal of S1-S1 annihilation is unnecessary in MALDI and energy pooling model for MALDI ionization mechanism has to be modified.
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Wheat-specific gene, ribosomal protein l21, used as the endogenous reference gene for qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of transgenes.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Wheat-specific ribosomal protein L21 (RPL21) is an endogenous reference gene suitable for genetically modified (GM) wheat identification. This taxon-specific RPL21 sequence displayed high homogeneity in different wheat varieties. Southern blots revealed 1 or 3 copies, and sequence analyses showed one amplicon in common wheat. Combined analyses with sequences from common wheat (AABBDD) and three diploid ancestral species, Triticum urartu (AA), Aegilops speltoides (BB), and Aegilops tauschii (DD), demonstrated the presence of this amplicon in the AA genome. Using conventional qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the limit of detection was 2 copies of wheat haploid genome per reaction. In the quantitative real-time PCR assay, limits of detection and quantification were about 2 and 8 haploid genome copies, respectively, the latter of which is 2.5-4-fold lower than other reported wheat endogenous reference genes. Construct-specific PCR assays were developed using RPL21 as an endogenous reference gene, and as little as 0.5% of GM wheat contents containing Arabidopsis NPR1 were properly quantified.
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Draft Genome Sequences of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Strains A2 and A4, Isolated from a Relapse Patient in Taiwan.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The recurrence rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Taiwan is 3%. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of M. tuberculosis strains A2 and A4 from a relapse patient. The draft genome sequences comprise 4,443,031 bp and 4,487,096 bp, revealing 4,220 and 4,143 coding sequences for A2 and A4, respectively, as well as 49 tRNA genes for the both isolates.
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Suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling by synthetic bichalcone analog TSWU-CD4 induces ER stress- and Bax/Bak-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Suppression of the activity of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins frequently confers chemoresistance to many human cancer cells. Using subcellular fractionation, the ER calcium (Ca(++)) channel inhibitor dantrolene and small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Bax or Bak, we show that the new synthetic bichalcone analog TSWU-CD4 induces apoptosis in human cancer cells by releasing endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stored Ca(++) through ER/mitochondrial oligomerization of Bax/Bak. Blockade of the protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase or the unfolded protein response regulator glucose-regulated protein 78 expression by siRNA not only suppressed oligomeric Bax/Bak-mediated pro-caspase-12 cleavage and apoptosis but also resulted in an inhibition of Bcl-2 downregulation induced by TSWU-CD4. Induction of the ER oligomerization of Bax/Bak and apoptosis by TSWU-CD4 were suppressed by Bcl-2 overexpression. Inhibition of lipid raft-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling by TSWU-CD4 induced ER stress- and oligomeric Bax/Bak-mediated apoptosis, which were substantially reversed by overexpression of the wt PI3K p85? subunit. Taken together, these results suggest that suppression of lipid raft-associated PI3K/Akt signaling is required for the ER stress-mediated apoptotic activity of Bax/Bak, which is responsible for the ability of TSWU-CD4-treated cancer cells to exit the ER-mitochondrial apoptotic cell death pathway.
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Acacetin blocks kv1.3 channels and inhibits human T cell activation.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Acacetin, a natural flavonoid compound, has been proven to exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Kv1.3 channels, highly expressed in human T cells, are attractive therapeutic targets to treat inflammatory and immunological disorders. The present study was designed to characterize the inhibition of Kv1.3 channels by Acacetin in human T cells and examine its role in T cell activation.
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Toward omnidirectional light absorption by plasmonic effect for high-efficiency flexible nonvacuum Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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We have successfully demonstrated a great advantage of plasmonic Au nanoparticles for efficient enhancement of Cu(In,Ga)Se2(CIGS) flexible photovoltaic devices. The incorporation of Au NPs can eliminate obstacles in the way of developing ink-printing CIGS flexible thin film photovoltaics (TFPV), such as poor absorption at wavelengths in the high intensity region of solar spectrum, and that occurs significantly at large incident angle of solar irradiation. The enhancement of external quantum efficiency and photocurrent have been systematically analyzed via the calculated electromagnetic field distribution. Finally, the major benefits of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in visible wavelength have been investigated by ultrabroadband pump-probe spectroscopy, providing a solid evidence on the strong absorption and reduction of surface recombination that increases electron-hole generation and improves the carrier transportation in the vicinity of pn-juction.
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Wntless (GPR177) expression correlates with poor prognosis in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia via Wnt signaling.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL) is the most common childhood leukemia, with a cure rate of 80%. Nevertheless, disease relapse is the most important prognostic factor for the disease outcome. We aimed to elucidate the role of Wnt secretion-regulating protein, Wntless (Wls)/GPR177, on disease outcome in pediatric patients with BCP ALL, and assess its pathogenetic role in the regulation of the disease. Wls expression was characterized and correlated with Wnt pathway signaling in the bone marrow leukemia cells isolated from 44 pediatric patients with BCP ALL. The overexpression of Wls was detected in leukemia cells and was significantly correlated with the disease relapse and poor survival in the patients. The high expression of Wls also correlated with the Wnt expression and consequent downstream signaling activation, which was shown to provide essential proliferation, transformation and anti-apoptotic activity during leukemogenesis. These results indicated that Wls played an essential role in disease relapse and poor survival in patients with BCP ALL. Therefore, Wls may provide a potential future therapeutic target, particularly for patients who do not respond to existing therapies and suffer relapse.
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Recent developments in therapeutic protein expression technologies in plants.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Infectious diseases and cancers are some of the commonest causes of deaths throughout the world. The previous two decades have witnessed a combined endeavor across various biological sciences to address this issue in novel ways. The advent of recombinant DNA technologies has provided the tools for producing recombinant proteins that can be used as therapeutic agents. A number of expression systems have been developed for the production of pharmaceutical products. Recently, advances have been made using plants as bioreactors to produce therapeutic proteins directed against infectious diseases and cancers. This review highlights the recent progress in therapeutic protein expression in plants (stable and transient), the factors affecting heterologous protein expression, vector systems and recent developments in existing technologies and steps towards the industrial production of plant-made vaccines, antibodies, and biopharmaceuticals.
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Effects of Ibandronate Sodium, a Nitrogen-Containing Bisphosphonate, on Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels in Osteoclast Precursor Cells (RAW 264.7).
J. Membr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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Ibanonate sodium (Iban), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, is recognized to reduce skeletal complications through an inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. However, how this drug interacts with ion channels in osteoclasts and creates anti-osteoclastic activity remains largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of Iban and other related compounds on ionic currents in the osteoclast precursor RAW 264.7 cells. Iban suppressed the amplitude of whole-cell K(+) currents (I K) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 28.9 ?M. The I K amplitude was sensitive to block by TRAM-34 and Iban-mediated inhibition of I K was reversed by further addition of DCEBIO, an activator of intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (IKCa) channels. Intracellular dialysis with Iban diminished I K amplitude and further addition of ionomycin reversed its inhibition. In 17?-estradiol-treated cells, Iban-mediated inhibition of I K remained effective. In cell-attached current recordings, Iban applied to bath did not modify single-channel conductance of IKCa channels; however, it did reduce channel activity. Iban-induced inhibition of IKCa channels was voltage-dependent. As IKCa-channel activity was suppressed by KN-93, subsequent addition of Iban did not further decrease the channel open probability. Iban could not exert any effect on inwardly rectifying K(+) current in RAW 264.7 cells. Under current-clamp recordings, Iban depolarized the membrane of RAW 264.7 cells and DCEBIO reversed Iban-induced depolarization. Iban also suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated migration of RAW 264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, the inhibition by Iban of IKCa channels would be an important mechanism underlying its actions on the functional activity of osteoclasts occurring in vivo.
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Is energy pooling necessary in ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization?
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Energy pooling has been suggested as the key process for generating the primary ions during ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (UV-MALDI). In previous studies, decreases in fluorescence quantum yields as laser fluence increased for 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB), and 3-hydroxypicolinic acid were used as evidence of energy pooling. This work extends the research to other matrices and addresses whether energy pooling is a universal property in UV-MALDI.
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Effect of active immunization against angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor on hypertension & arterial remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
Indian J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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a0 ngiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. t0 his study was undertaken to explore the effect of active immunization against AT1 receptor on blood pressure and small artery remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR).
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Regulation of T cell proliferation by JMJD6 and PDGF-BB during chronic hepatitis B infection.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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T cell functional exhaustion during chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may contribute to the failed viral clearance; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) is a potential regulator of T cell proliferation during chronic HBV infection. The expression of JMJD6 was reduced in T lymphocytes in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, and this reduction in JMJD6 expression was associated with impaired T cell proliferation. Moreover, silencing JMJD6 expression in primary human T cells impaired T cell proliferation. We found that JMJD6 promotes T cell proliferation by suppressing the mRNA expression of CDKN3. Furthermore, we have identified platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) as a regulator of JMJD6 expression. PDGF-BB downregulates JMJD6 expression and inhibits the proliferation of human primary T cells. Importantly, the expression levels of JMJD6 and PDGF-BB in lymphocytes from CHB patients were correlated with the degree of liver damage and the outcome of chronic HBV infection treatment. Our results demonstrate that PDGF-BB and JMJD6 regulate T cell function during chronic HBV infection and may provide insights for the treatment strategies for CHB patients.
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Draft Genome Sequence of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolate C2, Belonging to the Latin American-Mediterranean Family.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Tuberculosis remains a major infectious disease in Taiwan. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis C2 strain, belonging to the Latin American-Mediterranean lineage. The draft genome sequence comprises 4,453,307 bp with a G+C content of 65.6%, revealing 4,390 coding genes and 45 tRNA genes.
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Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with cardiac symptoms.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients presenting to the emergency department with cardiac symptoms subsequently diagnosed to have systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
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Comorbidities and complications influence the diagnosis and management of geriatric supraglottitis.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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This study aimed to assess the differences in the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of supraglottitis between geriatric and nongeriatric adults over a 30-month period.
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IL-17A promotes ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Inflammatory responses play an important role in the pathogenesis of adverse ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We previously demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-17A plays a pathogenic role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and viral myocarditis. However, the role of IL-17A in post-MI remodeling and the related mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Acute MI was induced by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in C57BL/6 mice. Repletion of IL-17A significantly aggravated both early- and late-phase ventricular remodeling, as demonstrated by increased infarct size, deteriorated cardiac function, increased myocardial fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. By contrast, genetic IL-17A deficiency had the opposite effect. Additional studies in vitro indicated that IL-17A induces neonatal cardiomyocyte (from C57BL/6 mice) apoptosis through the activation of p38, p53 phosphorylation, and Bax redistribution. These data demonstrate that IL-17A induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-p53-Bax signaling pathway and promotes both early- and late-phase post-MI ventricular remodeling. IL-17A might be an important target in preventing heart failure after MI.
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Biomolecular logic gate for analysis of the New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM)-coding gene with concurrent determination of its drug resistance-encoding fragments.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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We herein exploit a newly schemed logic gate to superiorly facilitate analysis of long and highly structured nucleic acids. This strategy uniquely enables the identification of NDM-specific genes and concurrent screening of two active site-encoded fragments, which is promising for evaluating microbial drug resistance.
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EphB2 contributes to human naive B-cell activation and is regulated by miR-185.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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EphB2 is an important member of the receptor tyrosine kinases. Recently, EphB2 was shown to facilitate T-cell migration and monocyte activation. However, the effects of EphB2 on B cells remain unknown. In this study, the expression of EphB2 on B cells was tested by Western blot, and the roles of EphB2 in B-cell proliferation, cytokine secretion, and immunoglobulin (Ig) production were evaluated using EphB2 siRNA interference in human B cells from healthy volunteers. Our study revealed that EphB2 was distributed on naive B cells and was up-regulated on activated B cells. Moreover, B-cell proliferation (decreased by 22%, P<0.05), TNF-? secretion (decreased by 40%, P<0.01) and IgG production (decreased by 26%, P < 0.05) were depressed concordantly with the down-regulated EphB2 expression. Subsequently, we screened microRNAs that could regulate EphB2 expression in B cells, and discovered that miR-185 directly targeted to EphB2 mRNA and suppressed its expression. Furthermore, miR-185 overexpression inhibited B-cell activation, and the inhibitor of miR-185 enhanced B-cell activation. Moreover, abatement of EphB2 through miR-185 mimics or EphB2 siRNA attenuated the activation of Src-p65 and Notch1 signaling pathways in human B cells. Our study first suggested that EphB2 was involved in human naive B cell activation through Src-p65 and Notch1 signaling pathways and could be regulated by miR-185.
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Comparison of two nasoalveolar molding techniques in unilateral complete cleft lip patients: a randomized, prospective, single-blind trial to compare nasal outcomes.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Nasoalveolar molding became increasingly popular in the 1990s as a means of easing surgery and improving nasal outcomes for cleft lip repairs. In the late 1990s, three orthodontists from our center underwent nasoalveolar molding training: two at the Rush Craniofacial Center, in Chicago; and one at New York University Craniofacial Center. They brought two different nasoalveolar molding techniques back to Chang Gung Craniofacial Center: the modified Figueroa and the modified Grayson techniques. Outcomes following use of these techniques have not previously been compared prospectively.
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Ion intensity and thermal proton transfer in ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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The ionization mechanism of ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (UV-MALDI) was investigated by measuring the total cation intensity (not including sodiated and potasiated ions) as a function of analyte concentration (arginine, histidine, and glycine) in a matrix of 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP). The total ion intensity increased up to 55 times near the laser fluence threshold as the arginine concentration increased from 0% to 1%. The increases were small for histidine, and a minimal increase occurred for glycine. Time-resolved fluorescence intensity was employed to investigate how analytes affected the energy pooling of the matrix. No detectable energy pooling was observed for pure THAP and THAP/analyte mixtures. The results can be described by using a thermal proton transfer model, which suggested that thermally induced proton transfer is crucial in the primary ion generation in UV-MALDI.
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Two diterpenoids and a cyclopenta[c]pyridine derivative from roots of Salvia digitaloids.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Two new glucosides, salviadigitoside A (1) and salviatalin A-19-O-?-glucoside (2), belonging to the salviatalin type diterpenoids, and a new cyclopenta[c]pyridine, salviadiginine A (3), were isolated from the roots of Salvia digitaloids. Structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. In addition, compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity, but the results showed a weak anti-inflammatory activity.
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The constituents of Michelia compressa var. formosana and their bioactivities.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Phytochemical investigation of the heartwood of Michelia compressa afforded forty-four compounds, which were identified by comparison of experimental and literature analytical and spectroscopic data. Some compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anticancer bioactivities. The result showed that soemerine (1) and cyathisterol (2) exhibited significant nitric oxide (NO) inhibition, with IC50 values of 8.5±0.3 and 9.6±0.5 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, liriodenine (3) and oliveroline (4) exhibited cytotoxicity to human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC-TW01), non-small cell lung carcinoma (NCI-H226), T cell leukemia (Jurkat), renal carcinoma (A498), lung carcinoma (A549) and fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 15.7-3.68 ?M.
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Comparative outcomes of two nasoalveolar molding techniques for bilateral cleft nose deformity.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Bilateral cleft nose deformity is increasingly being treated before primary repair with nasoalveolar molding. With the Grayson technique, nasal molding is started when the alveolar gap is reduced to 5 mm, whereas with the Figueroa technique, nasal molding and alveolar molding are performed at the same time. Both techniques significantly lengthen the columella, but their comparative efficacy, efficiency, and incidence of complications have not been investigated.
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Reliable recovery of the optical properties of multi-layer turbid media by iteratively using a layered diffusion model at multiple source-detector separations.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Accurately determining the optical properties of multi-layer turbid media using a layered diffusion model is often a difficult task and could be an ill-posed problem. In this study, an iterative algorithm was proposed for solving such problems. This algorithm employed a layered diffusion model to calculate the optical properties of a layered sample at several source-detector separations (SDSs). The optical properties determined at various SDSs were mutually referenced to complete one round of iteration and the optical properties were gradually revised in further iterations until a set of stable optical properties was obtained. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method using frequency domain Monte Carlo simulations and found that the method could robustly recover the layered sample properties with various layer thickness and optical property settings. It is expected that this algorithm can work with photon transport models in frequency and time domain for various applications, such as determination of subcutaneous fat or muscle optical properties and monitoring the hemodynamics of muscle.
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Metabolic pathways related to oxidative stress in patients with hemoglobin h disease and iron overload.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Iron overload is a major complication in patients with hemoglobin H (Hb H) disease and causes damage of tissues.
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Changes in the calibre of the upper airway and the surrounding structures after maxillomandibular advancement for obstructive sleep apnoea.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) is effective in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea. We aimed to assess changes in the calibre of the upper airway, facial skeleton, and surrounding structural position after MMA and their association with improvement in symptoms. Sixteen consecutive adults with moderate-to-severe apnoea were treated by primary MMA. Polysomnography and computed tomography (CT) of the head and neck were done before and at least 6 months after MMA. The calibre of the upper airway, the facial skeleton, and the surrounding structures were measured with image analysis software. After MMA, patients had a significant reduction in their apnoea-hypopnoea index (31.2 (18.8)number of events (n)/hour (h)). The mean (SD) volume of the airway increased significantly in the velopharynx (p<0.01), oropharynx (p=0.001), and hypopharynx (p<0.001) (by 2.3 (2.4), 2.1 (2.6), and 1.7 (1.1)cm(3), respectively) and the length of the airway was significantly decreased (by 3.1 (3.5)mm p<0.01). The soft palate (p<0.001), tongue (p<0.001), and hyoid (p=0.001) moved significantly anteriorly (by 4.4 (2.0), 7.5 (2.8), and 5.7 (5.0)mm, respectively), and these movements were related to the MMA (r=0.6-0.8). The improvement in the apnoea-hypopnoea index was associated with both maxillary advancement and anterior movements of the soft palate and hyoid (r=0.6-0.7). The results of this study suggest that MMA increases the volume in the upper airway and reduces its length. Improvement in obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with the extent of the anterior movements of the maxilla, soft palate, and hyoid.
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Survival of motor neuron protein downregulates miR-9 expression in patients with spinal muscular atrophy.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a lethal hereditary disease caused by homozygous absence of the survival of the motor neuron (SMN) 1 gene (SMN1), and it is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. The severity of SMA is directly correlated with SMN protein levels in affected patients; however, the cellular regulatory mechanisms for SMN protein expression are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects between SMN expression and miR-9a, a downstream noncoding small RNA. Using an inducible SMN short hairpin RNA interference (shRNAi) system in NSC 34 and human skin fibroblast cells, cellular miR-9 levels and SMN protein repression were time-dependently upregulated. Conversely, cellular miR-9 levels decreased when HeLa cells were transfected with SMN protein fused with green fluorescent protein. In SMA-like mice spinal cords and human primary skin fibroblasts isolated from patients with different degrees of SMA, human SMN exhibited a disease severity-dependent decrease, whereas cellular miR-9 levels increased. These results clearly suggested that cellular SMN proteins regulated miR-9 expression and that miR-9 expression was related to SMA severity. Thus, miR-9 may be a marker for SMA prognosis.
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Picoeukaryotic diversity and distribution in the subtropical-tropical South China Sea.
FEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Little is known regarding the diversity and distribution of picoeukaryotes in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, although these organisms are vital components of their environment. Here, we used a culture-independent approach to assess the 18S rDNA diversity of picoeukaryotes at six sampling sites along a transcontinental section of the South China Sea. The Alveolata group comprised 58.6% of the clones and was mainly represented by the novel marine alveolates (MALV)-I (18.8%) and MALV-II (30.6%), corresponding to 66.5% of all operational taxonomic units. Sequences affiliated with seven clades of the novel marine stramenopiles (MAST) were widely distributed in different clone libraries. We report an entirely new group representing the deepest evolutionary branch of the Hacrobia; this finding suggests the existence of novel picoeukaryotes at a high taxonomic level. Many phylotypes could not be taxonomically assigned, indicating the presence of numerous previously unknown groups. Horizontally, picoeukaryotic assemblages in the coastal water characterized with the rare occurrence of MALV-I were distinct from offshore communities. Vertically, MAST-4 were mainly retrieved in surface waters; however, the Radiolaria (Rhizaria) were mainly detected in clone libraries from depths of 60 m. Our findings further emphasize the immense diversity of picoeukaryotes, especially in the subtropical-tropical northwestern Pacific Ocean.
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Efficient detection of factor IX mutations by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography in Taiwanese hemophilia B patients, and the identification of two novel mutations.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Hemophilia B (HB) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by mutations in the clotting factor IX (FIX) gene that result in FIX deficiency. Previous studies have shown a wide variation of FIX gene mutations in HB. Although the quality of life in HB has greatly improved mainly because of prophylactic replacement therapy with FIX concentrates, there exists a significant burden on affected families and the medical care system. Accurate detection of FIX gene mutations is critical for genetic counseling and disease prevention in HB. In this study, we used denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), which has proved to be a highly informative and practical means of detecting mutations, for the molecular diagnosis of our patients with HB. Ten Taiwanese families affected by HB were enrolled. We used the DHPLC technique followed by direct sequencing of suspected segments to detect FIX gene mutations. In all, 11 FIX gene mutations (8 point mutations, 2 small deletions/insertions, and 1 large deletion), including two novel mutations (exon6 c.687-695, del 9 mer and c.460-461, ins T) were found. According to the HB pedigrees, 25% and 75% of our patients were defined as familial and sporadic HB cases, respectively. We show that DHPLC is a highly sensitive and cost-effective method for FIX gene analysis and can be used as a convenient system for disease prevention.
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Synthesis of analogues of gingerol and shogaol, the active pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and evaluation of their anti-platelet aggregation effects.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b) exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads.
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Inhibition of Fumonisin B1 Cytotoxicity by Nanosilicate Platelets during Mouse Embryo Development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nanosilicate platelets (NSP), the form of natural silicate clay that was exfoliated from montmorillonite (MMT), is widely used as a feed additive for its high non-specific binding capacity with mycotoxins such as fumonisin B1 (FB1), and has been evaluated its safety for biomedical use including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and lethal dosage (LD). In the study, we further examined its toxicity on the development of CD1 mouse embryos and its capacity to prevent teratogenesis-induced by FB1. In vitro cultures, NSP did not disturb the development and the quality of intact pre-implantation mouse embryos. Further, newborn mice from females consumed with NSP showed no abnormalities. NSP had an unexpected high adsorption capacity in vitro. In contrast to female mice consumed with FB1 only, a very low residual level of FB1 in the circulation, reduced incidence of neutral tube defects and significantly increased fetal weight were observed in the females consumed with FB1 and NSP, suggesting a high alleviation effect of NSP on FB1 in vivo. Furthermore, FB1 treatment disturbed the gene expression of sphingolipid metabolism enzymes (longevity assurance homolog 5, LASS 5; sphingosine kinase 1, Sphk1; sphingosine kinase 2, Sphk2; sphingosine 1- phosphate lyase, Sgpl1; sphingosine 1-phosphate phosphatase, Sgpp1) in the maternal liver, uterus, fetus, and placenta, but NSP administration reversed the perturbations. Based on these findings, we conclude that NSP is a feasible and effective agent for supplementary use in reducing the toxicity of FB1 to animals.
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Phosphorylation of HPV-16 E2 at Serine 243 Enables Binding to Brd4 and Mitotic Chromosomes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The papillomavirus E2 protein is involved in the maintenance of persistent infection and known to bind either to cellular factors or directly to mitotic chromosomes in order to partition the viral genome into the daughter cells. However, how the HPV-16 E2 protein acts to facilitate partitioning of the viral genome remains unclear. In this study, we found that serine 243 of HPV-16 E2, located in the hinge region, is crucial for chromosome binding during mitosis. Bromodomain protein 4 (Brd4) has been identified as a cellular binding target through which the E2 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) tethers the viral genome to mitotic chromosomes. Mutation analysis showed that, when the residue serine 243 was substituted by glutamic acid or aspartic acid, whose negative charges mimic the effect of constitutive phosphorylation, the protein still can interact with Brd4 and colocalize with Brd4 in condensed metaphase and anaphase chromosomes. However, substitution by the polar uncharged residues asparagine or glutamine abrogated Brd4 and mitotic chromosome binding. Moreover, following treatment with the inhibitor JQ1 to release Brd4 from the chromosomes, Brd4 and E2 formed punctate foci separate from the chromosomes, further supporting the hypothesis that the association of the HPV-16 E2 protein with the chromosomes is Brd4-dependent. In addition, the S243A E2 protein has a shorter half-life than the wild type, indicating that phosphorylation of the HPV-16 E2 protein at serine 243 also increases its half-life. Thus, phosphorylation of serine 243 in the hinge region of HPV-16 E2 is essential for interaction with Brd4 and required for host chromosome binding.
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Pros and cons of the tuberculosis drugome approach--an empirical analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the causative pathogen of tuberculosis (TB), has become a serious threat to global public health. Yet the development of novel drugs against MTB has been lagging. One potentially powerful approach to drug development is computation-aided repositioning of current drugs. However, the effectiveness of this approach has rarely been examined. Here we select the "TB drugome" approach--a protein structure-based method for drug repositioning for tuberculosis treatment--to (1) experimentally validate the efficacy of the identified drug candidates for inhibiting MTB growth, and (2) computationally examine how consistently drug candidates are prioritized, considering changes in input data. Twenty three drugs in the TB drugome were tested. Of them, only two drugs (tamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen) effectively suppressed MTB growth at relatively high concentrations. Both drugs significantly enhanced the inhibitory effects of three first-line anti-TB drugs (rifampin, isoniazid, and ethambutol). However, tamoxifen is not a top-listed drug in the TB drugome, and 4-hydroxytamoxifen is not approved for use in humans. Computational re-examination of the TB drugome indicated that the rankings were subject to technical and data-related biases. Thus, although our results support the effectiveness of the TB drugome approach for identifying drugs that can potentially be repositioned for stand-alone applications or for combination treatments for TB, the approach requires further refinements via incorporation of additional biological information. Our findings can also be extended to other structure-based drug repositioning methods.
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Growth and characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films by nanosecond and femtosecond pulsed laser deposition.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this work, CuIn1 - x Ga x Se2 (CIGS) thin films were prepared by nanosecond (ns)- and femtosecond (fs)-pulsed laser deposition (PLD) processes. Different film growth mechanisms were discussed in perspective of the laser-produced plasmas and crystal structures. The fs-PLD has successfully improved the inherent flaws, Cu2 - x Se, and air voids ubiquitously observed in ns-PLD-derived CIGS thin films. Moreover, the prominent antireflection and excellent crystalline structures were obtained in the fs-PLD-derived CIGS thin films. The absorption spectra suggest the divergence in energy levels of radiative defects brought by the inhomogeneous distribution of elements in the fs-PLD CIGS, which has also been supported by comparing photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ns- and fs-PLD CIGS thin films at 15 K. Finally, the superior carrier transport properties in fs-PLD CIGS were confirmed by fs pump-probe spectroscopy and four-probe measurements. The present results indicate a promising way for preparing high-quality CIGS thin films via fs-PLD.
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[Changes of schistosomiasis endemic situation and water body security in Changsha City section of Xiangjiang River].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To understand the changes of schistosomiasis endemic situation and water body security in the Changsha City section of the Xiangjiang River.
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Draft Genome Sequence of NDM-1-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolate 303K.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
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Multidrug-resistant New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase 1 (NDM-1)-producing bacteria have spread globally and become a major clinical and public health threat. We report here the draft genome sequence of the Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate 303K, harboring an NDM-1 coding sequence.
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[Project to improve the free flap survival rate in oral cancer microreconstruction free flap surgery].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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Free-flap thrombosis risk factors affect the success of microreconstruction surgery that involves the use of a free flap. The free flap survival rate in our unit was 92.65%. Relevant risk factors identified included: (1) poor nursing assessment cognizance and low accuracy rates; (2) lack of standardized of postoperative monitoring protocols; (3) lack of assessment tools; (4) inadequate inter-team communication; and (5) lack of a free flap care monitoring audit.
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Chicken single-chain antibody fused to alkaline phosphatase detects Aspergillus pathogens and their presence in natural samples by direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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A sensitive and specific analytical method to detect ubiquitous aflatoxigenic Aspergillus pathogens is essential for monitoring and controlling aflatoxins. Four highly reactive chicken single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) against soluble cell wall proteins (SCWPs) from Aspergillus flavus were isolated by phage display. The scFv antibody AfSA4 displayed the highest activity toward both A. flavus and A. parasiticus and specifically recognized a surface target of their cell walls as revealed by immunofluorescence localization. Molecular modeling revealed a unique compact motif on the antibody surface mainly involving L-CDR2 and H-CDR3. As measured by surface plasmon resonance, AfSA4 fused to alkaline phosphatase had a higher binding capability and 6-fold higher affinity compared with AfSA4 alone. Immunoblot analyses showed that the fusion had good binding capacity to SCWP components from the two fungal species. Direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with mouse antiaspergillus monoclonal antibody mAb2A8 generated in parallel as a capture antibody revealed that the detection limit of the two fungi was as low as 10(-3) ?g/mL, 1000-fold more sensitive than that reported previously (1 ?g/mL). The fusion protein was able to detect fungal concentrations below 1 ?g/g of maize and peanut grains in both artificially and naturally contaminated samples, with at least 10-fold more sensitivity than that reported (10 ?g/g) thus far. Thus, the fusion can be applied in rapid, simple, and specific diagnosis of Aspergillus contamination in field and stored food/feed commodities.
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Cardiac Fibroblasts Recruit Th17 Cells Infiltration Into Myocardium by Secreting CCL20 in CVB3-Induced acute Viral Myocarditis.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Aims: Th17 cells contributed to myocardial inflammatory injury in acute viral myocarditis (AVMC), and the migration of these cells were mainly mediated by CCL20-secreting inflammatory cells. However, whether and how the resident cells such as cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts could mediate Th17 cell migration into the heart remains unclear in AVMC. Methods: The effect of CCL20 on the dynamic alterations of intracardiac Th17 cells and disease severity were investigated through the neutralization of CCL20 in AVMC mice. The key cells releasing CCL20 in the heart and the effects of CCL20-secreting cells on Th17 cell arrest, migration and differentiation were detected in vitro. Results : Neutralization of CCL20 efficiently repressed the myocardial inflammation along with the reduction of Th17 cell infiltrations in the course of AVMC. In vitro, after stimulations of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-17, cardiac fibroblasts rather than cardiomyocytes could be dominantly induced for CCL20 production. CCL20-secreting cardiac fibroblasts boosted Th17 cell arrest on endothelium, and induce Th17 cell migration. However, CCL20 produced by cardiac fibroblasts had no effect on Th17 cell differentiation and IL-17 production. Conclusions: It firstly suggested that cardiac fibroblasts could recruit Th17 cells infiltration into myocardium by secreting CCL20 in AVMC. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Modeling open-loop stability of a human arm driven by a functional electrical stimulation neuroprosthesis.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Functional electrical stimulation (FES) can be used to restore movement control following paralysis. For complex multijoint systems, it is becoming increasingly apparent that closed-loop controllers are needed. Designing a closed-loop control system is easiest when the open-loop system is stable. In this study we developed a computational model to assess the open-loop stability of FES-control systems. We used the model to examine the open-loop stability of the human arm throughout its reachable workspace. For each simulated position of the hand we examined the stability of the arm, assuming that a minimal pattern of muscle activation was used to support the arm against gravity. Only muscles available to an existing FES user were considered. We found that with this reduced muscle set, the stability of the arm was severely compromised. We also demonstrated that muscle co-contraction can be an effective method to improve the stability for many postures.
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Multi-Muscle FES Force Control of the Human Arm for Arbitrary Goals.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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We present a method for controlling a neuroprosthesis for a paralyzed human arm using functional electrical stimulation (FES) and characterize the errors of the controller. The subject has surgically implanted electrodes for stimulating muscles in her shoulder and arm. Using input/output data, a model mapping muscle stimulations to isometric endpoint forces measured at the subjects hand was identified. We inverted the model of this redundant and coupled multiple-input multipleoutput system by minimizing muscle activations and used this inverse for feedforward control. The magnitude of the total RMS error over a grid in the volume of achievable isometric endpoint force targets was 11% of the total range of achievable forces. Major sources of error were random error due to trialto- trial variability and model bias due to nonstationary system properties. Because the muscles working collectively are the actuators of the skeletal system, the quantification of errors in force control guides designs of motion controllers for multi-joint, multi-muscle FES systems that can achieve arbitrary goals.
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IL-17A Induces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Production in Macrophages via MAPKinases, NF-?B and AP-1.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Background: Interleukin (IL)-17A, a newly identified cytokine, may participate in the transition of a stable plaque into an unstable plaque. Macrophages play a critical role in the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaque . Methods: RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with IL-17A. The mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines was determined by RT-PCR. The cytokines production in the supernatants was measured by ELISA. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to confirm that IL-17A-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines production via IL-17RA signaling. The western blot assay was used to detect the phosphorylation of MAPKinases including p38 and ERK1/2. The DNA binding activity of nuclear factor NF-?B and AP-1 were detected by EMSA. Results: IL-17A induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages in a time- and dose-dependent manner, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-1?, and IL-6. Meanwhile, IL-17A resulted in the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 and increased DNA-binding activity of NF-?B and AP-1. Pharmacological inhibitors of p38 and ERK1/2 partly attenuated IL-17A-induced TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 production. Either NF-?B inhibitor or AP-1 inhibitor also partly decreased the IL-17A-induced cytokine production. Conclusions: IL-17A induces pro-inflammatory cytokines production in macrophages via MAPKinases, NF-?B and AP-1 pathway. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Non-antireflective scheme for efficiency enhancement of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip array solar cells.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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We present systematic works in characterization of CIGS nanotip arrays (CIGS NTRs). CIGS NTRs are obtained by a one-step ion-milling process by a direct-sputtering process of CIGS thin films (CIGS TF) without a postselenization process. At the surface of CIGS NTRs, a region extending to 100 nm in depth with a lower copper concentration compared to that of CIGS TF has been discovered. After KCN washing, removal of secondary phases can be achieved and a layer with abundant copper vacancy (V(Cu)) was left. Such compositional changes can be a benefit for a CIGS solar cell by promoting formation of Cd-occupied Cu sites (Cd(Cu)) at the CdS/CIGS interface and creates a type-inversion layer to enhance interface passivation and carrier extraction. The raised V(Cu) concentration and enhanced Cd diffusion in CIGS NTRs have been verified by energy dispersive spectrometry. Strengthened adhesion of Al:ZnO (AZO) thin film on CIGS NTRs capped with CdS has also been observed in SEM images and can explain the suppressed series resistance of the device with CIGS NTRs. Those improvements in electrical characteristics are the main factors for efficiency enhancement rather than antireflection.
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Autophagy contributes to IL-17-induced plasma cell differentiation in experimental autoimmune myocarditis.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Although IL-17 is considered to promote B cell differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells in some autoimmune diseases, its mechanism remains unclear. Recent studies revealed that autophagy, a lysosome-mediated catabolic process for providing nutrients under starvation, could regulate plasma cell homeostasis, so this study aimed to explore whether and how autophagy participates in IL-17-mediated plasma cell differentiation by MyHC-?-induced experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) mouse model. It showed that IL-17 could not only induce B cell autophagy, but also facilitate the myocarditis severity, serum anti-MyHC-? autoantibody production and splenic CD38(+) CD138(+) B cell percentages, while the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine attenuated these effects. Furthermore, serum anti-MyHC-? IgG autoantibody productions and CD38(+) CD138(+) B cell percentages were positively correlated with B cell autophagy levels respectively. In vitro, we further revealed that IL-17 could directly promote B cell autophagy, which boosted Blimp-1 expressions and CD38(+) CD138(+) B cell percentages. Moreover, elevated autophagy mediated by IL-17 enhanced ubiquitin-proteasome system activity and B cell anti-apoptotic ability by Beclin-1 and p62 through Erk1/2 phosphorylation, and these changes brought by IL-17 could be also inhibited with 3-methyladenine. Therefore, we concluded that autophagy contributed to IL-17-mediated plasma cell differentiation by regulating Blimp-1 expression and Beclin-1/p62 associated B cell apoptosis in EAM.
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Proteolytic antigens interfere with endosome/lysosome fusion in epithelial cells.
Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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The airway epithelial barrier function is important in maintaining the homeostasis in the body. A number of airway disorders are associated with the epithelial barrier dysfunction. The present study aims to elucidate a possible mechanism by which the proteolytic allergens compromise the epithelial barrier function. The airway epithelial cell line, RPMI 2650 cells (Rp cells) and kidney epithelial cell line, MDCK cells, were cultured to be monolayers and used as an in vitro epithelial barrier model. House dust mite antigen, Der P1 (Der) was used as an antigen that has the proteolytic property. The epithelial barrier permeability and transepithelial resistance (TER) were used as the indicators of epithelial barrier function. Both epithelial cell lines could endocytose Der in the culture. Some of the Der was transported across the epithelial barrier to the basal chambers of the Transwells without affecting the TER. The endocytic Der could suppress the expression of ubiquitin E3 lases A20 and further interfered with the fusion of endosome/lysosome in the epithelial cells. Mite antigen, Der, can interfere with the fusion of endosome/lysosome in epithelial cells to induce the epithelial barrier dysfunction.
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Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatase is required for development, virulence and mycotoxin biosynthesis apart from trehalose biosynthesis in Fusarium graminearum.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Trehalose 6-phosphate synthase (TPS1) and trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatase (TPS2) are required for trehalose biosynthesis in yeast and filamentous fungi, including Fusarium graminearum. Three null mutants ?tps1, ?tps2 and ?tps1-?tps2, each carrying either a single deletion of TPS1 or TPS2 or a double deletion of TPS1-TPS2, were generated from a toxigenic F. graminearum strain and were not able to synthesize trehalose. In contrast to its reported function in yeasts and filamentous fungi, TPS1 appeared dispensable for development and virulence. However, deletion of TPS2 abolished sporulation and sexual reproduction; it also altered cell polarity and ultrastructure of the cell wall in association with reduced chitin biosynthesis. The cell polarity alteration was exhibited as reduced apical growth and increased lateral growth and branching with increased hyphal and cell wall widths. Moreover, the TPS2-deficient strain displayed abnormal septum development and nucleus distribution in its conidia and vegetative hyphae. The ?tps2 mutant also had 62% lower mycelial growth on potato dextrose agar and 99% lower virulence on wheat compared with the wild-type. The ?tps1, ?tps2 and ?tps1-?tps2 mutants synthesized over 3.08-, 7.09- and 2.47-fold less mycotoxins, respectively, on rice culture compared with the wild-type. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that the ?tps1, ?tps2 and ?tps1-?tps2 mutants had 486, 1885 and 146 genotype-specific genes, respectively, with significantly changed expression profiles compared with the wild-type. Further dissection of this pathway will provide new insights into regulation of fungal development, virulence and trichothecene biosynthesis.
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Myosin VI contributes to maintaining epithelial barrier function.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Epithelial barrier dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of a number of immune inflammations; the etiology is not fully understood. The fusion of endosome/lysosome is a critical process in the degradation of endocytic antigens in epithelial cells. Recent reports indicate that myosin VI (myo6) is involved in the activities of endosomes. The present study aims to investigate the role of myo6 in epithelial barrier dysfunction.
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Hepatocyte growth factor gene-modified bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells transplantation promotes angiogenesis in a rat model of hindlimb ischemia.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Angiogenic gene therapy and cell-based therapy for peripheral arterial disease(PAD) have been studied intensively currently. This study aimed to investigate whether combining mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) transplantation with ex vivo human hepatocyte growth factor(HGF) gene transfer was more therapeutically efficient than the MSCs therapy alone in a rat model of hindlimb ischemia. One week after establishing hindlimb ischemia models, Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomized to receive HGF gene-modified MSCs transplantation(HGF-MSC group), untreated MSCs transplantation (MSC group), or PBS injection(PBS group), respectively. Three weeks after injection, angiogenesis was significantly induced by both MSCs and HGF-MSCs transplantation, and capillary density was the highest in the HGF-MSC group. The number of transplanted cell-derived endothelial cells was greater in HGF-MSC group than in MSC group after one week treatment. The expression of angiogenic cytokines such as HGF and VEGF in local ischemic muscles was more abundant in HGF-MSC group than in the other two groups. In vitro, the conditioned media obtained from HGF-MSCs cultures exerted proproliferative and promigratory effects on endothelial cells. It is concluded that HGF gene-modified MSCs transplantation therapy may induce more potent angiogenesis than the MSCs therapy alone. Engraftment of MSCs combined with angiogenic gene delivery may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of severe PAD.
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[Effects of long-term fertilization on soil organic carbon pool and carbon sequestration under double rice cropping].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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This paper studied the effects of 30 years (1981-2010) fertilization with chemical N, P, and K, pig manure (PM), and rice straw (RS) on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and its components contents under intensive double rice cropping. The experiment was established on a typic Hapli-Stagnic Anthrosols in Hunan in 1981, and the soil samples were collected in November 2010. In treatment NPK, the contents of SOC, particulate organic C (POC), and KMnO4-oxidizable C (KMnO4-C) were higher than those in treatments NP and NK. The combined application of chemical and organic fertilizers (treatments NK+PM, NP+RS, and NPK+RS) made the contents of SOC, POC, and KMnO4-C have a significant increase, as compared with chemical fertilizations. Treatment NK+PM had the highest contents of SOC (84.71 t C.hm-2), POC (8.94 t C.hm-2), and KMnO4-C (21.09 t C.hm-2) in top soil (0-45 cm), followed by treatment NPK+RS. Treatment NK+PM had the highest C sequestration (485 kg C.hm-2.a-1) , followed by treatment NPK+RS (375 kg C.hm-2.a-1). The C sequestration efficiency (CSE) of SOC in the treatments of chemical fertilizers plus pig manure or rice straw was obviously higher than that in the treatments of chemical fertilizations, and the CSE of the POC in fertilization treatments (ranging from 0.4% and 1.2%) was lower than that of the KMnO4-C (ranging from 3.0% to 8.3%). By using the values of humification constant (h) and the decay constant (k) in Jenkinson s equation, it was possible to predict the SOC storages in different treatments in the year 2010; and by using Jenkinson s equation, it was possible to calculate the C input required to maintain the SOC storages in the year 1981 (AE). The increase of the SOC in treatments NK+PM, NP+RS, and NPK+RS was due to the annual C input being higher than the AE. It was considered that in the double rice cropping areas in subtropical region of China, long-term application of chemical fertilizers combined with pig manure or rice straw could promote the organic carbon sequestration in paddy soils.
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Control of Oxidative Stress and Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-like Cells by Jun Dimerization Protein 2.
Cancers (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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We report here that the Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) plays a critical role as a cofactor for the transcription factors nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and MafK in the regulation of the antioxidants and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). JDP2 associates with Nrf2 and MafK (Nrf2-MafK) to increase the transcription of antioxidant response element-dependent genes. Oxidative-stress-inducing reagent led to an increase in the intracellular accumulation of ROS and cell proliferation in Jdp2 knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In Jdp2-Cre mice mated with reporter mice, the expression of JDP2 was restricted to granule cells in the brain cerebellum. The induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-like cells were generated from DAOY medulloblastoma cell by introduction of JDP2, and the defined factor OCT4. iPSC-like cells expressed stem cell-like characteristics including alkaline phosphatase activity and some stem cell markers. However, such iPSC-like cells also proliferated rapidly, became neoplastic, and potentiated cell malignancy at a later stage in SCID mice. This study suggests that medulloblastoma cells can be reprogrammed successfully by JDP2 and OCT4 to become iPSC-like cells. These cells will be helpful for studying the generation of cancer stem cells and ROS homeostasis.
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Human leucocyte antigen alleles and haplotypes and their associations with antinuclear antibodies features in Chinese patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease. Genetic factors are critical in determining susceptibility to PBC. Among human leuocyte antigen (HLA) genes, an association between the DRB1*08 allele and PBC has been reported in many populations, but not in Chinese patients.
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[Risk factors for hyperuricemia in active and retired employees underwent physical examination].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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To observe serum uric acid (UA) level distribution and explore risk factors of hyperuricemia (HUA) in a large cohort of active and retired employees underwent physical examination.
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Hard palate-repair technique and facial growth in patients with cleft lip and palate: a systematic review.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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The vomer flap technique for repair of the hard palate is assumed to improve maxillary growth because it causes less scarring in growth-sensitive areas of the palate. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of techniques using the vomer flap compared with the palatal flap on facial growth in patients with cleft lip and palate. All papers published before 21 July 2012 were sought in the databases PubMed and MEDLINE. Search terms included "facial growth", "cleft lip and palate", "palatal repair technique", and "vomer flap". Additional studies were identified by hand searching the reference lists of the papers retrieved from the electronic search. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of the methods. Six studies met the selection criteria. Outcomes assessed in 4 studies were dentofacial morphology after vomer or palatal flap, maxillary dental arch in 1 study, and dental arch relations in 2 studies. The quality of the methods used in 3 studies was poor. Contradictory results and a lack of high-quality and long-term outcomes of reviewed studies provided no conclusive scientific evidence about whether the vomer flap technique has more or less of an adverse effect on maxillary growth than the palatal flap. Further well-designed, well-controlled, and long-term studies particularly of the vomer flap (2-stage) and palatal flap (von Langenbeck or two-flap, 1-stage) are needed.
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Enhanced broadband and omnidirectional performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with ZnO functional nanotree arrays.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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An effective approach is demonstrated for enhancing photoelectric conversion of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells with three-dimensional ZnO nanotree arrays. Under a simulated one-sun condition, cells with ZnO nanotree arrays enhance the short-circuit current density by 10.62%. The omnidirectional anti-reflection of CIGS solar cells with various ZnO nanostructures is also investigated. The solar-spectrum weighted reflectance is approximately less than 5% for incident angles of up to 60° and for the wavelengths primarily from 400 nm to 1000 nm. This enhancement in light harvesting is attributable to the gradual refractive index profile between the ZnO nanostructures and air.
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Successful large-volume leukapheresis for hematopoietic stem cell collection in a very-low-weight brain tumor infant with coagulopathy.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Peripheral apheresis has become a safe procedure to collect hematopoietic stem cells, even in pediatric patients and donors. However, the apheresis procedure for small and sick children is more complicated due to difficult venous access, relatively large extracorporeal volume, toxicity of citrate, and unstable hemostasis. We report a small and sick child with refractory medulloblastoma, impaired liver function, and coagulopathy after several major cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. She successfully received large-volume leukapheresis for hematopoietic stem cell collection, although the patient experienced severe coagulopathy during the procedures. Health care providers should be alert to this potential risk.
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TNF-?-secreting B cells contribute to myocardial fibrosis in dilated cardiomyopathy.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Excessive inflammation responses mediated by CD4(+) T cells contributes to myocardial fibrosis in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) resulting from viral myocarditis. Recently, some scholars discovered that B cells harbored an abnormal pro-inflammatory capacity besides the production of autoantibodies. Thus, we aimed to explore whether and which type of B cells act on myocardial fibrosis in DCM.
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Monitoring the antigenic evolution of human influenza A viruses to understand how and when viruses escape from existing immunity.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The World Health Organization (WHO) organizes consultations in February and September of each year, spearheaded by an advisory group of experts to analyze influenza surveillance data generated by the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). The purpose of these consultations is to recommend the composition on influenza virus vaccines for the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. The latest news of influenza viruses is made available to the public and updated on the WHO website. Although WHO discloses the manner in which it has made the recommendation, usually by considering epidemiological and clinical information to analyze the antigenic and genetic characteristics of seasonal influenza viruses, most individuals do not possess an understanding of antigenic drift and when it occurs.
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Vomer flap for hard palate repair is related to favorable maxillary growth in unilateral cleft lip and palate.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Vomer flap repair is assumed to improve maxillary growth because of reduced scarring in growth-sensitive areas of the palate. Our aim was to evaluate whether facial growth in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate was significantly affected by the technique of hard palate repair (vomer flap versus two-flap).
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CISA: contig integrator for sequence assembly of bacterial genomes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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A plethora of algorithmic assemblers have been proposed for the de novo assembly of genomes, however, no individual assembler guarantees the optimal assembly for diverse species. Optimizing various parameters in an assembler is often performed in order to generate the most optimal assembly. However, few efforts have been pursued to take advantage of multiple assemblies to yield an assembly of high accuracy. In this study, we employ various state-of-the-art assemblers to generate different sets of contigs for bacterial genomes. A tool, named CISA, has been developed to integrate the assemblies into a hybrid set of contigs, resulting in assemblies of superior contiguity and accuracy, compared with the assemblies generated by the state-of-the-art assemblers and the hybrid assemblies merged by existing tools. This tool is implemented in Python and requires MUMmer and BLAST+ to be installed on the local machine. The source code of CISA and examples of its use are available at http://sb.nhri.org.tw/CISA/.
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The novel carboxamide analog ITR-284 induces caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in human hepatocellular and colorectal cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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We have previously reported that ITR-284, a potent carboxamide-derived anticancer agent, induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. However, there are no reports showing that ITR-284 inhibits human hepatocellular and colorectal cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effects and apoptotic induction of ITR-284 on various types of human hepatocellular and colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The growth inhibition effect of ITR-284 on cancer cells was evaluated by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell morphology was examined under a phase-contrast microscope. The activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were determined by caspase colorimetric assay. ITR-284 reduced the cell viability in human hepatocellular cancer cells (Hep G2, Hep 3B, SK-HEP-1 and J5) and colorectal cancer cells (HT 29, COLO 205, HCT 116 and SW 620). ITR-284 had highly selective effects on Hep 3B and COLO 205 cells. ITR-284 stimulated morphological changes of Hep 3B and COLO 205 cells. The activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9 contributed to ITR-284-induced apoptosis. ITR-284-triggered growth inhibition was significantly attenuated by the inhibitors of caspase-3, -8 and -9 in Hep 3B and COLO 205 cells. ITR-284 induced apoptosis in Hep 3B and COLO 205 cells through the caspase cascade-dependent signaling pathway.
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Type II myosin gene in Fusarium graminearum is required for septation, development, mycotoxin biosynthesis and pathogenicity.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Type II myosin is required for cytokinesis/septation in yeast and filamentous fungi, including Fusarium graminearum, a prevalent cause of Fusarium head blight in China. A type II myosin gene from the Chinese F. graminearum strain 5035, isolated from infected wheat spikes, was identified by screening a mutant library generated by restriction enzyme-mediated integration. Disruption of the Myo2 gene reduced mycelial growth by 50% and conidiation by 76-fold, and abolished sexual reproduction on wheat kernels. The ?myo2 mutants also had a 97% decrease in their pathogenicity on wheat, and mycotoxin production fell to just 3.4% of the normal level. The distribution of nuclei and septa was abnormal in the mutants, and the septal ultrastructure appeared disorganized. Time-lapse imaging of septation provided direct evidence that Myo2 is required for septum initiation and formation, and revealed the dynamic behavior of GFP-tagged Myo2 during hyphal and macroconidia development, particularly in the delimiting septum of phialides and macroconidial spores. Microarray analysis identified many genes with altered expression profiles in the ?myo2 mutant, indicating that Myo2 is required for several F. graminearum developmental processes and biological activities.
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Acute poisoning with neonicotinoid insecticides: a case report and literature review.
Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Neonicotinoids are a new class of insecticides widely applied for crop protection. These insecticides act as agonists at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which cause insect paralysis and death. The high specificity for receptors in insects was considered to possess highly selective toxicity to insects and relative sparing of mammals. However, an increasing number of cases of acute neonicotinoid poisoning have been reported in recent years. We reported a man who developed respiratory failure and shock after ingestion of neonicotinoid insecticide. A detailed literature review found that respiratory, cardiovascular and certain neurological presentations are warning signs of severe neonicotinoid intoxication. The amounts of ingested neonicotinoid insecticide and the plasma neonicotinoid concentration are not useful guides for the management of intoxicated patients. Supportive treatment and decontamination are the practical methods for the management of all neonicotinoid-poisoned patients.
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Liver transplantation in acute-on-chronic liver failure patients with high model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores: a single center experience of 100 consecutive cases.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a severe clinical condition for which liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative option. However, there are little published data on risk factors and outcomes of LT for ACLF.
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18?-Glycyrrhetinic acid potently inhibits Kv1.3 potassium channels and T cell activation in human Jurkat T cells.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Licorice has been extensively used in traditional medicines for treatment of many diseases, including inflammations and immunological disorders. Recent studies have shown that the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulation activities of licorice have been attributed to its active component, glycyrretinic acid (GA). GA consists of two isoforms, 18?- and 18?-. However, its mechanism remains poorly understood.
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A rice stress-responsive NAC gene enhances tolerance of transgenic wheat to drought and salt stresses.
Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Drought and salinity are the primary factors limiting wheat production worldwide. It has been shown that a rice stress-responsive transcription factor encoded by the rice NAC1 gene (SNAC1) plays an important role in drought stress tolerance. Therefore, we introduced the SNAC1 gene under the control of a maize ubiquitin promoter into an elite Chinese wheat variety Yangmai12. Plants expressing SNAC1 displayed significantly enhanced tolerance to drought and salinity in multiple generations, and contained higher levels of water and chlorophyll in their leaves, as compared to wild type. In addition, the fresh and dry weights of the roots of these plants were also increased, and the plants had increased sensitivities to abscisic acid (ABA), which inhibited root and shoot growth. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions revealed that the expressions of genes involved in abiotic stress/ABA signaling, such as wheat 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-5-kinase, sucrose phosphate synthase, type 2C protein phosphatases and regulatory components of ABA receptor, were effectively regulated by the alien SNAC1 gene. These results indicated high and functional expression of the rice SNAC1 gene in wheat. And our study provided a promising approach to improve the tolerances of wheat cultivars to drought and salinity through genetic engineering.
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Heme oxygenase-1 and gut ischemia/reperfusion injury: A short review.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the gut is a significant problem in a variety of clinical settings and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Although the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of gut I/R injury have not been fully elucidated, it is generally believed that oxidative stress with subsequent inflammatory injury plays an important role. Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of heme, followed by production of CO, biliverdin, and free iron. The HO system is believed to confer cytoprotection by inhibiting inflammation, oxidation, and apoptosis, and maintaining microcirculation. HO-1, an inducible form of HO, serves a vital metabolic function as the rate-limiting step in the heme degradation pathway, and affords protection in models of intestinal I/R injury. HO-1 system is an important player in intestinal I/R injury condition, and may offer new targets for the management of this condition.
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Identification of cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes on Swine viruses: multi-epitope design for universal T cell vaccine.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Classical swine fever (CSF), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) are the primary diseases affecting the pig industry globally. Vaccine induced CD8(+) T cell-mediated immune response might be long-lived and cross-serotype and thus deserve further attention. Although large panels of synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the entire length of the polyproteins of a virus facilitate the detection of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, it is an exceedingly costly and cumbersome approach. Alternatively, computational predictions have been proven to be of satisfactory accuracy and are easily performed. Such a method enables the systematic identification of genome-wide CTL epitopes by incorporating epitope prediction tools in analyzing large numbers of viral sequences. In this study, we have implemented an integrated bioinformatics pipeline for the identification of CTL epitopes of swine viruses including the CSF virus (CSFV), FMD virus (FMDV) and PRRS virus (PRRSV) and assembled these epitopes on a web resource to facilitate vaccine design. Identification of epitopes for cross protections to different subtypes of virus are also reported in this study and may be useful for the development of a universal vaccine against such viral infections among the swine population. The CTL epitopes identified in this study have been evaluated in silico and possibly provide more and wider protection in compared to traditional single-reference vaccine design. The web resource is free and open to all users through http://sb.nhri.org.tw/ICES.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.