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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Controlling quantum-dot light absorption and emission by a surface-plasmon field.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The possibility for controlling both the probe-field optical gain and absorption, as well as photon conversion by a surface-plasmon-polariton near field is explored for a quantum dot located above a metal surface. In contrast to the linear response in the weak-coupling regime, the calculated spectra show an induced optical gain and a triply-split spontaneous emission peak resulting from the interference between the surface-plasmon field and the probe or self-emitted light field in such a strongly-coupled nonlinear system. Our result on the control of the mediated photon-photon interaction, very similar to the 'gate' control in an optical transistor, may be experimentally observable and applied to ultra-fast intrachip/interchip optical interconnects, improvement in the performance of fiber-optic communication networks, and developments of optical digital computers and quantum communications.
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Dynamic particle tracking via temporal focusing multiphoton microscopy with astigmatism imaging.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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A three-dimensional (3D) single fluorescent particle tracking strategy based on temporal focusing multiphoton excitation microscopy (TFMPEM) combined with astigmatism imaging is proposed for delivering nanoscale-level axial information that reveals 3D trajectories of single fluorospheres in the axially-resolved multiphoton excitation volume without z-axis scanning. Whereas other scanning spatial focusing multiphoton excitation schemes induce optical trapping interference, temporal focusing multiphoton excitation produces widefield illumination with minimum optical trapping force on the fluorospheres. Currently, the lateral and axial positioning resolutions of the dynamic particle tracking approach are about 14 nm and 21 nm in standard deviation, respectively. Furthermore, the motion behavior and diffusion coefficients of fluorospheres in glycerol solutions with different concentrations are dynamically measured at a frame rate up to 100 Hz. This TFMPEM with astigmatism imaging holds great promise for exploring dynamic molecular behavior deep inside biotissues via its superior penetration, reduced trapping effect, fast frame rate, and nanoscale-level positioning.
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Risk factors for Re-exploration in Toe-to-Hand Transfer: A Multivariate Analysis of 363 Cases.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Re-exploration after toe-to-hand transfers increases the risk of failure. This study aimed to identify risk factors for re-exploration after toe-to-hand transfers.
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Registration of Alzheimer's disease in Taiwan: patient and informant.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To obtain updated data of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their informants in Taiwan with the aim of fostering and supporting collaborative research.
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Graphene oxide-based micropatterns via high-throughput multiphoton-induced reduction and ablation.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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In this study, a developed temporal focusing-based femtosecond laser system provides high-throughput multiphoton-induced reduction and ablation of graphene oxide (GO) films. Integrated with a digital micromirror device to locally control the laser pulse numbers, GO-based micropatterns can be quickly achieved instantly. Furthermore, the degree of reduction and ablation can be precisely adjusted via controlling the laser wavelength, power, and pulse number. Compared to point-by-point scanning laser direct writing, this approach offers a high-throughput and multiple-function approach to accomplish a large area of micro-scale patterns on GO films. The high-throughput micropatterning of GO via the temporal focusing-based femtosecond laser system fulfills the requirement of mass production for GO-based applications in microelectronic devices.
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The application of flow cytometry for evaluating biological aggressiveness of intracranial meningiomas.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Meningiomas have classically been considered to include benign and atypical/anaplastic tumors. Despite the availability of clinical and pathologic parameters for prognostic prediction prognosis, the behavior of each meningioma may be difficult to predict. Here, we used DNA flow-cytometric studies to predict biological tumor behaviors of intracranial meningiomas.
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Genome-wide association study in Chinese identifies novel loci for blood pressure and hypertension.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Hypertension is a common disorder and the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature deaths worldwide. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in the European population have identified multiple chromosomal regions associated with blood pressure, and the identified loci altogether explain only a small fraction of the variance for blood pressure. The differences in environmental exposures and genetic background between Chinese and European populations might suggest potential different pathways of blood pressure regulation. To identify novel genetic variants affecting blood pressure variation, we conducted a meta-analysis of GWASs of blood pressure and hypertension in 11 816 subjects followed by replication studies including 69 146 additional individuals. We identified genome-wide significant (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) associations with blood pressure, which included variants at three new loci (CACNA1D, CYP21A2, and MED13L) and a newly discovered variant near SLC4A7. We also replicated 14 previously reported loci, 8 (CASZ1, MOV10, FGF5, CYP17A1, SOX6, ATP2B1, ALDH2, and JAG1) at genome-wide significance, and 6 (FIGN, ULK4, GUCY1A3, HFE, TBX3-TBX5, and TBX3) at a suggestive level of P = 1.81 × 10(-3) to 5.16 × 10(-8). These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the regulation of blood pressure and potential targets for treatments.
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[Sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 22 cases].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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To elaborate on the clinical and pathologic features of sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma (SMM), its diagnostic criteria and differential diagnoses.
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Size-dependent patterned recognition and extraction of metal ions by a macrocyclic aromatic pyridone pentamer.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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A macrocyclic aromatic pyridine pentamer was found to exhibit patterned recognition of metal ions and efficiently extract larger ions, such as Cs(+), Ba(2+), Tl(+), Au(+), K(+) and Rb(+) preferentially over the other 18 smaller metal ions from the aqueous phase into the chloroform layer.
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6-Dehydrogingerdione restrains lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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6-Dehydrogingerdione (6-DG), one important component of ginger, has been reported to possess some medical effects, such as antitumor and antiatherosclerosis. Herein, the anti-inflammatory effects of 6-DG against lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced pro-inflammation mediators in RAW 264.7 cells were investigated. Results show that 6-DG significantly attenuated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, NOS2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in the LPS-mediated murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells). 6-DG inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of both p38 and nuclear factor of ? light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-? (I?B?), which further prevented p-p65 nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B-p65) translocation to the nucleus. Moreover, 6-DG increased the ratio of phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (p-STAT1)/p-STAT3 and down-regulated the gene expression of IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-10.
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Isolation and characterization of porcine circumvallate papillae cells.
Acta Histochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Animal food intake is primarily controlled by appetite, which is affected by food quality, environment, and the management and status of animal health. Sensing of taste is mediated by taste receptor cells and is central to appetite. Taste receptor cells possess distinctive physiological characteristics that permit the recognition of various stimuli in foods. Thus, cultures of porcine circumvallate papillae cells provide a model for identification of the molecular and functional characteristics of taste receptor cells. In this study, we described the isolation and culture of porcine circumvallate papillae, using tissue explants and enzymatic digestion, and showed continuous viability and expression of pivotal taste marker proteins for more than 9 passages. In addition, cultured cells showed dramatic rises in intracellular calcium upon stimulation with several taste stimuli (sweet, umami, bitter, and fat). These cultures of porcine taste receptor cells provide a useful model for assessing taste preferences of pigs and may elucidate interactions between various taste stimuli.
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Complex-transfer-function analysis of optical-frequency converters.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The measurement of the magnitude and phase of the complex transfer function (CTF) of aperiodically poled lithium niobate waveguide devices using frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) is demonstrated. We investigate the sources of CTF distortions which are related to variations in the spatial distribution of the nonlinear coefficient and phase-mismatch profile and present a method to infer fabrication errors from the CTF discussed.
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ABT-724 alleviated hyperactivity and spatial learning impairment in the spontaneously hypertensive rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Dysfunction of dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) is linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as ADHD associated cognitive impairment. Here, we tested the possible therapeutic benefit of the D4R-selective agonist ABT-724 in adolescent spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). ABT-724-treated SHRs were administered ABT-724 (0.04mg/kg, 0.16mg/kg or 0.64mg/kg) from postnatal day (P) 28 to P32. Control SHRs and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were injected with saline. Then two cohorts of rats were tested in the open field and Làt maze that measured locomotion and non-selective attention (NSA), respectively. Another cohort of rats was subjected to water maze task for evaluation of spatial learning and memory. We found that control SHRs displayed hyperactivity as well as impaired NSA and spatial learning compared with normotensive SD rats. ABT-724 (0.16 and 0.64mg/kg) treatment alleviated hyperactivity and spatial learning impairment in SHRs. No dose of ABT-724 tested altered NSA in SHRs. Our results raise the possibility that ABT-724 may be used as a therapeutic intervention for ADHD patients during adolescence.
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[Dynamic changes of polysaccharides content in Salvia miltiorrhiza root from different provenances].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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To detect the content of polysaccharides in the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza collected from different provenances, and to discover the dynamic change rules of polysaccharides at various growing stages.
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New basic insights into the low hot electron injection efficiency of gold-nanoparticle-photosensitized titanium dioxide.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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The low hot electrons injection efficiency (HEIE) from plasmonic metal to semiconductor significantly affects the performance of metal-semiconductor composite. However, there are few reports about the origin of this low HEIE. In the present work, the factors affecting the transfer process and generation efficiency of hot electron in Au@TiO2 composite are investigated using first-principles calculations and Maxwell's electrodynamics theory. The occupation of surface oxygen vacancies of TiO2 by gold atoms is found to increase the hot electrons transfer barrier and expand the space charge region, which decrease the HEIE. In addition, the existing Au@TiO2 structure going against the generation of large amount of hot electrons may also lead to low HEIE. Our results reveal that the replacement of divalent host oxygen atoms with monovalent atoms can decrease the HEIE and comparison with experimental results allows us to validate our predictions. Furthermore, proper surface treatment of semiconductor before depositing metal particles and structure optimization of the composite are suggested to improve the HEIE.
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Unexpected phenotypes of malformations induced in Xenopus tropicalis embryos by combined exposure to triphenyltin and 9-cis-retinoic acid.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Xenopus tropicalis embryos were exposed for 48 hr to the mixtures of 5 ?g Sn/L triphenyltin (TPT), which is a well-known endocrine disruptor, and 0.25-5 ?g/L 9-cis retinoic acid (9c-RA), which is the natural ligand of retinoid X receptor. The phenotypes induced by combined exposure were more variable than those resulting from single exposure to either TPT or 9c-RA. The prominent phenotypes included underdeveloped head structures, abnormal eyes, narrow fins, enlarged proctodaeum, etc. Especially, combined exposure induced unexpected notochord malformations, which ranged from small swellings of the surface of the tails to the extension and extrusion of notochord out of the posterior tails. Compared with the 5 ?g Sn/L TPT-treated group, the index of fin deficiency was not affected, and the index of axis deficiency was significantly increased with increasing RA concentrations in the mixtures. Our results suggest that combined exposure to TPT and 9c-RA induced not only more variable phenotypes of malformations than exposure to single compound but also some new and unexpected phenotypes.
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Order-of-magnitude enhancement of intersubband photoresponse in a plasmonic quantum dot system.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The unprecedented ability of metallic subwavelength structures to confine and concentrate light into subwavelength spaces has led to new physics and exploration of novel devices. In this Letter, we demonstrate a 20 times enhancement of intersubband photoresponse in a InAs quantum dot (QD) system due to evanescently coupled plasmonic field. The resulting enhancement is accompanied by significant narrowing of photoresponse linewidth. The strong enhancement is attributed to efficient coupling of incident field to surface modes and to QDs, the presence of polarization-dependent absorption from QDs, and a fairly strong plasmon-QD interaction.
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Galactokinase is a novel modifier of calcineurin-induced cardiomyopathy in Drosophila.
Genetics
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Activated/uninhibited calcineurin is both necessary and sufficient to induce cardiac hypertrophy, a condition that often leads to dilated cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. We expressed constitutively active calcineurin in the adult heart of Drosophila melanogaster and identified enlarged cardiac chamber dimensions and reduced cardiac contractility. In addition, expressing constitutively active calcineurin in the fly heart using the Gal4/UAS system induced an increase in heart wall thickness. We performed a targeted genetic screen for modifiers of calcineurin-induced cardiac enlargement based on previous calcineurin studies in the fly and identified galactokinase as a novel modifier of calcineurin-induced cardiomyopathy. Genomic deficiencies spanning the galactokinase locus, transposable elements that disrupt galactokinase, and cardiac-specific RNAi knockdown of galactokinase suppressed constitutively active calcineurin-induced cardiomyopathy. In addition, in flies expressing constitutively active calcineurin using the Gal4/UAS system, a transposable element in galactokinase suppressed the increase in heart wall thickness. Finally, genetic disruption of galactokinase suppressed calcineurin-induced wing vein abnormalities. Collectively, we generated a model for discovering novel modifiers of calcineurin-induced cardiac enlargement in the fly and identified galactokinase as a previously unknown regulator of calcineurin-induced cardiomyopathy in adult Drosophila.
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A meta-learning approach for B-cell conformational epitope prediction.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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BackgroundOne of the major challenges in the field of vaccine design is identifying B-cell epitopes in continuously evolving viruses. Various tools have been developed to predict linear or conformational epitopes, each relying on different physicochemical properties and adopting distinct search strategies. We propose a meta-learning approach for epitope prediction based on stacked and cascade generalizations. Through meta learning, we expect a meta learner to be able integrate multiple prediction models, and outperform the single best-performing model. The objective of this study is twofold: (1) to analyze the complementary predictive strengths in different prediction tools, and (2) to introduce a generic computational model to exploit the synergy among various prediction tools. Our primary goal is not to develop any particular classifier for B-cell epitope prediction, but to advocate the feasibility of meta learning to epitope prediction. With the flexibility of meta learning, the researcher can construct various meta classification hierarchies that are applicable to epitope prediction in different protein domains.ResultsWe developed the hierarchical meta-learning architectures based on stacked and cascade generalizations. The bottom level of the hierarchy consisted of four conformational and four linear epitope prediction tools that served as the base learners. To perform consistent and unbiased comparisons, we tested the meta-learning method on an independent set of antigen proteins that were not used previously to train the base epitope prediction tools. In addition, we conducted correlation and ablation studies of the base learners in the meta-learning model. Low correlation among the predictions of the base learners suggested that the eight base learners had complementary predictive capabilities. The ablation analysis indicated that the eight base learners differentially interacted and contributed to the final meta model. The results of the independent test demonstrated that the meta-learning approach markedly outperformed the single best-performing epitope predictor.ConclusionsComputational B-cell epitope prediction tools exhibit several differences that affect their performances when predicting epitopic regions in protein antigens. The proposed meta-learning approach for epitope prediction combines multiple prediction tools by integrating their complementary predictive strengths. Our experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the combined approach in comparison with single epitope predictors.
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High-Volume Hydrodissection: Assessment of Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Perfusion Using Laser Doppler.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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High-volume hydrodissection of intramuscular perforators of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps in Sprague-Dawley rats has previously demonstrated a significant reduction in dissection time while simultaneously increasing the safety of dissection. However, increasing volumes of fluid injected into the closed rectus compartment may have adverse consequences on perfusion to the overlying flap. A prospective experimental animal study was performed to define a safe upper limit of volume injection for high-volume hydrodissection. Eight Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral "DIEP" flap dissections with varying volumes of fluid (1, 3, 6, and 9 mL) injected into the study side. The primary outcome measurement was overlying tissue perfusion, measured using laser Doppler imaging, at 6 separate time points during the flap harvest. Although no significant difference in perfusion was noted between study and control sides despite increasing volumes of injection, a trend toward significant altered perfusion was noted immediately after injection in the 9-mL study group. Six milliliters is defined as the safe upper limit volume of injection into the closed rectus compartment without significantly altering overlying flap perfusion in our Sprague-Dawley rats. Using volumetric analysis, these data translate to 425 mL as the safe upper limit for high-volume hydrodissection for a single average sized human rectus sheath during DIEP flap harvesting. The mechanical and potentially pharmacologic implications of these data in humans remain to be seen.
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Nonlinear structured-illumination enhanced temporal focusing multiphoton excitation microscopy with a digital micromirror device.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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In this study, the light diffraction of temporal focusing multiphoton excitation microscopy (TFMPEM) and the excitation patterning of nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy (NSIM) can be simultaneously and accurately implemented via a single high-resolution digital micromirror device. The lateral and axial spatial resolutions of the TFMPEM are remarkably improved through the second-order NSIM and projected structured light, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the lateral and axial resolutions are enhanced from 397 nm to 168 nm (2.4-fold) and from 2.33 ?m to 1.22 ?m (1.9-fold), respectively, in full width at the half maximum. Furthermore, a three-dimensionally rendered image of a cytoskeleton cell featuring ~25 nm microtubules is improved, with other microtubules at a distance near the lateral resolution of 168 nm also able to be distinguished.
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Employing injection-locked FP LDs to set up a hybrid CATV/MW/MMW WDM light wave transmission system.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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A hybrid cable television (CATV)/microwave (MW)/millimeter-wave (MMW) wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) light wave transmission system based on injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes (FP LDs) is proposed and demonstrated. Different from conventional hybrid WDM light wave transmission systems, which need wavelength-selected distributed feedback laser diodes to support various services, the proposed systems employ injection-locked FP LDs to provide multiple applications. Over a 40 km single-mode fiber transport, impressive performances of carrier-to-noise ratio/composite second-order/composite triple-beat/bit error rate are obtained for 550 MHz CATV/20 GHz MW/40 GHz MMW/60 GHz MMW signal transmissions. Such a hybrid WDM light wave transmission system would be attractive for fiber links to provide broadband integrated services.
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Bidirectional hybrid PM-based RoF and VCSEL-based VLLC system.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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A bidirectional hybrid phase modulation (PM)-based radio-over-fiber (RoF) and vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL)-based visible laser light communication (VLLC) systems employing injection-locked VCSEL-based PM-to-intensity modulation (IM) converters and optical interleavers (ILs) is proposed and demonstrated. To be the first one of using injection-locked VCSEL-based PM-to-IM converters and optical ILs in such bidirectional hybrid RoF and VLLC systems, the downstream light is successfully phase-remodulated with RoF signal for up-link transmission. Through a serious investigation in systems, bit error rate (BER) and eye diagram perform brilliantly over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) transport and a 12-m free-space transmission. Such a bidirectional hybrid RoF and VLLC system would be very attractive for the integration of fiber backbone and in-door networks to provide broadband integrated services, including Internet and telecommunication services.
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Implications of PPPDE1 expression in the distribution of plakoglobin and ?-catenin in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Human PPPDE peptidase domain-containing protein 1 (PPPDE1) is a recently identified protein; however, its exact functions remain unclear. In our previous study, the PPPDE1 protein was found to be decreased in certain cancer tissues. In the present study, a total of 96 pancreatic ductal carcinoma tissue samples and 31 normal tissues samples were assessed to investigate the distribution of plakoglobin and ?-catenin under the conditions of various PPPDE1 expression levels by means of immunohistochemistry. Generally, the staining of PPPDE1 was strong in normal tissues, but weak in cancer tissues. Plakoglobin was mainly distributed along the membrane and cytoplasm border in normal cells, but was less evident in the membranes of cancer cells. In particular, a greater percentage of cells exhibited low membrane plakoglobin expression in cancer tissue with low PPPDE1 expression (PPPDE1-low cancer) compared with that in cancer tissue with high PPPDE1 expression (PPPDE1-high cancer). The distribution of ?-catenin in normal tissues was similar to that of plakoglobin. However, ?-catenin was peculiarly prone to invade nucleus in PPPDE1-low cancer compared with PPPDE1-high cancer. Our data suggested potential links between PPPDE1 expression and the distribution of plakoglobin and ?-catenin in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, providing insights into the role of PPPDE1 in the progression of pancreatic cancer.
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Characteristics of Alzheimer's disease among patients in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Beijing.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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In order to obtain data from patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia and their informants in a uniform manner and to foster further research among the Chinese and other races, we have conducted an international study to recruit patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Beijing. The Uniform Data Set was translated into Chinese and administrated to AD patients and their informants. A total of 1,107 AD dementia patients were recruited, including 691 from Taiwan, 244 from Beijing, and 172 from Hong Kong. There were differences in the AD patients: gender (p = 0.099), education (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001), and handedness (p = 0.007). For informants, age (p = 0.679), gender (p = 0.117), education (p < 0.001), and living together or not (p < 0.001) differed in the three samples. Although three areas across the Taiwan Strait are ethnic Chinese, the clinical picture for patients and informants are very different. Further study is needed to clarify the significance of clinical characteristics in Chinese societies.
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Cirrhosis as a risk factor for tuberculosis infection--a nationwide longitudinal study in Taiwan.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Tuberculosis (TB) and cirrhosis of the liver are both endemic in many regions of the world. However, the risk of TB in cirrhotic patients has rarely been investigated. A nationwide cohort study was conducted to elucidate and characterize the association between cirrhosis and TB in Taiwan. The study included 41,076 cirrhotic patients and 204,244 noncirrhotic controls from 1998 through 2007. Cirrhotic and noncirrhotic subjects were matched 1:5 on age and sex. A total of 957 of 41,076 (2.32%) cirrhotic patients developed TB, yielding a rate that was significantly higher than that of the 955 of 204,244 (0.46%) noncirrhotic patients (P < 0.001). In a Cox regression model adjusted for age, sex, and underlying medical disorders, a significantly higher active TB rate was maintained for cirrhotic patients compared with their noncirrhotic counterparts (adjusted hazard ratio = 3.55, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.08, 4.09; P < 0.001). Alcoholism and hepatitis C infection were associated with significantly higher TB risk with adjust hazard ratios of 2.18 (95% CI: 1.86, 4.09; P < 0.001) and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.30; P < 0.001), respectively. Cirrhotic patients have a greater risk of TB than noncirrhotic patients, particularly those with alcoholism and hepatitis C infection.
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Augmented miR-150 expression associated with depressed SOCS1 expression involved in dengue haemorrhagic fever.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins regulate cytokine responses and control immune balance. The objective of our study was to determine whether the expression of SOCS1 and its potential regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) in leukocytes is correlated to the development of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF).
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The efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy on huge hepatocellular carcinoma unsuitable for other local modalities.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its effect on survival in patients with unresectable huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) unsuitable of other standard treatment option.
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Caregiver-Mediated Intervention Can Improve Physical Functional Recovery of Patients With Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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and PURPOSE: Patients with chronic stroke may benefit from continuing rehabilitation training after hospital discharge. This study examined whether caregiver-mediated, home-based intervention (CHI) could improve physical functioning and social participation in these patients.
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A full-duplex lightwave transmission system with an innovative VCSEL-based PM-to-IM converter.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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A full-duplex lightwave transmission system employing innovative VCSEL-based PM-to-IM converters to deliver intensity-modulated CATV/phase-modulated RoF/intensity-remodulated RoF signals over two 40-km SMFs links is proposed and demonstrated. To be the first one of employing VCSEL-based PM-to-IM converters in full-duplex lightwave transmission systems, the downstream light is successfully intensity-remodulated with RoF signal for up-link transmission. Good performances of CNR/CSO/CTB are achieved for downstream CATV signal transmission, and low BER values are obtained for both downstream and upstream RoF signals transmissions. Our proposed systems present brilliant performances in delivering hybrid CATV and RoF signals. Such a full-duplex lightwave transmission system would be very attractive for fiber trunk applications to provide broadband integrated services.
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Two-way lightwave subcarrier transmission system.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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This Letter proposes and demonstrates a two-way lightwave subcarrier transmission system employing interleavers to deliver intensity-modulated CATV/phase-modulated RoF/intensity-remodulated 16-QAM-OFDM signals over two 20 km SMF links. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that interleavers have been employed in two-way lightwave subcarrier transmission systems. The downstream light is successfully intensity-remodulated with a 16-QAM-OFDM signal for uplink transmission. We obtained excellent performance from the CNR/CSO/CTB/BER for CATV/RoF/16-QAM-OFDM signal transmissions. The proposed systems offer impressive performance features to deliver hybrid CATV/RoF/16-QAM-OFDM signals.
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Tuning the electrical properties of the heart by differential trafficking of KATP ion channel complexes.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The copy number of membrane proteins at the cell surface is tightly regulated. Many ion channels and receptors present retrieval motifs to COPI vesicle coats and are retained in the early secretory pathway. In some cases, the interaction with COPI is prevented by binding to 14-3-3 proteins. However, the functional significance of this antagonism between COPI and 14-3-3 in terminally differentiated cells is unknown. Here, we show that ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels, which are composed of Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits, are stalled in the Golgi complex of ventricular, but not atrial, cardiomyocytes. Upon sustained ?-adrenergic stimulation, which leads to activation of protein kinase A (PKA), SUR1-containing channels reach the plasma membrane of ventricular cells. We show that PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the C-terminus of Kir6.2 decreases binding to COPI and, thereby, silences the arginine-based retrieval signal. Thus, activation of the sympathetic nervous system releases this population of KATP channels from storage in the Golgi and, hence, might facilitate the adaptive response to metabolic challenges.
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No adverse impact of depressive symptoms on the effectiveness of postacute care service: a multicenter male-predominant prospective cohort study.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Although the clinical effectiveness of community hospital-based postacute care (PAC) services has been shown, little was known regarding the impact of depression on the clinical outcomes of older patients receiving PAC services in Taiwan.
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Optical free-space wavelength-division-multiplexing transport system.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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An optical free-space wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transport system employing vertical cavity surface emitting lasers and spatial light modulators with 16-quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing modulating signals over a 17.5 m free-space link is proposed and demonstrated. With the help of a low-noise amplifier and data comparator, good bit error rate performance is obtained for each optical channel. Such an optical free-space WDM transport system would be attractive for providing services including data and telecommunication services.
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A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantifying capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in rabbit plasma and tissue: application to a pharmacokinetic study.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Prescription and nonprescription products for topical management of pain, including cream, lotion and patch forms, contain capsaicin (CAP) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC). There are few in vivo studies on absorption, bioavailability and disposition of CAP and DHC. We established a sensitive and rapid LC-MS/MS assay to determine CAP and DHC levels in rabbit plasma and tissue. Bio-samples prepared by liquid-liquid extraction using n-hexane-dichloromethane-isopropanol (100: 50: 5, v/v/v) mixture were separated by isocratic chromatography with an Extend C18 column. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water-formic acid (70: 30: 0.1, v/v/v). The method was linear from 0.125 to 50 ng/mL for a 100 ?L bio-sample, and the lower quantification limit was 0.125 ng/mL. Total run time to analyze each sample was 3.5 min. We used this validated method to study pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of CAP gel administered topically to rabbits. A very small amount of CAP and DHC was absorbed into the systemic circulation. The highest plasma concentration was 2.39 ng/mL, and the mean peak plasma concentration value after 12 h of CAP gel application was 1.68 ng/mL. Drug concentration in treated skin was relatively high, with low concentration in other tissues. Thus, topical CAP gel had strong local effects and weaker systemic effects. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detector to quantify exhaled leukotriene B4 level in nonatopic adults.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of the chemical method to analyze exhaled breath condensate (EBC) leukotriene B4 (LTB4) level in humans. High-performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector was applied to quantify the inflammatory biomarker. The LTB4 concentration in the concentrated pooled EBC samples was 1.19 ng/?L, and the average LTB4 concentration of each EBC sample was 15.38 ng/?L. This analytical technique was feasible to evaluate the levels of inflammatory mediators such as LTB4 in human EBCs without any complicated sample pretreatment processes.
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Treatment plan comparison between stereotactic body radiation therapy techniques for prostate cancer: non-isocentric CyberKnife versus isocentric RapidArc.
Phys Med
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and dose distribution of two different stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) techniques, isocentric RapidArc (RA) and non-isocentric CyberKnife (CK), for the treatment of localized prostate cancer.
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Interrelationship of postoperative delirium and cognitive impairment and their impact on the functional status in older patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery: a prospective cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The impact of postoperative delirium on post-discharge functional status of older patients remains unclear, and little is known regarding the interrelationship between cognitive impairment and post-operative delirium. Therefore, the main purpose was to evaluate the post-discharge functional status of patients who experience delirium after undergoing orthopaedic surgery and the interrelationship of postoperative delirium with underlying cognitive impairment.
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The early result of whole pelvic radiotherapy and stereotactic body radiotherapy boost for high-risk localized prostate cancer.
Front Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The rationale for hypofractionated radiotherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer is based on the modern understanding of radiobiology and advances in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) techniques. Whole-pelvis irradiation combined with SBRT boost for high-risk prostate cancer might escalate biologically effective dose without increasing toxicity. Here, we report our 4-year results of SBRT boost for high-risk localized prostate cancer.
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Male breast carcinoma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characterization study.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Male breast carcinoma is a relatively rare disease. This study retrospectively investigated the clinicopathological features of 73 cases of male breast carcinoma in Chinese population, and classified the molecular subtype based on surrogate immunohistochemical definitions. The expression of GCDFP15, MGB, AR and FOXP1 were evaluated. Invasive carcinoma of no special type was the most common histological type in the study group (71.2%, 52/73). The luminal A and B subtypes were the major types of male breast carcinoma (60.9%, 34.8% respectively). AR and FOXP1 are expressed in 84.2% (48/57) and 71.9% (41/57) of the studied cases. Carcinoma of the luminal A subtype expressed GCDFP15 (73.5%, 25/34) and MGB (58.8%, 20/34) more frequently than cases of the luminal B subtypes (34.8%, 8/23 and 43.5%, 10/23, respectively; P = 0.004, P = 0.255, respectively). In conclusion, invasive carcinoma of no special type was the most common histological type in male breast carcinoma among Chinese population. Our study revealed that the luminal A and B subtypes were the major types of male breast carcinoma. AR and FOXP1 are highly expressed in male breast cancer. The luminal A subtype tends to express GCDFP15 and MGB more frequently than the luminal B subtype.
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Hepatitis C virus infection among injection drug users with and without human immunodeficiency virus co-infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study is to explore the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs) with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in southern Taiwan. For 562 IDUs (265 anti-HIV negative, 297 anti-HIV positive), we analyzed liver function, anti-HIV antibody, anti-HCV antibody, HCV viral loads, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). HIV RNA viral loads and CD4 cell count for anti-HIV-seropositive IDUs and the HCV genotype for HCV RNA-seropositive IDUs were measured. The seroprevalence rates of anti-HIV, anti-HCV, and HBsAg were 52.8%, 91.3%, and 15.3%, respectively. All the anti-HIV-seropositive IDUs were positive for HIV RNA. Anti-HCV seropositivity was the most important factor associated with HIV infection (odds ratio [OR], 25.06; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 8.97-74.9), followed by male gender (OR, 6.12; 95% CI, 4.05-9.39) and HBsAg seropositivity (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.11-3.34). Among IDUs positive for anti-HCV, 80.7% had detectable HCV RNA. HCV viremia after HCV exposure was strongly related to HIV infection (OR, 6.262; 95% CI, 1.515-18.28), but negatively correlated to HBsAg seropositivity (OR, 0.161; 95% CI, 0.082-0.317). HCV genotype 6 was the most prevalent genotype among all IDUs (41.0%), followed by genotypes 1 (32.3%), 3 (12.8%), and 2 (5.6%). In conclusion, about half IDUs were infected with HIV and >90% with HCV infection. Male and seropositivity for HBsAg and anti-HCV were factors related to HIV infection among our IDUs. HIV was positively correlated, whereas hepatitis B co-infection was negatively correlated with HCV viremia among IDUs with HCV exposure. Different HCV molecular epidemiology was noted among IDUs.
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Structural basis for the regulatory function of a complex zinc-binding domain in a replicative arterivirus helicase resembling a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay helicase.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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All positive-stranded RNA viruses with genomes >?7 kb encode helicases, which generally are poorly characterized. The core of the nidovirus superfamily 1 helicase (HEL1) is associated with a unique N-terminal zinc-binding domain (ZBD) that was previously implicated in helicase regulation, genome replication and subgenomic mRNA synthesis. The high-resolution structure of the arterivirus helicase (nsp10), alone and in complex with a polynucleotide substrate, now provides first insights into the structural basis for nidovirus helicase function. A previously uncharacterized domain 1B connects HEL1 domains 1A and 2A to a long linker of ZBD, which further consists of a novel RING-like module and treble-clef zinc finger, together coordinating three Zn atoms. On substrate binding, major conformational changes were evident outside the HEL1 domains, notably in domain 1B. Structural characterization, mutagenesis and biochemistry revealed that helicase activity depends on the extensive relay of interactions between the ZBD and HEL1 domains. The arterivirus helicase structurally resembles the cellular Upf1 helicase, suggesting that nidoviruses may also use their helicases for post-transcriptional quality control of their large RNA genomes.
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Light trapping and near-unity solar absorption in a three-dimensional photonic-crystal.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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We report what is to our knowledge the first observation of the effect of parallel-to-interface-refraction (PIR) in a three-dimensional, simple-cubic photonic-crystal. PIR is an acutely negative refraction of light inside a photonic-crystal, leading to light-bending by nearly 90 deg over broad wavelengths (?). The consequence is a longer path length of light in the medium and an improved light absorption beyond the Lambertian limit. As an illustration of the effect, we show near-unity total absorption (?98%) in ?=520-620??nm and an average absorption of ?94% over ?=400-700??nm for our ?-Si:H photonic-crystal sample of an equivalent bulk thickness of t˜=450??nm. Furthermore, we have achieved an ultra-wide angular acceptance of light over ?=0°-80°. This demonstration opens up a new door for light trapping and near-unity solar absorption over broad ?s and wide angles.
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Acute Meningitis Caused by Cladosporium sphaerospermum.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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: Phaeohyphomycosis of the central nervous system is rare but typically associated with high mortality. Treatment has not been standardized, but the combination of antifungal chemotherapy with surgical debridement is recommended. We report a 73-year-old, retired, male timber merchant with acute meningitis caused by Cladosporium sphaerospermum. The patient, who had well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus, presented with fever and weakness of the lower limbs. No brain abscess was apparent by cranial computed tomography. C. sphaerospermum was isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid and identified based on both morphology and DNA sequencing. He was treated with combination antifungal chemotherapy with amphotericin B and voriconazole for 28 days, followed by voriconazole monotherapy for 46 days. To date, the patient has recovered without significant sequelae. This patient represents the first reported case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by C. sphaerospermum. Moreover, the therapy was successful for totally less than 3 months of treatment duration.
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Interruption of Lung Cancer Cell Migration and Proliferation by Fungal Immunomodulatory Protein FIP-fve from Flammulina velutipes.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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FIP-fve is an immunomodulatory protein isolated from Flammulina velutipes that possesses anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. However, little is known about its anticancer effects. It is suppressed cell proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells on MTT assay following 48 h treatment of FIP-fve. FIP-fve treatment also resulted in cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis on flow cytometry. This immunomodulatory protein was observed to increase p53 expression, as well as the expression of its downstream gene p21, on Western blot. FIP-fve inhibited migration of A549 cells on wound healing assay and decreased filopodia fiber formation on labeling with Texas Red-X phalloidin. To confirm the effect of FIP-fve on the role of Rac1 in filopodia formation, we investigated the activity of Rac1 in A549 cells following FIP-fve treatment. FIP-fve inhibited EGF-induced activation of Rac1. We demonstrated that FIP-fve decreases RACGAP1 mRNA and protein levels on RT-PCR and Western blot. In addition, the reporter activity of RACGAP1 was reduced by FIP-fve on RacGAP1 promoter assay. Silencing of RacGAP1 decreased cell migration, and overexpression of RacGAP1 increased cell migration in A549 cells. In conclusion, FIP-fve inhibits lung cancer cell migration via RacGAP1 and suppresses the proliferation of A549 via p53 activation pathway.
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One-pot formation of fluorescent ?-lactams having an ?-phosphorus ylide moiety through three-component ?(?)-Michael reactions of phosphines with an enyne and N-tosyl aldimines.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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We demonstrate a straightforward synthesis of ?-lactams possessing an ?-phosphorus ylide moiety from assembly of phosphines, N-tosyl aldimines and an enyne through an initial ?(?)-attack of phosphines to an enyne in up to 79% yield. The investigated multicomponent reaction tolerates a variety of triarylphosphines and electron-poor aldimines to give ?-lactams in one pot. One of the lactams, with the tri(p-tol)phosphine and 4-cyanophenyl moiety, exhibits fluorescence emission at 447 nm with a quantum yield of 0.11.
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Melatonin improves neuroplasticity by upregulating the growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and NMDAR-post-synaptic density-95 (PSD95) proteins in cultured neurons exposed to glutamate excitotoxicity and in rats subjected to transient focal cerebral isch
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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Recent evidence shows that the NMDAR-post-synaptic density-95 (PSD95), growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein enhance neuroplasticity at the subacute stage of stroke. Here, we evaluated whether melatonin would modulate the PSD95, GAP-43 and MMP-9 proteins in cultured neurons exposed to glutamate excitotoxicity and in rats subjected to experimental stroke. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with melatonin (5 mg/kg) or vehicle at reperfusion onset after transient occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (tMCAO) for 90 min. Animals were euthanized for Western immunoblot analyses for the PSD-95 and GAP-43 proteins and gelatin zymography for the MMP-9 activity at 7-day post-insult. Another set of animals was sacrificed for histologic and Golgi-Cox-impregnated sections at 28 days post-insult. In cultured neurons exposed to glutamate excitotoxicity, melatonin significantly up-regulated the GAP-43 and PSD-95 expressions and improved dendritic aborizations (P < 0.05, respectively). Relative to controls, melatonin-treated stroke animals caused a significant improvement of GAP-43 and PSD-95 expressions as well as the MMP-9 activity in the ischemic brain (P < 0.05). Consequently, melatonin also significantly promoted the dendritic spine density and reduced infarction in the ischemic brain, and improved neurobehaviors as well at 28 days post-insult (P < 0.05, respectively). Together, melatonin upregulates GAP-43, PSD-95 and MMP-9 proteins, which likely accounts for its actions to improve neuroplasticity in cultured neurons exposed to glutamate excitotoxicity, and to enhance long-term neuroprotection, neuroplasticity and brain remodeling in stroke rats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Clinical implications of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 and its relationship with lipocalin 2 in cancer of the uterine cervix.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2013
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Over-expression of the aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) has been demonstrated in many human cancers. Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is reported to inhibit cervical cancer metastasis but little is known regarding its relationship with AKR1C3 in the development and progression of uterine cervical cancer. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of AKR1C3 and its relationship with LCN2 in cervical cancer.
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Enhancement of 4-Acetylantroquinonol B Production by Supplementation of Its Precursor during Submerged Fermentation of Antrodia cinnamomea.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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The antiproliferation activity of the ethanol extract of A. cinnamomea mycelium on hepatocellular cancer cells HepG2 was found to be associated with aroma intensity of the broth during fermentation. We hypothesized that some of the volatile compounds are the precursors of the key bioactive component 4-acetylantroquinonol B of this fungus. The major volatile compounds of A. cinnamomea were identified by GC/MS, and they are oct-1-en-3-ol, linalool, methyl phenylacetate, nerolidol, ?-cadinene and 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde (TMBA). TMBA and nerolidol were further selected and used as supplements during fermentation. It was found that both of them could increase the production of 4-acetylantroquinonol B and enhance the antiproliferation activity of the fungus. In addition, the TMBA was identified as the most promising supplement for increasing the bioactivity of A. cinnamomea during cultivation.
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Prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure increases depression-like behaviors and reduces hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Major depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in the population. In addition to genetic influences, disturbances in fetal nervous system development might be a contributing factor. Maternal infection during pregnancy may affect fetal brain development and consequently lead to neurological and mental disorders. Previously, we used low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on embryonic day 10.5 to mimic mild maternal infection in rats and found that dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons were reduced in the offspring. The offspring also showed more anxiety-like behavior and an enhanced stress response. In the present study we used forced swim test and chronic mild stress challenge to assess depression-like behaviors in the affected offspring and examined their adult hippocampal neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration. Our results showed that prenatally LPS-exposed rats (LPS rats) displayed more depression-like behaviors and had reduced adult neurogenesis and BDNF. The behavioral abnormalities and reduction in adult neurogenesis could be reversed by chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. This study demonstrates that during the critical time of embryonic development LPS exposure can produce long-term behavioral changes and reduction in adult neurogenesis. The findings of enhanced depression-like behaviors, reduced adult neurogenesis, and their responsiveness to chronic antidepressant treatment suggest that prenatal LPS exposure could serve as an animal model of depression.
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Malignant paraganglioma of the rectum: The first case report and a review of the literature.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Paragangliomas typically develop in the extra-adrenal sites along the sympathetic and/or the parasympathetic chain. Occasionally, the tumors may arise in some exotic sites, including the head and neck region and the urogenital tract. Paraganglioma presenting as a primary rectal neoplasm has not been well described in the literature. Here, we report the first case of malignant paraganglioma arising in the rectum of a 37-year-old male. He presented to the clinic because of hematochezia with tenesmus. The anorectal digital examination and colonoscopic examination revealed a polypoid mass of the rectum, measuring approximately 4 cm in diameter. The overall morphology and immunophenotype were consistent with a typical paraganglioma. However, the tumor exhibited features suggestive of malignant potential, including local extension into adjacent adipose tissue, nuclear pleomorphism, confluent tumor necrosis, vascular invasion and metastases to regional lymph nodes. In conclusion, we present the first case of rectal malignant paraganglioma. Due to the unexpected occurrence in this region, malignant paraganglioma may be misdiagnosed as other tumors with overlapping features; in particular, a neuroendocrine tumor of epithelial origin. Because of the differences in treatment, separating paraganglioma from its mimics is imperative. Combination of morphology with judicious immunohistochemical study is helpful in obtaining the correct diagnosis.
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Improving the extensor lag and range of motion following free vascularized joint transfer to the proximal interphalangeal joint: Part 2. A clinical series.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Free vascularized joint transfer for reconstructing the posttraumatic proximal interphalangeal joint has enjoyed limited popularity because of the low range of motion typically achieved after transfer. One of the commonest complaints is the significant extensor lag. Part 2 of this two-part study is focused on the clinical outcomes following a more anatomical approach to extensor tendon reconstruction.
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Improving the extensor lag and range of motion following free vascularized joint transfer to the proximal interphalangeal joint: Part 1. An observational and cadaveric study.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Extension lag is a common occurrence following free vascularized joint transfer reconstruction of the proximal interphalangeal joint, thus limiting the range of motion that is achievable. In this Part 1 study, the anatomical and biomechanical arrangements of the toe proximal interphalangeal joint extensor mechanism were investigated.
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High-throughput fabrication of gray-level biomicrostructures via temporal focusing excitation and laser pulse control.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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ABSTRACT. A developed temporal focusing-based multiphoton excitation system with additional patterned excitation and local laser control can provide high-throughput fabrication of three-dimensional gray-level biomicrostructures via two-photon cross-linking with rose bengal (RB) as the photoactivator. Multiple bovine serum albumin (BSA) structures of different concentrations were simultaneously achieved by selecting different pulse numbers in the designated regions with an appropriate femtosecond laser power within a few seconds. Intensity of the RB two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) is correlated to the concentration of the fabricated cross-linked BSA microstructure. Hence, the fabricated BSA microstructure can be monitored online by utilizing the RB TPEF as contrast agent. It suggests that this approach with its unique capability of high-speed, gray-level, and online-inspection fabrication meets the requirements of the biomedical researches involved in extracellular matrix.
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Poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) thermogel as a novel submucosal cushion for endoscopic submucosal dissection.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a clinical therapy for early stage neoplastic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. It is, however, faced with a crucial problem: the high occurrence of perforation. The formation of a submucosal fluid cushion (SFC) via a fluid injection is the best way to avoid perforation, and thus an appropriate biomaterial is vital for this minimally invasive endoscopic technique. In this study, we introduced an injectable thermogel as a novel submucosal injection substance in ESD. The hydrogel synthesized by us was composed of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) triblock copolymers. The polymer/water system was a low-viscosity fluid at room temperature and thus easily injected, and turned into a non-flowing gel at body temperature after injection. The submucosal injection of the thermogel to create SFCs was performed in both resected porcine stomachs and living minipigs. High mucosal elevation with a clear margin was maintained for a long duration. Accurate en bloc resection was achieved with the assistance of the thermogel. The mean procedure time was strikingly reduced. Meanwhile, no obvious bleeding, perforation and tissue damage were observed. The application of the thermogel not only facilitated the ESD procedure, but also increased the efficacy and safety of ESD. Therefore, the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel provides an excellent submucosal injection system, and has great potential to improve the ESD technique significantly.
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Implantable stimulator for epileptic seizure suppression with loading impedance adaptability.
IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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The implantable stimulator for epileptic seizure suppression with loading impedance adaptability was proposed in this work. The stimulator consisted of the high voltage generator, output driver, adaptor, and switches, can constantly provide the required 40-?A stimulus currents, as the loading impedance varied within 10 k? -300 k?. The performances of this design have been successfully verified in silicon chip fabricated by a 0.35- ?m 3.3-V/24-V CMOS process. The power consumption of this work was only 1.1 mW-1.4 mW. The animal test results with the fabricated chip of proposed design have successfully verified in the Long-Evans rats with epileptic seizures.
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Changes in the Soil Bacterial Communities in a Cedar Plantation Invaded by Moso Bamboo.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Moso bamboo is fast-growing and negatively allelopathic to neighboring plants. However, there is little information on the effects of its establishment and expansion to adjacent forest soil communities. To better understand the impacts of bamboo invasion on soil communities, the phylogenetic structure and diversity of the soil bacterial communities in moso bamboo forest, adjacent Japanese cedar plantation, and bamboo-invaded transition zone were examined using a combination of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and bar-coded pyrosequencing techniques. Based on the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Shannon diversity index, Chao1 estimator, and rarefaction analysis of both techniques, the bamboo soil bacterial community was the most diverse, followed by the transition zone, with the cedar plantation possessing the lowest diversity. The results from both techniques revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria predominated in the three communities, though the relative abundance was different. The 250 most abundant OTUs represented about 70 % of the total sequences found by pyrosequencing. Most of these OTUs were found in all three soil communities, demonstrating the overall similarity among the bacterial communities. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis showed further that the bamboo and transition soil communities were more similar with each other than the cedar soils. These results suggest that bamboo invasion to the adjacent cedar plantation gradually increased the bacterial diversity and changed the soil community. In addition, while the 10 most abundant OTUs were distributed worldwide, related sequences were not abundant in soils from outside the forest studied here. This result may be an indication of the uniqueness of this region.
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Fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Replantation of amputated fingertips is a technical challenge, as many salvage procedures fail because no suitable vein in the fingertip is available for anastomosis. In this study, we examined our experience in fingertip replantation in cases without venous anastomosis with our established fingertip replantation treatment protocol.
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Increased production of interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by type 2 diabetes mononuclear cells infected with dengue virus, but not increased intracellular viral multiplication.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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It has been reported that diabetes mellitus (DM) was an epidemiologically identified risk factor for development of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/severe dengue in dengue virus (DENV) affected patients, and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10 each plays an important role in the immunopathogenesis of DHF in studies involving general population. To better understand the relationship between these epidemiological and immunological findings, we performed an in vitro study evaluating the sequential immunological reactions and viral load in the DENV infected mononuclear cells of adults with type 2 DM (T2DM group, n = 33) and normal adults (control group, n = 29). We found in the T2DM group significantly higher IL-4 level on the first (P = 0.049) and the third (P = 0.022) postinfection days, while higher IL-10 (P = 0.042) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (P = 0.009) were detected on the third postinfection day. No significant difference in DENV viral load between the cultured mononuclear cells from both groups was found on the first and third post-infection days. These data immunologically suggest that patients with T2DM are at higher risk for development of DHF/severe dengue and strengthen the previously epidemiologically identified role of DM being a predictive risk factor for progressing into DHF/severe dengue in DENV-affected patients.
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Association of home care needs and functional recovery among community-dwelling elderly hip fracture patients.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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The aim of this study was to assess the home care needs and task difficulty of community-dwelling aged hip fracture and the association of functional recovery with care received. A cohort of hip fracture patients admitted to orthopedic wards for surgery was collected from August 2009 to December 2010. Patients transferred to long-term care facilities after surgery were excluded. Functional status (feeding, clothing, grooming, bathing, getting in/out of bed, walking, toileting, standing up/sitting down, and walking up/down stairs) and task difficulty for caregivers were recorded at discharge, one week and one month after discharge. In total, 116 patients (mean age: 79.4 ± 8.5 years, 51.7% males) were enrolled. The mean age of primary caregivers was 53.4 ± 14.2 years, and most were daughters or sons (54.3%), spouses (34.5%) or foreign workers (11.0%). The most common care needs were wound care (95.7%), medical visits (94.8%), cleaning and maintaining living quarters (92.2%) and vigilance to ensure patient safety (92.2%). The care needs and task difficulty significantly correlated with physical function before, one week and one month after discharge (r=-0.530, p<0.001; r=-0.326, p=0.001; r=-0.432, p<0.001; r=-0.684, p<0.001; and r=-0.475, p<0.001, respectively). The complex and taxing home care needs of community-dwelling elderly hip fracture patients were significantly associated with functional recovery. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and related special medical services may greatly help caregivers and promote the practice of aging in place. Further study is needed to develop appropriate caregiver education to promote the functional recovery of elderly hip fracture patients at home.
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Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia and renosplenic abscesses without intestinal symptoms as the initial manifestations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced colitis: a rare case report.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the most widely prescribed drugs in the world, can cause gastrointestinal damage, including colitis. However, the prevalence of NSAID-induced colitis is unknown because the disease is often asymptomatic.
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Vascularised toe proximal interphalangeal joint transfer in posttraumatic finger joint reconstruction: The effect of skin paddle design on extensor lag.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Vascularised joint transfer (VJT) from the toe proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) has been criticised for providing a limited range of motion (ROM) and significant extensor lag in reconstructed digits. The original technique includes the dorsal skin of toe PIPJ as a marker of joint viability, while a modified technique uses the skin flap of the great toe and the dorsal foot. This systematic review aimed to assess vascularised toe-to-finger PIPJ transfers with respect to functional outcomes, and in particular, whether a modified skin paddle design can improve extensor lag.
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Cysteinyl leukotriene levels correlate with 8-isoprostane levels in exhaled breath condensates of atopic and healthy children.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Cysteinyl leukotrienes are important mediators of airway inflammation, whereas 8-isoprostane is a biomarker of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the distributions of cysteinyl leukotriene and 8-isoprostane concentrations in exhaled breath condensates (EBCs) of children. The relationship between cysteinyl leukotriene and 8-isoprostane concentrations in the EBCs was also evaluated.
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Prevalence of and associated factors with chronic kidney disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Taiwan.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important issue for individuals who live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy; however, the prevalence rate of CKD varies between countries.
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Direct observation of quasi-coherent thermal emission by a three-dimensional metallic photonic crystal.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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We report a direct observation of a quasi-coherent thermal emission from a heated three-dimensional photonic-crystal sample. While the sample was under Joule heating, we observed multiple oscillations in its emission interferogram and deduced a coherent length of L(coh)?(20-40) ?m, 5-10 times longer than that of a blackbody at comparable wavelengths. The observed, relatively long coherent length is attributed to coupling of thermal emission into lossy Bloch modes that oscillate coherently over a distance determined by decay length and the slow light nature of Bloch modes at the band-edges.
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Arteriovenous graft infection caused by Candida glabrata: A case report and literature review.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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The infection rate of arteriovenous (AV) grafts is high, but fungal etiology is rare. Only five cases of graft infection due to Candida albicans (C. albicans) or C. tropicalis have been described in the literature. Herein, we report the first case of AV graft infection caused by C. glabrata. A 60-year-old woman on maintenance hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease was admitted because of intermittent fever, for 10 days. Upon physical examination, tenderness over the AV graft site was noticed. Blood culture yielded C. glabrata and her clinical symptoms improved after she was treated with micafungin for 1 month. However, C. glabrata candidemia reoccurred 5 weeks later. Cure was achieved after removal of the AV graft and anidulafungin treatment. Pus was observed in the removed graft, from which C. glabrata was isolated. The outcome of our case and patients from the literature review suggest that removal of the infected graft is important for treatment success of AV graft Candida infection.
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Simultaneous reconstruction of extensor mechanism in the free transfer of vascularized proximal interphalangeal joint.
Tech Hand Up Extrem Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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From a recent systemic review, vascularized toe proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) transfer achieved an average arc of motion (AOM) of merely 37 degrees for finger PIPJ reconstruction. Despite the technical refinement over the past 3 decades, the resulting active motion of the reconstructed joint remains unpredictable and often fraught with extension lag. The technique for vascularized toe PIPJ transfer at our institute has evolved over the years to its current state, with simultaneous extensor mechanism reconstruction being a major component. During the transfer, the quality of extensor tendons on the recipient finger and donor toe are carefully evaluated. If the central slip of finger extensor is destroyed but the quality of lateral bands is adequate, centralization of lateral bands overlying the transferred PIPJ is performed. If there is acceptable central slip remnant at the proximal phalanx level, modified Stack procedure is performed for central slip reconstruction while leaving the lateral bands in continuity. If both lateral bands are poor, modified Stack procedure is performed unless the central tendon of the toe is strong enough to extend the PIPJ. From November 2008 to October 2010, 7 joints were transferred with this modified technique. The average follow-up was 18.2 months. The average active AOM of the transferred PIPJ was 56.4 degrees. The average extension lag of the toe PIPJ was 10.7 and 16.4 degrees before and after the transfer, respectively. Simultaneous reconstruction of extensor mechanism decreases the extension lag without sacrificing AOM of the transferred PIPJ.
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Heterogeneity and function of K(ATP) channels in canine hearts.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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The concept that pore-forming Kir6.2 and regulatory SUR2A subunits form cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels is challenged by recent reports that SUR1 is predominant in mouse atrial K(ATP) channels.
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