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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Asymmetric Hetero-Diels-Alder Reaction of Diazenes Catalyzed by Chiral Silver Phosphate: Water Participates in the Catalysis and Stereocontrol.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The chiral silver phosphate was confirmed to efficiently catalyze a highly regio- and enantioselective hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of diazenes to furnish piperazine derivatives in high yields and excellent ee values. DFT calculations revealed that the water molecule participates in the catalysis by coordination to silver phosphate and also found that the hydroxy group of 1-hydroxy-2,3-hexadiene not only formed a hydrogen bond with the oxygen of phosphate but also coordinated to the Ag(I) to simultaneously stabilize the transition states and control the regioselectivity.
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Association between Reversal in the Expression of Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated (HCN) Channel and Age-Related Atrial Fibrillation.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Background We compared cardiac electrophysiological indicators and regional expression levels of cardiac hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels between adult and aged dogs to identify possible mechanisms of age-related atrial fibrillation. Material and Methods Corrected sinus node recovery time (SNRTc) and effective refractory period (ERP) of the atrium and pulmonary veins were measured in 10 adult (3-6 years old) and 10 aged dogs (>9 years old). Expression levels of HCN2 and HCN4 channel mRNAs and proteins were measured in the sinoatrial node, atrium, and pulmonary veins by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Results Aged dogs exhibited a higher induction rate of atrial fibrillation (AF) in response to electrical stimulation, longer AF duration after induction, longer SNRTc, longer right atrial effective refractory period (AERP), shorter left AERP, and increased AERP dispersion compared to adults. Expression levels of HCN2 and HCN4 channel mRNAs and proteins were lower in the sinoatrial node but higher in the atrium and pulmonary veins of aged dogs. Conclusions Changes in atrial electrophysiological indicators in aged dogs revealed sinoatrial node dysfunction. There was a reversal in the local tissue distribution of HCN2 and HCN4 channel mRNA and protein, a decrease in sinoatrial node expression, and increase in atrial and pulmonary vein expression with age. Changes in atrial electrophysiological characteristics and regional HCN channel expression patterns were associated with the onset and maintenance of age-related atrial fibrillation.
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[Autologous peripheral blood CD34+ stem cells transplanted into 100 patients with advanced cirrhosis].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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To investigate whether transplantation of autologous peripheral blood CD34+ stem cells is a viable approach for treating patients with advanced cirrhosis,which is currently hindered by a shortage in liver donors.
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Development of 107 SSR markers from whole genome shotgun sequences of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) and their application in seedling identification.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) is one of the important subtropical fruit crops native to the South of China and Asian countries. In this study, 107 novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers, a powerful tool for genetic diversity studies, cultivar identification, and linkage map construction, were developed and characterized from whole genome shotgun sequences. M13 tailing for forward primers was applied as a simple method in different situations. In total, 828 alleles across 45 accessions were detected, with an average of 8 alleles per locus. The number of effective alleles ranged from 1.22 to 10.41 with an average of 4.08. The polymorphic information content (PIC) varied from 0.13 to 0.89, with an average of 0.63. Moreover, these markers could also be amplified in their related species Myrica cerifera (syn. Morella cerifera) and Myrica adenophora. Seventy-eight SSR markers can be used to produce a genetic map of a cross between 'Biqi' and 'Dongkui'. A neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed to assess the genetic relationships among accessions, and the elite accessions 'Y2010-70', 'Y2012-140', and 'Y2012-145', were characterized as potential new genotypes for cultivation.
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[Effects of different perlite additions on physical and chemical properties of sewage sludge compost and growth of Tagetes patula].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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In order to resolve the problem of poor permeability of sewage sludge compost (SSC) which was used as the substitution of peat, perlite was used to regulate the permeability of the sewage. The pure SSC was used as control. The proportions of perlite in the mixtures with SSC were 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% (V/V), respectively. The effects of different perlite ratios on the physical and chemical properties and the growth of Tagetes patula were studied. The bulk density, water holding porosity and water holding porosity to aeration porosity decreased, but the total porosity and aeration porosity increased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. For the chemical properties, the pH increased, and the EC and nutrient contents decreased with the increasing addition of perlite to the SSC. The aboveground biomass and flowers of T. patula were the highest in the 60% perlite treatment, and the lowest in the pure SSC treatment. The root morphology and activity were the best in the 40%, 60% and 80% perlite treatments. Aeration was the strongest factor to impact the maximum root length and average root diameter. Perlite promoted the growth of T. patula mainly through impacting the physical properties of the SSC. The addition of 60% perlite to the SSC could significantly improve the poor aeration and decrease the high salinity greatly in the SSC and regulate the growth of the root and aboveground of T. patula.
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Dietary factors and risk of pancreatic cancer: a multi-centre case-control study in china.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death with an increasing trend in China. Dietary intake is believed to play an important role in pancreatic cancer carcinogenesis. The aim of this paper was to evaluate associations between some dietary factors and risk of pancreatic cancer in a multi-centre case-control study conducted in China.
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Two new xanthones from Lomatogonium carinthiacum.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To study the chemical constituents of Lomatogonium carinthiacum (Wulfen) Rchb.
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The CD8? gene in duck (Anatidae): cloning, characterization, and expression during viral infection.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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Cluster of differentiation 8 alpha (CD8?) is critical for cell-mediated immune defense and T-cell development. Although CD8? sequences have been reported for several species, very little is known about CD8? in ducks. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses of ducks, we cloned CD8? coding sequences from domestic, Muscovy, Mallard, and Spotbill ducks using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Each sequence consisted of 714 nucleotides and encoded a signal peptide, an IgV-like domain, a stalk region, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail. We identified 58 nucleotide differences and 37 amino acid differences among the four types of duck; of these, 53 nucleotide and 33 amino acid differences were between Muscovy ducks and the other duck species. The CD8? cDNA sequence from domestic duck consisted of a 61-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 714-nucleotide open reading frame, and an 849-nucleotide 3' UTR. Multiple sequence alignments showed that the amino acid sequence of CD8? is conserved in vertebrates. RT-PCR revealed that expression of CD8? mRNA of domestic ducks was highest in the thymus and very low in the kidney, cerebrum, cerebellum, and muscle. Immunohistochemical analyses detected CD8? on the splenic corpuscle and periarterial lymphatic sheath of the spleen. CD8? mRNA in domestic ducklings was initially up-regulated, and then down-regulated, in the thymus, spleen, and liver after treatment with duck hepatitis virus type I (DHV-1) or the immunostimulant polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C).
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Naphthenic acids quantification in organic solvents using fluorescence spectroscopy.
J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Quantification of naphthenic acids in water has been traditionally performed after extraction with organic solvents followed by analytic methods that are complex and costly for preliminary research or for continuous monitoring purposes. This study examines the application of fluorescence in organic solvents as an effective alternative, and the role of organic solvents on quantification results. Nine organic solvents were used: three polar protic alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and propanol), three polar aprotic (dichloromethane, acetone, and acetonitrile) and three non-polar (hexane, toluene, and diethyl ether). The calibration curves of the polar protic solvents performed the best; they had lower light scattering and higher method sensitivity than polar aprotic and non-polar. Methanol was selected for further experiments having a strong linearity for concentrations lower than 250 mg/L (R(2) > 0.99), and a low relative standard deviation (< 10%). The method sensitivity was improved by 70% using a methanol-deionized water mixture (50:50) as a solvent. The synchronous fluorescence mode with a reduced offset value of ?? = 10 nm demonstrated potential for fingerprinting. The fluorescence technique for quantifying total naphthenic acids directly in organic solvents is a cost-effective analytical method compatible with the solid phase extraction of the sample.
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Therapeutic Effects of Fucoidan in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rat Model of Parkinson's disease: Role of NADPH oxidase-1.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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To explore the effect of fucoidan treatment on oxidative stress-mediated dopaminergic neuronal damage and its potential mechanisms.
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Generation of Intermediate Porcine iPS Cells Under Culture Condition Favorable for Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition.
Stem Cell Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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It has been demonstrated that naïve and primed pluripotency are determined by different extracellular signals. In this study, we investigated whether intermediate pluripotent states could be available by manipulating the culture condition during the process of generating pig induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs). By optimizing the culture condition that efficiently promotes mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), we found that combination of three growth factors (LIF, FGF2 and BMP4) and two inhibitors (2i: CHIR99021 and SB431542) could generate an intermediate pluripotent state of piPSCs, which were named as LFB2i-piPSCs. The LFB2i-piPSCs are stable and fulfill all the criteria of pluripotency, including expression of pluripotent genes, differentiation into three germ layers via embryoid bodies in vitro and teratoma in vivo. More importantly, the mRNA-sequencing data showed that LFB2i-piPSCs had a mixed transcriptome of naïve and primed pluripotency, which featured by expressing high levels of SOX2, L-MYC and ESRRB and relatively low levels of POU5F1, KLF4 and NANOG. Small RNA sequencing also demonstrated that LFB2i-piPSCs had a mixed microRNA profile of naïve and primed pluripotency, which featured by expressing high levels of miR-302b/367 cluster and miR-106a/363 cluster, and low levels of most let-7 family members and miR-17/92 cluster. Altogether, the LFB2i-piPSCs represent a stable intermediate pluripotent state with unique transcriptome and microRNA signatures. The LFB2i-piPSCs will provide a new tool to explore the mechanisms of pluripotency and reprogramming on pig species.
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Intense isolated few-cycle attosecond XUV pulses from overdense plasmas driven by tailored laser pulses.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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A new scheme to generate an intense isolated few-cycle attosecond XUV pulse is demonstrated using particle-in-cell simulations. By use of unipolarlike or subcycle laser pulses irradiating a thin foil target, a strong transverse net current can be excited, which emits a few-cycle XUV pulse from the target rear side. The isolated pulse is ultrashort in the time domain with duration of several hundred attoseconds. The pulse also has a narrow bandwidth in the spectral domain compared to other XUV sources of high-order harmonics. It has most energy confined around the plasma frequency and no low-harmonic orders below the plasma frequency. It is also shown that XUV pulse of peak field strength up to 8 × 10(12) Vm(-1) can be produced. Without the need for pulse selecting and spectral filtering, such an intense few-cycle XUV pulse is better suited to a number of applications.
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Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells infected with adenovirus expressing HGF promote regeneration of damaged neuron cells in a Parkinson's disease model.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder that is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) pathway. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord (hUC-MSCs) have great potential for developing a therapeutic agent as such. HGF is a multifunctional mediator originally identified in hepatocytes and has recently been reported to possess various neuroprotective properties. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hUC-MSCs infected by an adenovirus carrying the HGF gene on the PD cell model induced by MPP+ on human bone marrow neuroblastoma cells. Our results provide evidence that the cultural supernatant from hUC-MSCs expressing HGF could promote regeneration of damaged PD cells at higher efficacy than the supernatant from hUC-MSCs alone. And intracellular free Ca(2+) obviously decreased after treatment with cultural supernatant from hUC-MSCs expressing HGF, while the expression of CaBP-D28k, an intracellular calcium binding protein, increased. Therefore our study clearly demonstrated that cultural supernatant of MSC overexpressing HGF was capable of eliciting regeneration of damaged PD model cells. This effect was probably achieved through the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) levels by modulating of CaBP-D28k expression.
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Molecular cloning and expression analysis of ferritin, heavy polypeptide 1 gene from duck (Anas platyrhynchos).
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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H-ferritin is a core subunit of the iron storage protein ferritin, and is related to the pathogenesis of malignant diseases. A differential expressed sequence tag of the ferritin, heavy polypeptide 1 gene (FTH1) was obtained from our previously constructed suppression subtractive cDNA library from 3-day-old ducklings challenged with duck hepatitis virus type I (DHV-1). The expression and function of FTH1 in immune defense against infection remains largely unknown in ducks. In this study, the full-length duFTH1 cDNA was obtained using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It consisted of 153 basepairs (bp) 5'untranslated region (UTR), 183 bp 3'UTR, and 546 bp open reading frame that encodes a single protein of 181 amino acid residues. duFTH1 shares high similarity with FTH1 genes from other vertebrates. The amino acid sequence possesses the conserved domain of typical ferritin H subunits, including seven metal ligands in the ferroxidase center, one iron binding region signature, and a potential bio-mineralization residue (Thy(29)). Moreover, in agreement with a previously reported ferritin H subunit, we identified an iron response element in the 5'UTR. RT-PCR analyses revealed duFTH1 mRNA is widely expressed in various tissues. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses suggested that duFTH1 mRNA is significantly up-regulated in the liver after DHV-1 injection or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (polyI:C) treatment, reaching a peak 4 h post-infection, and dropping progressively and returning to normal after 24 h. Our findings suggest that duFTH1 functions as an iron chelating protein subunit in duck and contributes to the innate immune responses against viral infections.
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Role of resonance absorption in terahertz radiation generation from solid targets.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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The interaction of 100-fs laser pulses with solid targets at laser intensities 10(16)-10(18)W/cm(2) has been investigated experimentally by simultaneous measurements of terahertz (THz) and second harmonic signals. THz yield at the front side of the target, which rises from the self-organized transient electron currents along the target surface, is found scaling linearly with the laser intensity basically. Measurements of specularly reflected light spectrum show clear evidence of resonance absorption. The positive effects of resonance absorption on surface current and THz radiation generation have been confirmed by two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and angular-dependent experiments, respectively.
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Characterization of Stroke- and Aging-Related Changes in the Complexity of EMG Signals During Tracking Tasks.
Ann Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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To explore the stroke- and aging-induced neurological changes in paretic muscles from an entropy point of view, fuzzy approximate entropy (fApEn) was utilized to represent the complexity of EMG signals in elbow-tracking tasks. In the experiment, 11 patients after stroke and 20 healthy control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched adults) were recruited and asked to perform elbow sinusoidal trajectory tracking tasks. During the tests, the elbow angle and electromyographic (EMG) signals of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii were recorded simultaneously. The results showed significant differences in fApEn values of both biceps and triceps EMG among four groups at six velocities (p < 0.01), with fApEn values in the following order: affected sides of stroke patients < unaffected sides of stroke patients < age-matched controls < young controls. A possible mechanism underlying the smaller fApEn values in the affected sides in comparison with aged-matched controls and in the aged individuals in comparison with young controls might be the reduction in the number and firing rate of active motor units. This method and index provide evidence of neurological changes after stroke and aging by complexity analysis of the surface EMG signals. Further studies are needed to validate and facilitate the application in clinic.
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Silencing of the glypican-3 gene affects the biological behavior of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. The gene glypican-3 (GPC3) is reported to be a potential therapeutic target for HCC. In this study, we use RNA interference with lentiviral vectors to explore the effect of GPC3 silencing on the biological behavior of HCC cells and the potential role of the GPC3 protein in the activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which relates to HCC cell invasion and migration. Our data suggest that GPC3 silencing leads to a decrease in HCC cell proliferation and to an increase in apoptosis. We demonstrated that GPC3 silencing regulates cell invasion and migration, most probably through the activation of the EMT cellular program. In conclusion, GPC3 is associated with the HCC cell biological behavior, while the relationship between GPC3 and EMT in tumorigenesis of HCC deserves future investigation.
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Vincristine and Irinotecan in Children with Relapsed Hepatoblastoma: A Single-Institution Experience.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Purpose: This study was to determine the efficacy of vincristine and irinotecan in children with relapsed hepatoblastoma (HB). Methods: A total of 10 patients with relapsed HB were enrolled. Three patients were excluded. Patients received irinotecan 50 mg/m(2)/day, day 1-5 and vincristine 1.5 mg/m(2)/day, day 1, repeated every 3 weeks. The maximum cycles were eight. Reevaluation of tumor was performed every two cycles. The primary outcome was the rate of complete resection. Secondary outcomes were event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Of the seven patients assessable for response, one patient with normal AFP level showed a progressive disease and withdrew. He finally died 6 months later. Four had PR, all of them underwent a second surgery and achieved complete resection. Two patients had SD, one patient relapsed 6 months after orthotopic liver transplantation and died, the other one undergoing surgery had micro margin positive, he relapsed again but alive. The rate of complete resection was 71.4% (including orthotopic liver transplantation). The 2-year EFS and OS for the whole group were 57.1% (95% CI, 12.7% to 34.2%) and 71.4% (95% CI, 16.39% to 37.4%), respectively. Conclusions: The combination of irinotecan and vincristine has a significant antitumor activity and acceptable toxicity in children with relapsed HB.
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Efficacy of gemcitabine combined with oxaliplatin, L-asparaginase and dexamethasone in patients with newly-diagnosed extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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There is currently no standard first-line regimen for patients with extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTCL). In this study, we investigated the efficacy and toxicity of gemcitabine (GEM) combined with oxaliplatin (L-OHP), L-asparaginase (L-ASP) and dexamethasone (DXM) (GOLD regimen) as a systemic treatment scheme for newly-diagnosed ENKTCL cases. A total of 55 patients were recruited at the Henan Province Cancer Hospital and the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University between May, 2008 and August, 2012. The GOLD regimen included a 14-day treatment cycle with GEM (1,000 mg/m(2)) on day 1, L-OHP (100 mg/m(2)) on day 1, L-ASP (10,000 U/m(2)) on days 1-5 and DXM (20 mg b.i.d.) on days 1-4. The response rate, survival rate and treatment toxicity were analyzed. The overall response rate was 91% (48/55) with a complete response in 62% (34/55) and a partial response in 29% (15/55) of the patients. For all patients, the 1-, 2- and 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 86, 64 and 57% and the overall survival (OS) 91, 80 and 74%, respectively. The 1-year PFS in patients with stage I/II vs. those with III/IV disease was 87 vs. 66% (P<0.001) and the 1-year OS was 98 vs. 75%, respectively (P<0.001). No chemotherapy-related mortality or severe complications were recorded. In conclusion, the GOLD regimen was found to be highly effective and safe for the treatment of patients with newly-diagnosed ENKTCL.
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Evaluation of the Microsoft Kinect as a clinical assessment tool of body sway.
Gait Posture
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Total body center of mass (TBCM) is a useful kinematic measurement of body sway. However, expensive equipment and high technical requirement limit the use of motion capture systems in large-scale clinical settings. Center of pressure (CP) measurement obtained from force plates cannot accurately represent TBCM during large body sway movement. Microsoft Kinect is a rapidly developing, inexpensive, and portable posturographic device, which provides objective and quantitative measurement of TBCM sway. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Kinect as a clinical assessment tool for TBCM sway measurement. The performance of the Kinect system was compared with a Vicon motion capture system and a force plate. Ten healthy male subjects performed four upright quiet standing tasks: (1) eyes open (EOn), (2) eyes closed (ECn), (3) eyes open standing on foam (EOf), and (4) eyes closed standing on foam (ECf). Our results revealed that the Kinect system produced highly correlated measurement of TBCM sway (mean RMSE=4.38 mm; mean CORR=0.94 in Kinect-Vicon comparison), as well as comparable intra-session reliability to Vicon. However, the Kinect device consistently overestimated the 95% CL of sway by about 3mm. This offset could be due to the limited accuracy, resolution, and sensitivity of the Kinect sensors. The Kinect device was more accurate in the medial-lateral than in the anterior-posterior direction, and performed better than the force plate in more challenging balance tasks, such as (ECf) with larger TBCM sway. Overall, Kinect is a cost-effective alternative to a motion capture and force plate system for clinical assessment of TBCM sway.
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The RNA expression signature of the HepG2 cell line as determined by the integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Understanding miRNAs' regulatory networks and target genes could facilitate the development of therapies for human diseases such as cancer. Although much useful gene expression profiling data for tumor cell lines is available, microarray data for miRNAs and mRNAs in the human HepG2 cell line have only been compared with that of other cell lines separately. The relationship between miRNAs and mRNAs in integrated expression profiles for HepG2 cells is still unknown. To explore the miRNA-mRNA correlations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, we performed miRNA and mRNA expression profiling in HepG2 cells and normal liver HL-7702 cells at the genome scale using next-generation sequencing technology. We identified 193 miRNAs that are differentially expressed in these two cell lines. Of these, 89 miRNAs were down-regulated in HepG2 cells compared with HL-7702 cells, while 104 miRNAs were up-regulated. We also observed 3035 mRNAs that are significantly dys-regulated in HepG2 cells. We then performed an integrated analysis of the expression data for differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs and found several miRNA-mRNA pairs that are significantly correlated in HepG2 cells. Further analysis suggested that these differentially expressed genes were enriched in four tumorigenesis-related signaling pathways, namely, ErbB, JAK-STAT, mTOR, and WNT, which until now had not been fully reported. Our results could be helpful in understanding the mechanisms of HCC occurrence and development.
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Clinical outcome of autologous hematopoietic stem cell infusion via hepatic artery or portal vein in patients with end-stage liver diseases.
Chin. Med. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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To investigate the efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation via the hepatic artery vs. the portal vein for end-stage liver disease (ESLD).
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Microsensor determination of multiple microbial processes in an oxygen-based membrane aerated biofilm.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Microsensor techniques were used to investigate in situ the simultaneous occurrence of sulfate reduction and nitrogen removal in a membrane aerated biofilm reactor. H2S, O2, pH, ORP, NH4(+) and NO3(-) microsensors were fabricated and used to measure the profiles inside the membrane aerated biofilm. Production and consumption rates of H2S, O2, NH4(+) and NO3(-) were estimated using corresponding concentration profiles. The results showed that in anoxic zone, located from the interface between biofilm and bulk liquid to about 550 ?m below the interface, both sulfate reduction and denitrification occurred. Highest H2S production rates (around 0.27 mg L(-1)s(-1)) were found about 400 to 450 ?m below the interface. Below the anoxic zone, an aerobic zone was present. High H2S oxidation activity occurred at around 550-700 ?m below the interface. High oxygen consumption rates (0.34 mg L(-1)s(-1)) occurred at around 750-900 ?m below the interface. Nitrification activity occurred at about 500-650 ?m below the interface. Along the entire biofilm depth, pH changed slightly (within 0.2 unit). Near the interface of the aerobic and anoxic zone, there was a drastic redox potential change. These results demonstrated simultaneous sulfate reduction and nitrogen removal in a piece of membrane aerated biofilm.
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Aquimarina pacifica sp. nov., isolated from seawater.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-flagellated, strictly aerobic bacterium with gliding motility, designated strain SW150(T), was isolated from surface seawater of the South Pacific Gyre (39° 19' S 139° 48' W) during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329. Optimal growth occurred in the presence of 2-4% (w/v) NaCl, at pH 7-8 and at 28-30 °C. The dominant fatty acids were iso-C(15?:?0), iso-C(17?:?0) 3-OH, iso-C(15?:?1) G, C(16?:?1)?6c and/or C(16?:?1)?7c and 10-methyl C(16?:?0) and/or iso-C(17?:?1)?9c. The polar lipids of strain SW150(T) comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, three unknown polar lipids and one unknown aminolipid. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The DNA G+C content of strain SW150(T) was 33.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel strain was related most closely to Aquimarina macrocephali JAMB N27(T) and Aquimarina muelleri KMM 6020(T) with 97.8 and 96.8% sequence similarities, respectively. The estimated DNA-DNA hybridization values were 21.00±2.33% between strain SW150(T) and A. macrocephali JAMB N27(T) and 20.60±2.32% between strain SW150(T) and Aquimarina megaterium XH134(T). On the basis of polyphasic analyses, strain SW150(T) represents a novel species of the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina pacifica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW150(T) (?=?JCM 18214(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12180(T)).
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Gradually increased training intensity benefits rehabilitation outcome after stroke by BDNF upregulation and stress suppression.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Physical training is necessary for effective rehabilitation in the early poststroke period. Animal studies commonly use fixed training intensity throughout rehabilitation and without adapting it to the animals' recovered motor ability. This study investigated the correlation between training intensity and rehabilitation efficacy by using a focal ischemic stroke rat model. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion surgery. Sixty rats with successful stroke were then randomly assigned into four groups: control (CG, n = 15), low intensity (LG, n = 15), gradually increased intensity (GIG, n = 15), and high intensity (HG, n = 15). Behavioral tests were conducted daily to evaluate motor function recovery. Stress level and neural recovery were evaluated via plasma corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration, respectively. GIG rats significantly (P < 0.05) recovered motor function and produced higher hippocampal BDNF (112.87 ± 25.18 ng/g). GIG and LG rats exhibited similar stress levels (540.63 ± 117.40 nM/L and 508.07 ± 161.30 nM/L, resp.), which were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that (716.90 ± 156.48 nM/L) of HG rats. Training with gradually increased intensity achieved better recovery with lower stress. Our observations indicate that a training protocol that includes gradually increasing training intensity should be considered in both animal and clinical studies for better stroke recovery.
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OWL reasoning framework over big biological knowledge network.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Recently, huge amounts of data are generated in the domain of biology. Embedded with domain knowledge from different disciplines, the isolated biological resources are implicitly connected. Thus it has shaped a big network of versatile biological knowledge. Faced with such massive, disparate, and interlinked biological data, providing an efficient way to model, integrate, and analyze the big biological network becomes a challenge. In this paper, we present a general OWL (web ontology language) reasoning framework to study the implicit relationships among biological entities. A comprehensive biological ontology across traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine (WM) is used to create a conceptual model for the biological network. Then corresponding biological data is integrated into a biological knowledge network as the data model. Based on the conceptual model and data model, a scalable OWL reasoning method is utilized to infer the potential associations between biological entities from the biological network. In our experiment, we focus on the association discovery between TCM and WM. The derived associations are quite useful for biologists to promote the development of novel drugs and TCM modernization. The experimental results show that the system achieves high efficiency, accuracy, scalability, and effectivity.
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Topsoil drying combined with increased sulfur supply leads to enhanced aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica juncea leaves and roots.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The decrease of water availability is leading to an urgent demand to reduce the plants' water supply. This study evaluates the effect of topsoil drying, combined with varying sulfur (S) supply on glucosinolates in Brassica juncea in order to reveal whether a partial root drying may already lead to a drought-induced glucosinolate increase promoted by an enhanced S supply. Without decreasing biomass, topsoil drying initiated an increase in aliphatic glucosinolates in leaves and in topsoil dried roots supported by increased S supply. Simultaneously, abscisic acid was determined, particularly in dehydrated roots, associated with an increased abscisic acid concentration in leaves under topsoil drying. This indicates that the dehydrated roots were the direct interface for the plants' stress response and that the drought-induced accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates is related to abscisic acid formation. Indole and aromatic glucosinolates decreased, suggesting that these glucosinolates are less involved in the plants' response to drought.
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Mitochondrial translocation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in cord blood mononuclear cells of newborns with gestational diabetes mellitus mothers.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To better understand the role of oxidative stress in fetal programming, we assessed the hypothesis that the mitochondrial translocation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) could protect neonatal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from oxidative damage during pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
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Bacterial community structure and activity of sulfate reducing bacteria in a membrane aerated biofilm analyzed by microsensor and molecular techniques.
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The activities and vertical spatial distribution of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in an oxygen (O2 )-based membrane aerated biofilm (MAB) were investigated using microsensor (O2 and H2 S) measurements and molecular techniques (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [PCR-DGGE] and fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]). The O2 concentration profile revealed that O2 penetrated from the bottom (substratum) of the gas permeable membrane, and was gradually consumed within the biofilm until it was completely depleted near the biofilm/bulk liquid interface, indicating oxic and anoxic zone in the MAB. The H2 S concentration profile showed that H2 S production was found in the upper 285?µm of the biofilm, indicating a high activity of SRB in this region. The results from DGGE of the PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B (dsrB) gene and FISH showed an uneven spatial distribution of SRB. The maximum SRB biomass was located in the upper biofilm. The information from the molecular analysis can be supplemented with that from microsensor measurements to better understand the microbial community and activity of SRB in the MAB.
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Image quality in children with low-radiation chest CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To evaluate noise reduction and image quality improvement in low-radiation dose chest CT images in children using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and a full model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithm.
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DNA methylation and regulation of the CD8A after duck hepatitis virus type 1 infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) is expressed in cytotoxic T cells, where it functions as a co-receptor for the T-cell receptor by binding to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) proteins, which present peptides on the cell surface. CD8A is critical for cell-mediated immune defense and T-cell development. CD8A transcription is controlled by several cis-acting elements and trans-acting elements and is also regulated by DNA methylation. However, the epigenetic regulation of CD8A in the duck and its relationship with virus infection are still unclear.
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[Efficacy of postoperative simple chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy in FIGO stage IB2-IIB cervical cancer].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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To evaluate the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by radical hysterectomy plus postoperative chemotherapy but no radiotherapy for stage IB2-IIB cervical cancer.
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Complexity Analysis of EMG Signals for Patients After Stroke During Robot-Aided Rehabilitation Training Using Fuzzy Approximate Entropy.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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The paper presents a novel viewpoint to monitor the motor function improvement during a robot-aided rehabilitation training. Eight chronic poststroke subjects were recruited to attend the 20-session training, and in each session, subjects were asked to perform voluntary movements of elbow flexion and extension together with the robotic system. The robotic system was continuously controlled by the electromyographic (EMG) signal from the affected triceps. Fuzzy approximate entropy (fApEn) was applied to investigate the complexity of the EMG segment, and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) during elbow flexion and extension was applied to reflect force generating capacity of the affected muscles. The results showed that the group mean fApEn of EMG signals from triceps and biceps increased significantly after the robot-aided rehabilitation training (p<0.05). There was also significant increase in maximum voluntary flexion and extension torques after the robot-aided rehabilitation training (p<0.05). There was significant correlation between fApEn of agonist and MVC (p<0.01), which implied that the increase of motorneuron number is one of factors that may explain the increase in muscle strength. These findings based on fApEn of the EMG signals expand the existing interpretation of training-induced function improvement in patients after stroke, and help us to understand the neurological change induced by the robot-aided rehabilitation training.
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Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma involving the gastrointestinal tract: analysis of clinical features and outcomes from the Asia Lymphoma Study Group.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the most common extranasal sites in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL). However, data regarding ENKTL involving the GI tract are relatively scarce. Thus, we performed a multicenter, multinational retrospective study to analyze clinical features and treatment outcomes of ENKTL involving the GI tract.
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Moderate-dose glucocorticoids as salvage therapy for severe pneumonia in renal transplant recipients: a single-center feasibility study.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Abstract This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of moderate-dose glucocorticoids (GCs) with mechanical ventilation as salvage therapy for renal transplant recipients with severe pneumonia, which was non-responsive to conventional treatment. A retrospective study was conducted involving renal transplant recipients diagnosed with severe pneumonia and did not respond to conventional treatment. All immunosuppressants were then completely withdrawn, and the patients were initially administered with methylprednisolone at doses of 2.0-2.5?mg/kg/day once every 12?h. This dosage was continued until oxygenation improved, and the treatment was gradually tapered (by 20?mg every 2-3 days) to the previous maintenance dosage. Ten patients were recruited from year 2008 to 2012. Two patients who underwent emergency endotracheal intubation were intubated on days 3 and 8, respectively, another one died from recurrent pneumothorax. The mean PaO2/FiO2 of the nine survivors was significantly increased by the increasing treatment duration; whereas the lung injury scores (LIS) and the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score were both significantly decreased. The use of moderate-dose GCs may play a role as salvage therapy for renal transplant recipients with severe pneumonia. However, further study with larger trials to is needed.
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Luteimonas abyssi sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment of South Pacific Gyre.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Three Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented bacteria with single polar flagellum, designated strains XH031T, XH038-3 and XH80-1 were isolated from deep-sea sediment of the South Pacific Gyre (41° 51 S 153° 6 W) during the IODP Expedition 329. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates belonged to the genus Luteimonas and showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Luteimonas aestuarii B9T (96.95%), Luteimonas huabeiensis HB2T (96.93%) and Xanthomonas cucurbitae LMG690T (96.92%). The DNA G+C contents of the three isolates were 70.2-73.9 mol%. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C11:0 and C16:010-methyl and/or iso-C17:1?9c. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and one unknown phospholipid. On the basis of data from the polyphasic analysis, the three isolates were considered to represent members of a novel species in the genus Luteimonas, for which the name Luteimonas abyssi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XH031T (= DSM 25880T= CGMCC 1.12611T).
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Aquimarina megaterium sp. nov., isolated from seawater of South Pacific Gyre.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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A novel Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-flagellated, strictly aerobic strain with gliding motility, designated XH134T, was isolated from surface seawater of the South Pacific Gyre (45°58 S, 163°11 W) during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329. The major respiratory quinone of strain XH134T was MK-6. The dominant fatty acids of strain XH134T were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1G, C16:1 ?6c and/or C16:1 ?7c, iso-C17:0 3-OH, iso-C15:0 3-OH and C16:0 10-methyl and/or iso-C17:1?9c. The polar lipid compositions of strain XH134T were phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), one unknown aminolipids (AL) and three unknown polar lipids (L1-L3). The DNA G+C content of strain XH134T was 32.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel strain was most closely related to Aquimarina macrocephali JAMB N27T with 96.9% sequence similarity. A number of phenotypic characteristics distinguished strain XH134T from described members of the genus Aquimarina. On the basis of combined phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain XH134T represents a novel species of the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina megaterium sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XH134T (=CGMCC 1.12186T=JCM 18215T).
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[Clinical observation of jianpi bushen formula to prevent collapse of osteonecrosis of femoral head].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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To observe the clinical effect of Jianpi Bushen formula to prevent the collapse of osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) of type phlegm and blood stasis obstructing the collaterals. 50 cases (including 73 hips) of non-collapse ONFH (ARCO I, II, III a) were selected from the out-patient department of orthopedic in Guanganmen Hospital attached to China Academy of Chinese Medical Science. All the cases fit for diagnostic criteria were given Jianpi Bushen formula and followed up. Staging criteria was ARCO classification. Harris score evaluated the hip function. The mean follow-up time was 4.2 years (3-5.4 years). After a mean of 4.2 years (3-5.4 years) followed-up, 12 hips collapse occurred while 61 hips not (the non-collapse rate was 83.56%). Collapse did not occurred among the all 7 hips at stage ARCO I (the non-collapse rate was 100%). Among the 49 hips at stage ARCO II, 9 hips collapse occurred while 40 hips not (the non-collapse rate was 81.63%). Among the 17 hips at stage ARCO III a, 3 hips collapse occurred while 14 hips not (the non-collapse rate was 82.35%). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed the average survival time of non-collapse was 5 years (4. 8-5.2 years). The 3 year survival rate of non-collapse was 92.5%. The 4 year survival rate was 74% and the condition tended to be stability trend. The Harris score was 71.93 +/- 11.25 before treatment and 81.63 +/- 12.16 after treatment, significantly different. These results suggest that: Jianpi Bushen formula is an effective method for treating ONFH of type phlegm and blood stasis obstructing the collaterals. It can delay or prevent the collapse of femoral head and significantly improve the hip function.
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Inhibition of return in the visual field: the eccentricity effect is independent of cortical magnification.
Exp Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Inhibition of return (IOR) as an indicator of attentional control is characterized by an eccentricity effect, that is, the more peripheral visual field shows a stronger IOR magnitude relative to the perifoveal visual field. However, it could be argued that this eccentricity effect may not be an attention effect, but due to cortical magnification. To test this possibility, we examined this eccentricity effect in two conditions: the same-size condition in which identical stimuli were used at different eccentricities, and the size-scaling condition in which stimuli were scaled according to the cortical magnification factor (M-scaling), thus stimuli being larger at the more peripheral locations. The results showed that the magnitude of IOR was significantly stronger in the peripheral relative to the perifoveal visual field, and this eccentricity effect was independent of the manipulation of stimulus size (same-size or size-scaling). These results suggest a robust eccentricity effect of IOR which cannot be eliminated by M-scaling. Underlying neural mechanisms of the eccentricity effect of IOR are discussed with respect to both cortical and subcortical structures mediating attentional control in the perifoveal and peripheral visual field.
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Identification and expression analysis of the leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) gene in duck (Anas platyrhynchos).
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2), first identified as a chemotactic factor, is involved in the regulation of liver regeneration, carcinogenesis, and natural killer T-cell homeostasis in mammals. The function of LECT2 in the duck remains unclear, however. A suppression subtractive cDNA library was constructed from the livers of 3-day-old ducklings treated with duck hepatitis virus type I (DHV-1). A total of 66 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in the libraries. Among the novel gene fragments identified was the LECT2 gene. Full-length duck LECT2 (duLECT2) complementary DNA (cDNA) was obtained using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA consisted of a 50 nucleotide 5 untranslated region (UTR), an 84 nucleotide 3 UTR, and a 1020 nucleotide open reading frame encoding a single protein of 339 amino acids. In agreement with a previously reported LECT2 sequence, the predicted amino acid sequence contains characteristic phosphorylation and N-glycosylation sites. DuLECT2 is highly similar to LECT2 genes from other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the LECT2 gene has been highly conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. RT-PCR analyses revealed that duLECT2 mRNA is widely expressed in healthy tissues. They also showed that duLECT2 mRNA is significantly up-regulated in the liver and spleen following injection with DHV-1 or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C), peaking 4 or 12h post-challenge in the liver and spleen, respectively, and afterwards gradually returning to normal. Our findings suggest that duLECT2 contributes to the innate immune response against viral infections.
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Determination of the optimal energy level in spectral CT imaging for displaying abdominal vessels in pediatric patients.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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To determine the optimal energy level in contrast-enhanced spectral CT imaging for displaying abdominal vessels in pediatric patients.
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Myoelectrically controlled wrist robot for stroke rehabilitation.
J Neuroeng Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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Robot-assisted rehabilitation is an advanced new technology in stroke rehabilitation to provide intensive training. Post-stroke motor recovery depends on active rehabilitation by voluntary participation of patients paretic motor system as early as possible in order to promote reorganization of brain. However, voluntary residual motor efforts to the affected limb have not been involved enough in most robot-assisted rehabilitation for patients after stroke. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of robot-assisted rehabilitation using myoelectric control on upper limb motor recovery.
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Litorilituus sediminis gen. nov. sp. nov., isolated from coastal sediment of an amphioxus breeding zone in Qingdao, China.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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A Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, catalase- and oxidase-positive, aerobic, curved-rod shaped bacterium with polar or subpolar flagellum, designated strain JYr2(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from an amphioxus breeding zone in the coastal region of Qingdao, China. The organism grew optimally at 37 °C, pH 8-9 and in the presence of 3 % (w/v) NaCl or 3-4 % sea salts (w/v; Sigma). Salt was required for growth. The strain contained isoprenoid quinone 8 (Q-8, 100 %) as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and C16:0 (24.1 %) and C16:1 ?7c and/or C16:1 ?6c (35.8 %) as major fatty acids. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, aminophospholipid (PN) and two aminolipid (AL1, AL2) were the major constituents of the phospholipids. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JYr2(T) formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the family Colwelliaceae. It showed <95.0 % sequence similarities to all validly published species in the family Colwelliaceae, except 95.2 % to Thalassomonas viridans DSM 13754(T) and 95.0 % to Colwellia polaris JCM 537(T). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.7 mol%. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic study, strain JYr2(T) (= CGMCC 1.10794(T) = JCM 17549(T)) was considered to represent a novel genus and species in Gammaproteobacteria, for which the name Litorilituus sediminis gen. nov. sp. nov. was proposed.
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Short-term microbiological effects of scaling and root planing and essential-oils mouthwash in Chinese adults.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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To assess the short-term effect of scaling and root planing (SRP) and essential-oils mouthwash on the levels of specific bacteria in Chinese adults.
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Prognostic significance of peripheral monocyte count in patients with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) has heterogeneous clinical manifestations and prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of absolute monocyte count (AMC) in ENKL, and provide some immunologically relevant information for better risk stratification in patients with ENKL.
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Protein kinase A-mediated cardioprotection of Tongxinluo relates to the inhibition of myocardial inflammation, apoptosis, and edema in reperfused swine hearts.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Our previous studies have demonstrated that Tongxinluo (TXL), a traditional Chinese medicine, can protect hearts against no-reflow and reperfusion injury in a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner. The present study was to investigate whether the PKA-mediated cardioprotection of TXL against no-reflow and reperfusion injury relates to the inhibition of myocardial inflammation, edema, and apoptosis.
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The effect of different titanium nitride coatings on the adhesion of Candida albicans to titanium.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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The aim of the present study was an in vitro evaluation of the effects of different titanium nitride (TiNx) coatings on Candida albicans (C. albicans) adhesion to titanium and to correlate these findings to differences in specific surface characteristics (surface topography, roughness, chemical component, and surface free energy).
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Determination of antazoline hydrochloride in Beagle dog plasma by HPLC-UV and its application to pharmacokinetics.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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In order to evaluate the pharmacokinetics characteristic of antazoline hydrochloride in Beagle dogs, a sensitive and specific HPLC method was developed and validated using phenacetin as the internal standard (IS). The analyte and the IS were extracted from dog plasma by ethyl acetate under the basic condition. The analyte was separated by a C18 column and detected with a variable wavelength UV-detector. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-5mmolL(-1) tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (45:55, v/v) containing 0.5% glacial acetic acid in a flow rate of 1.0mLmin(-1). Standard calibration graph for antazoline was linear over a curve range of 20-1600ngmL(-1) (R>0.99) and the lower limit of quantification was 20ngmL(-1) using a plasma sample of 500?L. The intra- and inter-day precision values were less than 14.3% relative standard deviation (RSD). The intra-day assay accuracy was in the range of 98.1-100.6% and the inter-day assay accuracy in the range of 99.2-101.1%. The extraction recoveries were on the average of 88.4% for antazoline and 76.8% for IS. Plasma samples were stable at least for 1 month at -20°C. This method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetics study of antazoline after intravenous administration to Beagle dogs.
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A successful team treatment for left main shock syndrome.
J Geriatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock and left main coronary artery disease is called left main shock syndrome. It is reported that the morbility and mortality of the syndrome is approximately 0.46% and 55%-80%, respectively. However, the best treatment strategy in these cases is unknown. In this article, we present a patient with LMSS who successively underwent emergency percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting with hemodynamic support within 5 days. The patient is now on his three month uneventful out-patient follow-up.
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EEG patterns from acute to chronic stroke phases in focal cerebral ischemic rats: correlations with functional recovery.
Physiol Meas
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Monitoring the neural activities from the ischemic penumbra provides critical information on neurological recovery after stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the temporal alterations of neural activities using electroencephalography (EEG) from the acute phase to the chronic phase, and to compare EEG with the degree of post-stroke motor function recovery in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 90 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery followed by reperfusion for seven days (n = 58). The EEG signals were recorded at the pre-stroke phase (0 h), acute phase (3, 6 h), subacute phase (12, 24, 48, 72 h) and chronic phase (96, 120, 144, 168 h) (n = 8). This study analyzed post-stroke seizures and polymorphic delta activities (PDAs) and calculated quantitative EEG parameters such as the alpha-to-delta ratio (ADR). The ADR represented the ratio between alpha power and delta power, which indicated how fast the EEG activities were. Forelimb and hindlimb motor functions were measured by De Rycks test and the beam walking test, respectively. In the acute phase, delta power increased fourfold with the occurrence of PDAs, and the histological staining showed that the infarct was limited to the striatum and secondary sensory cortex. In the subacute phase, the alpha power reduced to 50% of the baseline, and the infarct progressed to the forelimb cortical region. ADRs reduced from 0.23 ± 0.09 to 0.04 ± 0.01 at 3 h in the acute phase and gradually recovered to 0.22 ± 0.08 at 168 h in the chronic phase. In the comparison of correlations between the EEG parameters and the limb motor function from the acute phase to the chronic phase, ADRs were found to have the highest correlation coefficients with the beam walking test (r = 0.9524, p < 0.05) and De Rycks test (r = 0.8077, p < 0.05). This study measured EEG activities after focal cerebral ischemia and showed that functional recovery was closely correlated with the neural activities in the penumbra. Longitudinal EEG monitoring at different phases after a stroke can provide information on the neural activities, which are well correlated with the motor function recovery.
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Diagnostic validity of human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA test in cervical cytological samples.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA tests tend to show high sensitivity, but poor specificity in detecting high-grade cervical lesions. This study aimed to explore the clinical performance of QuantiVirus(®) HPV E6/E7 mRNA in identifying ?Grade 2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Thin-prep(®) liquid based cytology test (LBC) samples were collected from October 2009 to October 2011 from women who underwent outpatient hospital-based gynecological screening. LBC samples were processed for E6/E7 mRNA detection and HPV DNA detection. Of 335 patients, 135 (40.3%) were HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive for high-risk HPV subtypes. The positivity rate of HPV E6/E7 mRNA increased with the severity of cytological and histological evaluation. An optimal cut-off value of ?567copies/ml was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of cut-off value (?567copies/ml) were higher than those of E6/E7 mRNA positivity only, but not significant. QuantiVirus(®) HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing may be a valuable tool in triage for identifying ?Grade 2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. A high specificity and a low positivity rate of E6/E7mRNA testing as a triage test in HPV DNA-positive women can be translated into a low referral for colposcopy. Studies composed of large population-based samples of women and with rigorous disease ascertainment, are needed to establish the optimal cut-off point based on ROC curve analysis.
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Neural correlates of motor impairment during motor imagery and motor execution in sub-cortical stroke.
Brain Inj
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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This study aims at identifying the neural substrates for motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) in patients after stroke and their correlations with functional outcomes.
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Neuroprotective effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediated by autophagy through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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Brain?derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been demonstrated to be a potent growth factor that is beneficial in neuronal functions following hypoxia?ischemia (HI). Mature BDNF triggers three enzymes, mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3?kinase (PI3K) and phosphoinositide phospholipase C-? (PLC?), which are its predominant downstream regulators. The PI3K?Akt signaling pathway is upstream of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is important in the induction of autophagy. However, whether the neuroprotective effect of BDNF is mediated by autophagy through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway remains to be elucidated. Cortical neurons were cultured following isolation from pregnant rats (gestational days 16?18). The induction of autophagy following BDNF treatment was analyzed by microtubule?associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) conversion and autophagosome formation. The phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) was analyzed in cultured cells with or without BDNF treatment. Cell viability was determined by a Cell Counting Kit?8 for estimating the protective effect of BDNF. Results demonstrated that autophagy was induced in cells with oxygen deprivation. BDNF promoted cell viability via the upregulation of autophagy. Moreover, LC3 upregulation was related to Akt/mTOR/p70S6K inhibition by BDNF. In conclusion, the results suggested that the neuroprotective effect of BDNF was mediated by autophagy through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.
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Determination of antazoline hydrochloride in rat plasma and excreta by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography and its application to pharmacokinetics.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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A reversed-phase ion pair chromatography method with liquid-liquid extraction analytical method was developed and validated for the determination of antazoline hydrochloride in plasma and excreta of rat. The aim of our study was to characterize the preclinical pharmacokinetics and excretion profiles of antazoline hydrochloride in rats after intravenous injection at the dose of 10 mg/kg. Plasma and excreta samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, and phenacetin was used as the internal standard. The result showed that the method is suitable for the quantification of antazoline hydrochloride in plasma and excreta samples. Analysis of accuracy (90.89-112.33%), imprecision (<7.1%) and recovery (>82.5%) showed adequate values. After a single intravenous administration at 10 mg/kg to rats, plasma concentration profile showed a relative fast elimination proceeding with a terminal elimination half-life of 3.53 h. Approximately 61.8 and 14.2% of the administered dose were recovered in urine and bile after 72 and 24 h post-dosing respectively; 5.9% of the administered dose was recovered in feces after 72 h post-dosing. The above results show that the major elimination route is urinary excretion. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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LC-MS-MS for the Determination of Ponicidin in Dog Plasma.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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A highly specific and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the determination of ponicidin in dog plasma. The plasma samples were prepared using liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Waters XTerra MS C18 column. The extracted ponicidin and the internal standard, oridonin, were detected by tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The optimized mass transition ion pairs (m/z) for quantitation were 363.08-345.08 for ponicidin and m/z 365.10-347.06 for the internal standard. The lower limit of quantification was 5 ng/mL. The linear range of the method was from 5 to 5,000 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision measurements were lower than 5.3 and 6.0% in terms of relative standard deviation and the accuracy was within ±8.4% in terms of relative error. Additionally, no significant matrix ionization suppression or enhancement was observed. The validated method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of ponicidin in dogs. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters in dogs were: terminal elimination half-life, 8.14 ± 1.35 h; mean residence time, 12.30 ± 2.08 h; area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration, 14.34 ± 1.37 µg/h/mL; area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity, 15.75 ± 1.44 µg/h/mL; apparent volume of distribution, 4.79± 1.68 L/kg; total body clearance, 0.41 ± 0.08 L/kg/h.
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The effects of training intensities on motor recovery and gait symmetry in a rat model of ischemia.
Brain Inj
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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This study investigated the effects of moderate and excessive gait training intensities on motor recovery in sub-acute stroke.
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Peptide FLNPDVLDI of heparanase is a novel HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope and elicits potent immunological antitumor effects in vitro with an 8-branched design.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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The aim of this study was to predict and characterize a novel HLA-A2-restricted T-cell epitope of the human heparanase (HPSE) protein, as well as to evaluate its antitumor immunological effects in vitro with an 8-branched multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) design. The amino acid sequence of HPSE was scanned, and the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes were predicted using HLA-A2-restricted epitope-predictive algorithms based on supermotif and quantitative motif methods. The affinity of candidate peptides to HLA-A2 was evaluated using peptide-binding assay, by virtue of the characteristics of T2 cells. The MAPs consisting of the selected peptides were synthesized using an 8-branched design. The specific CTL-inducing ability of the MAPs was assessed by LDH release assay, and the CTL activity was evaluated by INF-? ELISPOT assay. Among the predicted nonapeptides, the FLNPDVLDI peptide of HPSE showed the highest affinity to the HLA-A2 molecule. The 8-branched MAP comprising FLNPDVLDI induced specific CTLs for human HPSE in vitro, which effectively secreted IFN-? and potently lysed HCC97-H human hepatocarcinoma cells and SW-480 human colonic carcinoma cells. The nonapeptide FLNPDVLDI of human HPSE appears to be a novel HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope, and its 8-branch designed MAP is capable of inducing a potent HPSE-specific CTL response against tumor cells in vitro. Our study provides theoretical evidence for the peptide-based antitumor immunotherapy.
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Prognostic value of interim and posttherapy 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with mature T-cell and natural killer cell lymphomas.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The prognostic value of interim PET or PET/CT performed after 1-4 cycles of chemotherapy has been widely confirmed in Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma but remains unknown in T-cell and natural killer (T/NK) cell lymphomas. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the prognostic value of interim and posttherapy PET/CT in T/NK-cell lymphomas.
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Predictive value of pretreatment positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with newly diagnosed extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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The role of (18)Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) is not well established. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic role of the pretreatment maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) on PET/CT in patients with newly diagnosed ENKL. Among 364 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed ENKL, 81 patients were included and reviewed. The impact of SUV(max) on survival and the relationship between SUV(max) and other clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. The median SUV(max) was 14.6 (range 2.0-45.4). The optimal cutoff value of SUV(max) to predict overall survival (OS) was 15. Patients with high SUV(max) (SUVmax >15) were associated with bulky disease (P < 0.001), local invasion (P = 0.030), high score of Korean Prognostic Index (KPI, P = 0.046), resistance to primary treatment (P = 0.014), poor OS (P < 0.001), and unfavorable progression-free survival (P < 0.001). With a median follow-up of 25.0 months, the median OS was 63.0 months (range 2.0-99.0 months). Multivariate analyses revealed the following independent prognostic factors for OS: age >60 years (P = 0.001), stage III-IV (P = 0.023), SUV(max) >15 (P = 0.020), and bulky disease (>5 cm) (P = 0.002). By using the SUV(max), patients in most subgroups stratified by the KPI or the International Prognostic Index (IPI) were further discriminated in OS with significant statistical difference. Our results suggest the pretreatment SUV(max) is predictive of prognosis in patients with newly diagnosed ENKL. The SUV(max) may provide additional prognostic information for IPI and KPI.
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Edwardsiella tarda invasion of fish cell lines and the activation of divergent cell death pathways.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Edwardsiella tarda is an important gram-negative intracellular pathogen of fish. However, the invasive features of E. tarda to fish cells and the pathogenesis of host cell death have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, two fish cell models were used to investigate the interactions between E. tarda and its cellular hosts. E. tarda invaded and replicated in both cell lines. Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells were more sensitive to E. tarda infection than the flounder gill cell line FG-9307, with higher levels of intracellular bacteria in the former. The invasion and intracellular replication of E. tarda in FG-9307 cells were studied at the ultrastructural level, and infected cells with large amounts of replicated bacteria and destroyed organelles were observed. Apoptosis was observed in EPC cells upon infection, characterized by the occurrence of apoptotic bodies, DNA ladder, increased Annexin V binding and the activation of caspase-3, whereas E. tarda infected FG-9307 cells were negative for all of those features. E. tarda infection in FG-9307 cells failed to protect the staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were activated in EPC cells upon E. tarda infection. The present study revealed that E. tarda interacts with fish cells in different manners, and divergent pathways were activated in these cellular hosts to mediate cell death. These results provided new information on the interactions between E. tarda and fish cells.
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Arm-eye coordination test to objectively quantify motor performance and muscles activation in persons after stroke undergoing robot-aided rehabilitation training: a pilot study.
Exp Brain Res
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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This study designed an arm-eye coordination test to investigate the effectiveness of the robot-aided rehabilitation for persons after stroke. Six chronic poststroke subjects were recruited to attend a 20-session robot-aided rehabilitation training of elbow joint. Before and after the training program, subjects were asked to perform voluntary movements of elbow flection and extension by following sinusoidal trajectories at different velocities with visual feedback on their joint positions. The elbow angle and the electromyographic signal of biceps and triceps as well as clinical scores were evaluated together with the parameters. Performance was objectively quantified by root mean square error (RMSE), root mean square jerk (RMSJ), range of motion (ROM), and co-contraction index (CI). After 20 sessions, RMSE and ROM improved significantly in both the affected and the unaffected side based on two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05). There was significant lower RMSJ in the affected side at higher velocities (P < 0.05). There was significant negative correlation between average RMSE with different tracking velocities and Fugl-Meyer shoulder-elbow score (P < 0.05). There was also significant negative correlation between average RMSE and average ROM (P < 0.05), and moderate nonsignificant negative correlation with RMSJ, and CI. The characterization of velocity-dependent deficiencies, monitoring of training-induced improvement, and the correlation between quantitative parameters and clinical scales could enable the exploration of effects of different types of treatment and design progress-based training method to accelerate the processes of recovery.
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Ontology-oriented diagnostic system for traditional Chinese medicine based on relation refinement.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Although Chinese medicine treatments have become popular recently, the complicated Chinese medical knowledge has made it difficult to be applied in computer-aided diagnostics. The ability to model and use the knowledge becomes an important issue. In this paper, we define the diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as discovering the fuzzy relations between symptoms and syndromes. An Ontology-oriented Diagnosis System (ODS) is created to address the knowledge-based diagnosis based on a well-defined ontology of syndromes. The ontology transforms the implicit relationships among syndromes into a machine-interpretable model. The clinical data used for feature selection is collected from a national TCM research institute in China, which serves as a training source for syndrome differentiation. The ODS analyzes the clinical cases to obtain a statistical mapping relation between each syndrome and associated symptom set, before rechecking the completeness of related symptoms via ontology refinement. Our diagnostic system provides an online web interface to interact with users, so that users can perform self-diagnosis. We tested 12 common clinical cases on the diagnosis system, and it turned out that, given the agree metric, the system achieved better diagnostic accuracy compared to nonontology method-92% of the results fit perfectly with the experts expectations.
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Synergistic analgesia of duloxetine and celecoxib in the mouse formalin test: a combination analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Duloxetine, a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, and celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, are commonly used analgesics for persistent pain, however with moderate gastrointestinal side effects or analgesia tolerance. One promising analgesic strategy is to give a combined prescription, allowing the maximal or equal efficacy with fewer side effects. In the current study, the efficacy and side effects of combined administration of duloxetine and celecoxib were tested in the mouse formalin pain model. The subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of formalin into the left hindpaw induced significant somatic and emotional pain evaluated by the biphasic spontaneous flinching of the injected hindpaw and interphase ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during the 1 h after formalin injection, respectively. Pretreatment with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of duloxetine or celecoxib at 1 h before formalin injection induced the dose-dependent inhibition on the second but not first phase pain responses. Combined administration of duloxetine and celecoxib showed significant analgesia for the second phase pain responses. Combination analgesia on the first phase was observed only with higher dose combination. A statistical difference between the theoretical and experimental ED50 for the second phase pain responses was observed, which indicated synergistic interaction of the two drugs. Concerning the emotional pain responses revealed with USVs, we assumed that the antinociceptive effects were almost completely derived from duloxetine, since celecoxib was ineffective when administered alone or reduced the dosage of duloxetine when given in combination. Based on the above findings, acute concomitant administration of duloxetine and celecoxib showed synergism on the somatic pain behavior but not emotional pain behaviors.
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Structural abnormalities in early Tourette syndrome children: a combined voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Tourette Syndrome (TS) is characterized with chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Abnormality of both gray (GM) and white matter (WM) has been observed in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and sensory-motor cortex of adult TS patient. It is not clear if these morphological changes are also present in TS children and if there are any microstructural changes of WM. To understand the developmental cause of such changes, we investigated volumetric changes of GM and WM using VBM and microstructural changes of WM using DTI, and correlated these changes with tic severity and duration. T1 images and Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) from 21 TS children were compared with 20 age and gender matched health control children using a 1.5T Philips scanner. All of the 21 TS children met the DSM-IV-TR criteria. T1 images were analyzed using DARTEL-VBM in conjunction with statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis was performed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). Brain volume changes were found in left superior temporal gyrus, left and right paracentral gyrus, right precuneous cortex, right pre- and post-central gyrus, left temporal occipital fusiform cortex, right frontal pole, and left lingual gyrus. Significant axial diffusivity (AD) and mean diffusivity (MD) increases were found in anterior thalamic radiation, right cingulum bundle projecting to the cingulate gurus and forceps minor. Decreases in white matter volume (WMV) in the right frontal pole were inversely related with tic severity (YGTSS), and increases in AD and MD were positively correlated with tic severity and duration, respectively. These changes in TS children can be interpreted as signs of neural plasticity in response to the experiential demand. Our findings may suggest that the morphological and microstructural measurements from structural MRI and DTI can potentially be used as a biomarker of the pathophysiologic pattern of early TS children.
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Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) as a simple and independent prognostic factor in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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C-reactive protein (CRP) is a biomarker of the inflammatory response, and it shows significant prognostic value for several types of solid tumors. The prognostic significance of CRP for lymphoma has not been fully examined. We evaluated the prognostic role of baseline serum CRP levels in patients with extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL).
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[Long-term effect on radiofrequency heat-coagulation endometrial ablation in the treatment of anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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To investigate long-term effect on radiofrequency heat-coagulation (RF) endometrial ablation in treatment of anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB).
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The responsiveness and correlation between Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motor Status Scale, and the Action Research Arm Test in chronic stroke with upper-extremity rehabilitation robotic training.
Int J Rehabil Res
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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Responsiveness of clinical assessments is an important element in the report of clinical effectiveness after rehabilitation. The correlation could reflect the validity of assessments as an indication of clinical performance before and after interventions. This study investigated the correlation and responsiveness of Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Motor Status Scale (MSS), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), which are used frequently in effectiveness studies of robotic upper-extremity training in stroke rehabilitation. Twenty-seven chronic stroke patients were recruited for a 20-session upper-extremity rehabilitation robotic training program. This was a rater-blinded randomized controlled trial. All participants were evaluated with FMA, MSS, ARAT, MAS, and Functional Independent Measure before and after robotic training. Spearmans rank correlation coefficient was applied for the analysis of correlation. The standardized response mean (SRM) and Guyatts responsiveness index (GRI) were used to analyze responsiveness. Spearmans correlation coefficient showed a significantly high correlation (?=0.91-0.96) among FMA, MSS, and ARAT and a fair-to-moderate correlation (?=0.40-0.62) between MAS and the other assessments. FMA, MSS, and MAS on the wrist showed higher responsiveness (SRM=0.85-0.98, GRI=1.59-3.62), whereas ARAT showed relatively less responsiveness (SRM=0.22, GRI=0.81). The results showed that FMA or MSS would be the best choice for evaluating the functional improvement in stroke studies on robotic upper-extremity training with high responsiveness and good correlation with ARAT. MAS could be used separately to evaluate the spasticity changes after intervention in terms of high responsiveness.
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A study on the correlativity of MRI signal classifications with TCM syndromes in femoral head necrosis patients.
J Tradit Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2011
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To probe into the relation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal classifications and TCM syndromes in femoral head necrosis patients, so as to provide reference for TCM diagnosis of this disease.
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A minimal set of electrodes for motor imagery BCI to control an assistive device in chronic stroke subjects: a multi-session study.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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The brain-computer interface (BCI) system has been developed to assist people with motor disability. To make the system more user-friendly, it is a challenge to reduce the electrode preparation time and have a good reliability. This study aims to find a minimal set of electrodes for an individual stroke subject for motor imagery to control an assistive device using functional electrical stimulation for 20 sessions with accuracy higher than 90%. The characteristics of this minimal electrode set were evaluated with two popular algorithms: Fishers criterion and support-vector machine recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE). The number of calibration sessions for channel selection required for robust control of these 20 sessions was also investigated. Five chronic stroke patients were recruited for the study. Our results suggested that the number of calibration sessions for channel selection did not have a significant effect on the classification accuracy. A performance index devised in this study showed that one training day with 12 electrodes using the SVM-RFE method achieved the best balance between the number of electrodes and accuracy in the 20-session data. Generally, 8-36 channels were required to maintain accuracy higher than 90% in 20 BCI training sessions for chronic stroke patients.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.