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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[A population-based epidemiological survey of neonatal respiratory failure in Huai'an City of Jiangsu Province, in 2010.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of neonatal respiratory failure (NRF) in Huai'an, Jiangsu Province, China, in 2010.
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A multifunctional bispecific antibody protects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Widespread drug resistance due to empiric use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has stimulated development of bacteria-specific strategies for prophylaxis and therapy based on modern monoclonal antibody (mAb) technologies. However, single-mechanism mAb approaches have not provided adequate protective activity in the clinic. We constructed multifunctional bispecific antibodies, each conferring three mechanisms of action against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by targeting the serotype-independent type III secretion system (injectisome) virulence factor PcrV and persistence factor Psl exopolysaccharide. A new bispecific antibody platform, BiS4, exhibited superior synergistic protection against P. aeruginosa-induced murine pneumonia compared to parent mAb combinations or other available bispecific antibody structures. BiS4?Pa was protective in several mouse infection models against disparate P. aeruginosa strains and unexpectedly further synergized with multiple antibiotic classes even against drug-resistant clinical isolates. In addition to resulting in a multimechanistic clinical candidate (MEDI3902) for the prevention or treatment of P. aeruginosa infections, these antibody studies suggest that multifunctional antibody approaches may be a promising platform for targeting other antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens.
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Gold(I)-Catalyzed Polycyclization of Linear Dienediynes to Seven-Membered Ring-Containing Polycycles via Tandem Cyclopropanation/Cope Rearrangement/C-H Activation.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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A novel gold(I)-catalyzed polycyclization of easily prepared linear dienediynes has been developed for the construction of fused 5,7,6-tricyclic ring systems in one step with high diastereocontrol. The polycyclization, a formal [4 + 3]/C-H activation reaction, takes place through gold(I)-catalyzed intramolecular cyclopropanation of diene with diyne, Cope rearrangement of cis-alkenylalkynylcyclopropane, aliphatic C-H activation via a seven-membered-ring allene intermediate, and [1,2]-H and -G (H or OAc) shifts.
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Internal migration, mental health, and suicidal behaviors in young rural Chinese.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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There is a dearth of data on the association of internal migration with mental health in young rural Chinese. This study aims to explore the associations between migrant status, mental health, and suicidal behaviors in young rural Chinese.
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DFT Study of the Mechanism and Stereochemistry of the Rh(I)-Catalyzed Diels-Alder Reactions between Electronically Neutral Dienes and Dienophiles.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Diels-Alder reaction between electronically neutral dienes and dienophiles is usually sluggish under thermal conditions and has to be catalyzed by transition metal catalysts. We report here our DFT study of the mechanism and stereochemistry of the Rh-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction between electronically neutral dienes and dienophiles (alkenes and alkynes), finding that this reaction includes a reaction sequence of oxidative cyclization between diene and alkene/alkyne and a reductive elimination step. The alkyne's oxidative cyclization is much faster than alkene's due to the additional coordination of alkyne to the Rh center in the oxidative cyclization transition state. For both intermolecular and intramolecular reactions, the reductive elimination step in the catalytic cycle is rate-determining. The different reactivity of ene-diene and yne-diene substrates can be rationalized by the model that reductive elimination to form a C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) bond is easier than that for the formation of a C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) bond, due to the additional coordination of the double bond to the Rh center in the transition state in the former. We also uncovered the reasons for the high para-selectivity of the intermolecular Diels-Alder reaction of dienes and alkynes. In addition, DFT calculations aiming to understand the high diastereoselectivity of an intramolecular [4 + 2] reaction of ene-dienes with substituents adjacent to the diene and ene moieties of the substrates found that the substituents in the substrates favor staying away from the Rh center in the oxidative cyclization transition states. This preference leads to the generation of the final [4 + 2] products with the substituents and the bridgehead hydrogen atoms in a cis-configuration.
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Electroconvulsive Therapy and Its Association With Demographic and Clinical Characteristics in Chinese Psychiatric Patients.
J ECT
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Little is known about the frequency of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) use in China. This study examined the frequency of ECT and its relationship with demographic and clinical characteristics in a large psychiatric institution in China.
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A Novel Tyrosine-Heme C?O Covalent Linkage in F43Y Myoglobin: A New Post-translational Modification of Heme Proteins.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Heme post-translational modification plays a key role in tuning the structure and function of heme proteins. We herein report a novel tyrosine-heme covalent C?O bond in an artificially produced sperm whale myoglobin (Mb) mutant, F43Y Mb, which formed spontaneously in vivo between the Tyr43 hydroxy group and the heme 4-vinyl group. This highlights the diverse chemistry of heme post-translational modifications, and lays groundwork for further investigation of the structural and functional diversity of covalently-bound heme proteins.
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Neuroimaging indicators of the performance of instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer's disease combined with cerebrovascular disease.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The aim of the present study was to explore the magnetic resonance imaging correlates of the performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in patients with Alzheimer's disease combined with cerebrovascular disease.
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The complete genome sequence of a new polerovirus in strawberry plants from eastern Canada showing strawberry decline symptoms.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Strawberry decline disease, probably caused by synergistic reactions of mixed virus infections, threatens the North American strawberry industry. Deep sequencing of strawberry plant samples from eastern Canada resulted in the identification of a new virus genome resembling poleroviruses in sequence and genome structure. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. The virus is tentatively named "strawberry polerovirus 1" (SPV1).
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MicroRNA-224 and its target CAMKK2 synergistically influence tumor progression and patient prognosis in prostate cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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We previously demonstrated that microRNA (miR)-224 expression was significantly reduced in human prostate cancer (PCa) tissues and predicted unfavorable prognosis in patients. However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-224 have not been fully elucidated. In this study, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) was identified as a target gene of miR-224. Then, we found that enforced expression of miR-224 could suppress PCa cell proliferation and cell cycle by regulating the expression of CAMKK2 in vitro. In addition, the expression levels of miR-224 in PCa tissues were negatively correlated with those of CAMKK2 mRNA significantly (Spearman's correlation: r?=?-0.66, P?=?0.004). Moreover, combined low miR-224 expression and high CAMKK2 expression (miR-224-low/CAMKK2-high) was closely correlated with advanced clinical stage (P?=?0.028). Furthermore, PCa patients with miR-224-low/CAMKK2-high expression more frequently had shorter overall survival than those in groups with other expression patterns of two molecules. In conclusion, our data offer the convincing evidence that miR-224 and its target gene CAMKK2 may synergistically contribute to the malignant progression of PCa. Combined detection of miR-224 and CAMKK2 expressions represents an efficient predictor of patient prognosis and may be a novel marker which can provide additional prognostic information in PCa.
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Phase I dose-escalation study of MEDI-573, a bispecific, antiligand monoclonal antibody against IGFI and IGFII, in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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This phase I, multicenter, open-label, single-arm, dose-escalation, and dose-expansion study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and antitumor activity of MEDI-573 in adults with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard therapy or for which no standard therapy exists.
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Use of electroconvulsive therapy in older Chinese psychiatric patients.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Little is known about the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in older Chinese psychiatric patients. This study examined the frequency of ECT and the demographic and clinical correlates in older psychiatric patients hospitalized in a large psychiatric institution in Beijing, China.
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Antipsychotic polypharmacy in schizophrenia patients in China and its association with treatment satisfaction and quality of life: Findings of the third national survey on use of psychotropic medications in China.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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This study examined the use, demographic and clinical correlates of antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) and its associations with treatment satisfaction and quality of life (QOL) in schizophrenia patients in China.
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A self-assembling nanomaterial reduces acute brain injury and enhances functional recovery in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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There is no effective treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Intracerebral delivery of nanomaterials into the hemorrhagic lesion may be a new therapeutic strategy. In a rat model of ICH plus ultra-early hematoma aspiration, we found that locally delivered self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold (SAPNS) replaced the hematoma, reduced acute brain injury and brain cavity formation, and improved sensorimotor functional recovery. SAPNS serves as biocompatible material in the hemorrhagic brain cavity. Local delivery of this nanomaterial may facilitate the repair of ICH related brain injury and functional recovery.
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Demographic and clinical differences between early- and late-onset major depressions in thirteen psychiatric institutions in China.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Little is known about the demographic and clinical differences between early- and late-onset depressions (EOD and LOD, respectively) in Chinese patients. This study examined the demographic and clinical profile of EOD (<=25 years) compared to LOD (>25 years) in China.
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Simultaneous Purification of Limonin, Nomilin and Isoobacunoic Acid from Pomelo Fruit (Citrus grandis) Segment Membrane.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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A method was established for purification of limonin, nomilin, and isoobacunoic acid simultaneously from segment membranes of pomelo (Citrus Grandis). This method includes 3 steps, removing most impurities by macroporous resin HZ-816, isolating limonin by High Speed Counter Current Chromatography (HSCCC), and isolating nomilin and isoobacunoic acid by semi-preparative HPLC. Naringin was partially purified as a by-product of this process using Sephadex LH-20. All limonoids purified through this method reached 95% purity. The purified limonin, nomilin and isoobacunoic acid were identified according to the retention time of the standard substances using HPLC and characteristic fragment ions of LC-MS/MS.
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Prospective memory predicts the level of community living skills in schizophrenia.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Schizophrenia patients are known to have prospective memory (PM) deficits. There is no robust evidence showing that PM deficits have a major impact on community living skills in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the association between PM and community living skills in schizophrenia. Forty-four individuals with schizophrenia formed the study sample. Participants? psychopathology, prospective and retrospective memory, level of intelligence, and community living skills were measured with standardized instruments. In bivariate analyses, community living skills overall but not self-care correlated with PM total and subscales scores. In multivariate analyses, event-based PM was more predictive than time-based PM of the level of community living skills. In conclusion, PM has a significant impact on community living skills in schizophrenia and attention should be paid to this type of memory disturbance in rehabilitation of schizophrenia.
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Prevalence of nurses' smoking habits in psychiatric and general hospitals in China.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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This study determined the prevalence of lifetime and current smoking and the correlates of current smoking in nurses working in psychiatric and general hospitals in China. Of 807 distributed questionnaires, 799 nurses who were working in two psychiatric hospitals (n=387, 48.4%), and one general hospital (n=412, 51.6%) had analyzable data. Socio-demographic, alcohol use and smoking data were collected with a self-reported questionnaire. Work-related stress was evaluated with the Nurse Stress Inventory. In the whole sample, the lifetime smoking prevalence was 7.6% (females=2.1% vs. males=48.9%, p<0.0001; psychiatric nurses=14.5% vs. non-psychiatric nurses=1.2%, p<0.0001). The prevalence of current smoking was 7.1% (females=2.1% vs. males=44.7%, p<0.0001; psychiatric nurses=13.4% vs. non-psychiatric nurses=1.2%, p<0.0001). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, age 30 years or older, male gender, having children, being a psychiatric nurse and alcohol consumption were positively associated with smoking, while being a nursing officer was negatively associated with smoking (r(2) = 0.513, p<0.0001). Considering the harmful effects of smoking as well as second-hand smoking in the presence of children, effective measures to promote smoking cessation for male, older and psychiatric nurses and those with children are warranted.
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Simple and efficient method to purify DNA-protein conjugates and its sensing applications.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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DNA-protein conjugates are very useful in analytical chemistry for target recognition and signal amplification. While a number of methods for conjugating DNA with proteins are known, methods for purification of DNA-protein conjugates from reaction mixture containing unreacted proteins are much less investigated. In this work, a simple and efficient approach to purify DNA-invertase conjugates from reaction mixture via a biotin displacement strategy to release desthiobiotinylated DNA-invertase conjugates from streptavidin-coated magnetic beads was developed. The conjugates purified by this approach were utilized for quantitative detection of cocaine and DNA using a personal glucose meter through structure-switching DNA aptamer sensors and competitive DNA hybridization assays, respectively. In both cases, the purified DNA-invertase conjugates showed better performance compared to the same assays using unpurified conjugates. The approach demonstrated here can be further expanded to other DNA and proteins to generate purified DNA-protein conjugates for analytical and other applications.
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Frequency of involuntary admissions and its associations with demographic and clinical characteristics in China.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Involuntary admissions (IA) continue to be a controversial topic in psychiatry. There have been very few studies investigating the pattern of IA and contributing factors in Chinese psychiatric patients. This study examined the prevalence of IA and its relationships with demographic and clinical characteristics in a large psychiatric institution in Hunan province, China. A consecutively collected sample of 161 psychiatric inpatients was collected. The patients' basic socio-demographic and clinical data including admission types were collected. The frequency of IA was 53.1% in the whole sample. In multiple logistic regression analysis, IA was independently associated with female sex, more recent aggression prior to admission and poorer social function and insight into illness. IA was common in clinical practice in China, and its demographic and clinical correlates are similar to the findings reported from western settings.
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CC chemokine ligand 18 correlates with malignant progression of prostate cancer.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) promotes malignant behaviors of various human cancer types. However, its involvement in human prostate cancer has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of CCL18 in PCa.
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Reduced polyphenol oxidase gene expression and enzymatic browning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with artificial microRNAs.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), often encoded by a multi-gene family, causes oxidative browning, a significant problem in many food products. Low-browning potatoes were produced previously through suppression of PPO gene expression, but the contribution of individual PPO gene isoform to the oxidative browning process was unknown. Here we investigated the contributions of different PPO genes to total PPO protein activity, and the correlations between PPO protein level, PPO activity and tuber tissue browning potential by suppression of all previously characterized potato PPO genes, both individually and in combination using artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) technology.
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The effect of artemether on psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment in first-episode, antipsychotic drug-naive persons with schizophrenia seropositive to Toxoplasma gondii.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of add-on artemether in first-episode, untreated people with schizophrenia, who were Toxoplasma gondii seropositive, and explore the change in T. gondii antibodies during treatment. In this eight-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 100 T. gondii seropositive participants with schizophrenia were randomized to either the artemether or placebo group. Participants in the artemether group received 80 mg artemether once per day during the second week (days 8-14) and the fourth week (days 22-28). Participants in the placebo group received identical looking placebo capsules. Psychopathology, adverse side effects and cognitive function were measured using standardized instruments. The group × time interaction effects for the scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) subscales and performances on all cognitive components were not significant, only the main effect of group was significant. Compared to the placebo group, artemether group participants showed significantly greater reduction in the PANSS negative symptom scale (F(1,46) = 4.7, p = 0.03) and the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (F(1,96) = 6.2, p = 0.01) scores, but there were no significant differences in the PANSS positive symptom and general psychopathology scales (p > 0.05). There were also no significant differences between the two groups in performance on any of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) cognitive domains. The artemether-risperidone combination is safe and well tolerated, but artemether as an adjunct to risperidone does not appear to alleviate cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register (ChiCTR) TRC-13003145.
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A new colorimetric strategy for monitoring caspase 3 activity by HRP-mimicking DNAzyme-peptide conjugates.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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A new method for caspase 3 activity assay has been developed based on HRP-mimicking DNAzyme-peptide conjugates. The mechanism of detection was based on the specific cleavage of DEVD-peptides by active caspase 3 for recognition and the catalytic properties of HRP-mimicking DNAzymes for signal amplification. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit of caspase 3 was 0.89 nM. The proposed method was also successfully applied for the detection of caspase 3 in apoptosis cell lysates.
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Quality of Life in Older Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Hong Kong: A Case-Control Study.
Perspect Psychiatr Care
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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To date, there have been few studies examining quality of life (QOL) in older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China. The aim of the study was to assess QOL in Chinese older patients with COPD and explore its demographic and clinical correlates.
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A ratiometric fluorescent chemosensor for Al³? in aqueous solution based on aggregation-induced emission and its application in live-cell imaging.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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A ratiometric fluorescent chemosensor 1 was developed for the detection of Al(3+) in aqueous solution based on aggregation-induced emmision (AIE). The chemosensor showed the fluorescence of its aggregated state and Al(3+)-chelated soluble state in the absence and in the presence of Al(3+), respectively, and resulted in a fluorescence ratio (I461/I537) response to Al(3+) in neutral aqueous solution at a detection limit as low as 0.29 ?mol L(-1). The method was also highly selective to Al(3+) over other physiological relevant metal ions investigated in this study. Taking advantage of its AIE characteristics, the chemosensor was successfully applied on test papers for simple and rapid detection of Al(3+). Moreover, the application of 1 for the imaging of Al(3+) in living cells by ratiometric fluorescence changes was also achieved.
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Reversible photochromic system based on rhodamine B salicylaldehyde hydrazone metal complex.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Photochromic molecules are widely applied in chemistry, physics, biology, and materials science. Although a few photochromic systems have been developed before, their applications are still limited by complicated synthesis, low fatigue resistance, or incomplete light conversion. Rhodamine is a class of dyes with excellent optical properties including long-wavelength absorption, large absorption coefficient, and high photostability in its ring-open form. It is an ideal chromophore for the development of new photochromic systems. However, known photochromic rhodamine derivatives, such as amides, exhibit only millisecond lifetimes in their colored ring-open forms, making their application very limited and difficult. In this work, rhodamine B salicylaldehyde hydrazone metal complex was found to undergo intramolecular ring-open reactions upon UV irradiation, which led to a distinct color and fluorescence change both in solution and in solid matrix. The complex showed good fatigue resistance for the reversible photochromism and long lifetime for the ring-open state. Interestingly, the thermal bleaching rate was tunable by using different metal ions, temperatures, solvents, and chemical substitutions. It was proposed that UV light promoted isomerization of the rhodamine B derivative from enol-form to keto-form, which induced ring-opening of the rhodamine spirolactam in the complex to generate color. The photochromic system was successfully applied for photoprinting and UV strength measurement in the solid state. As compared to other reported photochromic molecules, the system in this study has its advantages of facile synthesis and tunable thermal bleaching rate, and also provides new insights into the development of photochromic materials based on metal complex and spirolactam-containing dyes.
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MicroRNA-30c serves as an independent biochemical recurrence predictor and potential tumor suppressor for prostate cancer.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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MicroRNA-30c (miR-30c) acts as a tumor suppressor or a tumor promoter in various human malignancies. However, the involvement of miR-30c in prostate cancer (PCa) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular function and the clinical significance of miR-30c in PCa. Expression levels of miR-30c in PCa tissues and cells were detected by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). Additionally, the associations of miR-30c expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis in PCa patients were analyzed. The potential role of miR-30c in tumorigenesis of PCa cells was further evaluated by in vitro cell assays. MiR-30c was significantly down-regulated in PCa tissues and cells compared with the corresponding controls (P<0.05). In addition, the downregulation of miR-30c in PCa tissues was significantly associated with higher Gleason score (P=0.009), advanced pathological stage (P=0.016) and biochemical recurrence (P=0.034). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the reduced expression of miR-30c was correlated with shorter biochemical recurrence-free survival (P=0.023). The multivariate analysis also identified miR-30c as an independent prognostic predictor for biochemical recurrence-free survival in patients with PCa. Furthermore, the enforced expression of miR-30c suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion of PCa cells in vitro. Our data indicated the involvement of miR-30c in PCa progression and suggested its potential role as an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence in PCa. On cellular level, miR-30c may function as a tumor suppressor for PCa cells by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
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MicroRNA-224 inhibits progression of human prostate cancer by downregulating TRIB1.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Our previous microarray data showed that microRNA-224 (miR-224) was downregulated in human prostate cancer (PCa) tissues compared with adjacent benign tissues. However, the underlying mechanisms by which miR-224 is involved in PCa remain unclear. In this study, we identified TRIB1 as a target gene of miR-224. Forced expression of miR-224 suppressed PCa cell proliferation, invasion and migration, and promoted cell apoptosis by downregulating TRIB1. Moreover, the expression level of miR-224 in PCa tissues was negatively correlated with that of TRIB1. miR-224 downregulation was frequently found in PCa tissues with metastasis, higher PSA level and clinical stage, whereas TRIB1 upregulation was significantly associated with metastasis. Both miR-224 downregulation and TRIB1 upregulation were significantly associated with poor biochemical recurrence-free survival of patients with PCa. In conclusion, these findings reveal that the aberrant expression of miR-224 and TRIB1 may promote PCa progression and have potentials to serve as novel biomarkers for PCa prognosis.
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Prospective memory performance in non-psychotic first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia: a controlled study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We aimed at investigating prospective memory and its socio-demographic and neurocognitive correlates in non-psychotic, first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with schizophrenia compared to patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES), and healthy controls (HCs).
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The relationship between frontal lobe lesions, course of post-stroke depression, and 1-year prognosis in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Most studies on post-stroke depression (PSD) have focused on a certain time point after stroke instead of the time course of PSD. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between frontal lobe lesions, course of PSD over a year following the stroke onset, and the 1-year prognosis in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke.
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HCV genomic RNA activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in human myeloid cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Elevated plasma levels of IL-1? and IL-18 from patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection indicate a possible activation of inflammasome by HCV.
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Insomnia in Older Adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Hong Kong: A Case-Control Study.
COPD
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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Abstract This study aimed to determine the frequency and sociodemographic/clinical correlates of insomnia in Chinese patients aged ?60 years suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this case-control study of 142 outpatients with COPD and 218 sex- and age-matched control subjects, COPD patients were recruited from a prospective study sample hospitalized in Hong Kong for acute COPD exacerbation (?2 major COPD symptoms or >1 major+minor COPD symptoms for ?2 consecutive days). Controls were recruited from social centres in Hong Kong. Activity of daily living was assessed with the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, life events were evaluated using the Life Event Scale, depressive symptoms were ascertained with the Geriatric Depression Scale, and quality of life was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12. Early, middle and late insomnia were measured using items 4, 5 and 6 of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The frequency of ?1 type of insomnia was 47.2% in patients and 25.7% in controls; frequencies of early, middle and late insomnia in patients were 24.6%, 31.0%, and 26.1%, respectively, compared to 14.7%, 14.7% and 11.9% in controls. Group differences were non-significant after controlling for relevant covariates. However, in multiple logistic regression analysis, more physical illnesses (p = 0.02, OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.7) and more severe depressive symptoms (p = 0.009, OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.03-1.3) were independently associated with any type of insomnia in COPD patients, accounting for 21.3% of the variance. A significant proportion of older adult Chinese COPD patients suffer from insomnia that warrants more attention in clinical practice.
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DNA as Sensors and Imaging Agents for Metal Ions.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Increasing interest in detecting metal ions in many chemical and biomedical fields has created demands for developing sensors and imaging agents for metal ions with high sensitivity and selectivity. This review covers recent progress in DNA-based sensors and imaging agents for metal ions. Through both combinatorial selection and rational design, a number of metal-ion-dependent DNAzymes and metal-ion-binding DNA structures that can selectively recognize specific metal ions have been obtained. By attachment of these DNA molecules with signal reporters such as fluorophores, chromophores, electrochemical tags, and Raman tags, a number of DNA-based sensors for both diamagnetic and paramagnetic metal ions have been developed for fluorescent, colorimetric, electrochemical, and surface Raman detection. These sensors are highly sensitive (with a detection limit down to 11 ppt) and selective (with selectivity up to millions-fold) toward specific metal ions. In addition, through further development to simplify the operation, such as the use of "dipstick tests", portable fluorometers, computer-readable disks, and widely available glucose meters, these sensors have been applied for on-site and real-time environmental monitoring and point-of-care medical diagnostics. The use of these sensors for in situ cellular imaging has also been reported. The generality of the combinatorial selection to obtain DNAzymes for almost any metal ion in any oxidation state and the ease of modification of the DNA with different signal reporters make DNA an emerging and promising class of molecules for metal-ion sensing and imaging in many fields of applications.
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Mild-Condition Synthesis of Allenes from Alkynes and Aldehydes Mediated by Tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ).
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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A practical 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ)-mediated synthesis of 1,3-disubstituted allenes from terminal alkynes and aldehydes under mild conditions in the presence of CuBr first and then ZnI2 was reported. This telescoped allene synthesis reaction includes three consecutive steps and two reactions: first, a room-temperature CuBr-catalyzed synthesis of propargylamines, exo-yne-THIQs, from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, and THIQ, then filtration of the CuBr catalyst, and finally the ZnI2-mediated allene synthesis from the generated exo-yne-THIQs under mild conditions (either at room temperature or heating at 50 or 75 °C). A wide range of aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes and terminal alkynes are tolerated, affording the allene products in up to 92% yield. Especially, temperature-sensitive aldehydes can be used in the reaction system. Preliminary exploration of the asymmetric allene synthesis has also been conducted, and a moderate enantioselectivity has been achieved. Finally, the relative reactivities of several secondary amines were compared with THIQ, showing that THIQ is the best of these amines in the synthesis of allenes under mild reaction conditions.
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Decreased expression of myosin light chain MYL9 in stroma predicts malignant progression and poor biochemical recurrence-free survival in prostate cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of myosin light chain (MYL9) downregulation with tumor progression and prognosis in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). MYL9 protein expression in human PCa and non-cancerous prostate tissues was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses, which was validated by microarray-based Taylor data at mRNA level. Then, the associations of MYL9 expression with clinicopathological features and clinical outcome of PCa patients were statistically analyzed. Both Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses found that MYL9 expression was significantly decreased (both P < 0.001) in PCa tissues compared with those in non-cancerous prostate tissues. In addition, MYL9 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of stromal cells of prostate tissues, and the decreased expression of MYL9 in PCa tissues was significantly correlated with the older age of patients (P = 0.011), the higher Gleason score (P < 0.001), the advanced pathological stage (P = 0.002), the presence of metastasis (P < 0.001) and PSA failure (P = 0.001). Furthermore, both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the downregulation of MYL9 was an independent predictor of shorter overall survival (P = 0.026 and P = 0.009, respectively) and biochemical recurrence-free survival (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Our data strongly confirmed for the first time that the decreased expression of MYL9 may play an important role in tumor progression of PCa. More importantly, the downregulation of MYL9 may efficiently predict both overall and biochemical recurrence-free survivals in PCa patients.
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Depressive disorders in older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Hong Kong: a controlled study.
Aging Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Objective: There have been few studies examining the relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and psychiatric morbidity in Hong Kong. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of depressive disorders (major depression, dysthymia and adjustment disorder with depressed mood) in Chinese patients with COPD and explore their demographic and clinical correlates.Method: A total of 146 patients aged 50 years and above with COPD and 220 age and gender matched control subjects without COPD formed the study sample. Data of demographic and clinical characteristics were collected by a form designed for this study. Activity of daily living was assessed by the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and life events were evaluated by the Life Event Scale. Depressive disorders were determined using the Chinese version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV.Results: The point prevalence of DSM-IV depressive disorders in patients with COPD and controls were 15.1% and 3.6%, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that female sex and severe impairment in daily activity functioning were independently associated with depressive disorders. Only 22.7% of the depressed COPD patients had consulted psychiatrists in the past three months.Conclusion: Depressive disorders are significantly higher in COPD patients than controls. The low percentage of depressed patients with COPD seeking psychiatric treatment suggests that there is an unmet need in the psychiatric care of COPD patients.
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CuI-Catalyzed C1-Alkynylation of Tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) by A(3) Reaction with Tunable Iminium Ions.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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A CuI-catalyzed A(3) (amines, aldehydes and alkynes) reaction of tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs), aldehydes, and alkynes to give C1-alkynylated THIQ products (endo-yne-THIQs) was developed. This redox neutral C1-alkynylation of THIQs, which was conducted under mild conditions, has a broad scope for the used aldehydes and alkynes. It was proposed that the A(3) reaction first generates in situ exo-iminium ions, which then isomerize to endo-iminium ions and react with copper acetylides to give the endo alkynylated THIQs (endo-yne-THIQs).
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A novel strategy to develop robust infectious hepatitis C virus cell culture system directly from a clinical isolate.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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HCV infection is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases. The progress in HCV field was greatly enhanced by constructing infectious cDNA clone of JFH-1. Since then, JFH-1-based intra- and inter-genotypic recombinants were developed and allowed the study of vaccines and antiviral inhibitors for all genotypes. Only until recently, highly efficient HCV culture systems have been established by using consensus sequence-based clones. In this study, we developed a novel strategy to construct infectious HCV cDNA clone by combining functional screening of sequences directly from a genotype 2a clinical isolate (PR63) and cell culture adaptation. Using JFH-1 cDNA as the starting backbone, we sequentially replaced the JFH-1 fragments with a sequence from the pools of PR63 sequences. Through engineering adaptive mutations that improve HCV infectivity, we finally established a full-length cell culture-derived infectious clone of PR63, named PR63cc, which could efficiently produce virus particles in Huh7 derived cells, with peak titers of 1.6×10(5) ffu/mL. The PR63cc could be neutralized by an anti-E2 antibody and inhibited by antiviral agents, but appeared more resistant to an NS5A inhibitor than JFH-1. In summary: we developed a new approach to construct infectious HCV cDNA clone that can produce viruses efficiently in cell culture. This approach could be applied to other viral isolates, with potential implications for individualized treatments of HCV patients.
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Wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON with scalable generation of multi-frequency MMWs enabled by tunable optical frequency comb.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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In this paper, a novel wired/wireless access integrated radio-over-fiber passive optical network (RoF-PON) system that utilizes scalable multiple-frequency millimeter-wave (MF-MMW) generation based on tunable optical frequency comb (TOFC) is proposed. The TOFC is performed by cascading a phase modulator (PM) and two intensity modulators (IMs), and with proper selection of the peak-to-peak voltage of the PM, a flat and effective optical comb with tens of frequency lines is achieved. The MF-MMWs are generated by beating the optical comb line pairs with an interval about 60 GHz. The feasibility and scalability of the proposed wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON scheme are confirmed by the simulations of simultaneous distribution of wired and wireless data with the proposed multiple frequency MMW generation technology.
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[Perfluoropentane droplets enhanced HIFU therapeutic effect].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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A small HIFU system was used to investigate the phase-shift droplet vaporization in vivo and its effect on thermal absorption in tissue-mimicking phantoms. The experiments demonstrated that droplets could be vaporized to bubbles in vivo by the small HIFU system and the volume of bubbles could increase by tens of times. With appropriate droplets concentration, lesion volume produced by HIFU could be increased significantly under the same HIFU parameter.
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Synthesis of Z-alkenes from Rh(I)-catalyzed olefin isomerization of ?,?-unsaturated ketones.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Developing olefin isomerization reactions to reach kinetically controlled Z-alkenes is challenging because formation of trans-alkenes is thermodynamically favored under the traditional catalytic conditions using acids, bases, or transition metals as the catalysts. A new synthesis of Z-alkenes from Rh(I)-catalyzed olefin isomerization of ?,?-unsaturated ketones to ?,?-unsaturated ketones was developed, providing an easy and efficient way to access various Z-enones.
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Frequency of Physical Restraint and Its Associations With Demographic and Clinical Characteristics in a Chinese Psychiatric Institution.
Perspect Psychiatr Care
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Physical restraint (PR) is a highly controversal topic in psychiatry. Little is known about PR among psychiatric inpatients in China. This study examined the frequency of PR and its relationships with demographic and clinical characteristics among a large psychiatric institution in the Hunan Province, China.
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Gold(I)-Catalyzed endo-Selective Intramolecular ?-Alkenylation of ?-Yne-Furans: Synthesis of Seven-Membered-Ring-Fused Furans and DFT Calculations.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Alkenylation of furans: An efficient gold-catalyzed endo-selective intramolecular ?-alkenylation of ?-alkyne-substituted furans has been developed to synthesize challenging seven-membered-ring-fused furans in good to excellent yields. Preliminary DFT calculations have been carried out to understand the experimentally observed regioselectivity. DME=1,2-dimethoxyethane, Ts=p-toluenesulfonyl.
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A comparison of cognitive-behavioral therapy, antidepressants, their combination and standard treatment for Chinese patients with moderate-severe major depressive disorders.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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No study has examined the effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on moderate-severe major depressive disorders (MDD) in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CBT, antidepressants alone (MED), combined CBT and antidepressants (COMB) and standard treatment (ST; i.e., receiving psycho-educational intervention and/or medication treatment determined by treating psychiatrists) on depressive symptoms and social functioning in Chinese patients with moderate-severe MDD.
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Frequency of Hyperprolactinemia and Its Associations With Demographic and Clinical Characteristics and Antipsychotic Medications in Psychiatric Inpatients in China.
Perspect Psychiatr Care
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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No study has investigated hyperprolactinemia and its risk factors in Chinese psychiatric patients. This study examined the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia and its relationship with demographic and clinical characteristics in inpatients in a large psychiatric institution in Beijing, China.
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Suicide risk in major affective disorder: Results from a national survey in China.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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This study investigated suicide risk and its correlates among major affective disorder patients in China and examined possible risk factors for future suicide among individuals with major affective disorder to inform appropriate interventions and management approaches to minimize and prevent suicide.
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Brain resting-state functional MRI connectivity: Morphological foundation and plasticity.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Despite the immense ongoing efforts to map brain functional connections and organizations with resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI), the mechanisms governing the temporally coherent rsfMRI signals remain unclear. In particular, there is a lack of direct evidence regarding the morphological foundation and plasticity of these rsfMRI derived connections. In this study, we investigated the role of axonal projections in rsfMRI connectivity and its plasticity. Well-controlled rodent models of complete and posterior corpus callosotomy were longitudinally examined with rsfMRI at 7T in conjunction with intracortical EEG recording and functional MRI tracing of interhemispheric neuronal pathways by manganese (Mn(2+)). At post-callosotomy day 7, significantly decreased interhemispheric rsfMRI connectivity was observed in both groups in the specific cortical areas whose callosal connections were severed. At day 28, the disrupted connectivity was restored in the partial callosotomy group but not in the complete callosotomy group, likely due to the compensation that occurred through the remaining interhemispheric axonal pathways. This restoration - along with the increased intrahemispheric functional connectivity observed in both groups at day 28 - highlights the remarkable adaptation and plasticity in brain rsfMRI connections. These rsfMRI findings were paralleled by the intracortical EEG recording and Mn(2+) tracing results. Taken together, our experimental results directly demonstrate that axonal connections are the indispensable foundation for rsfMRI connectivity and that such functional connectivity can be plastic and dynamically reorganized atop the morphological connections.
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Prospective memory impairment and its implications for community living skills in bipolar disorder.
Bipolar Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to undertake intended actions in the future. The functional significance of PM in bipolar disorder (BD) has not yet been investigated. This study examined PM impairment and its role in community living skills in clinically stable individuals with BD.
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Inhibition of hepatitis C virus infection by polyoxometalates.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects about 2% of the world population. The standard treatment of chronic HCV infection is still discontented because of the low sustained virological response rate. The development of new HCV antivirals is a healthcare imperative. We explored the potentials of polyoxometalates to inhibit HCV infection using newly developed HCVcc cell culture system. We found one polyoxometalate compound (named POM-12) can inhibit HCV infection at the nanomolar range while displayed little cytotoxicity. We showed that POM-12 inhibited pseudotyped HCV infection but had no effect on HCV RNA replication. Furthermore, we showed that POM-12 was virucidal and can disrupt HCV particles. Finally we demonstrated that POM-12 had no effect on the vesicular stomatitis virus infection while had weak inhibitory activity against the influenza virus infection. In conclusion, we identified a potent anti-HCV compound which may provide an attractive drug candidate to cure HCV infection.
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Guidance on the conversion of the Chinese versions of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (C-QIDS-SR) and the Montgomery-Asberg Scale (C-MADRS) in Chinese patients with major depression.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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The 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR) is a newly introduced screening tool, while the Montgomery-Asberg Scale (MADRS) is commonly used in research and clinical practice in China. Converting the total scores between the two instruments could facilitate the comparison of different studies.
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Frequency and risk factors of workplace violence on psychiatric nurses and its impact on their quality of life in China.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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This study examined the frequency of violence on nurses in Chinese psychiatric hospitals and explored its risk factors and impact on nurses quality of life (QOL). A survey was conducted with 387 frontline psychiatric nurses in China. Information about experience of workplace violence in the past 6 months, type of workplace violence, and demographic characteristics was collected by a questionnaire. Altogether 319 (82.4%) of 387 nurses reported having experienced at least one type of violent event in the past 6 months. The prevalence of sexual assault, physical and verbal harassment was 18.6%, 61.5% and 78.6%, respectively. Compared to those with no exposure to violence, nurses who were exposed to violence had lower QOL in both the physical and mental domains. Significant predictors of violence against nurses are male sex, receiving college level or higher education and working on rotating duty were independently associated with high risk of violence. Workplace violence against psychiatric nurses commonly occurs in China. Considering the deleterious effects of violence, comprehensive strategies from the perspective of nursing education and training, organizational policy, patient care and staff support are recommended to promote occupational safety in psychiatric settings in China.
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Executive function in children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder 4 and 12 months after the Sichuan earthquake in China.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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While several studies have found executive function deficits in adults and maltreated children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there are few data on executive function in children and adolescents with PTSD related to natural disasters. The objective of this study was to test executive function changes over time in children and adolescents with PTSD after a magnitude 8.0 earthquake in Sichuan, China.
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Gender differences in demographic and clinical features and prescribing patterns of psychotropic medications in patients with major depressive disorder in China.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Little is known about gender differences associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) in China. This study examined gender differences associated with other demographic and clinical characteristics and psychotropic drug treatment in Chinese patients with MDD.
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The prevalence of insomnia and its socio-demographic and clinical correlates in older adults in rural China: a pilot study.
Aging Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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To investigate the prevalence of insomnia (DIS: difficulty initiating sleep; DMS: difficulty maintaining sleep; and EMA: early morning awakening), its socio-demographic and clinical correlates, and the treatment patterns in older adults in rural China.
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Population genetic data of a model symbiotic cnidarian system reveal remarkable symbiotic specificity and vectored introductions across ocean basins.
Mol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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The Aiptasia-Symbiodinium symbiosis is a promising model for experimental studies of cnidarian-dinoflagellate associations, yet relatively little is known regarding the genetic diversity of either symbiotic partner. To address this, we collected Aiptasia from 16 localities throughout the world and examined the genetic diversity of both anemones and their endosymbionts. Based on newly developed SCAR markers, Aiptasia consisted of two genetically distinct populations: one Aiptasia lineage from Florida and a second network of Aiptasia genotypes found at other localities. These populations did not conform to the distributions of described Aiptasia species, suggesting that taxonomic re-evaluation is needed in the light of molecular genetics. Associations with Symbiodinium further demonstrated the distinctions among Aiptasia populations. According to 18S RFLP, ITS2-DGGE and microsatellite flanker region sequencing, Florida anemones engaged in diverse symbioses predominantly with members of Symbiodinium Clades A and B, but also C, whereas anemones from elsewhere harboured only S. minutum within Clade B. Symbiodinium minutum apparently does not form a stable symbiosis with other hosts, which implies a highly specific symbiosis. Fine-scale differences among S. minutum populations were quantified using six microsatellite loci. Populations of S. minutum had low genotypic diversity and high clonality (R = 0.14). Furthermore, minimal population structure was observed among regions and ocean basins, due to allele and genotype sharing. The lack of genetic structure and low genotypic diversity suggest recent vectoring of Aiptasia and S. minutum across localities. This first ever molecular-genetic study of a globally distributed cnidarian and its Symbiodinium assemblages reveals host-symbiont specificity and widely distributed populations in an important model system.
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Construction and characterization of infectious hepatitis C virus chimera containing structural proteins directly from genotype 1b clinical isolates.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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HCV genotype is a major determinant of clinical outcome, and GT1b HCV infection is the most difficult to treat and also the predominant genotype in East Asia and Europe. We developed 1b/JFH-1 inter-genotypic recombinants containing the structural genes (Core, E1, E2), p7 and the 1stTMD of NS2 directly from GT1b clinical isolates. Through a cloning selection strategy, we obtained 4 functional clones from 3 cases of GT1b patients sera, which could produce infectious viruses in Huh7.5.1 cells. Sequencing analysis of recovered viruses from serial passage and reverse genetics revealed that adaptive mutations in the GT1b-originated region were enough for the enhancement of infectivity. A monoclonal antibody to E2 and original patient sera could efficiently block 3 of the viruses (26C3mt, 52B6mt and 79L9) while had little effect on 26C6mt viruses. The availability of 1b/JFH-1 chimeric viruses will be important for studies of isolate-specific neutralization and useful in evaluating antiviral therapies.
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An in vivo transient expression system can be applied for rapid and effective selection of artificial microRNA constructs for plant stable genetic transformation.
J Genet Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The utility of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) to induce loss of gene function has been reported for many plant species, but expression efficiency of the different amiRNA constructs in different transgenic plants was less predictable. In this study, expressions of amiRNAs through the gene backbone of Arabidopsis miR168a were examined by both Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression and stable plant genetic transformation. A corresponding trend in expression of amiRNAs by the same amiRNA constructs between the transient and the stable expression systems was observed in the experiments. Plant genetic transformation of the constructs that were highly expressible in amiRNAs in the transient agro-infiltration assays resulted in generation of transgenic lines with high level of amiRNAs. This provides a simple method for rapid and effective selection of amiRNA constructs used for a time-consuming genetic transformation in plants.
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Sleep duration and quality of life in young rural Chinese residents.
Behav Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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The aim of this study was to determine the mean total sleep time (TST) and the relation between sleep duration (short sleep: < 7 hr per day; medium sleep: 7-8 hr per day; and long sleep: > 8 hr per day) and quality of life (QOL) in young Chinese rural residents. A sample of 1,632 participants was recruited in Mianyang, Sichuan province and interviewed. Expected and actual TSTs were asked using standardized questions. QOL was measured with the Chinese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Schedule-Brief. In the full sample, the mean expected TST was 8.8 ± 1.3 hr, and the mean actual TST was 8.3 ± 1.4 hr. Multivariate analyses revealed that compared to medium sleepers, short sleepers had lower QOL in the physical, psychological, and environmental domains, whereas long sleepers had higher QOL in the environmental domain. Being short or long sleepers was not associated with more major medical conditions. Given the significant associations between short sleep and poor QOL, more attention should be paid to young Chinese rural residents with short sleep.
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Sociodemographic and clinical features of bipolar disorder patients misdiagnosed with major depressive disorder in China.
Bipolar Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Bipolar disorder (BD) is frequently misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD), which may lead to inappropriate treatment and poor outcomes. This study aimed to compare demographic and clinical features between patients with MDD and those with BD, but being misdiagnosed as MDD, in China.
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Long-term effect of vasectomy on spermatogenesis in men: a morphometric study.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Spermatogenic damage may occur after vasectomy, and the damage is pressure mediated, occurring when the occluded reproductive tract is unable to accommodate additional sperm produced by the testis. This study aimed to determine the long-term effect of vasectomy on spermatogenesis in humans and clarify how the balance between sperm production in the testis and sperm storage in or removal from the tract might be maintained. During inguinal hernia repair, an open biopsy was performed to obtain testicular tissue blocks from 51 Chinese men (aged ?50 years), of whom 25 (control group) had not undergone vasectomy and 26 (vasectomized group) had undergone bilateral vasectomy 22-42 years before. Methacrylate resin-embedded testicular sections were made, and morphometric studies were performed using light microscopy. In addition, sizes of the testis and epididymis were estimated with ultrasonography. The testicular tissue blocks obtained from one control and seven vasectomized men consisted almost completely of connective tissue. In the other 43 men, significant differences were not found between the two groups in the testicular or epididymal size, qualitative histology or quantitative parameters including the mean diameter or volume fraction of the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion, sperm production and sperm storage/removal reached a static equilibrium after vasectomy, likely due to spermatogenic degeneration or less sperm production as a result of aging or due to vasectomy-induced testicular (interstitial) fibrosis. Thus, complications that might occur in association with overproduction of sperm and distension of the tract would disappear or be relieved with time.
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Prevalence of psychological symptoms in contemporary Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers: an exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies using the SCL-90-R.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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(1) To estimate the pooled prevalence of psychological symptoms in Chinese migrant workers (CMWs), as measured using the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) in observational studies conducted in China, and (2) to explore the potential variables associated with the SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (GSI), the overall mental health indicator of CMWs.
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Three monthly doses of palivizumab are not adequate for 5-month protection: A population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Recent guidelines in British Columbia, Canada have suggested that the use of a maximum of 3 monthly doses of palivizumab 15 mg/kg intramuscularly for RSV immunoprophylaxis of high risk infants born prior to the RSV season is adequate to provide protection against severe RSV disease for a 5-month RSV season. Efficacy was established, however, with 2 large, randomized controlled clinical studies using 5 monthly doses of immunoprophylaxis. To evaluate the differences in expected palivizumab exposures between the 2 dosing regimens (3 vs 5 monthly doses across a 5-month period), we used a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model that was developed using palivizumab PK data collected from 22 clinical studies with a total of 1800 subjects. This model adequately described observed palivizumab concentrations from the different pediatric studies and was subsequently used to simulate expected palivizumab serum concentrations for 3 monthly doses compared with 5 monthly doses in children younger than 24 months with chronic lung disease of prematurity and infants younger than 6 months postnatal age who were born at ?35 weeks gestational age. Results from the population PK model indicated lower serum concentrations of palivizumab during the fourth and fifth months, after an abbreviated 3-monthly-dose regimen when compared with the mean trough concentrations seen with the 5-monthly-dose regimen studied in the pivotal clinical trials in premature infants. Specifically, during the fourth and fifth months, 52% and 85%, respectively, would have levels below the lowest concentration (fifth percentile) in those receiving the 5-monthly-dose regimen. Simulations using this model did not support a 3-monthly-dose regimen to protect against severe RSV disease during the typical 5-month season.
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Wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON with scalable generation of multi-frequency MMWs enabled by polarization multiplexed FWM in SOA.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a novel integrated radio-over-fiber passive optical network (RoF-PON) system for both wired and wireless access. By utilizing the polarization multiplexed four-wave mixing (FWM) effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), scalable generation of multi-frequency millimeter-waves (MMWs) can be provided so as to assist the configuration of multi-frequency wireless access for the wire/wireless access integrated ROF-PON system. In order to obtain a better performance, the polarization multiplexed FWM effect is investigated in detail. Simulation results successfully verify the feasibility of our proposed scheme.
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Associations of self-esteem, dysfunctional beliefs and coping style with depression in patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary survey.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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Psychological models of depression in schizophrenia have proposed that cognitive structures (e.g., self-esteem, dysfunctional beliefs) may have a role in the development and maintenance of depression. However, it has not been clear what the characteristics of these cognitive structures were in people with schizophrenia and whether they have an independent association with depression, especially in those from a Chinese cultural background. The present investigation examined 133 people with schizophrenia and 50 healthy controls and indicated that compared to the controls people with schizophrenia showed lower self-esteem, higher levels of dysfunctional beliefs and negative coping styles. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that only low frustration tolerance, problem solving and self-blame were found to be the independent correlates of depression in schizophrenia. Results are discussed with the view of clinical implications of cognitive formulation and therapy for schizophrenia in China.
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Rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage permitting hematoma aspiration plus intralesional injection.
Exp. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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A combination of hematoma aspiration and local delivery of chemicals may be more effective than either therapy in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The aim of the present study was to develop a rat model of hematoma aspiration plus intralesional injection after ICH. ICH was induced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats by an intrastriatal injection of bacterial collagenase IV. Hematoma aspiration was performed 3.5 h after ICH onset. Following aspiration, normal saline was injected into the lesion cavity. Hematoma aspiration with or without subsequent saline injection significantly reduced the hematoma volume, lesion volume, and perihematomal neutrophil infiltration. Hematoma aspiration plus subsequent intralesional injection is simple, feasible, and safe. This ICH model can be used to assess the effectiveness of hematoma removal plus local delivery of chemicals.
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Common use of high doses of antipsychotic medications in older Asian patients with schizophrenia (2001-2009).
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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This study aimed to examine the use of high doses of antipsychotic medications (?600?mg/day chlorpromazine equivalent) in older Asian patients with schizophrenia and its demographic and clinical correlates.
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Use of clozapine in older Asian patients with schizophrenia between 2001 and 2009.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To date there has been no large-scale international study that examined the use of clozapine in older patients with schizophrenia. This study examined the use of clozapine and its demographic and clinical correlates in older patients with schizophrenia in East Asia during the period between 2001 and 2009.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.