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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Magnetically recoverable Ni/C catalysts with hierarchical structure and high-stability for selective hydrogenation of nitroarenes.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Here we report that magnetic Ni/C catalysts with hierarchical structure can be fabricated from a mixture of nickel acetate, polyethylene glycol-200 and furfural by a one-step hydrothermal method, followed by calcination. It has been found that the calcination temperature is the key factor affecting the structure, morphology and the catalytic performance of the Ni/C catalysts. Of the as-made catalysts, the Ni/C sample calcined at 300 °C features small-size metallic Ni particles with high dispersion in the carbon matrix and a unique hierarchical structure, and has the highest rate of conversion of o-chloronitrobenzene with high selectivity to o-chloroanilines. The concerned Ni/C catalysts are magnetic due to the presence of metallic Ni particles, which makes their recovery easy after the reaction by an external magnetic field. The recovered Ni/C catalysts can be recycled at least ten times without obvious loss both in Ni loading and the catalytic performance. This kind of catalyst is also active for the selective hydrogenation of other nitroarenes to the corresponding anilines.
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YM500v2: a small RNA sequencing (smRNA-seq) database for human cancer miRNome research.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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We previously presented YM500, which is an integrated database for miRNA quantification, isomiR identification, arm switching discovery and novel miRNA prediction from 468 human smRNA-seq datasets. Here in this updated YM500v2 database (http://ngs.ym.edu.tw/ym500/), we focus on the cancer miRNome to make the database more disease-orientated. New miRNA-related algorithms developed after YM500 were included in YM500v2, and, more significantly, more than 8000 cancer-related smRNA-seq datasets (including those of primary tumors, paired normal tissues, PBMC, recurrent tumors, and metastatic tumors) were incorporated into YM500v2. Novel miRNAs (miRNAs not included in the miRBase R21) were not only predicted by three independent algorithms but also cleaned by a new in silico filtration strategy and validated by wetlab data such as Cross-Linked ImmunoPrecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq) to reduce the false-positive rate. A new function 'Meta-analysis' is additionally provided for allowing users to identify real-time differentially expressed miRNAs and arm-switching events according to customer-defined sample groups and dozens of clinical criteria tidying up by proficient clinicians. Cancer miRNAs identified hold the potential for both basic research and biotech applications.
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The Study on Hemodynamic Effect of Varied Support Models of BJUT-II VAD on Coronary Artery: A Primary CFD Study.
ASAIO J.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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BJUT-II VAD (Beijing University of Technology ventricular assist device II) is a novel left ventricular assist device. Because of the special connection between the pump and native heart, the hemodynamic effects of BJUT-II VAD on coronary artery are still unclear. Hence, numerical simulations have been conducted to clarify changes in hemodynamic effects of different support modes. A patient-specific left coronary arterial geometric model is reconstructed based on the computed tomography (CT) data. Three support modes, "constant speed mode," "co-pulse mode," and "counter pulse mode," are used in this study. The wall shear stress (WSS), wall shear stress gradient (WSSG), cycle-averaged wall shear stress (avWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and the flow pattern are calculated to evaluate the hemodynamic states of coronary artery. The computational results demonstrate that the hemodynamic states of coronary artery are directly affected by the support modes. The co-pulse modes could achieve the highest blood perfusion (constant speed: 153 ml/min vs. co-pulse: 775 ml/min vs. counter pulse: 140 ml/min) and the highest avWSS (constant speed: 18.1 Pa vs. co-pulse: 42.6 Pa vs. counter pulse: 22.6 Pa). In addition, both the WSS and WSSG at the time of peak blood velocity under the constant speed mode are lower than those under other two support modes. In contrast, the counter pulse mode generates the highest OSI value (constant speed: 0.365 vs. co-pulse: 0.379 vs. counter pulse: 0.426). BJUT-II VAD under co-pulse mode may have benefits for improving coronary perfusion and preventing the development of atherosclerosis; however, the constant speed mode may have benefit for preventing the development of plaque vulnerability.
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A Peripheral Blood Signature of Vasodilator-Responsive Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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-Heterogeneity in response to treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a major challenge to improving outcome in this disease. Although vasodilator responsive PAH (VR-PAH) accounts for a minority of cases, VR-PAH has a pronounced response to calcium channel blockers and better survival than non-responsive PAH (VN-PAH). We hypothesized that VR-PAH has a different molecular etiology from VN-PAH that can be detected in the peripheral blood.
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A Preliminary Examination of Aerobic Exercise Effects on Resting EEG in Children With ADHD.
J Atten Disord
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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This study attempted to determine whether the effects of physical exercise were reflected in the resting electroencephalographic (EEG) pattern of ADHD children.
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The application of flow cytometry for evaluating biological aggressiveness of intracranial meningiomas.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Meningiomas have classically been considered to include benign and atypical/anaplastic tumors. Despite the availability of clinical and pathologic parameters for prognostic prediction prognosis, the behavior of each meningioma may be difficult to predict. Here, we used DNA flow-cytometric studies to predict biological tumor behaviors of intracranial meningiomas.
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Seasonal variation of Legionella in Taiwan's reservoir and its relationships with environmental factors.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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In this study, the presence of Legionella in major water reservoirs of Taiwan was examined with respect to seasonal variation, geographical variation, and water quality parameters using TaqMan real-time qPCR. Water samples were collected quarterly at 19 reservoirs in Taiwan between November 2012 and August 2013. The detection rate for Legionella was 35.5 % (27/76), and Legionella was detected in all seasons. The Legionella concentration was relatively high in spring and summer, reaching 3.86?×?10(8) and 7.35?×?10(8) cells/L, respectively. By sampling the area, Legionella was detected at a higher proportion in reservoirs in the northern and southern areas, and the difference was consistent in all seasons. Significant association was found between detection of Legionella and various water quality parameters, including conductivity, chlorophyll a, and dissolved oxygen (Mann-Whitney U test, P?
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The Effect of Varied Support Models of BJUT-IIVAD on Coronary Arterial blood flow and wall shear stress: A Primary CFD Study.
ASAIO J.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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BJUT-II VAD is a novel left ventricular assist devices. Because of the special connection between the pump and native heart, the hemodynamic effects of BJTU-II VAD on coronary artery are still unclear. Hence, numerical simulations have conducted to clarify changes in hemodynamic effects of different support modes. A patient specific left coronary arterial geometric model is reconstructed based on the CT data. And 3 support modes, "constant speed mode", "co-pulse modes" and "counter pulse mode" are used in this study. The wall shear stress (WSS), wall shear stress gradient (WSSG), cycle averaged wall shear stress (avWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and the flow pattern are calculated to evaluate the hemodynamic states of coronary artery. The computational results demonstrate that the hemodynamic states of coronary artery are directly affected by the support modes. The co-pulse modes could achieve the highest blood perfusion (constant speed: 153ml/min vs. co-pulse: 775ml/min vs. counter pulse: 140ml/min) and the highest avWSS (constant speed: 18.1Pa vs. co-pulse: 42.6Pa vs. counter pulse: 22.6Pa). In addition, the WSS and WSSG at the time of peak blood velocity under the constant speed mode are both lower than those under other two support modes. In contrast, the counter pulse mode generates the highest OSI value (constant speed: 0.365 vs. co-pulse: 0.379 vs. counter pulse: 0.426). In brief, BJUT-II VAD under co-pulse mode may have benefits for improving coronary perfusion and preventing the development of atherosclerosis, however, the constant speed mode may have benefit for preventing the development of plaque vulnerability.
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Surveillance and evaluation of the infection risk of free-living amoebae and Legionella in different aquatic environments.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous in various aquatic environments. Several amoebae species are pathogenic and host other pathogens such as Legionella, but the presence of FLA and its parasites as well as the related infection risk are not well known. In this study, the presence of pathogenic FLA and Legionella in various water bodies was investigated. Water samples were collected from a river, intake areas of drinking water treatment plants, and recreational hot spring complexes in central and southern Taiwan. A total of 140 water samples were tested for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., Vermamoeba vermiformis, and Legionella. In addition, phylogenetic characteristics and water quality parameters were also assessed. The pathogenic genotypes of FLA included Acanthamoeba T4 and Naegleria australiensis, and both were abundant in the hot spring water. In contrast, Legionella pneumophila was detected in different aquatic environments. Among the FLA assessed, V. vermiformis was most likely to coexist with Legionella spp. The total bacteria level was associated with the presence of FLA and Legionella especially in hot spring water. Taken together, FLA contamination in recreational hot springs and drinking water source warrants more attention on potential legionellosis and amoebae infections.
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Arg287Gln variant of EPHX2 and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids are associated with insulin sensitivity in humans.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) protect against the development of insulin resistance in rodents. EETs are hydrolyzed to less biologically active diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase (encoded for by EPHX2). Functional variants of EPHX2 encode for enzymes with increased (Lys55Arg) or decreased (Arg287Gln) hydrolase activity. This study tested the hypothesis that variants of EPHX2 are associated with insulin sensitivity or secretion in humans. Subjects participating in metabolic phenotyping studies were genotyped. Eighty-five subjects underwent hyperglycemic clamps. There was no relationship between the Lys55Arg genotype and insulin sensitivity or secretion. In contrast, the EPHX2 287Gln variant was associated with higher insulin sensitivity index (p=0.019 controlling for body mass index and metabolic syndrome). Also, there was an interactive effect of EPHX2 Arg287Gln genotype and body mass index on insulin sensitivity index (p=0.029). There was no relationship between EPHX2 Arg287Gln genotype and acute or late-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but disposition index was higher in 287Gln carriers compared with Arg/Arg (p=0.022). Plasma EETs correlated with insulin sensitivity index (r=0.64, p=0.015 for total EETs) and were decreased in the metabolic syndrome. A genetic variant that results in decreased soluble epoxide hydrolase activity is associated with increased insulin sensitivity, as are higher EETs.
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Integrative Identification of Epstein-Barr Virus-associated Mutations and Epigenetic Alterations in Gastric Cancer.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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& Aims: The mechanisms by which Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contributes to development of gastric cancer are unclear. We investigated EBV-associated genomic and epigenomic variations in gastric cancer cells and tumors.
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Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibition and the vascular effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 and brain natriuretic peptide in the human forearm.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus by preventing the degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GLP-1 causes vasodilation in animal models but also increases sympathetic activity; the effect of GLP-1 in the human vasculature and how it is altered by DPP4 inhibition is not known. DPP4 also degrades the vasodilator brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) to a less potent metabolite. This study tested the hypothesis that DPP4 inhibition potentiates the vasodilator responses to GLP-1 and BNP in the human forearm.
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Evaluation of microvasculature at the auditory midbrain -the benefits of sectioning at a tangential angle.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Vascular remodeling in the brain occurs as a plastic change following neural over-activity. The auditory midbrain (or inferior colliculus, IC) is an ideal place to study sound-induced vascular changes because it is the brain's most vascularized structure and it is tonotopically organized. However, its micro-vascular pattern remains poorly understood. Since the IC is a sphere-like structure, the histological assessment of vasculature could depend on the angle of sectioning. Here, we studied the effects of cutting the IC at different angles on microvascular assessment, specifically: micro-vascular density and the shape of microvascular lumen. Photomicrographs were taken from 5 µm toluidine blue-stained histological sections obtained at two angles of sectioning: (a) the conventional coronal sectioning, and (b) a novel "tangential" sectioning (tangential to the dorso-medial surface of the IC). Results showed that the tangential sections, in comparison with the coronal sections, yielded (a) a higher count of micro-vascular density and (b) a higher proportion of round-shaped micro-vascular lumens. This discrepancy in results between two cut angles is likely related to the spatial pattern of blood vessels supplying the IC. We propose that the tangential sectioning should be adopted as standard for the accurate study of microvasculature in the IC. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Sleep apnea (SA) is characterized by apnea during sleep and is associated with cardiovascular diseases and an increase in all-cause mortality. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem that has placed a substantial burden on healthcare resources. However, the relationship between SA and the incidence of CKD is not clear. This study aimed to determine whether SA is an independent risk factor for the development of CKD.
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Extranodal sinonasal Rosai-Dorfman disease: a clinical study of 10 cases.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Sinonasal Rosai-Dorfman disease (S-RDD) is a rare form of RDD limited to the sinonasal cavity. Multipatient studies of Chinese S-RDD and documentation of its clinical spectrum are rare. This study aimed to identify the clinical profiles of Chinese S-RDD. Medical records of and tissue sections from 10 patients diagnosed with S-RDD between 2007 and 2014 were reviewed. Data on clinical presentations, endoscopy signs, imageological change, treatment and outcome were analyzed. The mean age of five male and five female patients at the first visit was 40.3 years and the mean follow-up period was 58.6 months. Based on the lesion sites, five cases were divided into an anterior sinonasal group, accompanied by symptoms of epistaxis, nasal obstruction and nasal dorsal deformity. Five other cases were divided into a posterior sinonasal group, accompanied by symptoms of hyposmia, epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Endoscopy signs and imageological changes in the anterior group showed diffuse infiltration of the RDD lesion under the septum mucosa, but in the posterior group the RDD lesions often showed as formations on polyps. At the end of follow-up, only one case spontaneously resolved without surgery; two cases in the anterior sinonasal group and three cases in the posterior sinonasal group recurred after endoscopic surgery, but surgery can result in short-term symptomatic control and restoration of function in all cases. S-RDD of the anterior and posterior sinonasal cavity may have different clinical characteristics; endoscopic surgery is effective for short-term symptomatic control and restoration of function for S-RDD.
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Dietary sodium restriction decreases insulin secretion without affecting insulin sensitivity in humans.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system prevents incident diabetes in high-risk individuals, although the mechanism remains unclear.
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[Spatial pattern of forest biomass and its influencing factors in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Heilongjiang Province, China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Based on field inventory data and vegetation index EVI (enhanced vegetation index), the spatial pattern of the forest biomass in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Heilongjiang Province was quantitatively analyzed. Using the spatial analysis and statistics tools in ArcGIS software, the impacts of climatic zone, elevation, slope, aspect and vegetation type on the spatial pattern of forest biomass were explored. The results showed that the forest biomass in the Great Xing'an Mountains was 350 Tg and spatially aggregated with great increasing potentials. Forest biomass density in the cold temperate humid zone (64.02 t x hm(-2)) was higher than that in the temperate humid zone (60.26 t x hm(-2)). The biomass density of each vegetation type was in the order of mixed coniferous forest (65.13 t x hm(-2)) > spruce-fir forest (63.92 t x hm(-2)) > Pinus pumila-Larix gmelinii forest (63.79 t x hm(-2)) > Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica forest (61.97 t x hm(-2)) > Larix gmelinii forest (61.40 t x hm(-2)) > deciduous broadleaf forest (58.96 t x hm(-2)). With the increasing elevation and slope, the forest biomass density first decreased and then increased. The forest biomass density in the shady slopes was greater than that in the sunny slopes. The spatial pattern of forest biomass in the Great Xing' an Mountains exhibited a heterogeneous pattern due to the variation of climatic zone, vegetation type and topographical factor. This spatial heterogeneity needs to be accounted when evaluating forest biomass at regional scales.
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Clinical analysis of chronic lung injury in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma after CHOP chemotherapy.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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We conducted a preliminarily study on the clinical characteristics of chronic lung injury (CLI) in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) after CHOP chemotherapy and observed the effects of this injury on CHOP treatment efficacy. Sixty patients who were diagnosed as NHL and received CHOP chemotherapy in hospital were enrolled for this clinical trial. CLI was assessed by clinical symptoms and computed tomography (CT) scan conducted before and after chemotherapy. The effect of CLI on the efficacy of CHOP chemotherapy in patients with NHL was evaluated by comparing treatment response and recurrence rate to patients with no signs of lung injury. Our CT scans revealed multiple signs of CLI in 35 patients (56.67 %), such as pulmonary diffuse, limited infiltration shadow or ground glass-like changes. Among them, 23 patients (38.33 %) showed bilateral diffuse lung injury and 12 (20.00 %) showed topical lung injury. Most patients suffering from 6 to 12 months delayed recurrence exhibited signs of CLI. The inflammatory response of CLI may increase the risk of disease progression and recurrence. Therefore, early diagnosis and intervention, which play a positive role in the clinical treatment and the long-term efficacy, are critical for patients with NHL.
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High-grade glioma in a patient with breast cancer.
Asian J Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Breast cancer is one of the most common origins of metastatic lesions in the central nervous system. Many patients with a breast cancer and concurrent brain tumor(s) were diagnosed to have a metastatic lesion or lesions in the brain, based exclusively on their image findings without further pathologic verification, and received radiotherapy alone thereafter. It is, however, possible that a different pathology such as primary brain malignancy, which actually warrants a specific treatment modality, may occur in such patients with an already known malignancy. We, herein, reported a 61-year-old female patient who suffered from an anaplastic oligodendroglioma 1 year after her diagnosis of breast cancer. Demographic data, characteristic imaging findings, treatment, and outcome of the patient were discussed.
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Fotemustine, teniposide and dexamethasone in treating patients with CNS lymphoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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We developed and evaluated a regimen including fotemustine, teniposide and dexamethasone (FTD) for treating patients with central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma based on pharmacokinetic properties of individual agents and in combination.
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Novel recurrently mutated genes and a prognostic mutation signature in colorectal cancer.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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Characterisation of colorectal cancer (CRC) genomes by next-generation sequencing has led to the discovery of novel recurrently mutated genes. Nevertheless, genomic data has not yet been used for CRC prognostication.
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Dose-response Relationship between Exercise Duration and Cognition.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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The study aimed to provide evidence-based recommendations for the prescription of a single session of exercise to improve cognitive performance. In particular, the purpose was to determine the dose-response relationship between exercise duration and cognitive performance for a moderate intensity session of aerobic exercise.
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Evaluation of immunomagnetic separation for the detection of Salmonella in surface waters by polymerase chain reaction.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Salmonella spp. is associated with fecal pollution and capable of surviving for long periods in aquatic environments. Instead of the traditional, time-consuming biochemical detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid identification of Salmonella directly concentrated from water samples. However, prevalence of Salmonella may be underestimated because of the vulnerability of PCR to various environmental chemicals like humic acid, compounded by the fact that various DNA polymerases have different susceptibility to humic acid. Because immunomagnetic separation (IMS) theoretically could isolate Salmonella from other microbes and facilitate removal of aquatic PCR inhibitors of different sizes, this study aims to compare the efficiency of conventional PCR combined with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for Salmonella detection within a moderately polluted watershed. In our study, the positive rate was increased from 17.6% to 47% with nearly ten-fold improvement in the detection limit. These results suggest the sensitivity of Salmonella detection could be enhanced by IMS, particularly in low quality surface waters. Due to its effects on clearance of aquatic pollutants, IMS may be suitable for most DNA polymerases for Salmonella detection.
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Hemocompatibility of polyampholyte copolymers with well-defined charge bias in human blood.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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In this work, the hemocompatibility of polyampholyte copolymers from the mixed-charge copolymerization of negatively charged 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate (SA) and positively charged [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium (TMA) was studied. Charge-bias variation of the prepared poly(SA-co-TMA) copolymers can be controlled using the regulated SA and TMA monomer ratio via homogeneous free radical copolymerization. A systematic study of how charge-bias variations in poly(SA-co-TMA) copolymers affect the hemocompatibility in human blood plasma was reported. The hydrodynamic size of prepared polymers and copolymers is determined to illustrate the correlations between intermolecular cationic/anionic associations and the blood compatibility of polySA, poly(SA-co-TMA), and polyTMA suspensions in human blood plasma. It was found that the protein resistance and hydration capability of prepared copolymers can be effectively controlled by regulating the charge balance of the SA/TMA compositions in poly(SA-co-TMA). The results suggest that polyampholyte copolymers of poly(SA-co-TMA) with overall charge neutrality have a high hydration capability and the best antifouling, anticoagulant, and antihemolytic activities as well as zwitterionic sulfobetaine-based homopolymers when in contact with blood plasma at human body temperature.
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Effects of Physical Activity Intervention on Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Children With ADHD: An Exploratory Study.
J Atten Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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This study explored how a 12-week simulated developmental horse-riding program (SDHRP) combined with fitness training influenced the motor proficiency and physical fitness of children with ADHD.
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Furfural-induced hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO@C gemel hexagonal microrods with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Here we report the synthesis of ZnO@C coaxial gemel hexagonal microrods with a thin hydrothermal carbon (HTC) layer on their surface by a facile one-step hydrothermal method with furfural as the carbon precursor. The furfural has a unique dual role, which not only induces the nucleation of ZnO in the initial stage of hydrothermal process, but also forms a thin HTC layer deposited on the ZnO surface. The thickness of the surface HTC layer increases with the hydrothermal time until 16 h under the conditions adopted in the present study. It has been found that the HTC layer has resulted in a significant improvement in the photocatalytic activities and photostabilities of the ZnO@C microrods for the UV-irradiated photodegradation of methylene blue solution. The mechanism involved in the process is proposed and discussed in terms of the photodegradation scheme and the properties of the ZnO@C microrods.
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Chemically Tailoring Coal to Fluorescent Carbon Dots with Tuned Size and Their Capacity for Cu(II) Detection.
Small
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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The desired control of size, structure, and optical properties of fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) is critical for understanding the fluorescence mechanism and exploring their potential application. Herein, a top-down strategy to chemically tailor the inexpensive coal to fluorescent CDs by a combined method of carbonization and acidic oxidation etching is reported. The size and optical properties of the as-made CDs are tuned by controlling the structures of graphitic crystallites in the starting precursor. The coal-derived CDs exhibit two different distinctive emission modes, where the intensity of the short-wavelength emission is significantly enhanced by partial reduction treatment. The evolution of the electronic structure and the surface states analysis show that two different types of fluorescence centers, nano-sized sp(2) carbon domains and surface defects, are responsible for the observed emission characteristics. The reduced CDs are demonstrated as an effective fluorescent sensing material for label-free and selective detection of Cu(II) ions with a detection limit as low as 2.0 nm, showing a great promise for real-world sensor applications.
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Hemodynamic effects of various support modes of continuous flow LVADs on the cardiovascular system: a numerical study.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine the hemodynamic effects of various support modes of continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) on the cardiovascular system using a numerical cardiovascular system model.
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Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a rare and fatal disease with no optimal treatment. The present study reports the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment process of three patients with relapsed NK/T-cell lymphoma-associated HPS. All of the patients were classified as Ann Arbor stage IV and presented with a poor performance status. Two patients were successfully treated with a pegaspargase-containing combination regimen and one patient succumbed due to serious complications. These cases indicate that for patients with a history of lymphoma, the diagnosis of HPS should be considered when patients present with progressive high fever, pancytopenia and liver dysfunction. Early identification and effective treatments, including pegaspargase-based regimens are essential for an enhanced prognosis.
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Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: An event-related cortical desynchronization study.
Psychophysiology
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10?±?2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation.
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miRNome traits analysis on endothelial lineage cells discloses biomarker potential circulating microRNAs which affect progenitor activities.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a fundamental role in not only blood vessel development but also post-natal vascular repair. Currently EPCs are defined as early and late EPCs based on their biological properties and their time of appearance during in vitro culture. Both EPC types assist angiogenesis and have been linked to ischemia-related disorders, including coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Cystatin C as a Predictor for Outcomes in Patients with Negligible Renal Function.
Blood Purif.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Background: High serum cystatin C (CysC) has been associated with clinical risks independently of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This study aims to investigate the predictive power of CysC in patients with a negligible GFR. Methods: Patients on chronic hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis were enrolled for measurement of CysC levels and were followed up for one year. A daily urine amount <100 ml was considered negligible residual renal function (RRF). Results: CysC results were available in 183 dialysis patients. Of these, 131 patients had a negligible RRF. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that CysC was an independent predictor of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular and infection events in all dialysis patients and in dialysis patients with a negligible RRF. Conclusion: CysC maintained its predictive power for adverse outcomes in patients with no meaningful GFR, indicating that the prognostic value of CysC is independent of the GFR. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Effectiveness of gemcitabine, pegaspargase, cisplatin, and dexamethasone (DDGP) combination chemotherapy in the treatment of relapsed/refractory extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma: a retrospective study of 17 patients.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The prognosis of extranodal nature killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma (ENKL) is dismal because of its aggressive course and multidrug resistance. Currently, for patients with relapsed/refractory ENKL, L-asparaginase-based regimens such as L-asparaginase, ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and dexamethasone (SMILE) or L-asparaginase, methotrexate, and dexamethasone (AspaMetDex) are recommended. We retrospectively investigated the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine, pegaspargase, cisplatin, and dexamethasone (DDGP) combination chemotherapy in the treatment of 17 relapsed/refractory ENKL patients. Clinical data from these patients were collected and analyzed. The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). All patients were subjected to 2 to 6 cycles of DDGP chemotherapy, and the median number of cycles of DDGP regimen administrated was four. The ORR was 88.2 % (15/17), with nine patients (52.9 %) achieved complete response (CR) and six patients (35.3 %) achieved partial response (PR). The median follow-up time was 17 months (range 2-28 months). The 1-year overall survival (OS) rate and 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) were 82.4 and 64.7 %, respectively. For those CR responders, the median PFS was 17 months. Grade 3/4 neutropenia occurred in nine patients (52.9 %) and grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia occurred in six patients (35.3 %). DDGP combination chemotherapy produces favorable outcomes in relapsed/refractory ENKL, and more attention should be paid to treatment-related myelosuppression. Further prospective trials are expected to define the efficacy.
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Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory control in children with ADHD: a preliminary study.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether an aquatic exercise intervention that involves both aerobic and coordinative exercises influences restraint inhibition in children with ADHD. Thirty participants were assigned to either an aquatic exercise or a wait-list control group. Participants were assessed by Go/Nogo Task and motor ability prior to and after an 8-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 90 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy associated with the Nogo stimulus and the coordination of motor skills were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. Only main effects of group were found for reaction time and accuracy associated with the Go stimulus. These findings suggest that an exercise program that involves both quantitative and qualitative exercise characteristics facilitates the restraint inhibition component of behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD.
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Carotid Artery Stenting Improves Cerebral Hemodynamics Regardless of the Flow Direction of Ophthalmic Artery.
Angiology
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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We enrolled 221 patients with elective carotid artery stenting (CAS). Patients with contralateral carotid stenosis exceeding 50%, insufficient vertebral artery (VA) flows, or angioplasty at subclavian artery were excluded. All patients underwent serial cerebral ultrasound studies. Of the 116 included patients, the direction of ophthalmic artery (OA) flow was forward in 74 patients while reversed in 42. The reversed flow group had worse ipsilateral stenosis, higher hemoglobin, and cardiac output. After CAS, the reversed flow group had an immediate recovery of ipsilateral internal carotid artery flow volume (FV; P < .0001), time average velocity (TAV) of middle cerebral artery (P = .02), and normalization of OA flow. The forward flow group had gradual decrement in TAV of contralateral anterior cerebral artery (P = .01) and total FV of VA (P = .001). Our results suggest CAS improves cerebral hemodynamics through different ways regardless of the direction of OA flow.
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Cholelithiasis and the risk of liver cancer: results from cohort studies of 134,546 Chinese men and women.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy have been proposed as risk factors for liver cancer, but findings have been inconsistent. We assessed this association using data from the Shanghai Women's and Men's Health Studies.
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Boron-doped graphene as a high-efficiency counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Boron-doped graphene, synthesized by annealing a mixture of graphite oxide and B2O3, has shown a high conversion efficiency of 6.73% as a counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells, which is better than the Pt CE.
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Shorter daily dwelling time in peritoneal dialysis attenuates the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of mesothelial cells.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy is known to induce morphological and functional changes in the peritoneal membrane. Long-term exposure to conventional bio-incompatible dialysate and peritonitis is the main etiology of inflammation. Consequently, the peritoneal membrane undergoes structural changes, including angiogenesis, fibrosis, and hyalinizing vasculopathy, which ultimately results in technique failure. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of mesothelial cells (MCs) plays an important role during the above process; however, the clinical parameters associated with the EMT process of MCs remain to be explored.
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Regulatory effect of AMP-activated protein kinase on pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia in rats: in vivo and in vitro studies.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in cardiovascular protection. It can inhibit arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation and cardiac fibroblast collagen synthesis induced by anoxia. However, the role of AMPK-dependent signalling cascades in the pulmonary vascular system is currently unknown. This study aims to determine the effects of AMPK on pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vessel remodelling induced by hypoxia in rats using in vivo and in vitro studies. In vivo study: pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodelling were found in hypoxic rats. Meanwhile, AMPK?1 and phosphorylated AMPK?1 were increased markedly in pulmonary arterioles and lung tissues. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure, index of right ventricular hypertrophy and parameters of pulmonary vascular remodelling, including vessel wall area/total area, density of nuclei in medial smooth muscle cells, and thickness of the medial smooth muscle cell layer were markedly suppressed by AICAR, an AMPK agonist. In vitro study: the expression of AMPK?1 and phosphorylated AMPK?1 was increased in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) under hypoxic conditions. The effects of PASMC proliferation stimulated by hypoxia were reinforced by treatment with Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. AICAR inhibited the proliferation of PASMCs stimulated by hypoxia. These findings suggest that AMPK is involved in the formation of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vessel remodelling. Up-regulating AMPK can contribute to decreasing pulmonary vessel remodelling and pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia.
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Substance P increases sympathetic activity during combined angiotensin-converting enzyme and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors prevent the degradation of incretin hormones and reduce postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 degrades other peptides with a penultimate proline or alanine, including bradykinin and substance P, which are also substrates of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). During ACE inhibition, substance P is inactivated primarily by dipeptidyl peptidase-4, whereas bradykinin is first inactivated by aminopeptidase P. This study tested the hypothesis that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition potentiates vasodilator and fibrinolytic responses to substance P when ACE is inhibited. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study. On each study day, subjects received sitagliptin 200 mg by mouth or placebo. Substance P and bradykinin were infused via brachial artery before and during intra-arterial enalaprilat. Sitagliptin and enalaprilat each reduced forearm vascular resistance and increased forearm blood flow without affecting mean arterial pressure, but there was no interactive effect of the inhibitors. Enalaprilat increased bradykinin-stimulated vasodilation and tissue plasminogen activator release; sitagliptin did not affect these responses to bradykinin. The vasodilator response to substance P was unaffected by sitagliptin and enalaprilat; however, substance P increased heart rate and vascular release of norepinephrine during combined ACE and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition. In women, sitagliptin diminished tissue plasminogen activator release in response to substance P both alone and during enalaprilat. Substance P increases sympathetic activity during combined ACE and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition.
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Whey protein improves exercise performance and biochemical profiles in trained mice.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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The objective of this study is to verify the beneficial effects of whey protein (WP) supplementation on health promotion and enhance exercise performance in an aerobic-exercise training protocol.
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Targeted gene correction minimally impacts whole-genome mutational load in human-disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cell clones.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The utility of genome editing technologies for disease modeling and developing cellular therapies has been extensively documented, but the impact of these technologies on mutational load at the whole-genome level remains unclear. We performed whole-genome sequencing to evaluate the mutational load at single-base resolution in individual gene-corrected human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) clones in three different disease models. In single-cell clones, gene correction by helper-dependent adenoviral vector (HDAdV) or Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease (TALEN) exhibited few off-target effects and a low level of sequence variation, comparable to that accumulated in routine hiPSC culture. The sequence variants were randomly distributed and unique to individual clones. We also combined both technologies and developed a TALEN-HDAdV hybrid vector, which significantly increased gene-correction efficiency in hiPSCs. Therefore, with careful monitoring via whole-genome sequencing it is possible to apply genome editing to human pluripotent cells with minimal impact on genomic mutational load.
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Risk factors of sensitization to human leukocyte antigen in end-stage renal disease patients.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Pre-sensitization to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is closely related to the prognosis of renal transplantation. Concerning the risk factors for HLA sensitization, most studies focused only on selected transplant candidates.
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Coexisting diseases of moyamoya vasculopathy.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Several coexisting diseases have been reported in patients with moyamoya vasculopathy (MMV), but studies of quasi-moyamoya disease (quasi-MMD) are rare. This study aims to investigate the frequency of known coexisting diseases in patients with quasi-MMD and to compare quasi-MMD with moyamoya disease (MMD).
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Discovery of biclonal origin and a novel oncogene SLC12A5 in colon cancer by single-cell sequencing.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Single-cell sequencing is a powerful tool for delineating clonal relationship and identifying key driver genes for personalized cancer management. Here we performed single-cell sequencing analysis of a case of colon cancer. Population genetics analyses identified two independent clones in tumor cell population. The major tumor clone harbored APC and TP53 mutations as early oncogenic events, whereas the minor clone contained preponderant CDC27 and PABPC1 mutations. The absence of APC and TP53 mutations in the minor clone supports that these two clones were derived from two cellular origins. Examination of somatic mutation allele frequency spectra of additional 21 whole-tissue exome-sequenced cases revealed the heterogeneity of clonal origins in colon cancer. Next, we identified a mutated gene SLC12A5 that showed a high frequency of mutation at the single-cell level but exhibited low prevalence at the population level. Functional characterization of mutant SLC12A5 revealed its potential oncogenic effect in colon cancer. Our study provides the first exome-wide evidence at single-cell level supporting that colon cancer could be of a biclonal origin, and suggests that low-prevalence mutations in a cohort may also play important protumorigenic roles at the individual level.
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A multi-digit tactile motion stimulator.
J. Neurosci. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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One of the hallmarks of haptic exploration is that it typically involves movement between skin and object. Explored objects may contact multiple digits simultaneously so information about motion must be integrated across digits, a process about which little is known.
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Heme Oxygenase-1 and Acute Kidney Injury following Cardiac Surgery.
Cardiorenal Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Intraoperative hemolysis and inflammation are associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery. Plasma-free hemoglobin induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. HO-1 degrades heme but increases in experimental models of AKI. This study tested the hypothesis that plasma HO-1 concentrations are associated with intraoperative hemolysis and are increased in patients that develop AKI following cardiac surgery.
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[Effect of over-expressed monocarboxylate transporter on the biological behavior of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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To investigate the effect of over-expressed monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) on apoptosis, cell cycle, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
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Haemolytic uremic syndrome following fire ant bites.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a severe, life-threatening disease with symptoms such as haemolytic anaemia, renal failure, and a low platelet count. Possible aetiology includes bacterial infections, medication, post-hematopoietic cell transplantation, pregnancy, autoimmune disease, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
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Defects in the Acquisition of Tumor-Killing Capability of CD8+ Cytotoxic T Cells in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Emerging evidences have shown that diabetes mellitus not only raises risk but also heightens mortality rate of cancer. It is not clear, however, whether antitumor CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is down-modulated in diabetic hosts. We investigated the impact of hyperglycemia on CTLs' acquisition of tumor-killing capability by utilizing streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ-diabetic) mice. Murine diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (200 mg/kg) in C57BL/6 mice, 2C-T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic and P14-TCR transgenic mice. The study found that, despite harboring intact proliferative capacity measured with CFSE labeling and MTT assay, STZ-diabetic CD8+ CTLs displayed impaired effector functions. After stimulation, STZ-diabetic CD8+ CTLs produced less perforin and TNF? assessed by intracellular staining, as well as expressed less CD103 protein. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of STZ-diabetic P14 CD8+ effector cells showed an insufficient recruitment to the B16.gp33 melanoma and inadequate production of perforin, granzyme B and TNF? determined by immunohistochemistry in the tumor milieu. As a result, STZ-diabetic CD8+ effector cells were neither able to eliminate tumor nor to improve survival of tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, our data suggest that CD8+ CTLs are crippled to infiltrate into tumors and thus fail to acquire tumor-killing capability in STZ-diabetic hosts.
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The benefits of endurance exercise and Tai Chi Chuan for the task-switching aspect of executive function in older adults: an ERP study.
Front Aging Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study was designed to determine the relationship between physical activity and the task-switching aspect of executive function by investigating the modulating roles of age, modality of physical activity, and type of cognitive function using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) assessments. Sixty-four participants were assigned to one of four groups based on age and history of physical activity: older adults performing endurance exercise (OEE), older adults practicing Tai Chi Chuan (OTC), older adults with a sedentary lifestyle (OSL), and young adults (YA). Study participants completed a task-switching task under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions while ERPs were recorded. The results revealed that YA had shortest reaction times compared with the three older adults groups, with OSL exhibiting the longest reaction time. YA also exhibited shorter P3 latency than OSL. No differences were observed in P3 amplitude between YA, OEE, and OTC; however, all three groups had significantly larger P3 amplitude compared with OSL in both task conditions. In conclusion, age and participation in physical activity influence the relationship between physical activity and task-switching, and a positive relationship was observed regardless of the modality of physical activity and type of cognitive function. Our ERP findings support the model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition (STAC) and suggest that regular participation in endurance exercise and Tai Chi Chuan may have equivalent beneficial effects on cognition at the behavioral and neuroelectric levels.
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Acute aerobic exercise increases cortical activity during working memory: a functional MRI study in female college students.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There is increasing evidence that acute aerobic exercise is associated with improved cognitive function. However, neural correlates of its cognitive plasticity remain largely unknown. The present study examined the effect of a session of acute aerobic exercise on working memory task-evoked brain activity as well as task performance. A within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order was employed. Fifteen young female participants (M?=?19.56, SD?=?0.81) were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a working memory task, the N-back task, both following an acute exercise session with 20 minutes of moderate intensity and a control rest session. Although an acute session of exercise did not improve behavioral performance, we observed that it had a significant impact on brain activity during the 2-back condition of the N-back task. Specifically, acute exercise induced increased brain activation in the right middle prefrontal gyrus, the right lingual gyrus, and the left fusiform gyrus as well as deactivations in the anterior cingulate cortexes, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right paracentral lobule. Despite the lack of an effect on behavioral measures, significant changes after acute exercise with activation of the prefrontal and occipital cortexes and deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortexes and left frontal hemisphere reflect the improvement of executive control processes, indicating that acute exercise could benefit working memory at a macro-neural level. In addition to its effects on reversing recent obesity and disease trends, our results provide substantial evidence highlighting the importance of promoting physical activity across the lifespan to prevent or reverse cognitive and neural decline.
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Predicting impacts of climate change on the aboveground carbon sequestration rate of a temperate forest in northeastern China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aboveground carbon sequestration rate (ACSR) reflects the influence of climate change on forest dynamics. To reveal the long-term effects of climate change on forest succession and carbon sequestration, a forest landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS Pro7.0) was used to simulate the ACSR of a temperate forest at the community and species levels in northeastern China based on both current and predicted climatic data. On the community level, the ACSR of mixed Korean pine hardwood forests and mixed larch hardwood forests, fluctuated during the entire simulation, while a large decline of ACSR emerged in interim of simulation in spruce-fir forest and aspen-white birch forests, respectively. On the species level, the ACSR of all conifers declined greatly around 2070s except for Korean pine. The ACSR of dominant hardwoods in the Lesser Khingan Mountains area, such as Manchurian ash, Amur cork, black elm, and ribbed birch fluctuated with broad ranges, respectively. Pioneer species experienced a sharp decline around 2080s, and they would finally disappear in the simulation. The differences of the ACSR among various climates were mainly identified in mixed Korean pine hardwood forests, in all conifers, and in a few hardwoods in the last quarter of simulation. These results indicate that climate warming can influence the ACSR in the Lesser Khingan Mountains area, and the largest impact commonly emerged in the A2 scenario. The ACSR of coniferous species experienced higher impact by climate change than that of deciduous species.
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Impact of coexisting coronary artery disease on the occurrence of cerebral ischemic lesions after carotid stenting.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Coronary artery disease (CAD) may coexist with extracranial carotid artery stenosis (ECAS), but the influence of CAD on procedure-related complications after carotid artery stenting (CAS) has not been well investigated. The study aimed to determine the impact of CAD on the occurrence of peri-CAS cerebral ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) scanning.
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PSCC: sensitive and reliable population-scale copy number variation detection method based on low coverage sequencing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Copy number variations (CNVs) represent an important type of genetic variation that deeply impact phenotypic polymorphisms and human diseases. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies provides an opportunity to revolutionize the discovery of CNVs and to explore their relationship with diseases. However, most of the existing methods depend on sequencing depth and show instability with low sequence coverage. In this study, using low coverage whole-genome sequencing (LCS) we have developed an effective population-scale CNV calling (PSCC) method.
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Two-step source tracing strategy of Yersinia pestis and its historical epidemiology in a specific region.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Source tracing of pathogens is critical for the control and prevention of infectious diseases. Genome sequencing by high throughput technologies is currently feasible and popular, leading to the burst of deciphered bacterial genome sequences. Utilizing the flooding genomic data for source tracing of pathogens in outbreaks is promising, and challenging as well. Here, we employed Yersinia pestis genomes from a plague outbreak at Xinghai county of China in 2009 as an example, to develop a simple two-step strategy for rapid source tracing of the outbreak. The first step was to define the phylogenetic position of the outbreak strains in a whole species tree, and the next step was to provide a detailed relationship across the outbreak strains and their suspected relatives. Through this strategy, we observed that the Xinghai plague outbreak was caused by Y. pestis that circulated in the local plague focus, where the majority of historical plague epidemics in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau may originate from. The analytical strategy developed here will be of great help in fighting against the outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, by pinpointing the source of pathogens rapidly with genomic epidemiological data and microbial forensics information.
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[Effects of gender on treatment strategies for elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To explore the effects of gender on treatment strategies for elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
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Nanohybrids from NiCoAl-LDH coupled with carbon for pseudocapacitors: understanding the role of nano-structured carbon.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Transition metal layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are one of the great potential electrode materials for pseudocapacitors. However, the aggregation and low conductivity of these metal compounds will constrain electrolyte ion and electron transfer and further affect their electrochemical performances. The nano-structured carbon coupled with the LDH matrix can act as an active component or conducting scaffold to enhance or improve the rate capacity and cycle life. Here, various nano-structured carbon species, including zero-dimensional carbon black (CB), one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs), two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and CNT/RGO composites were used to couple with the NiCoAl-LDHs to construct LDH-carbon nanohybrid electrodes for pseudocapacitors, and the role of the nanostructured carbon was investigated and discussed in terms of the pore structure of nanohybrids and electrical conductivity. The results show that all of the carbons can be well incorporated into the LDH nanosheets to form homogeneous nanohybrid materials. The pore structure properties and electrical conductivity of nanohybrids have statistically significant effects on the electrochemical performances of the LDH-carbon nanohybrids. Of the electrodes adopted, the nanohybrid electrode consisting of NiCoAl-LDHs, CNTs, and RGO exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance as high as 1188 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) due to the synergistic effect of NiCoAl-LDHs, RGO, and CNTs, in which the RGO nanosheets are favorable for high specific surface area while the CNT has a fast electron transport path for enhancing the electrical conductivity of nanohybrids. This will shed a new light on the effect of nano-structured carbon within the electrode matrix on the electrochemical activity and open a new way for the carbon-related electrode configuration/design for supercapacitors, and other energy storage and conversion devices.
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Physical activity and working memory in healthy older adults: an ERP study.
Psychophysiology
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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This study examined the effects of physical activity on working memory in older adults using both behavioral and neuroelectric measures. Older adults were assigned to either a higher or lower physical activity group, and event-related potentials were recorded during assessments of a modified Sternberg task. The results indicated that older adults in the higher physical activity group exhibited shorter response times, independent of the working memory load. Enhanced P3 and N1 amplitudes and a decreased P3 latency were observed in the higher physical activity group. These findings suggested that physical activity facilitates working memory by allocating more attentional resources and increasing the efficiency of evaluating the stimulus during the retrieval phase as well as engaging more attentional resources for the early discriminative processes during the encoding phase of a working memory task.
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DriverDB: an exome sequencing database for cancer driver gene identification.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Exome sequencing (exome-seq) has aided in the discovery of a huge amount of mutations in cancers, yet challenges remain in converting oncogenomics data into information that is interpretable and accessible for clinical care. We constructed DriverDB (http://ngs.ym.edu.tw/driverdb/), a database which incorporates 6079 cases of exome-seq data, annotation databases (such as dbSNP, 1000 Genome and Cosmic) and published bioinformatics algorithms dedicated to driver gene/mutation identification. We provide two points of view, Cancer and Gene, to help researchers to visualize the relationships between cancers and driver genes/mutations. The Cancer section summarizes the calculated results of driver genes by eight computational methods for a specific cancer type/dataset and provides three levels of biological interpretation for realization of the relationships between driver genes. The Gene section is designed to visualize the mutation information of a driver gene in five different aspects. Moreover, a Meta-Analysis function is provided so researchers may identify driver genes in customer-defined samples. The novel driver genes/mutations identified hold potential for both basic research and biotech applications.
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Melatonin improves neuroplasticity by upregulating the growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and NMDAR-post-synaptic density-95 (PSD95) proteins in cultured neurons exposed to glutamate excitotoxicity and in rats subjected to transient focal cerebral isch
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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Recent evidence shows that the NMDAR-post-synaptic density-95 (PSD95), growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein enhance neuroplasticity at the subacute stage of stroke. Here, we evaluated whether melatonin would modulate the PSD95, GAP-43 and MMP-9 proteins in cultured neurons exposed to glutamate excitotoxicity and in rats subjected to experimental stroke. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with melatonin (5 mg/kg) or vehicle at reperfusion onset after transient occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (tMCAO) for 90 min. Animals were euthanized for Western immunoblot analyses for the PSD-95 and GAP-43 proteins and gelatin zymography for the MMP-9 activity at 7-day post-insult. Another set of animals was sacrificed for histologic and Golgi-Cox-impregnated sections at 28 days post-insult. In cultured neurons exposed to glutamate excitotoxicity, melatonin significantly up-regulated the GAP-43 and PSD-95 expressions and improved dendritic aborizations (P < 0.05, respectively). Relative to controls, melatonin-treated stroke animals caused a significant improvement of GAP-43 and PSD-95 expressions as well as the MMP-9 activity in the ischemic brain (P < 0.05). Consequently, melatonin also significantly promoted the dendritic spine density and reduced infarction in the ischemic brain, and improved neurobehaviors as well at 28 days post-insult (P < 0.05, respectively). Together, melatonin upregulates GAP-43, PSD-95 and MMP-9 proteins, which likely accounts for its actions to improve neuroplasticity in cultured neurons exposed to glutamate excitotoxicity, and to enhance long-term neuroprotection, neuroplasticity and brain remodeling in stroke rats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Enhancement on Deficits in Visuospatial Working Memory in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cognitive Electrophysiological Study.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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The present study aimed to explore the effectiveness of chronic aerobic exercise intervention on the behavioral and neuroelectric performances of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) when carrying out a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task. Twenty typically developing children and 40 children with DCD, equally divided into DCD-training and DCD nontraining groups, performed the cognitive task with concomitant event-related potential recording before and after 16 weeks of endurance training. Results indicated that the children with DCD displayed VSWM deficits with regard to behavioral performance (i.e., slower reaction time and low accuracy rate) and the neuroelectric indices (i.e., smaller P3 and pSW amplitudes) during the retrieval-process phase as reported in previous studies. However, after the exercise intervention, DCD-training group showed significantly higher accuracy rates and enhanced P3 amplitudes during the encoding and retrieval-process phases, compared with their pre-training performances. These findings suggest that increased cardiorespiratory fitness could effectively improve the performance of the VSWM task in children with DCD, by enabling the allocation of greater working memory resources related to encoding and retrieval.
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Six1 mediates resistance to paclitaxel in breast cancer cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2013
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Paclitaxel resistance remains a major challenge in the treatment of breast cancer. Six1 is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor invloved in the initiation, progression and metastasis of breast cancer. We herein investigate the relationship between Six1 and resistance of paclitaxel in this study. The results indicate that six1 is a mediator of the paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer. The expression level of Six1 in breast cancer cells correlates with their resistance to paclitaxel. On the one hand, forced overexpression of Six1 in Six1-low/paclitaxel-sensitive MCF-7 or HS578T breast cancer cells induce their resistance to paclitaxel treatment directly; On the other hand, knockdown of endogenous Six1 in Six1-high/drug-resistant BT-474 breast cancer cells sensitized these cells to paclitaxel treatment. Besides, Six1 overexpression confers resistance to paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, clinical data and the publicly available breast cancer gene expression datasets display that the association of Six1 expression with paclitaxel sensitivity is clinically relevant. In conclusion, these data suggest that Six1 may function as an important modifier of the paclitaxel response in breast cancer cells, and serve as a potential target for overcoming paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer.
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Relationships between ophthalmic artery flow direction and cognitive performance in patients with unilateral carotid artery stenosis.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Cerebral hypoperfusion is responsible for cognitive impairment in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis (CAS). The manifestation of reversed ophthalmic artery flow (ROAF) is not uncommon in patients with CAS, suggesting a state of intensified cerebral hypoperfusion. This study aimed to examine whether the presence of ROAF can exacerbate cognitive impairment in patients with severe unilateral CAS.
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Executive function during acute exercise: the role of exercise intensity.
J Sport Exerc Psychol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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This study was designed to examine the modulation of executive functions during acute exercise and to determine whether exercise intensity moderates this relationship. Eighty college-aged adults were recruited and randomly assigned into one of the four following groups: control, 30%, 50%, and 80% heart rate reserve. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was administered during each intervention. The results indicated that the majority of the WCST performances were impaired in the high exercise intensity group relative to those of the other three groups, whereas similar performance rates were maintained in the low- and moderate-intensity groups. These findings suggest that transient hypofrontality occurs during high-intensity exercise, but not during low- and moderate-intensity exercises. Future research aimed at employing the dual-mode theory, and applying the reticular-activating hypofrontality model is recommended to further the current knowledge.
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[Screening and body correlation analysis of microsatellite markers related to intermuscular bone number in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)].
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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In this study, 149 polymorphic markers were screened from 200 microsatellite markers. From a family of mirror carp, which included 107 individuals. All samples were analyzed for body correlation, and intermuscular bone number was tested using the General Linear Model (GLM) single marker regression. Determination of the threshold values by 10,000 permutation tests showed that eight markers had significant correlation (P<0.05), in which HLJ3086, HLJ3642 and HLJ3515 had very significant correlation with intermuscular bone number (P<0.01). In addition, the genotypes of the captured correlative loci were determined by Duncans test using SPSS17.0 software. Markers were used to screen the protein and nucleotide database in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Blasting results showed that HLJ2891 was highly correlated (92%) with latrophilin-2-like and HLJ3515 was highly correlated (81%) with serine/threonine-protein kinase 32B-like of zebrafish. These functional markers and genotypes may provide an efficient basis for marker-assisted selection of intermuscular bone number in mirror carp.
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[Fire severity of burnt area in Huzhong forest region of Great Xing an Mountains, Northeast China based on normalized burn ratio analysis].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Based on the TM images and 3S technology, and by using normalized burn ratio (NBR) , this paper quantitatively evaluated the fire severity of burnt area in Huzhong forest region of the Great Xing an Mountains from 1986 to 2010, and analyzed the relationships of the fire severity with environmental factors such as vegetation type, elevation, slope, and aspect. In Huzhong forest region, the fire occurrence frequency and total burnt area had an obvious inter-annual change. High incidence of forest fire was from June to August, and heavily burnt area occupied 84. 2% of the total burnt area. In the burnt area, larch forest accounted for 89. 9%. 68. 8% of burnt area located at the elevations from 1000 m to 1500 m, and 62. 5% located in eastern, southern, western, and northern slopes. There was no obvious difference in the burnt area between sunny and shady slopes. The burnt area at the slope degrees 15 degree-25 degrees occupied 38.4% of the total. High severity burnt area was the largest (70% of the total), followed by moderate severity burnt area (about 10%), and low severity burnt area and un-burnt area (<5% ). The majority of the forest fires in Huzhong forest region were of high severity fire, which caused great damages to the forest resources. It was suggested that in the forest fire management in Great Xing an Mountains forest region, it would be urgent to implement forest fuel treatments to reduce fire severity to guarantee the forest ecosystem security.
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YHap: a population model for probabilistic assignment of Y haplogroups from re-sequencing data.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Y haplogroup analyses are an important component of genealogical reconstruction, population genetic analyses, medical genetics and forensics. These fields are increasingly moving towards use of low-coverage, high throughput sequencing. While there have been methods recently proposed for assignment of Y haplogroups on the basis of high-coverage sequence data, assignment on the basis of low-coverage data remains challenging.
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Novel mutations c.[5121_5122insAG]+[6859C>T] of the SPG11 gene associated with cerebellum hypometabolism in a Chinese case of hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2013
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Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a very heterogeneous disease, both genetically and clinically. To date, approximately 52 loci and 31 genes have been reported to be involved in the causality of HSP. The pattern of inheritance of the disease can be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked recessive. Autosomal recessive HSP with thin corpus callosum (ARHSP-TCC) is one form of this disease, and a recessive gene, SPG11, is responsible for 41-77% of all ARHSP-TCC cases. SPG11 encodes the protein SPATACSIN, which is most prominently expressed in the cerebellum. However, little is known about its function. Despite diverse clinical presentations, diffuse hypometabolism in the cerebellum has not been reported previously. We have identified an HSP-TCC patient that presented with prominent intellectual disability rather than spasticity. (18)Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)FDG-PET/CT) examination showed diffuse hypometabolism in both cerebella. Mutation screening of the SPG11 gene using Sanger sequencing identified the novel compound heterozygous mutation c.[5121_5122insAG]+[6859C>T] (p.[I1708RfsX2]+[Q2287X]) in the patient. The mother bears the c.5121_5122insAG mutation, which results in a frameshift and is predicted to truncate the 735 amino acids from the C-terminus, and the father carries the c.6859C>T mutation, which terminates the 157 amino acids from the C-terminus. Therefore, these mutations may result in the loss of function of wild-type SPATACSIN. Our results suggest that SPATACSIN may be involved in cerebella metabolism, and the novel mutations provide more data for the mutational spectrum of this gene, which will aid in the development of quick and accurate genetic diagnostic tools for this disease.
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