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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Risk factors for bone metastasis in patients with primary lung cancer: study protocol for a systematic review.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Bone metastasis (BM) in patients with primary lung cancer poses a serious health problem. Numerous risk factors have been hypothesised to predict BM in these patients, but research studies are of mutable quality, and may not be of value in clinical evaluation.
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Interleukin-17 gene polymorphisms contribute to cancer risk.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Epidemiological studies have suggested that interleukin-17 (IL-17) polymorphisms are associated with cancer risk. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to obtain a precise conclusion. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association of the IL-17A rs2275913G>A and IL-17F rs763780T>C polymorphisms with cancer risk. Publication bias and sensitivity analyses were performed to ensure the statistical power. Overall, 10 relevant case-control studies involving 4,516 cases and 5,645 controls were included. The pooled ORs with 95% CIs indicated that the IL-17A rs2275913G>A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased cancer risk (for A versus G: OR?=?1.28, 95% CI: 1.16-1.41, P < 0.001, I (2) = 61.1%; for GA versus GG: OR?=?1.12, 95% CI: 1.02-1.23, P?=?0.015, I (2) = 27.8%; for AA versus GG: OR?=?1.71, 95% CI: 1.38-2.41, P < 0.001, I (2) = 69.6%; for GA + AA versus GG: OR?=?1.23, 95% CI: 1.13-1.34, P < 0.001, I (2) = 6.4%; for AA versus GG + GA: OR?=?1.62, 95% CI: 1.27-2.07, P < 0.001, I (2) = 81.4%). Succeeding analysis of HWE and stratified analysis of gastric cancer and the Asian (and Chinese) population revealed similar results. The IL-17F rs763780T>C polymorphism was also significantly associated with gastric cancer development. Overall, the present meta-analysis suggests that IL-17 polymorphisms increase the risk of developing cancer, particularly gastric cancer, in the Asian (and Chinese) population.
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Normal mesenteric lymph ameliorates acute kidney injury following lipopolysaccharide challenge in mice.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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The kidney is one of the prior damaged organs subjected to severe infection and sepsis shock. Our previous studies have shown that the normal mesenteric lymph (NML) obtained from healthy dogs could alleviate multiple organ injuries following endotoxic shock. In the current study, we further investigated the beneficial effect of NML from healthy mice on acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice.
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Ameliorating effects of combined curcumin and desferrioxamine on 6-OHDA-induced rat mode of Parkinson's disease.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The catecholaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine has been widely used to mimic the lesions in dopaminergic neurons to develop Parkinson's disease. The present study was aimed to evaluate the combined treatment with Curcumin and desferrioxamine (DFO) on 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in the striatum of rats. Rat models with 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease were treated with curcumin, DFO, or both and the effect of different treatments on dopamine level was examined. Moreover, the effect of different treatments on the levels of PCC, SOD, and GSH was also assessed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of combined treatment of curcumin and DFO.
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Post-shock Mesenteric Lymph Drainage Ameliorates Cellular Immune Function in Rats Following Hemorrhagic Shock.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Disturbance of immunity is an important factor to modulate inflammatory responses after severe shock. Post-shock mesenteric lymph (PSML) return plays an adverse role in multiple organ injuries induced by the hemorrhagic shock, and the inflammatory factors are involved in this process. However, whether the PSML can exacerbate immune dysfunctions that modulate inflammatory response to the hemorrhagic shock remains unknown. In the present study, the effects of PSML drainage on the distribution of T lymphocyte subgroup, the release of inflammatory factors, and apoptosis of thymocytes were investigated; the effect of PSML on the specific parameters of cellular immune function was also determined. Results showed that PSML drainage reduced the increased levels of CD3+, CD3?+?CD4+, CD4?+?CD25+ lymphocytes, IFN-?, and the ratios of CD3?+?CD4+/CD3?+?CD4- in blood of the shocked rats at 3 h after resuscitation; PSML drainage also abolished the decreased IL-4 level and restored the higher ratio of IFN-?/IL-4 to normal levels. Tissue injury, including enlarged intermembrance space and edema with congestion in the medulla, increased apoptotic cells and bax expression, decreased number of cells in the S phase, and bcl-2 expression were observed in the thymus after hemorrhagic shock. PSML drainage reversed these effects. In particular, PSML drainage increased the proliferation index and decreased p53 expression of thymocytes. These results suggest that hyperimmunity occurred at early stages of hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation and that PSML drainage could markedly improve cellular immune function that is responsible for the reduced inflammatory responses.
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Changes in renal tissue proteome induced by mesenteric lymph drainage in rats after hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Kidney injury commonly occurs after hemorrhagic shock. Previous studies have shown that post-hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) return negatively affects the kidneys and may induce injury. This study investigates the effect of PHSML drainage on the proteome in renal tissue. A controlled hemorrhagic shock model was established in the shock and shock+drainage groups. After 1 h of hypotension, fluid resuscitation was implemented within 30 min. Meanwhile, PHSML was drained in the shock+drainage group. After 3 h of resuscitation, renal tissue was extracted for proteome analysis using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. Differential proteins with intensities that either increased or decreased by 1.5-fold or greater were selected for trypsin digestion and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry and tandem TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to validate the identified partial proteins. Compared with the sham group, hnRNPC and Starp decreased in the shock group, whereas Hadha, Slc25a13, Atp5b, hnRNPC, Starp, Rps3, and actin were downregulated in the shock+drainage group. Meanwhile, Atp5b and actin decreased in the shock+drainage group relative to the shock group. The identified proteins can be classified into different categories, such as cell proliferation (hnRNPC, Strap, and Rps3), energy metabolism (Hadha, Atp5b, and Slc25a13), cell motility, and cytoskeleton (actin). Moreover, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurement validated the changed levels of Atp5b and Actg2. Our findings provide a starting point for investigating the functions of differentially expressed proteins in acute kidney injury induced by hemorrhagic shock. These findings hold great potential for the development of therapeutic interventions.
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Tacrolimus reversibly reduces insulin secretion, induces insulin resistance, and causes islet cell damage in rats.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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To investigate the diabetogenic effects of the immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus, the reversibility of these effects upon treatment discontinuation, and the underlying mechanisms in a rat model.
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Reduced chemotherapy sensitivity in EGFR-mutant lung cancer patient with frontline EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are a standard first-line treatment for EGFR-mutant patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, it remains unclear whether frontline EGFR TKIs affect subsequent chemo-sensitivity in EGFR-mutant patients. This study compared chemo-sensitivity in patients treated with post-TKI chemotherapy and first-line chemotherapy controls.
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Association between cyclin D1 G870A polymorphism and cervical cancer risk: a cumulative meta-analysis involving 2,864 patients and 3,898 controls.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Association between Cyclin D1 (CCND1) polymorphism and cervical cancer risk are conflicting with published articles. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between CCND1 G870A polymorphism and cervical cancer risk.
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Normalization of neuronal responses in cortical area MT across signal strengths and motion directions.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Multiple visual stimuli are common in natural scenes, yet it remains unclear how multiple stimuli interact to influence neuronal responses. We investigated this question by manipulating relative signal strengths of two stimuli moving simultaneously within the receptive fields (RFs) of neurons in the extrastriate middle temporal (MT) cortex. Visual stimuli were overlapping random-dot patterns moving in two directions separated by 90°. We first varied the motion coherence of each random-dot pattern and characterized, across the direction tuning curve, the relationship between neuronal responses elicited by bidirectional stimuli and by the constituent motion components. The tuning curve for bidirectional stimuli showed response normalization and can be accounted for by a weighted sum of the responses to the motion components. Allowing nonlinear, multiplicative interaction between the two component responses significantly improved the data fit for some neurons, and the interaction mainly had a suppressive effect on the neuronal response. The weighting of the component responses was not fixed but dependent on relative signal strengths. When two stimulus components moved at different coherence levels, the response weight for the higher-coherence component was significantly greater than that for the lower-coherence component. We also varied relative luminance levels of two coherently moving stimuli and found that MT response weight for the higher-luminance component was also greater. These results suggest that competition between multiple stimuli within a neuron's RF depends on relative signal strengths of the stimuli and that multiplicative nonlinearity may play an important role in shaping the response tuning for multiple stimuli.
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Association of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group G Asp1104His polymorphism with breast cancer risk: A cumulative meta-analysis.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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The xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group G (XPG) gene plays an important role in the DNA nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Several studies have investigated the association between the XPG Asp1104His polymorphism and breast cancer; however, the results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of 8 published articles (10 case-control studies) including a total of 5,235 patients with breast cancer and 5,685 healthy controls. The results demonstrated that the XPG Asp1104His polymorphism was not associated with breast cancer in the overall population [His vs. Asp, odds ratio (OR)=1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91-1.08; His/His vs. Asp/Asp, OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.83-1.11; Asp/His vs. Asp/Asp, OR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.94-1.11; His/His+Asp/His vs. Asp/Asp, OR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.92-1.15; and His/His vs. Asp/Asp+Asp/His, OR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.81-1.06]. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, no significant association was observed in European subjects. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that the XPG Asp1104His polymorphism is not associated with breast cancer risk.
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Prognostic significance of genotype and number of metastatic sites in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
Clin Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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TNM stage remains the most important prognostic factor in clinical practice. The 7th edition lung cancer staging system has not considered some important prognostic factors, such as the number of metastatic organ sites and the molecular biologic characterization.
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Mesenteric lymph duct ligation after hemorrhagic shock enhances the ATP level and ATPase activity in rat kidneys.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Kidney injury commonly occurs following hemorrhagic shock. This study aims to observe the effects of mesenteric lymph duct ligation (MLDL) on the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and the cell membrane adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity in the kidneys of rats subjected to hemorrhagic shock.
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Alternative messenger RNA splicing of autophagic gene Beclin 1 in human B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Beclin 1 is a key factor for initiation and regulation of autophagy, which is a cellular catabolic process involved in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of alternative splicing of Beclin1 in the regulation of autophagy in leukemia cells, Beclin1 mRNA from 6 different types of cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 2 healthy volunteers was reversely transcribed, subcloned, and screened for alternative splicing. New transcript variants were analyzed by DNA sequencing. A transcript variant of Beclin 1 gene carrying a deletion of exon 11, which encoded a C-terminal truncation of Beclin 1 isoform, was found. The alternative isoform was assessed by bioinformatics, immunoblotting and subcellular localization. The results showed that this variable transcript is generated by alternative 3' splicing, and its translational product displayed a reduced activity in induction of autophagy by starvation, indicating that the spliced isoform might function as a dominant negative modulator of autophagy. Our findings suggest that the alternative splicing of Beclin 1 might play important roles in leukemogenesis regulated by autophagy.
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Exogenous normal lymph alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through lessening the adhesion molecules.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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To evaluate the role of exogenous normal lymph (ENL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats.
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Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma of the mandible: A case report and mini review.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare malignant odontogenic neoplasm of the jaw. AFS is characteristically composed of a benign odontogenic epithelium and a malignant mesenchymal component. The posterior region of the mandible is the predominantly occupied site. In the present report, a new case of AFS in a 22-year-old male that originated from ameloblastic fibroma was described. Histologically, the tumor showed biphasic components: Benign epithelium and a malignant mesenchymal component. Immunochemical findings revealed that the tumor cells were positive for cluster of differentiation (CD) 34, vimentin, Ki-67 and p53, but negative for smooth muscle actin, S-100, CD68 and desmin. The clinical presentation, radiographic appearances and treatment measures were additionally described and reviewed.
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Prognostic significance of SUVmax and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in pancreatic cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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To investigate the prognostic significance of pretreatment standardized maximum uptake value (SUVmax) and serum carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9 in pancreatic cancer.
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Memantine Effects on Verbal Memory in Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS): a Double-Blind Brain Potential Study.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Older FMR1 premutation carriers may develop fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), a neurodegenerative disorder manifesting cognitive deficits that often subsequently progress to dementia. To date, there is no specific treatment available for FXTAS. Studies have demonstrated the premutation-associated overactivation of glutamatergic receptors in neurons. Memantine, a NMDA receptor antagonist approved for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, thus was tested in the first placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial in FXTAS. Prior event-related brain potential (ERP) studies in FXTAS found reduced N400 repetition effect, a glutamate-related electrophysiological marker of semantic priming, and verbal memory processes. This substudy of the randomized clinical trial of memantine in FXTAS sought to use the N400 repetition effect to evaluate effects of chronic memantine treatment on verbal memory. Subsequent recall and recognition memory tests for the experimental stimuli were administered to characterize verbal memory. Data from 41 patients who completed the 1-year memantine trial (21 on memantine) and also completed longitudinal ERP studies were analyzed. Results showed treatment-associated benefits on both cued-recall memory and N400 repetition effect amplitude. Importantly, improvement in cued recall was positively correlated with amplitude increase of the N400 repetition effect. The placebo group, in contrast, displayed a significant reduction of the N400 repetition effect after 1 year. These results suggest that memantine treatment may have beneficial effects on verbal memory in FXTAS. Additional studies of memantine, perhaps in combination with other therapeutic agents, appear warranted, as symptomatic treatments and neuroprotective treatments are both needed for this recently recognized neurodegenerative disorder.
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Mesenteric lymph reperfusion after superior mesenteric artery occlusion shock exacerbates endotoxin translocation in brain.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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To determine the role of mesenteric lymph reperfusion (MLR) on endotoxin translocation in brain to discuss the mechanism of brain injury subjected to superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) shock.
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Association between the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Asians: a meta-analysis.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Several epidemiological studies have previously investigated the association between the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) susceptibility; however, current results are inconsistent. We therefore performed this meta-analysis to thoroughly investigate any association among Asian patients.
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Synergistic inhibition of breast cancer by co-delivery of VEGF siRNA and paclitaxel via vapreotide-modified core-shell nanoparticles.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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A somatostatin analog, vapreotide (VAP), can be used as a ligand for targeting drug delivery based on its high affinity to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), which is overexpressed in many tumor cells. RNA interference plays an important role on downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is important for tumor growth, progression and metastasis. To improve tumor therapy efficacy, the vapreotide-modified core-shell type nanoparticles co-encapsulating VEGF targeted siRNA (siVEGF) and paclitaxel (PTX), termed as VAP-PLPC/siRNA NPs, were developed in this study. When targeted via somatostatin receptors to tumor cells, the VAP-PLPC/siRNA NPs could simultaneously delivery siVEGF and PTX into cells and achieve a synergistic inhibition of tumor growth. Interestingly, in vitro cell uptake and gene silencing experiments demonstrated that the targeted VAP-PLPC/siRNA NPs exhibited significant higher intracellular siRNA accumulation and VEGF downregulation in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, compared to those of the non-targeted PEG-PLPC/siRNA NPs. More importantly, in vivo results further demonstrated that the targeted VAP-PLPC/siRNA NPs had significant stronger drug distribution in tumor tissues and tumor growth inhibition efficacy via receptor-mediated targeting delivery, accompany with an obvious inhibition of neovascularization induced by siVEGF silencing. These results suggested that the co-delivery of siRNA and paclitaxel via vapreotide-modified core-shell nanoparticles would be a promising approach for tumor targeted therapy.
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Novel agents and strategies for overcoming EGFR TKIs resistance.
Exp Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Since the recognition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a therapeutic target, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been used in lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations, which has been a major breakthrough for lung cancer treatment.. The progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with EGFR mutations treated with EGFR TKIs is significantly prolonged compared with that of patients who underwent standard chemotherapy. However, all patients who initially respond to EGFR TKIs eventually develop acquired resistance (AR). Many small molecule agents and monoclonal antibodies (McAb) targeting signaling pathways are potential therapeutic regimens for overcoming resistance, and various therapeutic strategies are used in clinical practice. Here we review the novel agents and therapeutic strategies for overcoming AR to EGFR TKIs.
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Nar1 deficiency results in shortened lifespan and sensitivity to paraquat that is rescued by increased expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase.
Mech. Ageing Dev.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nar1p is an essential Fe/S protein that exhibits striking similarity to bacterial iron-only hydrogenases. Nar1p is required for the maturation of cytosolic and nuclear, but not of mitochondrial Fe/S proteins, and plays a role in modulating sensitivity to oxygen in both yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans through unknown mechanisms. Here we report that Nar1 deficiency results in shortened lifespan and sensitivity to paraquat that is rescued by increased expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. These data suggest that Nar1p promotes protection against oxidative stress and define a new role for Nar1p in promoting replicative lifespan.
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Parkinsonism in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS): revisited.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Parkinsonian features have been used as a minor diagnostic criterion for fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). However, prior studies have examined parkinsonism (defined as having bradykinesia with at least rest tremor or postural instability) mostly in premutation carriers without a diagnosis of FXTAS. The current study was intended to elaborate this important aspect of the FXTAS spectrum, and to quantify the relationships between parkinsonism, FXTAS clinical staging and genetic/molecular measures.
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Inhibitory effects of adlay extract on melanin production and cellular oxygen stress in B16F10 melanoma cells.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine the effects of adlay extract on melanin production and the antioxidant characteristics of the extract. The seeds were extracted by the supercritical fluid CO2 extraction (SFE) method. The effect of adlay extract on melanin production was evaluated using mushroom tyrosinase activity assay, intracellular tyrosinase activity, antioxidant properties and melanin content. Those assays were performed spectrophotometrically. In addition, the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins was determined by western blotting. The results revealed that the adlay extract suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreased the amount of melanin in B16F10 cells. The adlay extract decreased the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1) and tyrosinase related protein-2 (TRP-2). The extract also exhibited antioxidant characteristics such as free radical scavenging capacity and reducing power. It effectively decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in B16F10 cells. We concluded that the adlay extract inhibits melanin production by down-regulation of MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2. The antioxidant properties of the extract may also contribute to the inhibition of melanogenesis. The adlay extract can therefore be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products.
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Interleukin-1? -899 (+4845) C?T polymorphism is not associated with aggressive periodontitis susceptibility: A meta-analysis based on 19 case-control studies.
Biomed Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A number of published studies investigated the association between interleukin-1? (IL-1?) -899 (+4845) C?T polymorphism and susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis (AgP). However, the results from different studies are controversial. This study was conducted to further investigate the association between IL-1? -899 (+4845) C?T polymorphism and AgP using a meta-analysis. A search was conducted through PubMed up to May 1, 2013 and a total of 19 relevant case-control studies were identified. The results of this meta-analysis demonstrated that IL-1? -899 (+4845) C?T polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to AgP under allele T vs. C [odds ratio (OR)=1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-1.14, P=0.98; I(2)=28.86%] or allele A vs. C comparison (OR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.85-1.14, P=0.85; I(2)=33.66%). The subgroup analyses based on ethnicity, source of controls and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) also revealed no such association. There existed a weak publication bias (Egger's test P=0.02). In conclusion, based on the currently available evidence, there is no association between IL-1? -899 (+4845) C?T polymorphism and susceptibility to AgP.
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Mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates acute kidney injury induced by hemorrhagic shock without resuscitation.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the effect of mesenteric lymph drainage on the acute kidney injury induced by hemorrhagic shock without resuscitation. Eighteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, shock, and drainage groups. The hemorrhagic shock model (40 mmHg, 3 h) was established in shock and drainage groups; mesenteric lymph drainage was performed from 1 h to 3 h of hypotension in the drainage group. The results showed that renal tissue damage occurred; the levels of urea, creatinine, and trypsin in the plasma as well as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), malondialdehyde (MDA), lactic acid (LA), and 2,3-DPG in the renal tissue were increased in the shock group after 3 h of hypotension. Mesenteric lymph drainage lessened the following: renal tissue damage; urea and trypsin concentrations in the plasma; ICAM-1, RAGE, TNF-?, MDA, and LA levels in the renal tissue. By contrast, mesenteric lymph drainage increased the 2,3-DPG level in the renal tissue. These findings indicated that mesenteric lymph drainage could relieve kidney injury caused by sustained hypotension, and its mechanisms involve the decrease in trypsin activity, suppression of inflammation, alleviation of free radical injury, and improvement of energy metabolism.
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Core-Shell type lipid/rPAA-Chol polymer hybrid nanoparticles for in vivo siRNA delivery.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Our previous study had reported that cholesterol-grafted poly(amidoamine) (rPAA-Chol polymer) was able to self-assemble into cationic nanoparticles and act as a potential carrier for siRNA transfection. In this study, the core-shell type lipid/rPAA-Chol hybrid nanoparticles (PEG-LP/siRNA NPs and T7-LP/siRNA NPs) were developed for improving in vivo siRNA delivery by modifying the surface of rPAA-Chol/siRNA nanoplex core with a lipid shell, followed by post-insertion of polyethylene glycol phospholipid (DSPE-PEG) and/or peptide (HAIYPRH, named as T7) modified DSPE-PEG-T7. The integrative hybrid nanostructures of LP/siRNA NPs were evidenced by dynamic light scattering (DLS), confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), cryo-transmission electron microscope (Cryo-TEM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay. It was demonstrated that the T7 peptide modified LP/siRNA NPs (T7-LP/siRNA NPs) exhibited uniform and spherical structures with particle size of 99.39 ± 0.65 nm and surface potential of 42.53 ± 1.03 mV, and showed high cellular uptake efficiency and rapid endosomal/lysosomal escape ability in MCF-7 cells. Importantly, in vitro gene silencing experiment demonstrated that both of pegylated and targeted LP/siEGFR NPs exhibited significantly stronger downregulation of EGFR protein expression level in MCF-7 cells, compared to that of the physical mixture of siRNA lipoplexes and rPAA-Chol/siRNA nanoplexes. In vivo tumor therapy on nude mice bearing MCF-7 tumors further confirmed that the targeted T7-LP/siEGFR NPs exhibited the greatest inhibition on tumor growth via transferrin receptor-mediated targeting delivery, without any activation of immune responses and significant body weight loss following systemic administration. These findings indicated that the core-shell type T7-LP/siRNA nanoparticles would be promising siRNA delivery systems for in vivo tumor-targeted therapy.
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Effect of mesenteric lymph duct ligation on gene expression profiles of renal tissue in hemorrhagic shock rats with fluid resuscitation.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Abstract Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI), a common pathological process following hemorrhagic shock, can lead to an internal milieu disorder, which is an important factor of multiple organ failure (MOF). It has been shown that the mesenteric lymph return plays a deleterious effect on MOF induced by hemorrhagic shock. In this study, we investigated the effects of mesenteric lymph duct ligation (MLDL) on gene expression profiles of renal tissue following hemorrhagic shock with fluid resuscitation. Methods: After establishment of hemorrhagic shock model and fluid resuscitation in rats of shock and shock ligation groups, the MLDL was performed in shock ligation group, and only threading under the mesenteric lymph duct in the shock group. Then, the fixed position renal tissue was taken out for homogenate in two groups at 3?h after resuscitation, the total mRNA was extracted, reversely transcribed into cDNAs and marked with Cy3 and Cy5. The cDNAs were subjected for microarray scanning with 12,028 cDNA probes; the differentially expressed genes between two groups were analyzed. Results: In the 5812 valid dates of rat genomes transcription, there were 34 known differentially expressed genes between the two groups, of which 11 genes were up-regulated whereas 23 genes were down-regulated by MLDL. These different expressed genes encoding protein function were mainly involved in signal transduction, transcription regulation, metabolism, transport, cell growth, cell cycle, cell adhesion, cell movement, cellular component, and biological process. Conclusions: The mechanism of MLDL alleviating the AKI aftershock might be associated with up- or down-regulation of the above gene expressions.
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Quantitative assessment of the influence of CYP1B1 polymorphisms and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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The associations between CYP1B1 polymorphisms and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) risk have been conflicting. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to derive a more precise relationship. Six published case-control studies were collected; odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the association between CYP1B1 Leu432Val, Asn453Ser polymorphisms, and HNSCC risk. The Sensitivity analysis and publication bias also were performed to guarantee the statistical power. Overall, the pooled OR with 95 % CIs indicated that CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism was significantly related with HNSCC risk (for Val vs. Leu: OR = 1.13, 95 % CI = 1.03-1.25, P?=?0.014, P heterogeneity?=?0.141; for Val/Val vs. Leu/Leu: OR = 1.30, 95 % CI = 1.06-1.60, P?=?0.013, P heterogeneity?=?0.253; for Val/Val vs. Leu/Leu + Leu/Val: OR = 1.23, 95 % CI = 1.05-1.46, P?=?0.013, P heterogeneity?=?0.456). The similar results were also been found in succeeding analysis of HWE and stratified analysis of Caucasian population. Furthermore, no significant association between CYP1B1 Asn453Ser polymorphism and HNSCC risk was found in this meta-analysis. In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrates that CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism may be a risk factor for developing HNSCC.
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[Recent advance in phlebovirus].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Genus Phlebovirus is single negative-strand RNA virus, and belongs to family bunyaviridae. Its genomes have three segments including L, M and S encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, envelope glycoprotein and nucleoprotein respectively. Phlebovirus is arbovirus and can be disseminated by arthropod. More than 70 types of Phlebovirus so far have been reported, and 68 known serotypes are divided into groups Sandfly fever and Uukuniemi, of which a few members are closely related to human diseases. In addition, new emerging viruses of genus Phlebovirus are discovered recently. In this review, the latest research progress in molecular characteristics, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and emerging viruses of Phlebovirus is summarized.
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[Changes of erythrocyte rheology in rabbits with acute renal failure].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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To observe the change of erythrocyte theology in rabbits with acute renal failure (ARF).
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Bioactive proteins in healthy pregnancies and preeclampsia: relevance to hypertension and proteinuria.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Bioactive proteins, such as cytokines and chemokines, have not been systematically evaluated in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. We aimed to investigate the difference of these proteins between healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies in order to help clarify their potential roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension and proteinuria in preeclampsia.
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Exogenous normal lymph alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury in rats.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common pathological process which occurs in hemorrhage, intoxication, etc. It has been shown that the lymphatic circulation plays an important regulatory role in the pathogenesis of hemorrhage shock, and that exogenous normal lymph (ENL) has a beneficial effect on multiple organ injuries. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ENL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI in rats.
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Role of RhoA in regulating the pump function of isolated lymphatics from hemorrhagic shock rats.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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The aim of this present study was to examine changes in RhoA protein levels and the role in RhoA in lymphatic contractility and reactivity after hemorrhagic shock. Levels of RhoA and phospho-RhoA in lymphatic tissue isolated from hemorrhagic shock rats were measured, and the contractility and reactivity to substance P of lymphatics isolated from control rats and rats subjected to shock 0.5 and 2 h were determined with an isolated lymphatic perfusion system at a transmural pressure of 3 cmH2O. At the same time, lymphatics isolated from rats subjected to shock 0.5 and 2 h were incubated with agonists and antagonists of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling. Contractile frequency, end-diastolic and end-systolic diameter, and passive diameter were recorded and used to calculate lymphatic tonic index, contractile amplitude, and fractional pump flow. After stimulation with a gradient of substance P, the differences between the preadministration and postadministration values of contractile frequency, contractile amplitude, tonic index, and fractional pump flow were calculated to further assess lymphatic reactivity. RhoA protein levels were significantly increased at 0.5 h after shock but decreased at 2 and 3 h after shock; p-Rho levels were initially increased after shock and subsequently decreased. The contractility and reactivity of 0.5-h-shocked lymphatics were significantly reduced by the RhoA antagonist C3 transferase and the Rho kinase antagonist Y-27632. The RhoA agonist U-46619 increased the contractility and reactivity of 2-h-shocked lymphatics, whereas Y-27632 suppressed the effect of U-46619. Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of myosin light-chain phosphatase, had no effect on the contractility of 2-h-shocked lymphatics, but improved lymphatic reactivity. These results suggest that RhoA is involved in the modulation of lymphatic pump function during hemorrhagic shock and that its effects may be mediated by Rho kinase and MLCP.
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Chemical and preclinical studies on Hedyotis diffusa with anticancer potential.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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This paper presents the chemical and preclinical anticancer research on Hedyotis diffusa Willd. in detail, one of the most renowned herbs often prescribed in the polyherbal formulas for cancer treatment in traditional Chinese medicine. Anthraquinones, flavonoids, and terpenoids constitute the majority of the 69 compounds that have been isolated and identified from H. diffusa. The anticancer effects of the methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts in various preclinical cancer models have been described. This review also summarized the anticancer activity of constituents of the herb and the mechanisms of action. All the studies suggest that H. diffusa has enormous potential in the therapy of cancer and warrants further chemical and pharmacological investigation.
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Analysis of the interaction between tropomyosin allergens and antibodies using a biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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A biosensor based on high spatial resolution imaging ellipsometry has been studied to examine its role in the rapid detection and analysis of the tropomyosin allergen existing in crustaceans. This methodology has been established for detection of the tropomyosin allergen and includes ligand screening, the determination of sensitivity, and a comparison with traditional detection methods. Three kinds of monoclonal antibodies (2F9, 4C7, and 2H6) known to have a high bioactivity against the tropomyosin allergen were screened and separately immobilized as ligands on a silicon wafer surface, thus allowing them to capture the tropomyosin allergen. Resulting changes on the wafer surface were visualized in gray scale variation on an ellipsometry image. Images showed that these antibodies are able to recognize the presence of the tropomyosin allergen in shrimp and crab with sensitivity of 1 mg L(-1), and at a detecting time of approximately 30 min for an extracted sample. This preliminary study has shown that the detection of the tropomyosin allergen is rapid and specific when using this type of assay on products containing shrimp and crab. When compared with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry is able to perform a fast label-free analysis.
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Phenotypes of hypofrontality in older female fragile x premutation carriers.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Objective To investigate the nature of cognitive impairments and underlying brain mechanisms in older female fragile X premutation carriers with and without fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Methods Extensive neuropsychological testing and cognitive event-related brain potentials (ERPs, particularly, the auditory P300) were examined in 84 female participants: 33 fragile X premutation carriers with FXTAS (mean age = 62.8), 25 premutation carriers without FXTAS (mean age = 55.4) and 26 normal healthy controls (mean age = 59.3). Results Both premutation groups exhibited executive dysfunction on the Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale (BDS), with subtle impairments in inhibition and performance monitoring in female carriers without FXTAS, and more substantial deficits in FXTAS women. However, the female carrier group without FXTAS showed more pronounced deficiencies in working memory. Abnormal ERPs were recorded over the frontal lobes, where FXTAS patients showed both P300 amplitude reduction and latency prolongation, while only decreased frontal P300 amplitudes were found in carriers without FXTAS. These frontal P3 measures correlated with executive function and information processing speed. Interpretation The neuropsychological testing and ERP results of the present study provide support for the hypothesis that executive dysfunction is the primary cognitive impairment among older female premutation carriers both with and without FXTAS, although these deficits are relatively mild compared to those in FXTAS males. These findings are consistent with a synergistic effect of the premutation and aging on cognitive impairment among older female fragile X premutation carriers, even in those without FXTAS symptoms. ANN NEUROL 2013. © 2013 American Neurological Association.
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Role of protein kinase G on the post-shock mesenteric lymph blockage ameliorating vascular calcium sensitivity.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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To investigate the role of protein kinase G (PKG) in blocking post-shock mesenteric lymph (PSML) return ameliorating the calcium sensitivity in hemorrhagic shock rats.
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Caragana fabr. promotes revegetation and soil rehabilitation in saline-alkali wasteland.
Int J Phytoremediation
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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To determine how plantations of Caragana microphylla shrubs affect saline-alkali soil amelioration and revegetation, we investigated the vegetation and sampled soils from saline-alkali wasteland (SAW), perennial Caragana forestland (PCF), Caragana forest after fire disturbance (CFF). Results showed that with the development of Caragana Fabr., highly dominant species of Poaceae family, including Elymus dahuricus, Thermopsis lanceolata, Stipa tianschanica, died out in PCF. Moreover, Papilionaceaefamily, including Lespedeza indica, Oxytropis psammocharis, and Astragalus scaberrimus, was established both in PCF and CFF. Phytoremediation of saline-alkali wasteland (SAW) was achieved by plantation, resulting in the reduced soil pH, sodium adsorption ratio, exchangeable sodium percentage, salinity, and Na+ concentration around Caragana shrubs. Greater amounts of soil organic, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium were observed in PCF topsoil than in SAW topsoil The concentration of mineralized N in PCF soil was significantly lower than that in SAW soil at all sampled depths, indicating that Caragana shrubs were just using N and therefore less measured in soils. Fire disturbance resulted in decreased soil pH and salinity, but increased organic content, total nitrogen, and ammonium nitrogen. The improved soil parameters and self-recovery of shrubs indicated that Caragana shrubs were well established after burning event.
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Reversibly acetylated lysine residues play important roles in the enzymatic activity of Escherichia coli N-hydroxyarylamine O-acetyltransferase.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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CobB is a bacterial NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase. Although progress has been made in functional studies of this protein in recent years, its substrates and biological functions are still largely unclear. Using proteome microarray technology, potential substrates of Escherichia coli CobB were screened and nine proteins were identified, including N-hydroxyarylamine O-acetyltransferase (NhoA). In vitro acetylation/deacetylation of NhoA was verified by western blotting and mass spectrometry, and two acetylated lysine residues were identified. Site-specific mutagenesis experiments showed that mutation of each acetylated lysine decreased the acetylation level of NhoA in vitro. Further analysis showed that variant NhoA proteins carrying substitutions at the two acetylated lysine residues are involved in both the O-acetyltransferase and N-acetyltransferase activity of NhoA. Structural analyses were also performed to explore the effects of the acetylated lysine residues on the activity of NhoA. These results suggest that reversible acetylation may play a role in the activity of Escherichia coli NhoA.
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Genome of the Chinese tree shrew.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) possess many features valuable in animals used as experimental models in biomedical research. Currently, there are numerous attempts to employ tree shrews as models for a variety of human disorders: depression, myopia, hepatitis B and C virus infections, and hepatocellular carcinoma, to name a few. Here we present a publicly available annotated genome sequence for the Chinese tree shrew. Phylogenomic analysis of the tree shrew and other mammalians highly support its close affinity to primates. By characterizing key factors and signalling pathways in nervous and immune systems, we demonstrate that tree shrews possess both shared common and unique features, and provide a genetic basis for the use of this animal as a potential model for biomedical research.
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Exogenous normal lymph alleviates microcirculation disturbances and abnormal hemorheological properties in rats with disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Disturbances of the microcirculation and abnormal hemorheological properties are important factors that play an important role in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and result in organ dysfunction or failure. In the present study, we established an animal model of DIC using intravenous Dextran 500 in rats, and used exogenous normal lymph corresponding to 1/15 of whole blood volume for injection through the left jugular vein. We found that normal lymph could improve the blood pressure and survival time of rats with DIC. The results regarding the mesenteric microcirculation showed that the abnormality of the diameter of mesenteric microvessels and micro-blood flow speed in the DIC+lymph group was significantly less than in the DIC+saline group. Whole blood viscosity, relative viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit (Hct), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and electrophoresis time of erythrocytes were significantly increased in the DIC+saline group compared to the control group. The electrophoretic length and migration of erythrocytes from the DIC+saline and DIC+lymph groups were significantly slower than the control group. Blood relative viscosity, Hct, ESR, and electrophoretic time of erythrocytes were significantly increased in the DIC+lymph group compared to the control group. Whole blood viscosity, relative viscosity and reduced viscosity were significantly lower in the DIC+lymph group than in the DIC+saline group, and erythrocyte deformability index was also significantly higher than in the DIC+saline and control groups. These results suggest that exogenous normal lymph could markedly improve the acute microcirculation disturbance and the abnormal hemorheological properties in rats with DIC induced by Dextran 500.
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Characterization of a novel metagenome-derived 6-phospho-?-glucosidase from black liquor sediment.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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The enzyme 6-phospho-?-glucosidase is an important member of the glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1). However, its catalytic mechanisms, especially the key residues determining substrate specificity and affinity, are poorly understood. A metagenome-derived gene sequence, encoding a novel 6-phospho-?-glucosidase designated Pbgl25-217, was isolated and characterized. The optimal conditions for enzymatic activity were 37°C and pH 7; Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) stabilized the activity of Pbgl25-217, whereas Ni(2+), Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+) inhibited its activity. The Km and Vmax of Pbgl25-217 were 4.8 mM and 1,987.0 U mg(-1), respectively. Seven conserved residues were recognized by multiple alignments and were tested by site-directed mutagenesis for their functions in substrate recognition and catalytic reaction. The results suggest that residues S427, Lys435, and Tyr437 act as "gatekeepers" in a phosphate-binding loop and play important roles in phosphate recognition. This functional identification may provide insights into the specificity of 6-phospho-?-glycosidases in GH1 and be useful for designing further directed evolution.
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The protective effect of grape seed procyanidin extract against cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in mice.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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As an important environmental pollutant, cadmium (Cd) can lead to serious renal damage. Grape seed procyanidins extract (GSPE), a biological active component of grape seed, has been shown to possess antioxidative effects. Here, we assessed the protective effect of GSPE on Cd-induced renal damage using animal experiment. After 30 days, the oxidative damage of kidney was evaluated through measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidation (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Since, oxidative stress could lead to apoptosis, the renal apoptosis was measured using flow cytometer. Moreover, the expression of apoptosis-related protein Bax and Bcl-2 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The results showed that Cd led to the decrease of SOD and GSH-Px activities, and the increase of MDA level, induced renal apoptosis. However, the coadministration of GSPE attenuated Cd-induced lipid peroxidation, and antagonized renal apoptosis, probably associated with the expression of Bax and Bcl-2. These data suggested that GSPE has protective effect against renal oxidative damage induced by Cd, which provide a potential natural chemopreventive agent against Cd-poisoning.
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Periodontal disease and risk of head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Many epidemiological studies have found a positive association of periodontal disease (PD) with risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), but the findings are varied or even contradictory. In this work, we performed a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between PD and HNC risk.
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[Change in the pattern of peripheral blood TCR V ? gene repertoire in occupational lead-exposed workers].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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To investigate the distribution and clonality of TCR V? subfamily in peripheral blood from workers exposed to lead, in order to understand the change in T cell immunity of occupational lead-exposed workers.
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[Effects of paraquat on the learning and memory ability in developing mice].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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To explore the damages of paraquat to the learning and memory ability of developing mice and explore the possible mechanism involving oxidative stress.
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[The effects of the cadmium chloride on the DNA damage and the expression level of gadd gene in HepG2 cell line].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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To investigate the effects of the cadmium chloride on the DNA damage and the expression of the gadd153 and gadd45beta promoter and mRNA in HepG2 cells.
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[Analyze and compare metabolic pathways of Bacillus cereus group].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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A large number of data and information was obtained from genome sequencing and high-throughput genomic studies, use of the information to study metabolic networks become a new hotspot in biological research. This article compared different methods to reconstruct metabolic networks and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of each methods, and then introduced some researches about carbohydrate metabolism pathways, amino acid metabolic pathways, and energy metabolism pathways of 9 strains of Bacillus cereus, 6 strains of B. anthracis,,6 strain of B. thuringiensis, and finds out their similarities and characteristics. These three strains have some necessary metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis, tri-carboxylic acid cycle, alanine metabolism, histidine metabolism, and energy metabolism, but they may have some specific pathways. B cereus has higher efficiency in utilizing monosaccharide, B. anthracis is rich in degradation and transport pathways of amino acids. A glutamate metabolic bypass way exists in B. thuringiensis. Analysis of metabolic pathways provides a new way to study and use food toxin, anthrax toxin, and insecticidal toxin of these strains in future.
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[Raman spectroscopic quantitative analysis of cluster structure of binary alkali silicate glasses].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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A calibration method for Raman spectroscopic quantitative analysis of binary alkaline silicate glasses is proposed. By applying ab initio quantum chemistry simulation, Raman optical activities (ROA) of various cluster units consisting of silicon-oxygen tetrahedra (SiOT) with different number of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) can be obtained. Thus, experimental results could be calibrated in order to reflect and represent directly the true relative density of various silicon-oxygen tetrahedra existing inside the silicate glasses. Cation effect on the intensity of Raman bands was also observed and discussed.
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[Effect of mesenteric lymph obtained during shock on pump activity and oxygen free radical on erythrocyte membrane of rat].
Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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To observe the effects of mesenteric lymph drainage and transfusion on pump activity and oxygen free radical of erythrocyte membrane of rats following hemorrhagic shock or normal, respectively.
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[Nitric oxide modulates biphasic changes of isolated lymphatic contraction in hemorrhagic shock rats].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes of lymphatic contraction after hemorrhagic shock in vitro and the underlying role of nitric oxide (NO). Rat thoracic duct segments were isolated at 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h after hemorrhagic shock. Using Pressure Myograph System, we determined contraction frequency (CF), end systolic diameter (ESD), end diastolic diameter (EDD) and passive diameter (PD) of isolated rat lymphatics under different transmural pressures (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 cmH(2)O), then calculated contraction amplitude (CA), tonic index (TI) and fractional pump flow (FPF) of lymphatics. The results showed that in several transmural pressures, lymphatic CF, TI and FPF were significantly higher in shock 0 h and shock 0.5 h groups than those in control group (sham operation group). With the development of shock, lymphatic CF, TI and FPF decreased significantly in shock 2 h and shock 3 h groups compared with those in control group. We further discovered the role of NO in the changes of lymphatic contraction after hemorrhagic shock. Under 3 cmH(2)O transmural pressure, the changes of lymphatic contraction in shock 0.5 h and shock 2 h groups were analyzed following the incubation with several NO-related drugs alone or in combination. And the results showed that NO donor L-Arg reduced CF, TI and FPF in shock 0.5 h group to the control levels, while soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ suppressed the effect of L-Arg. Moreover, NOS inhibitor L-NAME elevated the CF, TI and FPF of 2 h shock lymphatics to the control levels, while phosphodiesterase inhibitor aminophylline (AP) suppressed the effect of L-NAME. These results suggest that the lymphatic contractile activity exhibits a biphasic change during hemorrhagic shock, increasing in early phase and declining in later stage. And NO plays a major regulating role in the biphasic change of lymphatic contraction in hemorrhagic shock rats via cGMP pathway.
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The calcium-sensing receptor promotes adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through PPAR? pathway.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2011
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Adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis are closely related to obesity and obesity-induced metabolic disorders. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has been reported to play an antilipolytic role in human adipocyte and regulate cell differentiation in many tissues. However, the effects of CaSR on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis have not been clarified. In the study, we observed that activation of CaSR significantly promoted adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis in human SW872 adipocytes. Gene expression analysis revealed that the CaSR activation increased the transcription factor proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and its downstream genes including CCAAT element binding protein ? (C/EBP?), adipose fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), and lipoprotein lipase. The activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was also increased after the stimulation of CaSR. In addition, levels of cyclic AMP and calcium which have been shown to regulate PPAR? gene expression were significantly affected by the activation of CaSR. These effects could be suppressed by CaSR small interfering RNA (CaSR-siRNA). In conclusion, our findings suggest that activation of CaSR promotes differentiation and adipogenesis in adipocytes, which might be achieved by upregulating PPAR? and its downstream gene expressions. Therefore, CaSR in adipocytes may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity by promoting adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis.
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Blocking Daxx trafficking attenuates neuronal cell death following ischemia/reperfusion in rat hippocampus CA1 region.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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Previous studies have shown that the death-associated protein (Daxx) shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm under ischemic stress, and the subcellular localization of Daxx plays an important role in ischemic neuron death. In this study, by blocking the Daxx trafficking, the rat hippocampus CA1 neurons were protected against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, and the molecular mechanism underlying this neuroprotection was studied. We found that pretreatment of SP600125, an inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), or an anti-oxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), could not only prevent Daxx from trafficking but also increase the number of the surviving CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampus at 5days of reperfusion. Furthermore, knock-down of endogenous Daxx exerted similar neuroprotective effect during ischemia/reperfusion. We found the treatment of SP600125 or NAC could decrease the activation of Ask1 during ischemia/reperfusion and suppress the assembly of the Fas·Daxx·Ask1 signaling module, and in succession inhibit JNK activation and c-Jun phosphorylation. This study provides the Daxx trafficking as a new potential therapeutic target for ischemic brain injury.
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1,3-Bis(4-tert-butyl-benz-yl)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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In the crystal structure of the title mol-ecule, C(26)H(32)N(2)O(2), the six methyl groups are disordered over two positions, with site-occupancy ratios of 0.665?(8):0.335?(8) and 0.639?(8):0.361?(8). The central pyrimidine ring is almost planar with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.009?Å. The dihedral angles formed by the two benzene rings with the pyrimidine ring are 70.70?(8) and 88.02?(9)°. The dihedral angle between two benzene rings is 46.67?(10)°.
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Sensory versus motor loci for integration of multiple motion signals in smooth pursuit eye movements and human motion perception.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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We have investigated how visual motion signals are integrated for smooth pursuit eye movements by measuring the initiation of pursuit in monkeys for pairs of moving stimuli of the same or differing luminance. The initiation of pursuit for pairs of stimuli of the same luminance could be accounted for as a vector average of the responses to the two stimuli singly. When stimuli comprised two superimposed patches of moving dot textures, the brighter stimulus suppressed the inputs from the dimmer stimulus, so that the initiation of pursuit became winner-take-all when the luminance ratio of the two stimuli was 8 or greater. The dominance of the brighter stimulus could be not attributed to either the latency difference or the ratio of the eye accelerations for the bright and dim stimuli presented singly. When stimuli comprised either spot targets or two patches of dots moving across separate locations in the visual field, the brighter stimulus had a much weaker suppressive influence; the initiation of pursuit could be accounted for by nearly equal vector averaging of the responses to the two stimuli singly. The suppressive effects of the brighter stimulus also appeared in human perceptual judgments, but again only for superimposed stimuli. We conclude that one locus of the interaction of two moving visual stimuli is shared by perception and action and resides in local inhibitory connections in the visual cortex. A second locus resides deeper in sensory-motor processing and may be more closely related to action selection than to stimulus selection.
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[Interference effects of lymph plasma on endotoxic shock in rats].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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To investigate the interference effects of lymph plasma on endotoxic shock and its mechanism.
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The mechanism of spleen injury in rabbits with acute renal failure.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Immune function disorders are common during acute renal failure (ARF), but the mechanisms are unknown. As the spleen is the largest organ of the immune system, we aimed to observe if there are morphological changes in the spleen in rabbits with ARF. In addition, we tried to explore its mechanism from the perspective of oxygen free radicals, nitric oxide (NO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and membrane pump activities. ARF animal models were established by either hypodermic injection of 1.3 mL/kg bw 1% HgCl? or intramuscular injection of 10 mL/kg bw 50% glycerin. Animals were divided into 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h treatment groups with six rabbits in each group. Compared with control animals, congestion was found in the spleen and splenic trabeculae were increased in the two ARF model groups at multiple time points. The malonaldehyde, NO, nitric oxide synthase, and MPO levels in the ARF models were increased compared with the control group at 24 h or 48 h, and the superoxide dismutase and adenosine triphosphatase activities were significantly lower than the levels in the control group at multiple time points. These indices of free radical damage were induced gradually with ARF development, and there were statistically significant differences at different time points. These data suggested that histological damage of spleen during ARF may lead to immune disorders, which might be related to free radical injury, NO excessive release, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) sequestration, and membrane pump dysfunction.
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Protein microarray biosensors based on imaging ellipsometry techniques and their applications.
Protein Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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After years of development, biosensors based on imaging ellipsometry and biosensors based on total internal reflection imaging ellipsometry have been successfully implemented in various engineering systems. Their experimental setups, detection principles, and biological and clinical applications are briefly reviewed.
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CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism contributes to colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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To study the relation between CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk by meta-analysis.
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[Intervention role of lymph plasma on renal and hepatic blood perfusion in rats with endotoxic shock].
Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2010
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To observe the intervention role of normal lymph plasma on renal and hepatic micro-regional blood perfusion in rats with endotoxic shock.
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[Mechanism of multiple organ injury subsequent to acute renal failure with respect to membrane pump activity in rabbits].
Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2010
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To observe the changes in membrane pump activity of kidney, myocardium and pancreas in rabbits with acute renal failure (ARF) in rabbits, and inquire into the mechanism of multiple organ injury subsequent to ARF.
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[Expression and function analysis of dengue virus type 1 to 4 envelope domain III recombinant fusion protein].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2010
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To observe the ability of dengue virus type 1-4 envelope domain III fusion protein to inhibit virus infection and analyze the neutralizing ability of polyclonal antibodies against rE III.
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[Effects of different sized titanium dioxide particles on reactive oxygen species in mice].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2010
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To observe the effects of different sized titanium dioxide on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels.
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[Temperature dependent Raman spectra and micro-structure study of cuspidine in solid and liquid phases].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2010
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Cuspidine plays an important role in conventional metallurgical continuous casting mould flux. An UV laser source was used to record its ambient and high temperature Raman spectra (temperature range: 298-1 723 K) combined with a charge coupled device (CCD) detector. Both increasing and decreasing processes as well as characteristic spectra and shifts in wavenumber were observed. Micro-structure of cuspidine in liquid state is not unitary and different from that in solid state, suggesting multi clusters coexisting. Density functional theory (DFT) simulation method was applied to calculate its wavenumbers of Raman active vibrations by introducing the crystal spatial configuration model of cuspidine. Thus the experimental vibrational wavenumbers of the characteristic peaks could be assigned. This will help study physical and chemical behavior of cuspidine in continuous casting mould flux and provide an unique in-situ method under varying temperature with Raman spectroscopic technique.
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The mechanism of myocardium and pancreas injury in rabbits with acute renal failure might be related to myeloperoxidase and membrane pump activities.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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There is increasing evidence indicating that the distant organ injury is a major contributor of high mortality in patients subjected to acute renal failure (ARF). However, sources and mechanisms that ARF causes distant organ injury remain to be determined. The aim of this study is to explore the mechanism from polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) sequestration and membrane pump suppression. To achieve this, we examined myeloperoxidase (MPO), a marker of PMN accumulation in tissues, and membrane pump activities of heart, pancreas, and kidney in two ARF rabbit models. Rabbits are randomly assigned to control, HgCl(2)-treated, and glycerin-treated groups. ARF animal models are established by hypodermic injection of 1% HgCl(2) with 1.3 mL/kg bodyweight (bw) in HgCl(2)-treated group or intramuscular injection of 50% glycerin with 10 mL/kg bw in glycerin-treated group, respectively, and all animals in each group are further divided into 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h subgroups with each consisting of six rabbits. Six healthy rabbits serve as control group. Results have shown that MPO activities of kidney, myocardium, and pancreas in two model groups were significantly increased than control group at diverse time points. Membrane pump activities of kidney in two model groups are significantly lower than the control group at multiple time points. Moreover, Na(+)-K(+)-, Ca(2+)-, Mg(2+)-, and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activities of myocardium and pancreas in two model groups are gradually declined with the development of ARF. These findings suggest that PMN sequestration and membrane pump suppression plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ARF and also a major mechanism of myocardium and pancreas injury during the process of ARF.
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Genome-wide screening reveals the genetic determinants of an antibiotic insecticide in Bacillus thuringiensis.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
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Thuringiensin is a thermostable secondary metabolite in Bacillus thuringiensis and has insecticidal activity against a wide range of insects. Until now, the regulatory mechanisms and genetic determinants involved in thuringiensin production have remained unclear. Here, we successfully used heterologous expression-guided screening in an Escherichia coli-Bacillus thuringiensis shuttle bacterial artificial chromosome library, to clone the intact thuringiensin synthesis (thu) cluster. Then the thu cluster was located on a 110-kb endogenous plasmid bearing insecticide crystal protein gene cry1Ba in strain CT-43. Furthermore, the plasmid, named pBMB0558, was indirectly cloned and sequenced. The gene functions on pBMB0558 were annotated by BLAST based on the GenBank(TM) and KEGG databases. The genes on pBMB0558 could be classified into three functional modules: a thuringiensin synthesis cluster, a type IV secretion system-like module, and mobile genetic elements. By HPLC coupling mass spectrometer, atmospheric pressure ionization with ion trap, and TOF technologies, biosynthetic intermediates of thuringiensin were detected. The thuE gene is proved to be responsible for the phosphorylation of thuringiensin at the last step by vivo and vitro activity assays. The thuringiensin biosynthesis pathway was deduced and clarified. We propose that thuringiensin is an adenine nucleoside oligosaccharide rather than an adenine nucleotide analog, as is traditionally believed, based on the predicted functions of the key enzymes, glycosyltransferase (ThuF) and exopolysaccharide polymerization protein (Thu1).
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[Effects of prenatal exposure to lead on hippocampal nephroblastoma over-expressed gene expression of offspring].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
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To observe the effects of prenatal exposure to lead on nephroblastoma over-expressed gene (NOV) protein and mRNA expression in hippocampus of rats offspring, and to explore the molecular mechanism of lead on learning and memory.
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