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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Application of sub-Doppler DAVLL to laser frequency stabilization in atomic cesium.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We achieve laser frequency stabilization by a simple technique based on sub-Doppler dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) in atomic cesium. The technique that combines saturated-absorption spectroscopy and Zeeman splitting of hyperfine structures allows us to obtain a modulation-free dispersion-like error signal for frequency stabilization. For the error signal, the dependence of peak-to-peak amplitude and the slope at the zero-crossing point on the magnetic field is studied by simulation and experiment. Based on the result, we obtain an available sub-Doppler DAVLL error signal with high sensitivity to the frequency drift by selecting an appropriate strength of the magnetic field. Ultimately, the fluctuation of the locked laser frequency is confined to below 0.5 MHz in a long term, exhibiting efficient suppression of frequency noise.
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Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Yanglingmycin Analogues.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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The synthesis of Yanglingmycin and its enantiomer, along with eighteen Yanglingmycin analogues is reported. The structures were confirmed mainly by analyses of NMR spectral data. Antibacterial activity assays showed that Yanglingmycin and some of its analogues exhibited significant antibacterial activities against two important agricultural pathogenic bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, with MIC values ranging from 3.91 to 15.62 ?g/mL. The antibacterial activities exhibited by Yanglingmycin and its analogues are promising, suggesting potential in the development of compounds for novel bactericides.
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Protective Effect of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junction Injury in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Lipopolysaccharide was found to be elevated in the plasma of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and may play an important role in the pathogenesis and propagation of these intestinal diseases. To illustrate the destructive effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to test the protective effect of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on LPS-induced barrier injury, an in vitro intestinal epithelia barrier model was established with Caco-2 monolayers and treated with clinically relevant concentrations (1-10 ng/ml) of LPS with or without 1,25(OH)2D3. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and FITC-Dextran 40kda (FD-40) flux were measured to reflect monolayer permeability. We found that LPS at clinically relevant concentrations increased intestinal permeability by downregulating and redistributing tight junction (TJ) proteins. 1,25(OH)2D3 added at baseline or at day 4 abrogated the destructive effect of LPS on monolayer permeability by restoring the expression and localization of TJ proteins. LPS, at clinically relevant concentrations, also downregulated the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR); 1,25 (OH)2D3, however, could restore the expression of VDR. Our findings illustrate the mechanism underlying the destructive effect of clinically relevant concentrations of LPS on intestinal TJ barrier and provide evidence for the clinical application of vitamin D in LPS-related intestinal barrier dysfunction.
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Peritumoral Neuropilin-1 and VEGF receptor-2 expression increases time to recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing curative hepatectomy.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Purpose: To determined Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) expression in the tumoral and peritumoral tissues of 214 treatment-naïve HCC patients and its correlation with overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR). Experimental Design: NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 expression were examined by tissue microarray and peritumoral hypoxia by pimonidazole staining and angiogenesis by microvessel density (MVD). OS and TTR were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test. Results: Peritumoral NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 expression were significantly higher than that of the tumoral tissue (p < 0.001 for both), and high peritumoral expression of both factors was negatively associated with tumor size (p < 0.001 for both). Patients with high peritumoral expression of both proteins had the longest median OS (>94.0 months) and TTR (>84.0 months). The multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that patients with high peritumoral expression of both NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 were more than 4 times less likely to have recurrence (p = 0.004) and more than 10 times likely to survive (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Peritumoral NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 expression is associated with prolonged TTR and extended OS of HCC patients and both may be useful as predictors of surgical outcome of HCC patients and explored as potential therapeutic targets.
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Abraxane® versus Taxol® for patients with advanced breast cancer: A prospective time and motion analysis from a Chinese health care perspective.
J Oncol Pharm Pract
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Abraxane® and Taxol® are both effective drugs for the treatment of advanced stage breast cancer. However, each agent possesses unique drug delivery characteristics with the former not requiring premedication and having a considerably shorter recommended infusion time (i.e. 30?min vs. 2-4?h). To measure the overall efficiency and cost-saving potential associated with Abraxane® relative to Taxol®, a time and motion study was undertaken in breast cancer patients treated in China.
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[Clinicopathological features and prognosis of metastases to the breast from extramammary solid tumors].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To discuss the clinicopathological features and prognosis of metastases to the breast from extramammary solid tumors.
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Functional electrical stimulation-facilitated proliferation and regeneration of neural precursor cells in the brains of rats with cerebral infarction.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Previous studies have shown that proliferation of endogenous neural precursor cells cannot alone compensate for the damage to neurons and axons. From the perspective of neural plasticity, we observed the effects of functional electrical stimulation treatment on endogenous neural precursor cell proliferation and expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor in the rat brain on the infarct side. Functional electrical stimulation was performed in rat models of acute middle cerebral artery occlusion. Simultaneously, we set up a placebo stimulation group and a sham-operated group. Immunohistochemical staining showed that, at 7 and 14 days, compared with the placebo group, the numbers of nestin (a neural precursor cell marker)-positive cells in the subgranular zone and subventricular zone were increased in the functional electrical stimulation treatment group. Western blot assays and reverse-transcription PCR showed that total protein levels and gene expression of epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor were also upregulated on the infarct side. Prehensile traction test results showed that, at 14 days, prehension function of rats in the functional electrical stimulation group was significantly better than in the placebo group. These results suggest that functional electrical stimulation can promote endogenous neural precursor cell proliferation in the brains of acute cerebral infarction rats, enhance expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor, and improve the motor function of rats.
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Angiogenin interacts with ribonuclease inhibitor regulating PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in bladder cancer cells.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Angiogenin (ANG), a member of RNase A superfamily, is the only angiogenic factor that possesses ribonucleolytic activity. Recent studies showed that the expression of ANG was elevated in various types of cancers. Accumulating evidence indicates that ANG plays an essential role in cancer progression by stimulating both cancer cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Human ribonuclease inhibitor (RI), a cytoplasmic protein, is constructed almost entirely of leucine rich repeats (LRRs), which are present in a large family of proteins that are distinguished by their display of vast surface areas to foster protein-protein interactions. RI might be involved in unknown biological effects except inhibiting RNase A activity. The experiment demonstrated that RI also could suppress activity of angiogenin (ANG) through closely combining with it in vitro. PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway exerts a key role in cell growth, survival, proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. We recently reported that up-regulating RI inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis of murine melanoma cells through repression of angiogenin and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. However, ANG receptors have not yet been identified to date, its related signal transduction pathways are not fully clear and underlying interacting mechanisms between RI and ANG remain largely unknown. Therefore, we hypothesize that RI might combine with intracellular ANG to block its nuclear translocation and regulate PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway to inhibit biological functions of ANG. Here, we reported for the first time that ANG could interact with RI endogenously and exogenously by using co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and GST pull-down. Furthermore, we observed the colocalization of ANG and RI in cells with immunofluorescence staining under laser confocal microscope. Moreover, through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay, we further confirmed that these two proteins have a physical interaction in living cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated that up-regulating ANG including ANG His37Ala mutant obviously decreased RI expression and activated phosphorylation of key downstream target molecules of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Finally, up-regulating ANG led to the promotion of tumor angiogenesis, tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. Taken together, our data provided a novel mechanism of ANG in regulating PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway via RI, which suggested a new therapeutic target for cancer therapy.
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Efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer patients with metastases confined to the lungs: a single-institute experience.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The role of platinum-based chemotherapy (PBCT) in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is still undetermined. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of PBCT versus non-PBCT in patients with lung metastasis from TNBC. Clinical data on patients diagnosed and treated for lung metastasis from TNBC between 2004 and 2012 at the Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 79 patients identified, 34 received PBCT and 45 received non-PBCT. The median progression-free survival was 10 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.6-13.4 months] in the platinum-based group and 5 months (95% CI 3.7-6.3 months) in the nonplatinum group (P=0.002); overall survival was also significantly improved (32 vs. 21 months, P=0.002). In the multivariate analysis for the entire cohort, first-line PBCT (hazard ratio 0.425; 95% CI 0.251-0.720; P=0.001) and presentation of symptoms related to lung metastasis (hazard ratio 2.237; 95% CI 1.180-4.240; P=0.014) were associated independently with survival. Our results support the use of PBCT in the first-line treatment of lung metastasis from TNBC.
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A bifunctional curcumin analogue for two-photon imaging and inhibiting crosslinking of amyloid beta in Alzheimer's disease.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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In this report, we designed a highly bright bifunctional curcumin analogue CRANAD-28. In vivo two-photon imaging suggested that CRANAD-28 could penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBB) and label plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathies (CAAs). We also demonstrated that this imaging probe could inhibit the crosslinking of amyloid beta induced either by copper or by natural conditions.
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Fabrication of nickel-foam-supported layered zinc-cobalt hydroxide nanoflakes for high electrochemical performance in supercapacitors.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Nickel foam supported Zn-Co hydroxide nanoflakes were fabricated by a facile solvothermal method. Benefited from the unique structure of Zn-Co hydroxide nanoflakes on a nickel foam substrate, the as prepared materials exhibited an excellent specific capacitance of 901 F g(-1) at 5 A g(-1) and remarkable cycling stability as electrode materials in supercapacitors.
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[Efficacy and safety of trastuzumab plus different chemotherapy regimens in treatment of the patients with HER-2-positive advanced breast cancer].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of trastuzumab plus different chemotherapy regimens in treatment of patients with HER-2-positive advanced breast cancer.
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HER2 as a predictive factor for successful neoadjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy of locally advanced and early breast cancer.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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The aim of this study was to look for predictive and prognostic factors in anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
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Ergosterol Is the Active Compound of Cultured Mycelium Cordyceps sinensis on Antiliver Fibrosis.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) is a Chinese herbal medicine, which is widely used for a variety of diseases including liver injury in clinic. The current study aims to investigate the protective effects of CMCS against liver fibrosis and to exploit its active antifibrotic substances in vivo and in vitro. For evaluating the antifibrotic effect of CMCS and ergosterol, male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and treated with CMCS (120?mg/kg/d) or ergosterol (50?mg/kg/d). Four weeks later, serum liver function, hepatic hydroxyproline (Hyp) content, liver inflammation, collagen deposition, and expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) in liver tissue were evaluated. Besides, toxicological effects of active compounds of CMCS on hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were detected and expressions of permeability of the lysosomal membrane, EdU, F-actin, and ?-SMA of activated HSCs were analyzed to screen the antifibrotic substance in CMCS in vitro. Our results showed that CMCS could significantly alleviate levels of serum liver functions, attenuate hepatic inflammation, decrease collagen deposition, and relieve levels of ?-SMA in liver, respectively. Ergosterol, the active compound in CMCS that was detected by HPLC, played a dose-dependent inhibition role on activated HSCs via upregulating expressions of permeability of the lysosomal membrane and downregulating levels of EdU, F-actin, and ?-SMA on activated HSCs in vitro. Moreover, ergosterol revealed the antifibrotic effect alike in vivo. In conclusion, CMCS is effective in alleviating liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 and ergosterol might be the efficacious antifibrotic substance in CMCS in vivo and in vitro.
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Noise filtering in parametric amplification by dressing the seed beam with spatial chirp.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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We report a method for filtering out the noises produced in optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers by dressing the seed beam with spatial chirp. After dechirping the amplified signal with a compressor, the noises experience a spatiotemporal coupling, making themselves highly distinguishable from the compressed signal in space, and hence supporting noise filtering effectively and expediently in the spatial domain, which would otherwise not be possible. Numerical simulations performed for the proposed method show the capabilities of an order of magnitude reduction in the noise energy and several orders of magnitude enhancement in the temporal contrast.
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[Modeling nitrogen transformation in a novel circular-flow corridor wetland].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Nitrogen transformation and removal in a novel circular-flow corridor (CFC) wetland was simulated. A computer model covering 6 nitrogen forms, 3 media and 10 transferring pathways, was developed. The results show that the TN removal is attributed to zeolite adsorption (53.3%), plants NH4(+) -N uptake (27.6%), denitrification (10.2%), plants NO3(-) -N uptake (2.9%) and short-cut denitrification (1.5%). The major removal pathway for NH4(+) -N varies from season to season. In January, the zeolite adsorption played the most important role in NH4(+) -N removal with a contribution of 84.5%. From April to June, the plants uptake accounted for 76.4%-85.3% NH4(+) -N removal. While in July, there were three removal pathways, namely zeolite absorption (36.1%), nirtosation (45.8%) and plants uptake (21.4%), playing an important role in nitrogen removals. Additionally, regular plants harvesting, periodical zeolite regenerating and aquatic plants growing can improve the TN removal rate by 1.7%-7.7%, 43.1%-72.2% and 19.8%-36.2%, respectively. In short, it is by the diverse removal pathways in CFC wetland that nitrogen can be continuously removed.
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Screening rat mesenchymal stem cell attachment and differentiation on surface chemistries using plasma polymer gradients.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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It is well known that the surface chemistry of biomaterials is important for both initial cell attachment and the downstream cell response. Surface chemistry gradients are a new format that allows the screening of the subtleties of cell-surface interactions in high throughput. In this study, two surface chemical gradients were fabricated using diffusion control during plasma polymerization via a tilted mask. Acrylic acid (AA) plasma polymer gradients were coated on a uniform 1,7-octadiene (OD) plasma polymer layer to generate OD-AA plasma polymer gradients, whilst diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DG) plasma polymer gradients were coated on a uniform AA plasma polymer layer to generate AA-DG plasma polymer gradients. Gradient surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared microscopy mapping, profilometry, water contact angle (WCA) goniometry and atomic force microscopy. Cell attachment density and differentiation into osteo- and adipo-lineages of rat-bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) was studied on gradients. Cell adhesion after 24h culture was sensitive to the chemical gradients, resulting in a cell density gradient along the substrate. The slope of the cell density gradient changed between 24 and 6days due to cell migration and growth. Induction of rBMSCs into osteoblast- and adipocyte-like cells on the two plasma polymer gradients suggested that osteogenic differentiation was sensitive to local cell density, but adipogenic differentiation was not. Using mixed induction medium (50% osteogenic and 50% adipogenic medium), thick AA plasma polymer coating (>40nm thickness with ?11% COOH component and 35° WCA) robustly supported osteogenic differentiation as determined by colony formation and calcium deposition. This study establishes a simple but powerful approach to the formation of plasma polymer based gradients, and demonstrates that MSC behavior can be influenced by small changes in surface chemistry.
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Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation.
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A novel opal closest-packing photonic crystal for naked-eye glucose detection.
Small
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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A novel opal closest-packing (OCP) photonic crystal (PC) is successfully prepared for naked-eye glucose detection. This PC is fabricated via a vertical convective self-assembly method with a new type of monodisperse microsphere polymerized by co-monomers, namely, methyl methacrylate (MMA), N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA), and 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (AAPBA). The OCP PC has high stability and periodically-ordered structure, showing the desired structural color. The proposed PC material displays a red shift and reduced reflection intensity when detecting glucose molecules. The red-shift wavelength reaches 75 nm, which clearly changes the structural color from brilliant blue to emerald green. This visually distinguishable color change facilitates the detection of the glucose concentrations from 3 to 20 mm, which demonstrates the potential of the opal PC material for naked-eye detection. Thus, the novel PMMA–NIPA–AAPBA OCP PC is a simply prepared and sensitive material, which shows promising use in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and in real-time monitoring of diabetes. Different types of appropriated recognition groups are expected to be introduced into the 3D OCP PC to form new functional materials or chemical sensors, which will extensively broaden the PC material application.
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Stimulation of autophagic activity in human glioma cells by anti-proliferative ardipusilloside I isolated from Ardisia pusilla.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Ardipusilloside I (ADS-I), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Ardisia pusilla A.DC (Myrsinaceae), has been recently tested for cancer treatment including brain cancer. However, the mechanism of its action remains elusive. The present study was to investigate the role of autophagy activation in the anti-tumor activities of ADS-I in human glioma cells.
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Establishment of a novel cell-based assay for screening small molecule antagonists of human interleukin-6 receptor.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Blockade of interleukin-6 (IL-6) or its receptor (IL-6R) is effective in preventing the progression of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, we established a novel cell-based assay for identifying small molecule IL-6R antagonists.
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Minocycline protects retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve crush injury in mice by delaying autophagy and upregulating nuclear factor-?B2.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Currently, no medicine is available that can prevent or treat neural damage associated with optic nerve injury. Minocycline is recently reported to have a neuroprotective function. The aims of this study were to exarmine the neuroprotective effect of minocycline on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and determine its underlying mechanisms, using a mouse model of optic nerve crush (ONC).
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Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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An ultra-broadband graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror (GG-SAM) with a spectral coverage exceeding 1300?nm is experimentally demonstrated for mode-locking of bulk solid-state lasers. Owing to the p-type doping effect caused by graphene-gold film interaction, the graphene on gold-film substrate shows a remarkably lower light absorption relative to pristine graphene, which is very helpful to achieve continuous-wave mode-locking in low-gain bulk lasers. Using the GG-SAM sample, stable mode-locking is realized in a Yb:YCOB bulk laser near 1??m, a Tm:CLNGG bulk laser near 2??m and a Cr:ZnSe bulk laser near 2.4??m. The saturable absorption is characterised at an intermediate wavelength of 1.56??m by pump-probe measurements. The as-fabricated GG-SAM with ultra-broad bandwidth, ultrafast recovery time, low absorption, and low cost has great potential as a universal saturable absorber mirror for mode-locking of various bulk lasers with unprecedented spectral coverage.
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Endothelial cell-derived fibronectin extra domain A promotes colorectal cancer metastasis via inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Recent evidence has been suggesting the important roles of endothelial cells (ECs) involved in the pathogenesis of several cancers, including colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. We have demonstrated previously that CRC-derived fibronectin extra domain A (EDA) promotes vasculogenesis, tumorigenesis and metastasis of CRCs. At the current study, we showed that EC-secreted EDA promotes the metastatic capacity CRC cells via inducing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that EC-secreted EDA, via the interaction with integrin ?9?1 on neighboring CRC cells, leads to the activation of focal adhesion kinase as well as Rac signalings, thus strengthens the polarity of cytoskeleton and promotes the invasion capacity of CRC cells. Furthermore, Erk signaling pathway was revealed to critically mediate the effect of EC-derived EDA on CRC cells. Our findings reveal a novel oncogenic role of ECs in promoting CRC malignancy through secreting EDA.
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IRGM rs13361189 polymorphism may contribute to susceptibility to Crohn's disease: A meta-analysis.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the correlation between a common polymorphism, rs13361189 C>T in the immunity-related GTPase M (IRGM) gene, and susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD). The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library and CBM databases were investigated from database inception through to October 1, 2013 without the application of any language restrictions. The meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0 software and the relative risk (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Seven case-control studies were included with a total of 3,093 CD patients and 3,227 healthy control subjects. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that the IRGM rs13361189 polymorphism correlates with an increased risk of CD (T allele versus C allele: RR=1.25 with 95% CI, 1.04-1.50; P=0.016 and CT + TT versus CC: RR=1.21 with 95% CI, 1.03-1.42; P=0.018). A subgroup analysis conducted using a genotyping method indicated that the IRGM rs13361189 polymorphism was correlated with an increased risk of CD in the TaqMan(®) (T allele versus C allele: RR=1.32 with 95% CI, 1.01-1.73; P=0.042) and the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism subgroups (T allele versus C allele: RR=1.80 with 95% CI, 1.32-2.45; P<0.001 and CT + TT versus CC: RR=1.61 with 95% CI, 1.19-2.18; P=0.018). However, no correlation was observed in the direct sequencing subgroup (P>0.05). Further subgroup analysis by sample size demonstrated significant correlations between the IRGM rs13361189 polymorphism and an increased risk of CD in the large sample-size subgroup (T allele versus C allele: RR=1.46 with 95% CI, 1.26-1.68; P<0.001 and CT + TT versus CC: RR=1.40 with 95% CI, 1.21-1.62; P<0.001). However, no correlation was identified between the IRGM rs13361189 polymorphism and CD risk in the small sample-size subgroup (P>0.05). The present meta-analysis indicated that the IRGM rs13361189 polymorphism may contribute to susceptibility to CD. Thus, IRGM rs13361189 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis of CD.
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Comparison of laser induced thermal fracture between polycrystalline ceramic and crystal Nd:YAG.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Continuous wave 808 nm pump laser-induced thermal damage of polycrystalline transparent ceramic and crystalline Nd:YAG materials was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The measured temperature agrees well with the theoretical simulation, and the maximum hoop stresses occur on the incident facet of the end-pumped rod at about ?2 times of the pump beam radius w0, where the temperature gradient is the highest and the damage occurs first at this location. The fracture-limited laser intensity of ceramics was experimentally measured to be 6.4±0.6??kW/cm2, nearly 64% higher than that of the crystals (3.9±0.3??kW/cm2). The deduced thermal fracture stress for ceramic was 386±50??MPa, which is 64% higher than that of the crystals (235±16??MPa).
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Functional polymorphisms in the NPAS2 gene are associated with overall survival in transcatheter arterial chemoembolization-treated hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The functional abnormality of circadian regulation genes is involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the association between functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in circadian gene NPAS2 and the overall survival of HCC patients treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has never been investigated. Six functional SNPs in the NPAS2 gene were genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX genotyping system in a cohort of 448 unresectable Chinese patients with HCC treated with TACE. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier curves were used for the prognosis analysis. We found that two SNPs, rs1053096 and rs2305160, in the NPAS2 gene showed significant associations with overall death risk in HCC patients in the recessive model (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.94; P = 0.004) and in the dominant model (HR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.29-2.07; P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, we observed a cumulative effect of these two SNPs on HCC overall survival, indicating a significant trend of increasing death risk with increasing number of unfavorable genotypes (P for trend < 0.001). Compared with the patients without any unfavorable genotypes, the HRs for patients with one and two unfavorable genotypes were 1.41 (95% CI, 1.10-1.82; P = 0.007) and 2.09 (95% CI, 1.46-2.97, P < 0.001), respectively. The haplotype and diplotype analyses further characterized the association between NPAS2 genotype and survival of HCC patients. Our results for the first time suggest that NPAS2 gene polymorphisms may serve as an independent prognostic marker for HCC patients treated with TACE.
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Role of CDH1 promoter methylation in colorectal carcinogenesis: a meta-analysis.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the role of CDH1 promoter methylation in colorectal carcinogenesis. The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched for relevant articles published before November 1st, 2013 without any language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Nine clinical cohort studies met all our inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. A total of 883 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were assessed. Our meta-analysis results revealed that the frequencies of CDH1 promoter methylation in CRC tissues were higher than those in control tissues (OR=2.61, 95% CI=1.24-5.50, p=0.012). A subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that CDH1 promoter methylation was closely linked to the pathogenesis of CRC among Asians and Africans (Asians: OR=2.90, 95% CI=1.26-6.67, p=0.012; Africans: OR=3.81, 95% CI=1.56-9.34, p=0.003; respectively), but not among Caucasians (OR=1.68, 95% CI=0.24-11.72, p=0.598). A further subgroup analysis by type of control tissues suggested that CRC tissues also exhibited higher frequencies of CDH1 promoter methylation than those of normal and adjacent tissues (normal: OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.12-2.21, p=0.009; adjacent: OR=5.07, 95% CI=2.91-8.82, p<0.001; respectively). However, we found no evidence for any significant difference in the frequencies of CDH1 promoter methylation between CRC tissues and adenomas tissues (OR=1.18, 95% CI=0.74-1.90, p=0.485). Our findings provide empirical evidence that CDH1 promoter methylation may play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Thus, CDH1 promoter methylation may be a useful biomarker for the early diagnosis of CRC.
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Temperature-insensitive frequency tripling for generating high-average power UV lasers.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Aimed for generating high-average power ultraviolet (UV) lasers via third-harmonic generation (THG) consisting of frequency doubling and tripling stages, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate a novel frequency tripling scheme capable of supporting temperature-insensitive phase-matching (PM). Two cascaded tripling crystals, with opposite signs of the temperature derivation of phase-mismatch, are proposed and theoretically studied for improving the temperature-acceptance of PM. The proof-of-principle tripling experiment using two crystals of LBO and BBO shows that the temperature acceptance can be ~1.5 times larger than that of using a single tripling crystal. In addition, the phase shift caused by air dispersion, along with its influence on the temperature-insensitive PM, are also discussed. To illustrate the potential applications of proposed two-crystal tripling design in the high-average-power regime, full numerical simulations for the tripling process, are implemented based on the realistic crystals. The demonstrated two-crystal tripling scheme may provide a promising route to high-average-power THG in the UV region.
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Wavelength-switchable mode-locked Yb:LuAG laser between 1031 nm and 1046 nm.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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We experimentally demonstrated a wavelength switchable passively mode-locked Yb:LuAG laser. The mode locked laser wavelength could be switched between 1031 nm and 1046 nm by a slit. With a coupler of 2% transmission, mode locked pulses with pulse duration of 1.15 ps and average output power of 1.3 W were generated at 1031 nm. By simply translating the slit position, 1046-nm mode locked pulses were generated with pulse duration of 252 fs and average output power of 676 mW. With the output coupler of 8% transmission, higher average output power of 2.2 W was generated at 1031 nm with pulse duration of 1.8 ps, which is the highest average output power ever reported for Yb:LuAG mode-locked lasers.
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Angiophagy prevents early embolus washout but recanalizes microvessels through embolus extravasation.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Occlusion of the microvasculature by blood clots, atheromatous fragments, or circulating debris is a frequent phenomenon in most human organs. Emboli are cleared from the microvasculature by hemodynamic pressure and the fibrinolytic system. An alternative mechanism of clearance is angiophagy, in which emboli are engulfed by the endothelium and translocate through the microvascular wall. We report that endothelial lamellipodia surround emboli within hours of occlusion, markedly reducing hemodynamic washout and tissue plasminogen activator-mediated fibrinolysis in mice. Over the next few days, emboli are completely engulfed by the endothelium and extravasated into the perivascular space, leading to vessel recanalization and blood flow reestablishment. We find that this mechanism is not limited to the brain, as previously thought, but also occurs in the heart, retina, kidney, and lung. In the lung, emboli cross into the alveolar space where they are degraded by macrophages, whereas in the kidney, they enter the renal tubules, constituting potential routes for permanent removal of circulating debris. Retina photography and angiography in patients with embolic occlusions provide indirect evidence suggesting that angiophagy may also occur in humans. Thus, angiophagy appears to be a ubiquitous mechanism that could be a therapeutic target with broad implications in vascular occlusive disorders. Given its biphasic nature-initially causing embolus retention, and subsequently driving embolus extravasation-it is likely that different therapeutic strategies will be required during these distinct post-occlusion time windows.
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Preparation of porous diatomite-templated carbons with large adsorption capacity and mesoporous zeolite K-H as a byproduct.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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In this study, KOH activation was performed to enhance the porosity of the diatomite-templated carbon and to increase its adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB). In addition to serving as the activation agent, KOH was also used as the etchant to remove the diatomite templates. Zeolite K-H was synthesized as a byproduct via utilization of the resultant silicon- and potassium-containing solutions created from the KOH etching of the diatomite templates. The obtained diatomite-based carbons were composed of macroporous carbon pillars and tubes, which were derived from the replication of the diatomite templates and were well preserved after KOH activation. The abundant micropores in the walls of the carbon pillars and tubes were derived from the break and reconfiguration of carbon films during both the removal of the diatomite templates and KOH activation. Compared with the original diatomite-templated carbons and CO2-activated carbons, the KOH-activated carbons had much higher specific surface areas (988 m(2)/g) and pore volumes (0.675 cm(3)/g). Moreover, the KOH-activated carbons possessed larger MB adsorption capacity (the maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity: 645.2 mg/g) than those of the original carbons and CO2-activated carbons. These results showed that KOH activation was a high effective activation method. The zeolite K-H byproduct was obtained by utilizing the silicon- and potassium-containing solution as the silicon and potassium sources. The zeolite exhibited a stick-like morphology and possessed nanosized particles with a mesopore-predominant porous structure which was observed by TEM for the first time.
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Metal-substituted zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-108: gas-sorption and membrane-separation properties.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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A series of dual-metal zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) crystals with SOD and RHO topologies was synthesised by metal substitution from ZIF-108 (Zn(2-nitroimidazolate)2 , SOD topology) as the parent material. This was based on the concept that metal substitution of ZIF-108 requires a much lower activation energy than homogenous nucleation owing to the metastability of ZIF-108. In-depth investigations of the formation processes of the daughter ZIFs indicated that the transformation of ZIF-108 is a dissolution/heterogeneous nucleation process. Typical isostructural Co(2+) substitution mainly occurs at the outer surface of ZIF-108 and results in a core-shell structure. On the contrary, the Cu(2+) -substituted ZIF has a RHO topology with a homogeneous distribution of Cu(2+) ions in the structure. Substitution with Ni(2+) resulted in a remarkable enhancement in adsorption selectivity toward CO(2) over N(2) by a factor of up to 227. With Co(2+) -substituted nanoparticles as inorganic filler, a mixed matrix membrane based on polysulfone displayed greatly improved performance in the separation of H(2)/CH(4), CO(2)/N(2) and CO(2)/CH(4).
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Apoptosis and KI 67 index correlate with preoperative chemotherapy efficacy and better predict the survival of gastric cancer patients with combined therapy.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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T he correlation of apoptotic and proliferation index with preoperative chemotherapy efficacy was investigated. Their prognostic value was also explored.
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Prefrontal cortex and executive functions in healthy adults: a meta-analysis of structural neuroimaging studies.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Lesion studies link the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to executive functions. However, the evidence from in vivo investigations in healthy people is mixed, and there are no quantitative estimates of the association strength. To examine the relationship between PFC volume and cortical thickness with executive cognition in healthy adults, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that assessed executive functions and PFC volume (31 samples,) and PFC thickness (10 samples) in vivo, N=3272 participants. We found that larger PFC volume and greater PFC thickness were associated with better executive performance. Stronger associations between executive functions and PFC volume were linked to greater variance in the sample age but was unrelated to the mean age of a sample. Strength of association between cognitive and neuroanatomical indices depended on the executive task used in the study. PFC volume correlated stronger with Wisconsin Card Sorting Test than with digit backwards span, Trail Making Test and verbal fluency. Significant effect size was observed in lateral and medial but not orbital PFC. The results support the "bigger is better" hypothesis of brain-behavior relation in healthy adults and suggest different neural correlates across the neuropsychological tests used to assess executive functions.
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ZBTB20 is involved in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in mouse.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in liver regeneration holds promise for exploring the new potential therapy for liver failure. The present study was to investigate the role of zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 20 (ZBTB20), a potential factor associated with liver regeneration, in a model of 70% hepatectomy in mice.
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The involvement of NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS in cytokine secretion from macrophages induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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The 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is strongly correlated with subversion of innate immune responses against invading mycobacteria. To understand the role of ESAT-6 in macrophage response against M. tuberculosis, the effects of ESAT-6 on macrophage generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and production of cytokines were studied. ESAT-6-induced macrophage secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and TNF-? was found in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Signaling inhibition experiments indicate that NF-?B activation mediated by p38/JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was involved in ESAT-6-triggered cytokine production. Moreover, TLR2 was engaged in ESAT-6-stimulated macrophage activation via rapidly induced ROS production and regulated activation of JNK/p38 MAPKs and NF-?B. More importantly, NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS generation is required during this process. Our study has identified a novel signal transduction pathway involving NADPH-ROS-JNK/p38-NF-?B in ESAT-6-induced cytokine production from macrophages. These findings provide an important evidence to understand the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis infection in the modulation of the immune response.
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CXCR4 as a novel predictive biomarker for metastasis and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The clinical significance of CXCR4 expression in colorectal cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and regulatory effects of CXCR4 in colorectal cancer and the association between CXCR4 protein expression and prognosis. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CXCR4 were determined using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry staining, respectively, and the relationship between the CXCR4 protein level and clinicopathological parameters was analyzed in 720 cases of colorectal cancer. CXCR4 expression was elevated in colorectal cancer tissues compared to pericancerous tissues (P?=?0.001). Of the 720 enrolled cases, 208 (28.89%) expressed CXCR4. In univariate analysis, CXCR4 was found to be associated with lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, and liver metastasis (P?=?0.001, 0.001, and 0.012, respectively). Further multivariate analysis suggested that histological grade, TNM stage, and CXCR4 expression were related to liver metastasis (P?=?0.020, 0.01, and 0.001, respectively). In the Cox regression test, the histological grade, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, liver metastasis, and CXCR4 expression were found to be independent prognostic factors (P?=?0.02, 0.045, 0.01, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). CXCR4 protein may be a potential biomarker for liver metastasis and an independent marker for survival in colorectal cancer.
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Single-shot measurement of >10¹? pulse contrast for ultra-high peak-power lasers.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Real-time pulse-contrast observation with a high dynamic range is a prerequisite to tackle the contrast challenge in ultra-high peak-power lasers. However, the commonly used delay-scanning cross-correlator (DSCC) can only provide the time-consumed measurements for repetitive lasers. Single-shot cross-correlator (SSCC) becomes essential in optimizing laser systems and exploring contrast mechanisms. Here we report our progress in developing SSCC towards its practical use. By integrating both the techniques of scattering-noise reduction and sensitive parallel detection into SSCC, we demonstrate a high dynamic range of >10(10), which, to our best knowledge, is the first demonstration of an SSCC with a dynamic range comparable to that of commercial DSCCs. The comparison of high-dynamic measurement performances between SSCC and a standard DSCC (Sequoia, Amplitude Technologies) is also carried out on a 200 TW Ti:sapphire laser, and the consistency of results verifies the veracity of our SSCC.
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Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis protects liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in acute liver injured mice.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) was widely used for a variety of diseases including liver injury, the current study aims to investigate the protective effects of CMCS on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in acute injury liver and related action mechanisms. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-GalN). 39 male BABL/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model control, CMCS treatment and 1,10-phenanthroline treatment groups. The Serum liver function parameters including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were assayed with the commercial kit. The inflammation and scaffold structure in liver were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and silver staining respectively. The LSECs and sub-endothelial basement membrane were observed with the scanning and transmission electronic microscope. The protein expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in liver were analyzed with Western blotting. Expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF) was investigated with immunofluorescence staining. The lipid peroxidation indicators including antisuperoxideanion (ASAFR), hydroxyl free radical (·OH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were determined with kits, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) activities in liver were analyzed with gelatin zymography and in situ fluorescent zymography respectively. The model mice had much higher serum levels of ALT and AST than the normal mice. Compared to that in the normal control, more severe liver inflammation and hepatocyte apoptosis, worse hepatic lipid peroxidation demonstrated by the increased ASAFR, ·OH and MDA, but decreased SOD and GST, increased MMP-2/9 activities and VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and vWF expressions, which revealed obvious LSEC injury and scaffold structure broken, were shown in the model control. Compared with the model group, CMCS and 1,10-phenanthroline significantly improved serum ALT/AST, attenuated hepatic inflammation and improved peroxidative injury in liver, decreased MMP-2/9 activities in liver tissue, improved integration of scaffold structure, and decreased protein expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. CMCS could protect LSECs from injury and maintain the microvasculature integration in acute injured liver of mice induced by LPS/D-GalN. Its action mechanism was associated with the down-regulation of MMP-2/9 activities and inhibition of peroxidation in injured liver.
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Genome-wide transcription analyses in Mycobacterium tuberculosis treated with lupulone.
Braz. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), the causative agent of tuberculosis, still causes higher mortality than any other bacterial pathogen until now. With the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) strains, it becomes more important to search for alternative targets to develop new antimycobacterial drugs. Lupulone is a compound extracted from Hops (Hurnulus lupulus), which exhibits a good antimicrobial activity against M. tuberculosis with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 10 ?g/mL, but the response mechanisms of lupulone against M. tuberculosis are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a commercial oligonucleotide microarray to determine the overall transcriptional response of M. tuberculosis H37Rv triggered by exposure to MIC of lupulone. A total of 540 genes were found to be differentially regulated by lupulone. Of these, 254 genes were upregulated, and 286 genes were downregulated. A number of important genes were significantly regulated which are involved in various pathways, such as surface-exposed lipids, cytochrome P450 enzymes, PE/PPE multigene families, ABC transporters, and protein synthesis. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed for choosed genes to verified the microarray results. To our knowledge, this genome-wide transcriptomics approach has produced the first insights into the response of M. tuberculosis to a lupulone challenge.
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[Clinical value of trastuzumab in the treatment of lapatinib-resistant HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Retrospective and prospective studies have shown that continuous administration of trastuzumab with different chemotherapy regimens resulted in better clinical outcomes than the administration of chemotherapy alone in women with HER2-positive, trastuzumab-refractory metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, there are limited data to evaluate the activity of trastuzumab in patients progressed after other anti-HER2 therapies, e.g. lapatinib. The aim of the present study was to evaluate retrospectively the clinical value of trastuzumab in patients with lapatinib-resistant HER2-positive advanced breast cancer treated in our center.
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[Comprehensive measures for improving the radical resection rate and safety of Bismuth-Corlette type III hilar cholangiocarcinoma].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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To investigate the comprehensive measures for improving radical resection rate and safety of Bismuth-Corlette type III hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
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Ardipusilloside I induces apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins in human mucoepidermoid carcinoma Mc3 cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Ardisia pusilla A. DC., family Myrsinaceae, is a traditional Chinese medicine named Jiu Jie Long with a variety of pharmacological functions including anti-cancer activities. In this study, we purified a natural triterpenoid saponin, ardipusilloside I, from Ardisia pusilla, and show that it exhibits inhibitory activities in human mucoepidermoid carcinoma Mc3 cells. We also investigated the underlying mechanisms of proliferation inhibition that ardipusilloside I exerts on Mc3 cells.
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An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources.
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Oxygen-driven anisotropic transport in ultra-thin manganite films.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Transition metal oxides have a range of unique properties due to coupling of charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom and nearly degenerate multiple ground states. These properties make them interesting for applications and for fundamental investigations. Here we report a new phase with abnormal transport anisotropy in La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3 ultra-thin films under large tensile strain. This anisotropy is absent in films under smaller tensile strain or compressive strain. Furthermore, thickness and magnetic-field-dependent experiments suggest that the tensile-strain-induced two-dimensional character is crucial for the observed phenomena. X-ray absorption spectroscopy results indicate that this anisotropy is likely driven by O 2p orbital, which hybridizes with Mn 3d. Ab initio calculations confirm this result. Our results may help to understand the anisotropic transport behaviour observed in other systems.
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Simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure without specialized equipment.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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We present a simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure in a magneto-optical trap. The vacuum pressure is verified to be proportional to the collision rate constant between cold atoms and the background gas with a coefficient k, which can be calculated by means of the simple ideal gas law. The rate constant for loss due to collisions with all background gases can be derived from the total collision loss rate by a series of loading curves of cold atoms under different trapping laser intensities. The presented method is also applicable for other cold atomic systems and meets the miniaturization requirement of commercial applications.
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Improvement of hydrothermal stability of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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The metal-organic framework ZIF-8, which undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions, is endowed with high water-resistance after a shell-ligand-exchange-reaction. The stabilized ZIF-8 retains its structural characteristics with improved application performances in adsorption and membrane separation.
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Phenanthrenes from Juncus effusus.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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A chemical investigation of the EtOAc-soluble fraction from the ethanol extract of the medullae of Juncus effusus led to the isolation of three new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes, juncuenins E-G (1-3); two new phenanthrenes, dehydrojuncuenins D-E (4-5); one new feruloylated glycoside (6); and one known 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (7). The structures of these compounds were determined by analyzing their spectroscopic data. Metabolites 1-4 and 7 were further evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against seven human cancer lines (A549, MCF-7, BEL-7402, HeLa, COLO205, BGC-823, and SK-OV-3). Among them, compound 1 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines. Compound 7 showed moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines, with IC50 values of 9.17 and 19.6 µM, respectively.
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Selection of bisphenol A - single-chain antibodies from a non-immunized mouse library by ribosome display.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Developing reagents with high affinity and specificity is critical to detect the environmental hormones or toxicants. Ribosome display technology has been widely used in functional protein or peptide screening and in directed evolution of protein molecules in vitro. In this study, single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) against bisphenol A (BPA) were selected from a library constructed from splenocytes of non-immunized mice. After five rounds of selection, the selected scFvs bound to BPA with high affinity. Indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was introduced to screen the antibody affinity and specificity to BPA. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of one clone was 1.76?M as determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). This study indicated that ribosome display can isolate binders to small molecules from a non-immunized naive library without any in vivo steps and can generate recombinant antibodies efficiently and rapidly. In addition, this study provides a methodological framework for detection of small molecules using recombinant antibodies.
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[Association of genetic variantions of circadian clock genes and risk of breast cancer].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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To investigate the relationship between genetic variantions of circadian clock genes and risk of breast cancer.
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[Clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of breast cancer patients with inguinal lymph node metastases:a report of 17 cases].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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To analyze the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of breast cancer patients with inguinal lymph node metastases.
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Laparoscopy-assisted vaginal cornual resection for the treatment of large interstitial pregnancy.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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To present the experience of laparoscopy-assisted vaginal cornual resection for the treatment of two cases of large interstitial pregnancy.
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Surface-reflection-initiated pulse-contrast degradation in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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We study a novel mechanism of pre-pulse generation in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system through an analytical approach together with numerical simulations. The acquired pre-pulses are initiated from the surface-reflection-induced modulation of the seed spectrum and occur as a consequence of high-order distortion of such modulated spectrum due to the instantaneous gain saturation effect. We demonstrate that the intensities of pre-pulses increase quadratically with the initial temporal modulation-depth of the stretched signal pulse as well as the conversion efficiency prior to substantial pump-depletion. Explicit formulas for estimating the contrast limit due to surface reflections are present. We also discuss the impact of group-velocity mismatch on the pre-pulse generation. The results of this work may deepen our cognition on the complexity of the pulse-contrast problem in OPCPA systems.
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DNA microarray gene expression profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis when exposed to osthole.
Pol. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Tuberculosis (TB), affecting one-third of the global population, kills an estimated two to three million people every year. The development of drug resistance is becoming a serious threat to any attempt to control this disease, which underscores the need for new agents targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Osthole (7-methoxy-8-isopentenoxycoumarin) is a coumarin derivative present in many medicinal plants. Previous studies have shown that osthole possesses antimycobacterial effects, however, the action mechanism of osthole is unclear. In the study, we used a commercial oligonucleotide microarray to determine the overall transcriptional response of M. tuberculosis H37Rv triggered by exposure to osthole. Analysis of the microarray data revealed that a total of 478 genes were differentially regulated by osthole. Of these, 241 genes were upregulated, and 237 genes were downregulated. Some of the important genes that were significantly regulated are related to different pathways such as fumarate reductase, class I peroxidase, cell wall, nitrate respiration, and protein synthesis. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed for chosen genes to validate the microarray results. To our knowledge, this genome-wide transcriptomics approach has produced the first insights into the response of M. tuberculosis when exposed to osthole.
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Fast detection of atrazine in corn using thermometric biosensors.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Fast detection is important in screening large-scale samples. This study establishes a direct competitive ELISA method (dcTELISA) based on an enzyme thermistor for fast atrazine (ATZ) detection. ATZ competes with ?-lactamase-labeled ATZ (ATZ-E) for the binding sites on anti-ATZ monoclonal antibody (mAb). The mAb are covalently bound to Controlled Pore Glass (CPG) in an immunoreactor to form immunocomplexes with ATZ and ATZ-E. Several parameters of biosensor performance were optimized, such as the ATZ-E concentration, concentration and nature of the substrate, flow rate, and effect of temperature on the sensor response. After optimization, the assay time for a single sample was 12 min. The work process and result were compared with those of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The detection results exhibited a recovery rate of 88% to 107% in ATZ-spiked fresh cut corn stalks and silage samples. The results obtained via dcTELISA had good correlation with that of HPLC, and the biosensor response was reproducible and stable even when used continuously for over 4 months. All these properties suggested that the fast detection method, dcTELISA, may be used to detect pesticide residue in large-scale samples.
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Attachment site recognition and regulation of directionality by the serine integrases.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Serine integrases catalyze the integration of bacteriophage DNA into a host genome by site-specific recombination between attachment sites in the phage (attP) and the host (attB). The reaction is highly directional; the reverse excision reaction between the product attL and attR sites does not occur in the absence of a phage-encoded factor, nor does recombination occur between other pairings of attachment sites. A mechanistic understanding of how these enzymes achieve site-selectivity and directionality has been limited by a lack of structural models. Here, we report the structure of the C-terminal domains of a serine integrase bound to an attP DNA half-site. The structure leads directly to models for understanding how the integrase-bound attP and attB sites differ, why these enzymes preferentially form attP × attB synaptic complexes to initiate recombination, and how attL × attR recombination is prevented. In these models, different domain organizations on attP vs. attB half-sites allow attachment-site specific interactions to form between integrase subunits via an unusual protruding coiled-coil motif. These interactions are used to preferentially synapse integrase-bound attP and attB and inhibit synapsis of integrase-bound attL and attR. The results provide a structural framework for understanding, testing and engineering serine integrase function.
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Generation of 120 GW mid-infrared pulses from a widely tunable noncollinear optical parametric amplifier.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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We demonstrate a noncollinear optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification scheme for generating high-peak-power tunable mid-infrared (IR) pulses. The high-gain LiNbO(3)-based noncollinear parametric amplifier, seeded by a tunable femtosecond optical parametric amplifier, provides a wide wavelength tuning range from 3.3 to 3.95 ?m and a large saturated gain of over 4000 in a single-stage amplifier. The compressed mid-IR pulse has a pulse energy of 13.3 mJ and pulse duration of 111 fs, with a peak power as high as 120 GW. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest peak power ever reported for 3-5 ?m tunable mid-IR lasers.
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Turning bias in virtual spatial navigation: Age-related differences and neuroanatomical correlates.
Biol Psychol
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Rodents frequently exhibit rotational bias associated with asymmetry in lesions and neurotransmitters in the striatum. However, in humans, turning preference is inconsistent across studies, and its neural correlates are unclear. We examined turning bias in 140 right-handed healthy adults (18-77 years old), who navigated a virtual Morris Water Maze. On magnetic resonance images, we measured volumes of brain regions relevant to spatial navigation. We classified turns that occurred during virtual navigation as veering (less than 10°), true turns (between 10° and 90°) and course reversals (over 90°). The results showed that performance (time of platform search and distance traveled) was negatively related to age. The distance traveled was positively associated with volume of the orbito-frontal cortex but not with the volumes of the cerebellum, the hippocampus or the primary visual cortex. Examination of turning behavior showed that all participants veered to the right. In turns and reversals, although on average there was no consistent direction preference, we observed significant individual biases. Virtual turning preference correlated with volumetric asymmetry in the striatum, cerebellum, and hippocampus but not in the prefrontal cortex. Participants preferred to turn toward the hemisphere with larger putamen, cerebellum and (in younger adults only) hippocampus. Advanced age was associated with greater rightward turning preference. Men showed greater leftward preference whereas women exhibited stronger rightward bias.
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3D segmentation of maxilla in cone-beam computed tomography imaging using base invariant wavelet active shape model on customized two-manifold topology.
J Xray Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Recent advances in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) have rapidly enabled widepsread applications of dentomaxillofacial imaging and orthodontic practices in the past decades due to its low radiation dose, high spatial resolution, and accessibility. However, low contrast resolution in CBCT image has become its major limitation in building skull models. Intensive hand-segmentation is usually required to reconstruct the skull models. One of the regions affected by this limitation the most is the thin bone images. This paper presents a novel segmentation approach based on wavelet density model (WDM) for a particular interest in the outer surface of anterior wall of maxilla. Nineteen CBCT datasets are used to conduct two experiments. This mode-based segmentation approach is validated and compared with three different segmentation approaches. The results show that the performance of this model-based segmentation approach is better than those of the other approaches. It can achieve 0.25 ± 0.2 mm of surface error from ground truth of bone surface.
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Antiangiogenic therapy promoted metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by suppressing host-derived interleukin-12b in mouse models.
Angiogenesis
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Antiangiogenic therapy, specially sorafenib, has become the standard of care for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), however, the improvement in survival time is not satisfactory. Previous studies have found that, in some circumstances, antiangiogenic therapy promoted tumor metastasis and the mechanistic studies were mainly focus on cancer-cell-autonomous manners. In two experimental metastasis models with tail-vein injection with hepatoma cells and an orthotopic HCC mouse model, we found that pretreatment with two vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors, sunitinib and sorafenib, facilitated tumor cell survival in blood stream and promoted lung metastasis from tumors that were subsequently incubated after drug discontinuation, indicating that host response joined into the pro-metastatic effects. An antibody microarray identified that interleukin (IL)-12b was decreased in the peripheral blood of the mice treated with the two VEGFR inhibitors. IL-12b suppression in macrophages and dendritic cells from host organs was found to play a crucial role in treatment-induced metastasis. Supplement with recombinant mouse IL-12b or restoration of IL-12b expression in the host by zoledronic acid, which was previously reported to enhance IL-12 expression in vitro and in vivo, alleviated the metastasis-promoting effects of sunitinib and sorafenib. These studies suggest that host response to VEGFR inhibitors facilitates HCC metastasis and restoration of IL-12b expression could translate into clinical benefits.
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[Effects of polysomy 17 on HER-2 gene and protein expression and its clinicopathologic significance in breast cancer].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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To explore the effects of polysomy 17 on human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) testing and study its clinicopathologic significance.
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General route to ZnO nanorod arrays on conducting substrates via galvanic-cell-based approach.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Wurtzite ZnO nanorod exhibits many unique properties, which make it promising for various optoelectronic applications. To grow well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on various substrates, a seed layer is usually required to improve the density and vertical alignment. The reported works about seedless hydrothermal synthesis either require special substrates, or require external electrical field to enhance the ZnO nucleation. Here, we report a general method for the one-pot synthesis of homogenous and well-aligned ZnO nanorods on common conducting substrates without a seed layer. This method, based on the galvanic-cell structure, makes use of the contact potential between different materials as the driving force for ZnO growth. It is applicable to different conducting substrates at low temperature. More importantly, the as-grown ZnO nanorods show enhanced photoelectric response. This unique large scale low-temperature processing method could be of great importance for the application of ZnO nanostructures.
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Unfavorable pathological complete response rate of neoadjuvant chemotherapy epirubicin plus taxanes for locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Anthracycline-Taxane chemotherapy is widely used in neoadjuvant treatment for breast cancers. However, there is limited data reported in patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we evaluated the pathologic responses and survival of neoadjuvant epirubicin and taxanes chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced TNBC to provide some useful information for clinical practice. A total of 43 patients with locally advanced TNBC were enrolled in this study. Patients were administered with epirubicin 75 mg/m(2) plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) or docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks for at least 2 cycles. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR), which was defined as no residual invasive cancer, or only carcinoma in situ in both the excised breast and axillary lymph node, while relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were secondary endpoints. Thirty-nine (90.7%) patients were at clinical stages IIB-IIIC. Thirty-seven (86%) completed 4-6 cycles of preoperative chemotherapy, and objective response rate (ORR) was 81.4% (35/43). Forty-two patients underwent radical surgery subsequently. The pCR rate was 14.3% (6/42). The most common adverse events in neoadjuvant chemotherapy were nausea/vomiting (88.4%, 38/43) and neutropenia (88.4%). After a median follow-up period of 34.0 months, 3-year RFS and OS rate was 53.6% and 80.1%, respectively. All events of recurrence and death occurred in non-pCR patients, in whom the 3-year RFS and OS rates were 44.3% and 76.6%, respectively. This study suggest that neoadjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin plus taxanes has a relatively low pCR rate and high early recurrence risk in locally advanced TNBC, which indicates the necessity for more efficacious treatment. Further study is needed to validate these results.
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An imprinted crystalline colloidal array chemical-sensing material for detection of trace diethylstilbestrol.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Based on a combination of the molecular imprinting technique and polymerized crystalline colloidal array, we have developed an imprinted crystalline colloidal array (ICCA) chemical-sensing material for the real-time and label-free detection of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in aqueous solution. This novel sensing material was prepared by a noncovalent and self-assembly approach using liquid monodispersed DES-imprinted colloidal spheres and was characterized by a three-dimensional (3D) ordered opal structure in which numerous nanocavities were derived from DES imprinting. Thus, the inherent high affinity of the nanocavities allowed ICCA to recognize DES with high specificity, and changes of the ordered periodic structure enabled ICCA to transfer the recognition events into readable optical signals (label-free). Owing to the special opal structure and without interference from the bulk hydrogel film, the ICCA enabled the rapid and sensitive detection of the target analyte. The understanding of the recognizing response has also been advanced by using molecular modeling software to compute rational interaction between the template molecules and the function monomers. After careful optimization of the assay conditions, the ICCA could decrease its diffraction intensity within just 7 min according to the DES concentration from 2 ng mL(-1) to 8.192 ?g mL(-1), whereas there were no obvious diffraction intensity changes for the DES analogues. The adsorption results showed that the homogenous structure and large surface area of ICCA could improve its adsorption capacity. Therefore, such a sensing material with high selectivity, high sensitivity, high stability, and easy operation might offer an attractive alternative for establishing optical sensors for the rapid real-time monitoring of different residues in food and the environment.
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Identification of Plasma Metabolomic Profiling for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous-Cell Carcinoma Using an UPLC/TOF/MS Platform.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Epidemiological studies indicated that esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still one of the most common causes of cancer incidence in the world. Searching for valuable markers including circulating endogenous metabolites associated with the risk of esophageal cancer, is extremely important A comparative metabolomics study was performed by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry to analyze 53 pairs of plasma samples from ESCC patients and healthy controls recruited in Huaian, China. The result identified a metabolomic profiling of plasma including 25 upregulated metabolites and five downregulated metabolites, for early diagnosis of ESCC. With a database-based verification protocol, 11 molecules were identified, and six upregulated molecules of interest in ESCC were found to belong to phospholipids as follows: phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and sphinganine 1-phosphate. Clinical estimation of metabolic biomarkers through hierarchical cluster analysis in plasma samples from 17 ESCC patients and 29 healthy volunteers indicated that the present metabolite profile could distinguish ESCC patients from healthy individuals. The cluster of aberrant expression of these metabolites in ESCC indicates the critical role of phospholipid metabolism in the oncogenesis of ESCC and suggests its potential ability to assess the risk of ESCC development in addition to currently used risk factors.
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Grooved PLGA films incorporated with RGD/YIGSR peptides for potential application on skeletal muscle tissue engineering.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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Alignment of myocytes or myotubes is critical for skeletal muscle tissue engineering. In this study, grooved PLGA films (800nm in width of ridge/groove and 600nm in depth) incorporated with RGD or YIGSR peptides were fabricated to evaluate its efficacy for skeletal muscle tissue engineering. The growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts were enhanced by the presentation of RGD or YIGSR compared with the untreated PLGA control. On the other hand, cell morphology was guided by the grooved structure, i.e. alignment of myoblasts and myotubes with the direction of grooves. This study elucidates the effects of both surface biochemical and topographic cues on the proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts on biodegradable polymer films. Combination of surface topography and peptide presentation has a great potential in designing scaffolds for skeletal muscle tissue engineering.
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There is no association between microRNA gene polymorphisms and risk of triple negative breast cancer in a Chinese Han population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the lack of the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). It is characterized by aggressive behavior, poor prognosis and lack of targeted therapies. MicroRNA (miRNA) as a novel modulator of gene expression has played an important regulatory role in the malignancy. Dysregulation and/or mutation of the miRNAs may also contribute to the TNBC susceptibility since it is associated with the expression of ER, PR and HER2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNAs may be extremely relevant for TNBC. We tried to validate the hypothesis that genetic variations in miRNA are associated with TNBC development, and identify candidate biomarkers for TNBC susceptibility and clinical treatment. We screened the genetic variants in all miRNA genes listed in the public database miRBase and NCBI. A total of 23 common SNPs in 22 miRNAs, which tagged the known common variants in the Chinese Han people with a minor allele frequency greater than 0.05, were genotyped. This case-control study involved 191 patients with TNBC and 192 healthy female controls. Frequencies of SNPs were compared between cases and controls to identify the SNPs associated with TNBC susceptibility. No significant association was found between TNBC risk and the SNPs in the miRNA genes in the Chinese Han people (P>0.05), but this warrants further studies.
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New dimeric phenanthrene and flavone from Spiranthes sinensis.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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From the whole plant of Spiranthes sinensis, one novel dimeric phenanthrene, 2,2-dihydroxy-5,5,7,7-tetramethoxy-9,9,10,10-tetrahydro-3,3-biphenanthrene (1) and flavone 5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-4-(1-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-en-2-yloxy)-flavone (2) were isolated along with three other known flavonoids, which are reported for the first time from this species. Their structures were established after an extensive analysis by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy (NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC) as well as HR-TOF-MS.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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