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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rab11 regulates E-cadherin expression and induces cell transformation in colorectal carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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In the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition EMT, the disassembly of junctional adhesion complexes such as E-cadherin is a remarkable sign during changes in cell morphology and polarity. However, E-cadherin expression is dynamic, and is regulated by the cellular endocytic system; it is also involved in cell signaling mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the role of E-cadherin in colorectal tumors and the relationship with recycling endosome protein Rab11 in colon cell transformation.
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Section 9. Technical details of microsurgical biliary reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Small size and multiple ducts, particularly in right lobe liver grafts, are major factors that contribute to biliary complications in living donor liver transplantation. To improve the outcome of biliary reconstruction, further investigation and refinement of reconstruction techniques and management strategies are necessary. From March 2006 to June 2012, routine MBR was performed in 584 grafts in 581 consecutive LDLT (including 3 dual graft transplants). All biliary reconstructions were performed using microsurgical technique by a single microsurgeon. The classification of biliary reconstruction was based according to the number of ducts in the graft, the manner in which these ducts were reconstructed (with or without ductoplasty), and the conduit used (recipient duct or jejunum) to reconstruct the biliary tree. In duct-to-duct reconstruction, posterior wall first technique by using interrupted suture and continuous running and interrupted tie technique (combined method) for the anterior wall were performed. Recipient reduction ductoplasty was done, if necessary. In duct-to-jejunum reconstruction, enterotomy was performed first under microscope; then, the serosal and mucosal layers were sutured together using 8-0 prolene to facilitate the anastomosis. Posterior wall first by using interrupted suture technique and combined method for the anterior wall were also performed. Overall, there were 397 right and 184 left lobe grafts. Single duct opening was noted in 440 (75.34%), two duct openings in 135(23.12%), and three duct openings in 9 (1.54%) grafts. Duct-to-duct anastomosis was performed in 473 (81%) and duct-to-jejunum Roux limb in 111 (19%) biliary reconstructions. Size discrepancy in the graft and recipient ducts was noted in 394 (83.3%) reconstructions. The overall biliary complication was 7.9%. These included 19 (3.3%) bile leaks and 27 (4.6%) biliary strictures. The routine use of MBR capably surmounts the difficulties brought about by the anatomic variations and the size discrepancies between the graft and recipient hepatic ducts with excellent outcome.
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Evaluation of a standardized treatment regimen of anti-tuberculosis drugs for patients with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (STREAM): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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In contrast to drug-sensitive tuberculosis, the guidelines for the treatment of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) have a very poor evidence base; current recommendations, based on expert opinion, are that patients should be treated for a minimum of 20 months. A series of cohort studies conducted in Bangladesh identified a nine-month regimen with very promising results. There is a need to evaluate this regimen in comparison with the currently recommended regimen in a randomized controlled trial in a variety of settings, including patients with HIV-coinfection.
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Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in children and adolescents: Clinical presentation, histology, treatment, and review of the literature.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare, low-grade malignant tumor. It is characterized by aggressive local infiltration, leading to a propensity for recurrence. In children, DFSP is even less common and likely misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed. This study is a review of DFSP in the pediatric population and aims to identify factors for successful treatment.
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Identification of bacterial factors involved in type 1 fimbria expression using an Escherichia coli K12 proteome chip.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Type 1 fimbriae are filamentous structures on Escherichia coli. These structures are important adherence factors. Because binding to the host cells is the first step of infection, type 1 fimbria is an important virulence factor of pathogenic E. coli. Expression of type 1 fimbria is regulated by a phase variation in which each individual bacterium can alternate between fimbriated (phase-ON) and nonfimbriated (phase-OFF) states. The phase variation is regulated by the flipping of the 314-bp fimS fragment, which contains the promoter driving the expression of the genes required for the synthesis of type 1 fimbria. Thus, the bacterial proteins able to interact with fimS are likely to be involved in regulating the expression of type 1 fimbria. To identify novel type 1 fimbria-regulating factors, we used an E. coli K12 proteome chip to screen for the bacterial factors able to interact with a 602-bp DNA fragment containing fimS and its adjacent regions. The Spr protein was identified by the proteome chip-based screening and further confirmed to be able to interact with fimS by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Deletion of spr in the neonatal meningitis E. coli strain RS218 significantly increased the ratio of the bacterial colonies that contained the type 1 fimbria phase-ON cells on agar plates. In addition, Spr interfered with the interactions of fimS with the site-specific recombinases, FimB and FimE, which are responsible for mediating the flipping of fimS. These results suggest that Spr is involved in the regulation of type 1 fimbria expression through direct interaction with the invertible element fimS. These findings facilitate our understanding of the regulation of type 1 fimbria.
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Serum proteomic analysis of extracorporeal shock wave therapy-enhanced diabetic wound healing in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Previous studies have demonstrated that extracorporeal shock wave therapy has a significant positive effect on accelerating diabetic wound healing. However, the systemic effect after therapy is still unclear.
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Patient and heath system delays in the diagnosis and treatment of new and retreatment pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Malawi.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Tuberculosis (TB) control remains a challenge in Malawi despite the National TB Control Program since 1984. This study aimed at measuring patient and health system delays and identifying factors associated with these delays.
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8-hydrocalamenene, derived from Reynoutria elliptica, suppresses constitutive STAT3 activation, inhibiting proliferation and enhancing chemosensitization of human multiple myeloma cells.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The identification of the active compounds of herbal medicines and the molecular targets of those compounds is an attractive therapeutic objective. Reynoutria elliptica has been used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases as a Korean folk remedy. Based on the evidence that anti-inflammatory agents frequently exert antiproliferative activity, we tested two sesquiterpene derivatives, 8-hydrocalamenene (HC) and 8,14-dihydrocalamenene (DHC), for their ability to induce apoptosis and suppress signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation in multiple myeloma (MM) U266 cells. We found that HC inhibited cell viability in U266, but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. HC exerted significant cytotoxicity and induced substantial subG1-phase arrest and apoptosis as compared with DHC. HC inhibited the expression of gene products involved in antiapoptosis (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL), proliferation (cyclin D1), and invasion (MMP-9), all of which are known to be regulated by STAT3. Furthermore, HC up-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and induced apoptosis through the activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 in U266 cells. Interestingly, HC blocked constitutive STAT3 activation through the inhibition of activation of upstream kinases Janus-like kinase 1 (JAK1), JAK2, and c-Src and up-regulated PIAS3. Deletion of STAT3 reversed cytotoxic effects and the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and c-myc by HC in MM cells. Finally, this sesquiterpene significantly synergized the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of bortezomib in U266 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that HC is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation which may have a potential in the prevention and treatment of MM.
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Influence of neck dissection and preoperative irradiation on microvascular head and neck reconstruction-Analysis of 853 cases.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Previous neck dissection and irradiation is believed to affect the success of free tissue transfers in head and neck reconstruction, but evidence is scarce and conflicting. This study seeks to evaluate flap success rates in the presence of these two factors.
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Glycemic control and radiographic manifestations of tuberculosis in diabetic patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Radiographic manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have previously been reported, with inconsistent results. We conducted a study to investigate whether glycemic control has an impact on radiographic manifestations of pulmonary TB.
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Positive regulation of TRAF6-dependent innate immune responses by protein phosphatase PP1-?.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Innate immune sensors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) differentially utilize adaptor proteins and additional molecular mediators to ensure robust and precise immune responses to pathogen challenge. Through a gain-of-function genetic screen, we identified the gamma catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1-?) as a positive regulator of MyD88-dependent proinflammatory innate immune activation. PP1-? physically interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6, and enhances the activity of TRAF6 towards itself and substrates such as IKK?, whereas enzymatically inactive PP1-? represses these events. Importantly, these activities were found to be critical for cellular innate responses to pathogen challenge and microbial clearance in both mouse macrophages and human monocyte lines. These data indicate that PP1-? phosphatase activity regulates overall TRAF6 E3 ubiquitin ligase function and promotes NF-?B-mediated innate signaling responses.
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Alveolar macrophages infected with Ames or Sterne strain of Bacillus anthracis elicit differential molecular expression patterns.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Alveolar macrophages (AMs) phagocytose Bacillus anthracis following inhalation and induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines to mediate the activation of innate immunity. Ames, the virulent strain of B. anthracis, contains two plasmids that encode the antiphagocytic poly-?-d-glutamic acid capsule and the lethal toxin. The attenuated Sterne strain of B. anthracis, which lacks the plasmid encoding capsule, is widely adapted as a vaccine strain. Although differences in the outcome of infection with the two strains may have originated from the presence or absence of an anti-phagocytic capsule, the disease pathogenesis following infection will be manifested via the host responses, which is not well understood. To gain understanding of the host responses at cellular level, a microarray analysis was performed using primary rhesus macaque AMs infected with either Ames or Sterne spores. Notably, 528 human orthologs were identified to be differentially expressed in AMs infected with either strain of the B. anthracis. Meta-analyses revealed genes differentially expressed in response to B. anthracis infection were also induced upon infections with multiple pathogens such as Francisella Novicida or Staphylococcus aureus. This suggests the existence of a common molecular signature in response to pathogen infections. Importantly, the microarray and protein expression data for certain cytokines, chemokines and host factors provide further insights on how cellular processes such as innate immune sensing pathways, anti-apoptosis versus apoptosis may be differentially modulated in response to the virulent or vaccine strain of B. anthracis. The reported differences may account for the marked difference in pathogenicity between these two strains.
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Surgical site infections among high-risk patients in clean-contaminated head and neck reconstructive surgery: concordance with preoperative oral flora.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Salivary contamination of surgical wounds in clean-contaminated head and neck surgery with free flap reconstruction remains a major cause of infection and leads to significant morbidity. This study investigates the correlation between intraoral flora and surgical site infections (SSIs) among high-risk head and neck cancer patients undergoing resection and free flap reconstruction.
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Capillarisin inhibits constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation through induction of SHP-1 and SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatases.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)-3 is a latent cytosolic transcription factor that has been closely associated with survival, proliferation, chemoresistance, and metastasis of tumor cells. Whether the anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-metastatic effects of capillarisin (CPS), derived from Artemisia capillaris (Compositae), are linked to its capability to inhibit STAT3 activation was investigated. We found that CPS specifically inhibited both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation at tyrosine residue 705 but not at serine residue 727 in human multiple myeloma cells. Besides the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation, CPS also abrogated STAT3 constitutive activity and nuclear translocation. The suppression of STAT3 was mediated through the inhibition of activation of upstream JAK1, JAK2, and c-Src kinases. Treatment with the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor pervanadate treatment reversed the CPS-induced down-regulation of JAK1/2 and STAT3, thereby suggesting the involvement of a PTP. Indeed, knockdown of the SHP-1 and SHP-2 genes by small interfering RNA suppressed the ability of CPS to inhibit JAK1 and STAT3 activation, suggesting the critical role of both SHP-1 and SHP-2 in its possible mechanism of action. CPS downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated antiapoptotic and proliferative gene products; and this correlated with suppression of cell viability, the accumulation of cells in sub-G1 phase of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, CPS potentiated bortezomib-induced apoptotic effects in MM cells, and this correlated with down-regulation of various gene products that mediate cell proliferation (Cyclin D1 and COX-2), cell survival (Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, IAP1, IAP2, and Survivin), invasion (MMP-9), and angiogenesis (VEGF). Thus, overall, our results suggest that CPS is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation and thus may have a potential in negative regulation of growth, metastasis, and chemoresistance of tumor cells.
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Early and long-term results of routine microsurgical biliary reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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We describe our early and long-term experience with routine biliary reconstruction via a microsurgical technique in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). One hundred seventy-seven grafts (including 3 dual grafts) were primarily transplanted into 174 recipients. The minimum follow-up was 44 months. Biliary reconstructions were based on biliary anatomical variations in graft and recipient ducts. The recipient demographics, graft characteristics, types of biliary reconstruction, biliary complications (BCs), and outcomes were evaluated. There were 130 right lobe grafts and 47 left lobe grafts. There were single ducts in 71.8%, 2 ducts in 26.0%, and 3 ducts in 2.3% of the grafts. The complications were not significantly related to the size and number of ducts, the discrepancy between recipient and donor ducts, the recipient age, the ischemia time, or the type of graft. The overall BC rate was 9.6%. The majority of the complications occurred within the first year, and only 1 patient developed a stricture at 20 months. No new complications were noted after 2 years. When the learning-curve phase of the first 15 cases was excluded, the overall BC rate was 6.79%, and the rate of complications requiring interventions was 2.5%. In conclusion, the routine use of microsurgical biliary reconstruction decreases the number of early and long-term anastomotic BCs in LDLT.
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Disrupting the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis disturbs the characteristics of glioblastoma stem-like cells of rat RG2 glioblastoma.
Cancer Cell Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSC) have been shown to promote tumor growth, tumor-associated neovascularization, therapeutic resistance, and metastasis. CXCR4 receptors have been found involved in the proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and drug-resistant characteristics of glioblastoma. However, the role of CXCR4 in modulating the stem-like cell properties of rat glioblastoma remains ambiguous.
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Runx1-deficient afferents impair visceral nociception, exacerbating dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Colitis is a group of inflammatory and auto-immune disorders that affect the tissue lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Studies of chemically-induced animal models of colitis have indicated that nociceptive afferents or neuropeptides have differing effects on GI inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in visceral pain and the role of visceral sensory afferents involved in the modulation of colitis remains unclear. A previous study demonstrated that Runx1, a Runt domain transcription factor, is restricted to nociceptors. In these neurons, Runx1 regulates the expression of numerous ion channels and receptors, controlling the lamina-specific innervation patterns of nociceptive afferents in the spinal cord. Moreover, mice that lack Runx1 exhibit specific defects in thermal and neuropathic pain. To examine the function of Runx1 in visceral nociception, we employed double-transgenic mice (WntCre: Runx1(F)(/)(F)), in which the expression of Runx1 was specifically disrupted in the sensory neurons. To determine the role of Runx1 in visceral pain sensation, the WntCre: Runx1(F)(/)(F) mice and their control littermates (Runx1(F)(/)(F)) were treated using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis. The results indicated that disrupted Runx1 in the sensory afferents resulted in: (1) impairment of the visceral pain sensation in murine DSS-induced colitis; (2) exacerbating the phenotypes in murine DSS-induced colitis; (3) a differential effect on the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the colon tissues isolated from mice treated using DSS and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis; and (4) alteration of the distribution of lymphocytes and mast cells in mucosa. These results show that the function of Runx1 in sensory afferents is vital for modulating visceral pain and the neuro-immune axis.
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Outcome of routine use of microsurgical biliary reconstruction in pediatric living donor liver transplantation.
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Microsurgical techniques, initially used for hepatic artery reconstruction, have been extended to biliary reconstruction to decrease biliary complications. The routine use of microsurgical biliary reconstruction in pediatric living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has not been elucidated.
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The inhibitory effect of ellagic Acid on cell growth of ovarian carcinoma cells.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Ellagic acid (EA) is able to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells; however, its effect on human ovarian carcinoma cells has not yet been investigated. Ovarian carcinoma ES-2 and PA-1 cells were treated with EA (10~100? ? M) and assessed for viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, anoikis, autophagy, and chemosensitivity to doxorubicin and their molecular mechanisms. EA inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner by arresting both cell lines at the G1 phase of the cell cycle, which were from elevating p53 and Cip1/p21 and decreasing cyclin D1 and E levels. EA also induced caspase-3-mediated apoptosis by increasing the Bax?:?Bcl-2 ratio and restored anoikis in both cell lines. The enhancement of apoptosis and/or inhibition of autophagy in these cells by EA assisted the chemotherapy efficacy. The results indicated that EA is a potential novel chemoprevention and treatment assistant agent for human ovarian carcinoma.
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Challenges to the global control of tuberculosis.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) will likely navigate a historical turning point in the 2010s with a new management paradigm emerging. However, global control of TB remains a formidable challenge for the decades to come. The estimated case detection rate of TB globally was 66%, and there were 310?000 estimated multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases among the 6.2 million TB patients notified in 2011. Although new tools are being introduced for the diagnosis of MDR-TB, there are operational and cost issues related to their use that require urgent attention, so that the poor and vulnerable can benefit. World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that globally, 3.7% of new cases and 20% of previously treated cases have MDR-TB. However, the scale-up of programmatic management of drug-resistant TB is slow, with only 60?000 MDR-TB cases notified to WHO in 2011. The overall proportion of treatment success of MDR-TB notified globally in 2009 was 48%, far below the global target of 75% success rate. Although new tools and drugs have the potential to significantly improve both case detection and treatment outcome, adequate health systems and human resources are needed for rapid uptake and proper implementation to have the impact required to eliminate TB. Hence, the global TB community should broaden its scope, seek intersectoral collaboration and advocate for cost reduction of new tools, while ensuring that the basics of TB control are implemented to reduce the TB burden through the current prevention through case management paradigm.
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3-d visualization and quantitation of microvessels in transparent human colorectal carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Microscopic analysis of tumor vasculature plays an important role in understanding the progression and malignancy of colorectal carcinoma. However, due to the geometry of blood vessels and their connections, standard microtome-based histology is limited in providing the spatial information of the vascular network with a 3-dimensional (3-D) continuum. To facilitate 3-D tissue analysis, we prepared transparent human colorectal biopsies by optical clearing for in-depth confocal microscopy with CD34 immunohistochemistry. Full-depth colons were obtained from colectomies performed for colorectal carcinoma. Specimens were prepared away from (control) and at the tumor site. Taking advantage of the transparent specimens, we acquired anatomic information up to 200 ?m in depth for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the vasculature. Examples are given to illustrate: (1) the association between the tumor microstructure and vasculature in space, including the perivascular cuffs of tumor outgrowth, and (2) the difference between the 2-D and 3-D quantitation of microvessels. We also demonstrate that the optically cleared mucosa can be retrieved after 3-D microscopy to perform the standard microtome-based histology (H&E staining and immunohistochemistry) for systematic integration of the two tissue imaging methods. Overall, we established a new tumor histological approach to integrate 3-D imaging, illustration, and quantitation of human colonic microvessels in normal and cancerous specimens. This approach has significant promise to work with the standard histology to better characterize the tumor microenvironment in colorectal carcinoma.
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Phospholipase C?-2 and intracellular calcium are required for lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) endocytosis and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is unique among the TLRs in its use of multiple adaptor proteins leading to activation of both the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) pathways. Previous work has demonstrated that TLR4 initiates NF-?B activation from the plasma membrane, but that subsequent TLR4 translocation to the endosomes is required for IRF3 activation. Here we have characterized several components of the signaling pathway that governs TLR4 translocation and subsequent IRF3 activation. We find that phospholipase C ?2 (PLC?2) accounts for LPS-induced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) production and subsequent calcium (Ca(2+)) release. Blockage of PLC?2 function by inhibitors or knockdown of PLC?2 expression by siRNAs in RAW 264.7 macrophages lead to reduced IRF3, but enhanced NF-?B activation. In addition, bone marrow-derived macrophages from PLC?2-deficient mice showed impaired IRF3 phosphorylation and expression of IRF3-regulated genes after LPS stimulation. Using cell fractionation, we show that PLC?2-IP(3)-Ca(2+) signaling cascade is required for TLR4 endocytosis following LPS stimulation. In conclusion, our results describe a novel role of the PLC?2-IP(3)-Ca(2+) cascade in the LPS-induced innate immune response pathway where release of intracellular Ca(2+) mediates TLR4 trafficking and subsequent activation of IRF3.
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Growth inhibition of foodborne pathogens by Oenococcus oeni.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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To explore the possibility of using Oenococcus oeni to inhibit foodborne pathogens, and to characterize antimicrobial compounds produced by O. oeni, 24 strains of O. oeni?were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes by using the spot-on-lawn method. Of the 24 strains, 17 strains were able to inhibit all 3 pathogens in this study. Proteases, catalase, and buffer solutions were used for determining the type of inhibitory compounds produced from 4 selected strains with stronger inhibitory activity. Antimicrobial activity of 2 strains against the pathogens was completely inactivated by buffer solution, and other 2 strains against E. coli O157:H7 were partially removed. The antimicrobial compound was not sensitive to selected proteases and catalase.
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Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhanced diabetic wound healing through recruitment of tissue regeneration in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2011
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This study investigated whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy has effectiveness in the enhancement of diabetic wound healing through tissue regeneration.
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Completeness and timeliness of tuberculosis notification in Taiwan.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Tuberculosis (TB) is a notifiable disease by the Communicable Disease Control Law in Taiwan. Several measures have been undertaken to improve reporting of TB but the completeness and timeliness of TB notification in Taiwan has not yet been systemically evaluated.
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Clinical symptoms and performance on the Continuous Performance Test in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder between subtypes: a natural follow-up study for 6 months.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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The aims of this study were to determine the time course of improvements in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) clinical symptoms and neurocognitive function in a realistic clinical setting, and the differences in ADHD symptom improvement using different classifications of ADHD subtypes.
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Indoor solid fuel use and tuberculosis in China: a matched case-control study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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China ranks second among the 22 high burden countries for tuberculosis. A modeling exercise showed that reduction of indoor air pollution could help advance tuberculosis control in China. However, the association between indoor air pollution and tuberculosis is not yet well established. A case control study was conducted in Anhui, China to investigate whether use of solid fuel is associated with tuberculosis.
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Association of salivary dehydroepiandrosterone levels and symptoms in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during six months of treatment with methylphenidate.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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This prospective study aimed to determine whether salivary levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) change significantly during 6 months of treatment with methylphenidate (MPH), and to investigate long-term relationship between these levels and ADHD symptoms. Fifty ADHD patients aged between 6 and 12 years, and 50 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited. ADHD patients were prescribed oral MPH with a dose range of 5-15 mg/day at the discretion of the psychiatrist. DHEA levels were determined from saliva samples collected from both ADHD patients and healthy subjects at pretreatment and 1, 3, and 6 months from pretreatment visit. ADHD symptoms were evaluated with the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV Scale for ADHD and the ADHD Rating Scale, and computerized Continuous Performance Test (CPT). The results showed that salivary DHEA levels significantly increased in ADHD patients during the 6-month course of methylphenidate treatment, but the DHEA levels did not significantly change in the untreated healthy group during the 6-month period of natural observation. For the longitudinal observation, among ADHD patients, the salivary DHEA levels were independently correlated with distraction and impulsivity performance in the CPT, but not correlated with inattention and hyperactivity in the clinical ADHD symptoms. Whether DHEA exerts effects on neurocognitive functions as mediators or independently of MPH warrants further investigation.
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Triangular flaps: a modified technique for the correction of congenital constriction ring syndrome.
Hand Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Congenital constriction ring syndrome (CCRS) is a congenital anomaly with a wide spectrum of clinical presentation. The accepted method of correcting a circular constriction is to excise the deep part of the constriction, and break the line of the circular scar with multiple Z- or W-plasties. Specific correction of soft tissue is recommended concurrently, to better correct the "sandglass" deformity. Here we describe a new technique using triangular advancement flaps to correct the deformity in eight patients with constriction ring syndrome, involving either the upper or lower limbs. In this technique, triangular flaps can be introduced either proximal or distal to the ring, depending on the limb circumference, to correct the contour deformity. In all eight patients, a normal extremity contour was obtained, with complete elimination of the deformity caused by the constriction ring. A mean follow-up of 43 months revealed an aesthetically acceptable scar, with no case of recurrence. Triangular flaps designed either proximal or distal to the constriction ring is able to correct the contour deformity of the limbs with great versatility and acceptable aesthetic results.
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The role of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in the browning of water caltrop pericarp during heat treatment.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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The mechanism of browning involving enzymatic browning was investigated in the pericarp of water caltrop, an Asian vegetable popular for its taste and medicinal properties. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities were determined in pericarp at various times and temperatures. Water caltrop consisted of 44.22% moisture content, 37.23% crude fibre, and 2.63% crude protein. PPO and POD activities dropped from 62 and 38units/g sample, respectively, as water temperature was increased from 30 to 80°C. Optimum pH and temperature for PPO activity was at pH 5.0, 25-45°C, and POD activity peaked at 60°C. High PPO and POD activities at 40-50°C resulted in degradation of phenolic compounds, which led to increased aggregation of browning pigments and discolouration (lower L-values) of the pericarp. Enzymatic browning was determined as the major factor in the browning discolouration of heat-treated water caltrop pericarp.
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Anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody inhibits the progression in human colon carcinoma cells.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2010
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Interleukin-6 (IL-6) promotes proliferation and invasion in colorectal carcinoma, and serum IL-6 levels are correlated with survival in patients with colorectal carcinoma. In this study, we attempted to clarify the signal pathway downstream of IL-6 and the role of the IL-6 receptor complex in terms of the biological effects of clonogenic growth and invasiveness in colorectal carcinoma cells.
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Mixed infection with Beijing and non-Beijing strains and drug resistance pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2010
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Mixed infection with Beijing and non-Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been reported and has been suggested to mediate elevation of the reinfection rate in regions with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). To evaluate the prevalence of infection with both Beijing and non-Beijing strains of M. tuberculosis in eastern Taiwan, the region with the highest TB incidence in Taiwan, 185 active pulmonary TB patients were enrolled at Tzu Chi General Hospital from October 2007 to September 2008. A modified multiplex PCR method was developed to distinguish Beijing and non-Beijing strains directly using the sputum of patients. Of the 185 patients, 46.5% were infected with a Beijing strain, 42.2% were infected with a non-Beijing strain, and 11.3% were infected with both strain types. Notably, mixed infection with both strain types was not associated with TB treatment history or the high-incidence race group, aborigines. In addition, the incidence rate of mixed infection before treatment with anti-TB medication was as high as that in patients with a history of anti-TB treatment. Further analysis of antibiotic susceptibility revealed that Beijing strains alone had the highest multidrug resistance rate (17.5%), mixed infection had the highest rate of resistance to at least one drug (23.8%), and non-Beijing strains had the highest rate of sensitivity to all drugs (79.5%), implying that Beijing strains are predominant in the development of drug resistance in tuberculosis.
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Microsurgical replantation and salvage procedures in traumatic ear amputation.
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2010
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The purpose of this study is to present our experience with patients who underwent traumatic ear amputation.
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A human MAP kinase interactome.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways form the backbone of signal transduction in the mammalian cell. Here we applied a systematic experimental and computational approach to map 2,269 interactions between human MAPK-related proteins and other cellular machinery and to assemble these data into functional modules. Multiple lines of evidence including conservation with yeast supported a core network of 641 interactions. Using small interfering RNA knockdowns, we observed that approximately one-third of MAPK-interacting proteins modulated MAPK-mediated signaling. We uncovered the Na-H exchanger NHE1 as a potential MAPK scaffold, found links between HSP90 chaperones and MAPK pathways and identified MUC12 as the human analog to the yeast signaling mucin Msb2. This study makes available a large resource of MAPK interactions and clone libraries, and it illustrates a methodology for probing signaling networks based on functional refinement of experimentally derived protein-interaction maps.
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Screening large numbers of expression patterns of transcription factors in late stages of the mouse thymus.
Gene Expr. Patterns
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
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Transcription factor families are well known to be involved in the intrinsic pathways that regulate the organogenesis, early development, and microenvironment of the thymus. However, identification of the transcription factors (TFs) involved in the late development of the thymus, particularly later than embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5), is progressing slowly. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to screen numerous expression patterns of the TFs involved in the development of the mouse thymus. More than 400 members, including unique TFs and some transcription co-factors, were tested. Among the screened TFs, 160 were found to be expressed in the thymus after E15.5, and 74 of these were expressed in restricted areas.
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Salivary dehydroepiandrosterone, but not cortisol, is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
World J. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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The purposes of this study were to determine whether salivary levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol are associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or correlated with performance on the Continuous Performance Test (CPT).
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The digital Emily project: achieving a photorealistic digital actor.
IEEE Comput Graph Appl
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
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The Digital Emily Project uses advanced face scanning, character rigging, performance capture, and compositing to achieve one of the worlds first photorealistic digital facial performances. The project scanned the geometry and reflectance of actress Emily OBriens face in 33 poses, showing different emotions, gaze directions, and lip formations in a light stage. These high-resolution scans-accurate to skin pores and fine wrinkles-became the basis for building a blendshape-based facial-animation rig whose expressions closely matched the scans. The blendshape rig drove displacement maps to add dynamic surface detail. A video-based facial animation system animated the face according to the performance in a reference video, and the digital face was tracked onto the videos motion and rendered under the same illumination. The result was a realistic 3D digital facial performance credited as one of the first to cross the "uncanny valley" between animated and fully human performances.
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The effect of Longan seed polyphenols on colorectal carcinoma cells.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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Polyphenol-rich longan seed extract (LSP) is a free radical scavenger and antioxidant. However, the effect of LSP on the growth of human colorectal carcinoma cells (CRC) has not yet been evaluated.
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[Applying the transtheoretical model to a patient on a diabetes control diet: a nursing experience].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that requires lifelong self-management. The author used a transtheoretical model to help improve the self-care abilities of one diabetes mellitus patient who lacked initial appreciation / understanding of self-care needs. During hospitalization, the author employed observation and communication to evaluate subject needs with regard to transforming her dietary behavior in order to better stabilize her medical condition. The author educated the subject on a one-to-one basis in dietary control using change tactics, and recommended that she adjust her 12 portions and food exchange. The patient was instructed to operate the blood sugar machine to monitor the effects of diet control. This method was designed to help the patient build self-care decision-making abilities during the action phase and bolster confidence during the maintenance phase through self-efficacy promotion, and to increase confidence in her self-care abilities. Telephone interview follow-ups demonstrated that the patient was able to self-comply with 12 portion rules and monitor her blood sugar on a daily basis. With blood sugar measurements at 70-105mg/dl and 110-160mg/dl, respectively, before and after meals, her diet control remained in the action phase. The patient was able to self-monitor her personal health status via blood sugar level and conduct personal healthcare maintenance work. Results support the effectiveness of applying the transtheoretical model to self-care strategies for diabetic patients.
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Povidone-iodine-related burn under the tourniquet of a child--a case report and literature review.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet caused by povidone-iodine is an iatrogenic injury and is rarely reported in the literature. It is even rarer in paediatric cases. We report a case of 2-year-old female patient who underwent excision and reconstruction of bilateral radial polydactylies. She was found with chemical burns over posterior aspect of both arms later. These wounds healed secondarily within 4 weeks. This morbidity is relatively under-recognised. Special attention should be paid to paediatric patients, whose skins are more delicate and vulnerable.
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Drug-resistant tuberculosis: past, present, future.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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In a population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, random chromosomal mutation that results in genetic resistance to anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs occurs at a relatively low frequency. Anti-TB drugs impose selection pressure so that mycobacterial mutants gradually outnumber susceptible bacilli and emerge as the dominant strains. Resistance to two or more anti-TB drugs represents cumulative results of sequential mutation. The fourth report on global anti-TB drug resistance provides the latest data on the extent of such problem in the world. The median prevalence of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in new TB cases was 1.6%, and in previously treated TB cases 11.7%. Of the half a million MDR-TB cases estimated to have emerged in 2006, 50% were in China and India. The optimal duration of any given combination of anti-TB drugs for treatment of MDR- and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) has not been defined in controlled clinical trials. Standardized treatment may be feasible for MDR-TB patients not previously treated with second-line drugs, but a different strategy needs to be applied in the treatment of MDR-TB patients who have received second-line drugs before. Unfortunately, the reliability of drug susceptibility testing of most second-line anti-TB drugs is still questionable. Drug-resistant TB is not necessarily less virulent. Findings from modelling exercise warned that if MDR-TB case detection and treatment rates increase to the World Health Organization target of 70%, without simultaneously increasing MDR-TB cure rates, XDR-TB prevalence could increase exponentially. Prevention of development of drug resistance must be accorded the top priority in the era of MDR-/XDR-TB.
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Longan flower extract inhibits the growth of colorectal carcinoma.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Longan flower extract (LFE) has been shown to exhibit free radical scavenging ability and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of LFE treatment on the growth of colorectal cancer cells has not been evaluated. This study investigated the effect of LFE on two colorectal cancer cell lines, SW-480 and Colo 320DM, and the possible mechanisms involved. LFE-treated cells were assessed for viability by trypan blue exclusion, for in vitro tumorigenesis by seeding cells in soft agar to allow anchorage independent growth, for cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry, for loss of mitochondrial membrane potential by rhodamine 123 staining, for increased apoptosis by DNA fragmentation assay, and for changes in the levels of proteins involved in cell cycle control and apoptosis by immunoblotting. LFE (25-400 microg/ml) could inhibit proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The cell cycle of both LFE-treated cell lines showed obvious S phase block. Western blotting further showed the S phase block in these two cell lines was mainly due to cyclin E accumulation and cyclin A decrease. LFE treatment increased rhodamine 123-negative cells and DNA fragmentation in Colo 320DM cells but not in SW480 cells. Increased levels of the apoptosis activation protein, caspase 3, were also found in Colo 320DM cells. The activation of caspase 3 in LFE-treated SW480 cells was not significant. The caspase 3 activation in Colo 320DM cells by LFE was mediated by the suppression of Bcl-2 protein levels. LFE treatment could inhibit the proliferation and malignancy of colorectal cancer cell lines and was associated with S phase block of the cell cycle. An apoptotic mechanism induced by LFE involving a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase 3 activation was found in Colo 320DM cells but not in SW480 cells. The results of this study indicate that LFE has potential to be developed as a novel functional food or chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer.
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An RNAi screen identifies TRRAP as a regulator of brain tumor-initiating cell differentiation.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive form of brain cancer associated with a very poor prognosis. Recently, the initiation and growth of GBM has been linked to brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs), which are poorly differentiated and share features with neural stem cells (NSCs). Here we describe a kinome-wide RNA interference screen to identify factors that control the tumorigenicity of BTICs. We identified several genes whose silencing induces differentiation of BTICs derived from multiple GBM patients. In particular, knockdown of the adaptor protein TRRAP significantly increased differentiation of cultured BTICs, sensitized the cells to apoptotic stimuli, and negatively affected cell cycle progression. TRRAP knockdown also significantly suppressed tumor formation upon intracranial BTIC implantation into mice. Together, these findings support a critical role for TRRAP in maintaining a tumorigenic, stem cell-like state.
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A new approach for evaluating bone turnover in chronic kidney disease.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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The validity of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) as a surrogate marker of bone turnover in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is limited by several factors such as relative resistance of bone to PTH, hyperphosphatemia, diabetes, gender, age, race and vitamin D analog action on the PTH-bone axis. Urinary collagen N-terminal telopeptide X (NTx), a bone collagen degradation product, expressed as bone collagen equivalents (BCE) per mM of creatinine (NTx/Cr ratio), is routinely used to estimate bone turnover in osteoporosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate NTx as a marker of bone turnover in CKD.
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The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease: past, present and future.
Int Health
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2009
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The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) is the oldest international non-governmental organization involved in the fight against tuberculosis. This review documents the history and structure of The Union up to 2009, and describes the achievements that have taken place in the field of tuberculosis and lung health. The progress made in tackling the major killer (pneumonia) of children less than 5 years of age, the barrier to affordable essential asthma medicines, the complex issue of tobacco control, the move into the realm of HIV and AIDS, and new ideas and activities around the increasingly important domain of operational research are described and discussed. Finally, as with many institutions that have seen a rapid phase of growth, expansion and decentralisation to regional offices around the world, the review highlights the internal strategic initiative that aims to fine-tune the organisational structure, clarify lines of authority, create more efficient business, human resource and financial systems and revise, where necessary, The Unions guiding mission, vision and values for the future.
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Routine microsurgical biliary reconstruction decreases early anastomotic complications in living donor liver transplantation.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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Biliary reconstruction using a microsurgical technique in living donor liver transplantation was routinely performed on 88 grafts primarily transplanted into 85 patients. All procedures were performed under a microscope by a single microsurgeon. Except for biliary atresia and Alagille syndrome, duct-to-duct reconstruction was performed. Stents were not used. The outcomes with microsurgical biliary reconstruction (MB) were compared with the outcomes of a cohort of 86 grafts in 85 patients that underwent conventional biliary reconstruction (CB). The identification of complications included only up to 12 months of follow-up for each recipient in both groups. The average graft duct sizes were 2.8 mm for MB and 3.4 mm for CB. Most complications occurred in the first 15 cases with MB, and these cases were considered to constitute the learning curve phase. The MB complication rate was 46.7% in the first 15 cases, 20.0% in the next 15 cases, and 5.4% in the last 55 cases. When the learning curve phase was excluded, the overall complication rate over time with MB (8.9%) was significantly lower than that with CB (21.9%). CB increased the risk of biliary complications by 2.5 times (relative risk: 2.5; attributable risk: 128; odds ratio: 2.9). In conclusion, routine MB is a technical innovation that leads to decreased early anastomotic complications in living donor liver transplantation.
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Intimal dissection of the hepatic artery following transarterial embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: an intraoperative problem in adult living donor liver transplantation.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2009
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The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between intimal dissection (ID) in the recipient hepatic artery (HA) and transarterial embolization (TAE) and highlight the reconstructive methods for the different types of ID encountered in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Fifty-four patients with hepatocellular carcinoma underwent LDLT. ID was classified as mild, moderate, or severe, and this classification was based on the extent of intimal injury. Mild, moderate, or severe ID were defined as ID that was less than one-quarter of the circumference of the HA, had reached one-half of the circumference of the HA, or was more than one-half of the circumference of the HA or involved the entire vessel wall, respectively. The reconstructive methods were based on the severity of ID encountered. Forty patients underwent TAE before LDLT, and 23 of these patients (57.5%) had ID. Nine patients had mild ID, 6 had moderate ID, and 8 had severe ID. In the 14 patients who did not undergo TAE, 4 had ID (28.6%; 3 mild and 1 severe). The other 10 patients (71.4%) had normal HA. In mild and moderate ID, the native HA was used after trimming of the HA until a healthy segment was encountered. In severe ID, the HA was reconstructed with alternative vessels. Two HA thromboses occurred postoperatively. TAE increased the risk of developing ID 2-fold. There was no graft loss or mortality in this series due to HA complications. In conclusion, ID of the HA is associated with pretransplant TAE among hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing LDLT. Intraoperative recognition of this complication and trimming until good vessel quality is encountered or using alternative vessels are important.
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Crystal structure of Adenylylsulfate reductase from Desulfovibrio gigas suggests a potential self-regulation mechanism involving the C terminus of the beta-subunit.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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Adenylylsulfate reductase (adenosine 5-phosphosulfate [APS] reductase [APSR]) plays a key role in catalyzing APS to sulfite in dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Here, we report the crystal structure of APSR from Desulfovibrio gigas at 3.1-A resolution. Different from the alpha(2)beta(2)-heterotetramer of the Archaeoglobus fulgidus, the overall structure of APSR from D. gigas comprises six alphabeta-heterodimers that form a hexameric structure. The flavin adenine dinucleotide is noncovalently attached to the alpha-subunit, and two [4Fe-4S] clusters are enveloped by cluster-binding motifs. The substrate-binding channel in D. gigas is wider than that in A. fulgidus because of shifts in the loop (amino acid 326 to 332) and the alpha-helix (amino acid 289 to 299) in the alpha-subunit. The positively charged residue Arg160 in the structure of D. gigas likely replaces the role of Arg83 in that of A. fulgidus for the recognition of substrates. The C-terminal segment of the beta-subunit wraps around the alpha-subunit to form a functional unit, with the C-terminal loop inserted into the active-site channel of the alpha-subunit from another alphabeta-heterodimer. Electrostatic interactions between the substrate-binding residue Arg282 in the alpha-subunit and Asp159 in the C terminus of the beta-subunit affect the binding of the substrate. Alignment of APSR sequences from D. gigas and A. fulgidus shows the largest differences toward the C termini of the beta-subunits, and structural comparison reveals notable differences at the C termini, activity sites, and other regions. The disulfide comprising Cys156 to Cys162 stabilizes the C-terminal loop of the beta-subunit and is crucial for oligomerization. Dynamic light scattering and ultracentrifugation measurements reveal multiple forms of APSR upon the addition of AMP, indicating that AMP binding dissociates the inactive hexamer into functional dimers, presumably by switching the C terminus of the beta-subunit away from the active site. The crystal structure of APSR, together with its oligomerization properties, suggests that APSR from sulfate-reducing bacteria might self-regulate its activity through the C terminus of the beta-subunit.
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Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy enhanced wound healing via increasing topical blood perfusion and tissue regeneration in a rat model of STZ-induced diabetes.
Wound Repair Regen
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) has a significant positive effect in accelerating chronic wound healing. However, the bio-mechanisms operating during ESWT of wounds remain unclear. This study investigated the effectiveness of ESWT in the enhancement of diabetic wound healing. A dorsal skin defect (area, 6 x 5 cm) in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes rodent model was used. Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group I consisted of nondiabetic control; group II included diabetic control receiving no ESWT; group III included rats that underwent one session of ESWT (ESW-1) on day 3 (800 impulses at 0.09 mJ/mm(2)) postwounding; group IV included rats that underwent two sessions of ESWT (ESW-2) on days 3 and 7; and group V included rats that underwent three sessions of ESWT (ESW-3) on days 3, 7, and 10. The wound healing was assessed clinically. Blood perfusion scan was performed with laser Doppler. The VEGF, eNOS, and PCNA were analyzed with immunohistochemical stain. The results revealed that the wound size was significantly reduced in the ESWT-treated rats, especially in the ESW-2 and ESW-3 groups, as compared with the control (p<0.01). Blood perfusion was significantly increased after ESWT compared with the controls. Histological findings revealed a significant reduction in the topical pro-inflammatory reaction in the ESWT group as compared with the control. In immunohistochemical stain, significant increases in VEGF, eNOS, and PCNA expressions were observed in the ESWT group, especially in the ESW-2 and ESW-3 groups, as compared with the control. In conclusion, treatment with an optimal session of ESWT significantly enhanced diabetic wound healing associated with increased neo-angiogenesis and tissue regeneration, and topical anti-inflammatory response.
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Versatility of the anterolateral thigh flap with vascularized fascia lata for reconstruction of complex soft-tissue defects: clinical experience and functional assessment of the donor site.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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The anterolateral thigh flap is commonly used for reconstruction of various soft-tissue defects. This article presents the authors approach to one-stage reconstruction of composite soft-tissue defects using an anterolateral thigh flap with a vascularized fascia lata.
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Medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens core are involved in retrieval of the methamphetamine-associated memory.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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Immunohistochemical Fos staining has proven to be a method to identify the neurons that are activated by stimulation. Although methamphetamine (MA)-conditioned place preference (CPP) memory was long-lasting, how this memory was established and retrieved remained unknown. We used the vehicle- and MA-conditioned environment (including cues and context) to reactivate the MA-CPP memory in mice. In the limbic system, Fos-positive neurons were examined following retrieval of the MA-CPP memory. We demonstrated that the current conditioning procedure produced reliable MA-CPP performance. Moreover, enhanced Fos expressions were found in the medial prefrontal cortex and the core of the nucleus accumbens after reactivation of the MA-CPP memory. Furthermore, familiarity with the environmental cues/context was found to significantly enhance Fos expressions in dorsal striatum and dentate gyrus. Nucleus accumbens shell, basolateral or lateral amygdala, in this regard, did not seem to be involved in retrieval of the MA-CPP memory. These results, taken together, suggest that the medial prefrontal cortex and the core of the nucleus accumbens are anatomical substrates responsible for reactivation of the MA-CPP memory.
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Mechanisms of grape seed procyanidin-induced apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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Grape seed procyanidins (GSP) can inhibit cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, and induce apoptosis in human breast, prostate, skin and colorectal carcinoma cell lines.
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Chronic treatment with monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors decreases cocaine reward in mice.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Whether monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) can be used to suppress the reinforcing effect of cocaine remains unknown. This study was undertaken to examine effects of a long-term dosing regimen with selective MAOIs on cocaine and food reward.
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Next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the top-quark decay via model-independent flavor-changing neutral-current couplings.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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D0 and CDF collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron have searched for nonstandard-model single top-quark production and have set upper limits on the anomalous top-quark flavor-changing neutral-current (FCNC) couplings kappatcg/Lambda and kappatug/Lambda using the measurement of the total cross section calculated at the next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD. In this Letter, we report on the effect of anomalous FCNC couplings to various decay branching ratios of the top quark, calculated at the NLO. This result is not only mandatory for a consistent treatment of both the top-quark production and decay via FCNC couplings by D0 and CDF at the Tevatron, but is also important for the study of ATLAS and CMS sensitivity to these anomalous couplings at the CERN LHC.
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A new flavonol galloylrhamnoside and a new lignan glucoside from the leaves of Koelreuteria henryi Dummer.
J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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A new flavonol galloylrhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-(2,3-di-O-galloyl)-alpha-L: -rhamnopyranoside, and a new lignan glycoside, hinokinin 7-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside were isolated from the leaves of Koelreuteria henryi, along with 18 known compounds, including six flavonol glycosides (3-8), three lignans (9-11), four chlorophyll derivatives (12-15), two steroids (16, 17), and three aromatic compounds (18-20). The structures were determined on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical evidence. The scavenging effect of 1-8 and 20 on the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl was examined. Compounds 1, 5, 6, and 20 showed more potent activity than that of trolox.
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Extracorporeal shock wave treatment modulates skin fibroblast recruitment and leukocyte infiltration for enhancing extended skin-flap survival.
Wound Repair Regen
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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Extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) treatment has a positive effect of rescuing ischemic skin flaps. This study assessed whether ESW treatment rescues the compromised flap tissue by suppressing the apoptosis of ischemic tissue and recruiting tissue remodeling. We used a random-pattern extended dorsal-skin-flap (10 x 3 cm) rodent model. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. Group I, the control group, received no treatment. Group II received one session of ESW treatment (500 impulses at 0.15 mJ/mm(2)) immediately after surgery. Group III received two sessions of ESW treatment, immediately and the day after the surgery. Results indicated that the necrotic area in the flaps in group II was significantly smaller than that of the flaps in group I (p<0.01). Transferase dUTP-nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis revealed a significant decrease in the number of apoptotic cells in group II. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) expression in circulation blood was significantly decreased in group II on the day after ESW treatment. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that compared with no treatment, ESW treatment could substantially increase proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and prolyl 4-hydroxylase (rPH) expression, reduce CD45 expression, and suppress 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OG) expression in the ischemic zone of the flap tissue. In conclusion, ESW treatment administered at an optimal dosage exerts a positive effect of rescuing ischemic extended skin flaps. The mechanisms of action of ESWs involve modulation of oxygen radicals, attenuation of leukocyte infiltration, decrease in tissue apoptosis, and recruitment of skin fibroblasts, which results in increased flap tissue survival.
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Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human colorectal carcinoma by Litchi seed extract.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
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The Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit products possess rich amounts of flavanoids and proanthocyanidins. Its pericarp has been shown to inhibit breast and liver cancer cell growth. However, the anticolorectal cancer effect of Litchi seed extract has not yet been reported. In this study, the effects of polyphenol-rich Litchi seed ethanol extract (LCSP) on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of two colorectal cancer cell lines Colo320DM and SW480 were examined. The results demonstrated that LCSP significantly induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner and arrested cell cycle in G2/M in colorectal carcinoma cells. LCSP also suppressed cyclins and elevated the Bax?:?Bcl-2 ratio and caspase 3 activity. This study provides in vitro evidence that LCSP serves as a potential chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer.
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Effects of ellagic acid on chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in colorectal carcinoma cells.
Anticancer Res.
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Ellagic acid has been demonstrated to inhibit the growth of several types of cancer cells. However, whether it sensitizes human colorectal carcinoma cells to 5-fluorouracil, has not yet been investigated. Colorectal carcinoma HT-29, Colo 320DM, SW480 and LoVo cells were treated with ellagic acid (2.5-25 ?g/ml) and 5-fluorouracil (5-25 ?M) alone and in combination and then the viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion, apoptosis by annexin-V labeling, mitochondria membrane potential by staining with rhodamine 123, and changes in the levels of proteins involved in apoptosis by immunoblotting. Ellagic acid and 5-fluorouracil synergistically inhibited cell proliferation of HT-29, Colo 320DM and SW480 cells, but cytotoxicity toward LoVo cells seems not to be potentiated by this combination. The combination also elevated apoptotic cell death of HT-29 and Colo 320DM cells. The mitochondria membrane potential was lost in combination-treated HT-29 cells, due to increased B cell lymphoma 2-associated protein X (BAX): B cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL-2) ratio and caspase-3 activity. Ellagic acid synergistically potentiated chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in at least three colorectal cancer cell lines. The results indicate that ellagic acid has potential as a novel agent sensitizing colorectal cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil.
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Improved consistency in dosing anti-tuberculosis drugs in Taipei, Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
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It was reported that 35.5% of tuberculosis (TB) cases reported in 2003 in Taipei City had no recorded pre-treatment body weight and that among those who had, inconsistent dosing of anti-TB drugs was frequent. Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have taken actions to strengthen dosing of anti-TB drugs among general practitioners. Prescribing practices of anti-TB drugs in Taipei City in 2007-2010 were investigated to assess whether interventions on dosing were effective.
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Multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis treatment regimens and patient outcomes: an individual patient data meta-analysis of 9,153 patients.
PLoS Med.
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Treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is lengthy, toxic, expensive, and has generally poor outcomes. We undertook an individual patient data meta-analysis to assess the impact on outcomes of the type, number, and duration of drugs used to treat MDR-TB.
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The magnetic-nanofluid heat pipe with superior thermal properties through magnetic enhancement.
Nanoscale Res Lett
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This study developed a magnetic-nanofluid (MNF) heat pipe (MNFHP) with magnetically enhanced thermal properties. Its main characteristic was additional porous iron nozzle in the evaporator and the condenser to form a unique flowing pattern of MNF slug and vapor, and to magnetically shield the magnet attraction on MNF flowing. The results showed that an optimal thermal conductivity exists in the applied field of 200?Oe. Furthermore, the minor thermal performance of MNF at the condenser limited the thermal conductivity of the entire MNFHP, which was 1.6 times greater than that filled with water for the input power of 60?W. The feasibilities of an MNFHP with the magnetically enhanced heat transfer and the ability of vertical operation were proved for both a promising heat-dissipation device and the energy architecture integrated with an additional energy system.
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Enhancement of intrinsic emission from ultrathin ZnO films using Si nanopillar template.
Nanoscale Res Lett
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Highly efficient room-temperature ultraviolet (UV) luminescence is obtained in heterostructures consisting of 10-nm-thick ultrathin ZnO films grown on Si nanopillars fabricated using self-assembled silver nanoislands as a natural metal nanomask during a subsequent dry etching process. Atomic layer deposition was applied for depositing the ZnO films on the Si nanopillars under an ambient temperature of 200°C. Based on measurements of photoluminescence (PL), an intensive UV emission corresponding to free-exciton recombination (approximately 3.31?eV) was observed with a nearly complete suppression of the defect-associated, broad-range visible emission peak. As compared to the ZnO/Si substrate, the almost five-times-of-magnitude enhancement in the intensity of PL, which peaked around 3.31?eV in the present ultrathin ZnO/Si nanopillars, is presumably attributed to the high surface/volume ratio inherent to the Si nanopillars. This allowed considerably more amount of ZnO material to be grown on the template and led to markedly more efficient intrinsic emission.
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Could the excess seen at 124-126 GeV be due to the Randall-Sundrum radion?
Phys. Rev. Lett.
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Current Higgs boson searches in various channels at the LHC point to an excess at around 124-126 GeV due to a possibly standard-model-like Higgs boson. If one examines more closely the channels (??, WW(*), and ZZ(*)) that have excess, this "Higgs boson" may be the Randall-Sundrum radion ?. Because of the trace anomaly, the radion has stronger couplings to the photon and gluon pairs. Thus, it will enhance the production rates into gg and ??, while those for WW(*), ZZ(*), and b ?b are reduced relative to their standard model values. We show that it can match well with the data from CMS for m(?)=124??GeV, and the required scale ?(?)? is about 0.68 TeV.
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Cofactors required for TLR7- and TLR9-dependent innate immune responses.
Cell Host Microbe
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Pathogens commonly utilize endocytic pathways to gain cellular access. The endosomal pattern recognition receptors TLR7 and TLR9 detect pathogen-encoded nucleic acids to initiate MyD88-dependent proinflammatory responses to microbial infection. Using genome-wide RNAi screening and integrative systems-based analysis, we identify 190 cofactors required for TLR7- and TLR9-directed signaling responses. A set of cofactors were crossprofiled for their activities downstream of several immunoreceptors and then functionally mapped based on the known architecture of NF-?B signaling pathways. Protein complexes and pathways involved in ubiquitin-protein ligase activities, sphingolipid metabolism, chromatin modifications, and ancient stress responses were found to modulate innate recognition of endosomal nucleic acids. Additionally, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS) was characterized as necessary for ubiquitin-dependent TLR9 targeting to the endolysosome. Proteins and pathways identified here should prove useful in delineating strategies to manipulate innate responses for treatment of autoimmune disorders and microbial infection.
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3-D illustration of network orientations of interstitial cells of Cajal subgroups in human colon as revealed by deep-tissue imaging with optical clearing.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
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Morphological changes of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) have been proposed to characterize motility disorders. However, a global view of the network orientations of ICC subgroups has not been established to illustrate their three-dimensional (3-D) architectures in the human colon. In this research, we integrate c-kit immunostaining, 3-D microscopy with optical clearing, and image rendering to present the location-dependent network orientations with high definition. Full-depth colonic tissues were obtained from colectomies performed for nonobstructing carcinoma. Specimens of colon wall were prepared away from the tumor site. C-kit and nuclear fluorescent staining were used to identify the ICC processes and cell body. Optical clearing was used to generate transparent colon specimens, which led to panoramic visualization of the fluorescence-labeled ICC networks at the myenteric plexus (ICC-MY), longitudinal (ICC-LM) and circular (ICC-CM) muscles, and submucosal boundary (ICC-SM) up to 300 ?m in depth via confocal microscopy with subcellular level resolution. We observed four distinct network patterns: 1) periganglionic ICC-MY that connect with ICC-LM and ICC-CM, 2) plexuses of ICC-LM within the longitudinal muscle and extending toward the serosa, 3) repetitive and organized ICC-CM layers running parallel to the circular muscle axis and extending toward the submucosa, and 4) a condensed ICC-SM layer lining the submucosal border. Among the four patterns, the orderly aligned ICC-CM layers provide an appropriate target for quantitation. Our results demonstrate the location-dependent network orientations of ICC subgroups and suggest a practical approach for in-depth imaging and quantitative analysis of ICC in the human colon specimen.
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Effective interventions and decline of antituberculosis drug resistance in Eastern Taiwan, 2004-2008.
PLoS ONE
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The Taiwan health authority recently launched several tuberculosis (TB) control interventions, which may have an impact on the epidemic of drug-resistant TB. We conducted a population-based antituberculosis drug resistance surveillance program in Eastern Taiwan to measure the proportions of notified TB patients with anti-TB drug resistance and the trend from 2004 to 2008.
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Antiproliferative effects of Dangyuja (Citrus grandis Osbeck) leaves through suppression of constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells.
J Med Food
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Although Dangyuja (Citrus grandis Osbeck) exhibits anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, its molecular targets and pathways, especially in human prostate cancer cells, are not fully understood. In this study, the antiproliferative effect of Dangyuja leaves through the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 signaling pathway was investigated in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells. The solvent fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol) were obtained from a crude extract (80% methanol extract) of Dangyuja leaves. We first found that the chloroform fraction of Dangyuja leaves (DCF) was the most cytotoxic against DU145 cells. DCF inhibited constitutive STAT3 activation through blocking upstream Janus-like kinase 2 and c-Src. Consistent with STAT3 inactivation, DCF down-regulated the expression of STAT3 target genes, including bcl-2, bcl-xl, and cyclin D1; this correlated with the suppression of proliferation, the accumulation of cell cycle at the sub-G(1) phase, and the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, DCF exerted a relatively minor effect on the growth of human prostate noncancerous RWPE-1 cells. Nobiletin, a major active constituent of DCF, could induce apoptosis via the suppression of constitutive STAT3 activation. Overall, our results indicate that the anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities previously assigned to DCF may be mediated partially through the suppression of the STAT3 signaling.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.