A modified Nth-order correlation function is derived that can effectively remove the noise background encountered in high-order thermal light ghost imaging (GI). Based on this, the quality of the reconstructed images in an Nth-order lensless GI setup has been greatly enhanced compared to former high-order schemes for the same sampling number. In addition, the dependence of the visibility and signal-to-noise ratio for different high-order images on the sampling number has been measured and compared.
Many experimental and theoretical studies have established the specific anion, as well as cation, effects on the hydrogen-bond structures at the air/water interface of electrolyte solutions. However, the ion effects on the top-most layer of the air/water interface, which is signified by the non-hydrogen-bonded so-called "free OH" group, have not been explicitly discussed or studied. In this report, we present the measurement of changes of the orientational angle of the "free OH" group at the air/water interface of the sodium fluoride (NaF) solutions at different concentrations using the interface selective sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in the ssp and ppp polarizations. The polarization dependent SFG-VS results show that the average tilt angle of the "free OH" changes from about 36.6° ± 0.5° to 44.1° ± 0.6° as the NaF concentration increases from 0 to 0.94 M (nearly saturated). Such tilt angle change is around the axis of the other O-H group of the same water molecule at the top-most layer at the air/water interface that is hydrogen-bonded to the water molecules below the top-most layer. These results provide quantitative molecular details of the ion effects of the NaF salt on the structure of the water molecules at the top-most layer of the air/water interface, even though both the Na(+) cation and the F(-) anion are believed to be among the most excluded ions from the air/water interface.
A moving optical axis measurement system with six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) is proposed in this study. The system is very simple and can be placed inside a flat piezoelectric micro-stage. The system comprises three two-DOF optical measurement modules, each having a quadrant photo diode (QPD), a lens, and a laser diode. These three modules and the geometric configuration of their installation allow displacement measurements with up to six-DOF to be made. A mathematical model of this system is also presented. By analyzing the sensitivity and relationship between the displacement of the stage and each of the QPD light spots, movement can be observed. Signal feedback enables multi-axis nano-scale positioning control. We also present a new six-DOF nano stage, which uses piezoelectric actuators for displacement. This stage was used to verify the proposed six-DOF measurement system. Linear and angular resolution of the system can be down to 10 nm and 0.1 arcsec. Linear and angular displacement measurement errors of this six-DOF measurement system are in the range of ±70 nm and ±0.65 arcsec.
This study was aimed to explore the effect of arsenic trioxide combined with curcumin on proliferation and apoptosis of KG1a cells and its potential mechanism. The cell survival rate was mesured by MTT; colony formation capacity was examined by methylcellulose colony formation test; flow cytometry was used to analyse the cell surface molecules, cell apoptosis rate and cell cycle; the cell morphology was observed with Wright-Giemsa staining and the protein expression of BCL-2, BAX, PARP was detected by Western blot. The results showed that the phenotype of KG1a cells was CD34(+)CD38(-), while the phenotype of HL-60 cell was CD34(+)CD38(+). The former possessed a stronger colony ability than the latter. Effect of curcumin and arsenic trioxide alone on cell proliferation and inhibition was in dose-dependent manner. Compared with single drug-treatment group, the cell survival rate and colony number were lower, and the apoptosis rate was higher in combined drug-treatment group. Protein expression of BCL-2 and PARP was upregulated, while the protein expression of PARP was downregulated in the combined treatment group. It is concluded that compared with HL-60 cells, KG1a cells are the earlier leukemia stem/progenitor cells. Arsenic trioxide combined with curcumin can effectively inhibit the KG1a cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, which may be associated with the downregulation of BCL-2 and PARP protein expression and the upregulation of BAX protein expression.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key roles in various cellular contexts and diseases by diverse mechanisms. With the rapid growth of identified lncRNAs and disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), there is a great demand to study SNPs in lncRNAs. Aiming to provide a useful resource about lncRNA SNPs, we systematically identified SNPs in lncRNAs and analyzed their potential impacts on lncRNA structure and function. In total, we identified 495 729 and 777 095 SNPs in more than 30 000 lncRNA transcripts in human and mouse, respectively. A large number of SNPs were predicted with the potential to impact on the miRNA-lncRNA interaction. The experimental evidence and conservation of miRNA-lncRNA interaction, as well as miRNA expressions from TCGA were also integrated to prioritize the miRNA-lncRNA interactions and SNPs on the binding sites. Furthermore, by mapping SNPs to GWAS results, we found that 142 human lncRNA SNPs are GWAS tagSNPs and 197 827 lncRNA SNPs are in the GWAS linkage disequilibrium regions. All these data for human and mouse lncRNAs were imported into lncRNASNP database (http://bioinfo.life.hust.edu.cn/lncRNASNP/), which includes two sub-databases lncRNASNP-human and lncRNASNP-mouse. The lncRNASNP database has a user-friendly interface for searching and browsing through the SNP, lncRNA and miRNA sections.
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been shown to be beneficial in treating cerebral ischemia. However, such benefit is limited by the low survival of transplanted MSCs in an ischemic microenvironment. Previous studies showed that melatonin pretreatment can increase MSC survival in the ischemic kidney. However, whether it will improve MSC survival in cerebral ischemia is unknown. Our study examined the effect of melatonin pretreatment on MSCs under ischemia-related conditions in vitro and after transplantation into ischemic rat brain. Results showed that melatonin pretreatment greatly increased survival of MSCs in vitro and reduced their apoptosis after transplantation into ischemic brain. Melatonin-treated MSCs (MT-MSCs) further reduced brain infarction and improved neurobehavioral outcomes. Angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were greatly increased in the MT-MSC-treated rats. Melatonin treatment increased the level of p-ERK1/2 in MSCs, which can be blocked by the melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole. ERK phosphorylation inhibitor U0126 completely reversed the protective effects of melatonin, suggesting that melatonin improves MSC survival and function through activating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Thus, stem cells pretreated by melatonin may represent a feasible approach for improving the beneficial effects of stem cell therapy for cerebral ischemia.
Transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators for gene expression. Here we updated the animal TF database AnimalTFDB to version 2.0 (http://bioinfo.life.hust.edu.cn/AnimalTFDB/). Using the improved prediction pipeline, we identified 72 336 TF genes, 21 053 transcription co-factor genes and 6502 chromatin remodeling factor genes from 65 species covering main animal lineages. Besides the abundant annotations (basic information, gene model, protein functional domain, gene ontology, pathway, protein interaction, ortholog and paralog, etc.) in the previous version, we made several new features and functions in the updated version. These new features are: (i) gene expression from RNA-Seq for nine model species, (ii) gene phenotype information, (iii) multiple sequence alignment of TF DNA-binding domains, and the weblogo and phylogenetic tree based on the alignment, (iv) a TF prediction server to identify new TFs from input sequences and (v) a BLAST server to search against TFs in AnimalTFDB. A new nice web interface was designed for AnimalTFDB 2.0 allowing users to browse and search all data in the database. We aim to maintain the AnimalTFDB as a solid resource for TF identification and studies of transcription regulation and comparative genomics.
In this study, we tried to explore the molecular mechanism that Corilagin protected against herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis through inhibiting the TLR2 signaling pathways in vivo and in vitro. As a result, Corilagin significantly prevented increase in the levels of TLR2 and its downstream mediators following Malp2 or HSV-1 challenge. On the other hand, in spite of TLR2 knockdown, Corilagin could still significantly suppress the expression of P38 and NEMO, phosphor-P38, and nuclear factor kappa B. The mRNA and protein expression of TLR2 and its downstream mediators in the brain tissue were also significantly lowered in mice treated with Corilagin. In addition, Corilagin inhibited expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin (IL)-6 protein. In conclusion, Corilagin shows the potential to protect against HSV-1-induced encephalitis, and the beneficial effects may be mediated by inhibiting TLR2 signaling pathways.
Co-localisation of P2X and P2Y receptors in dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons implies that these receptors play an integrative role in the nociceptive transmission process under inflammatory conditions. In the present study, behavioural and in vivo electrophysiological methods were used to examine the peripheral role of P2 receptors in the persistent nociceptive responses induced by subcutaneous bee venom. Localised pre-treatment with the wide-spectrum antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) significantly suppressed the duration of spontaneous nociceptive lifting/licking behaviour, inhibited mechanical hyperalgesia, and decreased the firing of spinal dorsal horn wide dynamic range neurons, without affecting primary thermal and mirror-image hyperalgesia. The localised antinociceptive action of PPADS is not caused by a systemic effect, as applying the same dose of PPADS to the contralateral side was not effective. This result suggests that the activation of peripheral P2 receptors is involved in the induction of nociceptive responses, mechanical hyperalgesia, and the excitation of sensory spinal neurons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
A sensitive electrochemical lead ion (Pb(2+)) sensor based on carboxylic acid group functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs-COOH) and direct electrodeposited gold nanoparticles (GNPs) was developed for Pb(2+) detection. The DNA capture probe was self-assembled onto the surface of the modified electrode for hybridizing with the guanine-rich (G-rich) aptamer probe and for forming the DNA double helix structure. When Pb(2+) was added in, the DNA duplex unwound and formed a stabilized G-quadruplex (G4) due to the Pb(2+)-induced G-rich DNA conformation. Also, methylene blue (MB) was selected as the G4-binding indicator. Compared with previous Pb(2+) sensors, the proposed sensor had better sensitivity, because the modified MWCNTs/GNPs could provide a large surface area and good charge-transport capacity to dramatically improve the DNA attachment quantity and sensor performance. The sensor could detect Pb(2+) in a range from 5.0 × 10(-11) to 1.0 × 10(-14) M, with a detection of 4.3 × 10(-15) M.
The physiological agonist norepinephrine promotes cell proliferation of brown preadipocytes during the process of tissue recruitment. In a primary culture system, cAMP mediates these adrenergic effects. In the present study, we demonstrated that, in contrast to other systems where the mitogenic effect of cAMP requires the synergistic action of (serum) growth factors, especially insulin/IGF, the cAMP effect in brown preadipocytes was independent of serum and insulin. Protein kinase A, rather than Epac, mediated the cAMP mitogenic effect. The Erk 1/2 family of MAPK, the PI3K system and the mTOR complexes were all activated by cAMP, but these activations were not necessary for cAMP-induced cell proliferation; a protein kinase C isoform may be involved in mediating cAMP-activated cell proliferation. We conclude that the generally acknowledged cellular mediators for induction of cell proliferation are not involved in this process in the brown preadipocyte system; this conclusion may be of relevance both for examination of mechanisms for induction of brown adipose tissue recruitment but also for understanding the mechanism behind e.g. certain endocrine neoplasias.
Mitochondria critically regulate cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c), but the effects of sensory neuron injury have not been examined. Using FCCP (1µM) to eliminate mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake combined with oligomycin (10µM) to prevent ATP depletion, we first identified features of depolarization-induced neuronal [Ca(2+)]c transients that are sensitive to blockade of mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering in order to assess mitochondrial contributions to [Ca(2+)]c regulation. This established the loss of a shoulder during the recovery of the depolarization (K(+))-induced transient, increased transient peak and area, and elevated shoulder level as evidence of diminished mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering. We then examined transients in Control neurons and neurons from the 4th lumbar (L4) and 5th lumbar (L5) dorsal root ganglia after L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). The SNL L4 neurons showed decreased transient peak and area compared to control neurons, while the SNL L5 neurons showed increased shoulder level. Additionally, SNL L4 neurons developed shoulders following transients with lower peaks than Control neurons. Application of FCCP plus oligomycin elevated resting [Ca(2+)]c in SNL L4 neurons more than in Control neurons. Whereas application of FCCP plus oligomycin 2s after neuronal depolarization initiated mitochondrial Ca(2+) release in most Control and SNL L4 neurons, this usually failed to release mitochondrial Ca(2+) from SNL L5 neurons. For comparable cytoplasmic Ca(2+) loads, the releasable mitochondrial Ca(2+) in SNL L5 neurons was less than Control while it was increased in SNL L4 neurons. These findings show diminished mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering in axotomized SNL L5 neurons but enhanced Ca(2+) buffering by neurons in adjacent SNL L4 neurons.
The concept of the "neurovascular unit," emphasizing the interactions between neural and vascular components in the brain, raised the notion that neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation therapy aimed at neural repair may be insufficient for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Here, we demonstrate that enhanced neurovascular recovery via cotransplantation of NPCs and embryonic stem cell-derived vascular progenitor cells (VPCs) in a rat stroke model is correlated with improved functional recovery after stroke. We found that cotransplantation promoted the survival, migration, differentiation, and maturation of neuronal and vascular cells derived from the cotransplanted progenitors. Furthermore, it triggered an increased generation of VEGF-, BDNF-, and IGF1-expressing neural cells derived from the grafted NPCs. Consistently, compared with transplantation of NPCs alone, cotransplantation more effectively improved the neurobehavioral deficits and attenuated the infarct volume. Thus, cotransplantation of NPCs and VPCs represents a more effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of stroke than transplantation of NPCs alone.
Clostridium acetobutylicum is an important organism for biobutanol production. Due to frequent exposure to bacteriophages during fermentation, industrial C. acetobutylicum strains require a strong immune response against foreign genetic invaders. In the present study, a novel CRISPR system was reported in a C. acetobutylicum GXAS18-1 strain by whole genome sequencing, and several specific characteristics of the CRISPR system were revealed as follows: (1) multiple CRISPR loci were confirmed within the whole bacterial genome, while only one cluster of CRISPR-associated genes (Cas) was found in the current strain; (2) similar leader sequences at the 5' end of the multiple CRISPR loci were identified as promoter elements by promoter prediction, suggesting that these CRISPR loci were under the control of the same transcriptional factor; (3) homology analysis indicated that the present Cas genes shared only low sequence similarity with the published Cas families; and (4) concerning gene similarity and gene cluster order, these Cas genes belonged to the csm family and originated from the euryarchaeota by horizontal gene transfer.
In this Letter, telecom-band degenerate-frequency photon pairs are generated in a specific mode of a silicon microring cavity by the nondegenerate spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) process, under two continuous-wave pumps at resonance wavelength of two different cavity modes. The ratio of coincidence to accidental coincidence is up to 100 under a time bin width of 5 ns, showing their characteristics of quantum correlation. Their quantum interference in balanced and unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers is investigated theoretically and experimentally, and the results show potential in quantum metrology and quantum information.
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Numerous therapeutic studies, including stem cell therapy, have been explored in order to find the possible approach treating cerebral ischemia effectively. However, massive grafted-cell death and low survival rate made us pessimistic about the widespread application of stem cell therapy. The approach of preconditioning stem cells became an attractive option due to its high cell viability after transplantation. In this review, we focused on preconditioning stem cells via cytokines, chemical drugs and other factors including interleukin 6 (IL-6), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), minocycline, melatonin and hypoxia to increase grafted stem cell survival, proliferation, migration to ischemic peri-focal area and ultimately improve neurobehavioral outcomes. We explored the underlying therapeutic efficacy of preconditioning stem cells as well as possible mechanisms and potential risks. Finally, we discussed the prospects of the application of cell-based therapy in clinical patients with ischemic stroke.
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is recognized as a key element in encoding depolarization activity of excitable cells into facilitated voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) function. Less is known about the participation of CaMKII in regulating VGCCs in resting cells. We examined constitutive CaMKII control of Ca(2+) currents in peripheral sensory neurons acutely isolated from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of adult rats. The small molecule CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 (1.0?M) reduced depolarization-induced ICa by 16-30% in excess of the effects produced by the inactive homolog KN-92. The specificity of CaMKII inhibition on VGCC function was shown by the efficacy of the selective CaMKII blocking peptide autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide in a membrane-permeable myristoylated form, which also reduced VGCC current in resting neurons. Loss of VGCC currents is primarily due to reduced N-type current, as application of mAIP selectively reduced N-type current by approximately 30%, and prior N-type current inhibition eliminated the effect of mAIP on VGCCs, while prior block of L-type channels did not reduce the effect of mAIP on total ICa. T-type currents were not affected by mAIP in resting DRG neurons. Transduction of sensory neurons in vivo by DRG injection of an adeno-associated virus expressing AIP also resulted in a loss of N-type currents. Together, these findings reveal a novel molecular adaptation whereby sensory neurons retain CaMKII support of VGCCs despite remaining quiescent.
Sigma-1 receptor (?1R), an endoplasmic reticulum-chaperone protein, can modulate painful response after peripheral nerve injury. We have demonstrated that voltage-gated calcium current is inhibited in axotomized sensory neurons. We examined whether ?1R contributes to the sensory dysfunction of voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) after peripheral nerve injury through electrophysiological approach in dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Animals received either skin incision (Control) or spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Both ?1R agonists, (+)pentazocine (PTZ) and DTG [1,3-di-(2-tolyl)guanidine], dose dependently inhibited calcium current (ICa) with Ba(2+) as charge carrier in control sensory neurons. The inhibitory effect of ?1R agonists on ICa was blocked by ?1R antagonist, BD1063 (1-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-4-m?ethylpiperazine dihydrochloride) or BD1047 (N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-m?ethyl-2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine dihydrobromide). PTZ and DTG showed similar effect on ICa in axotomized fifth DRG neurons (SNL L5). Both PTZ and DTG shifted the voltage-dependent activation and steady-state inactivation of VGCC to the left and accelerated VGCC inactivation rate in both Control and axotomized L5 SNL DRG neurons. The ?1R antagonist, BD1063 (10 ?M), increases ICa in SNL L5 neurons but had no effect on Control and noninjured fourth lumbar neurons in SNL rats. Together, the findings suggest that activation of ?R1 decreases ICa in sensory neurons and may play a pivotal role in pain generation.
Acute interventions of stroke are often challenged by a narrow treatment window. In this study, we explore treatments in the postacute phase of stroke with wider windows of opportunity. We investigated the effects of stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1?) in neurovascular recovery during the postacute phase and downstream signaling pathways, underlying SDF-1?-mediated neurovascular recovery.
Current studies demonstrated that metformin is not only a hypoglycemic drug, but also a neuro-protective agent. However, the effect of metformin during ischemic brain injury is unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of metformin during ischemic brain injury. Adult male CD1 mice underwent 90min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Metformin (200mg/kg) was given at the time of reperfusion daily until sacrifice. Results showed that metformin treatment significantly reduced ischemia-induced brain atrophy volume compared to the control (p<0.05). Immunostaining results showed that the microvessel density in the peri-focal region of metformin treated mice was greatly increased compared to the control (p<0.05). Similarly, the numbers of BrdU+/DCX+ and nestin+ cells in the subventricular zone were increased in metformin treated mice compared to the control (p<0.05). Furthermore, we demonstrated that metformin treatment activated AMPK signaling pathway and promoted eNOS phosphorylation. Thus, we concluded that metformin promoted focal angiogenesis and neurogenesis and attenuated ischemia-induced brain injury in mice after middle cerebral artery occlusion, suggesting that metformin is a potential new drug for ischemic stroke therapy.
Pyrrolidine rings are common moieties for pharmaceutical candidates and natural compounds, and the construction of these skeletons has received much attention. ?-Amino nitriles are versatile intermediates in synthetic chemistry and have been widely used in the generation of multiple polyfunctional structures. Herein, a novel nucleophilic phosphine-catalyzed intramolecular Michael reaction of N-allylic substituted ?-amino nitriles has been developed for the efficient construction of functionalized 2,4-disubstituted pyrrolidines (N-heterocyclic ?-amino nitriles) via 5-endo-trig cyclization. Furthermore, the one-pot sequence of the synthesis of pyrrolidine and the subsequent transformations of the functionalized products have also been demonstrated.
Metformin, a widely used hypoglycemic drug, reduces stroke incidence and alleviates chronic inflammation in clinical trials. However, the effect of metformin in ischemic stroke is unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of metformin on ischemic stroke in mice and further explored the possible underlying mechanisms.
Ulcerative colitis (UC), an idiopathic inflammatory disorder in the colon, has become a clinical challenge, owing to the increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The conventional treatments for UC including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, induce remission in only half of patients. Meanwhile, the treatments often come with serious side effects which can be life-threatening. Herbal medicine, one of the most common traditional Chinese medicine modalities, has been introduced for centuries into clinical treatment of many human diseases such as infections and functional disorders. Recently, the potential effectiveness of herbs has been suggested as the treatment of UC, as shown by a variety of clinical trials and experimental studies. The herbs reported in the literature include aloe vera gel, butyrate, tormentil extracts, wheat grass juice, and curcumin. In the review, bioactivity of the herbs and their involvement in UC treatment are discussed.
The rat suture middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) is a frequently used animal model for investigating the mechanisms of ischemic brain injury. During suture MCAO, transection of the external carotid artery (ECA) potentially restrains blood flow and impairs masticatory muscle and other ECA-supported territories, consequently influencing post-operation animal survival. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of ECA transection on the hemodynamic alterations using a novel synchrotron radiation (SR) angiography technique and magnetic resonance imaging in live animals. Fifteen male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Animals underwent MCAO, in which the ECA was transected. SR angiography was performed before and after MCAO. Rats then underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect the tissue lesion both intra- and extra-cranially. Animals with SR angiography without other manipulations were used as control. High-resolution cerebrovascular morphology was analyzed using a novel technique of SR angiography. The masticatory muscle lesion was further examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. MRI and histological results showed that there was no masticatory muscle lesion at 1, 7 and 28 days following MCAO with ECA transection. In normal condition, the ECA and its branch external maxillary artery were clearly detected. Following ECA transection, the external maxillary artery was still observed and the blood supply appeared from the anastomotic branch from the pterygopalatine artery. SR angiography further revealed the inter-relationship of hemisphere extra- and intra-cranial vasculature in the rat following MCAO. Transection of the ECA did not impair masticatory muscles in rat suture MCAO. Interrupted blood flow could be compensated by the collateral circulation from the pterygopalatine artery.
In this paper, 1.5 ?m correlated photon pairs are generated under continuous wave (CW) pumping in a silicon micro-ring cavity with a Q factor of 8.1 × 10(4). The ratio of coincidences to accidental coincidences (CAR) is up to 200 under a coincidence time bin width of 5 ns. The experiment result of single side photon count shows that the generation rate does not increase as the square of the pump level due to the nonlinear losses in the cavity which reduce the Q factor and impact the field enhancement effect in the cavity under high pump level. Theoretical analysis shows that the photon pair generation rate in the cavity is proportional to the seventh power of the Q factor, which agrees well with the experiment result. It provides a way to analyze the performance of CW pumping correlated photon pair generation in silicon micro-ring cavities under high pump levels.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a worldwide malignancy; however, there is a lack of effective targeted therapies. We and others have found that miR-221 is one of the most consistently overexpressed miRNAs in liver cancer. However, the roles of miR-221 in hepatocellular carcinogenesis are still not fully elucidated. In the present study, we used bioinformatics tools, gain- and loss-of-function methods to determine the roles of miR-221 in HCC. Bioinformatics analysis showed that miR-221 is a core miRNA which targets a large number of HCC-related genes and has formed many feed-forward regulatory loops combining transcription factors (TFs) to regulate HCC-related genes. Inhibition of miR-221 in liver cancer cells decreased cell proliferation, clonogenicity, migration/invasion and also induced G1 arrest and apoptosis. In addition, we demonstrated that miR-221 bound directly to the 3'-untranslated region of BMF, BBC3 and ANGPTL2, and inhibited the expression of BMF, BBC3 and ANGPTL2. In a mouse model, lentivirus?mediated miR-221 silencing could significantly suppress the growth of hepatoma xenografts in nude mice. In conclusion, we showed that miR-221 is a critical modulator in the HCC signaling pathway, and miR-221 silencing inhibits liver cancer malignant properties in vitro and in vivo, which may benefit the treatment for patients with unresectable HCC.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by excessive innate immune cell activation, which is responsible for tissue damage and induction of adaptive immune responses. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the ligand of retinoic acid receptors (RAR), has been previously shown to regulate adaptive immune responses and restore Th17/Treg balance, while its role in regulation of innate immune cell function such as macrophages remains to be elucidated. The study was performed to explore the effect of ATRA on regulation of innate immune responses during dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced murine colitis. The mice with DSS colitis were administered with vehicle, ATRA, or LE135. Colitis was evaluated by clinical symptoms, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the expressions of CD68 and nuclear factor (NF) ?B p65, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) level in inflamed colon. RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with vehicle, ATRA, or LE135, followed by LPS challenge in vitro. ATRA administration ameliorates DSS-induced colitis evidenced with decreased TNF level and CD68 expression, while LE135 leads to exacerbation of colitis. ATRA treatment in vitro dampens LPS induced NF-?B activation and TNF production of RAW 264.7 cells. Together, our data show a crucial role of ATRA in the progress of acute colitis through inhibiting NF-?B activation, and suggest that ATRA represents a novel therapeutic approach for the management of IBD.
This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Honokiol (HNK) combined with Gemcitabine (GEM) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells. Cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 method to study the role of Honokiol and Gemcitabine in Raji cells. The cell apoptosis and cell cycle status were analyzed by flow cytometry. The level of apoptosis-related protein BCL-2 was measured with Western blot. The results showed that compared with cells treated with mentioned above drugs alone, the proliferative potential of cells in combination group was significantly inhibited (P < 0.01) and the inhibition rate was related to the concentration and action time of HNK; and apoptosis rate markedly increased (P < 0.01), while most Raji cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase and decreased in S phase after treatment with combination of two drugs; the expression of BCL-2 protein decreased (P < 0.01). It is concluded that Honokiol combined Gemcitabine can synergistically inhibit the proliferation, induce cell apoptosis, and down-regulate the expression of BCL-2 in Raji cells. The possible mechanism of synergistic effect may be related with arrest of cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and downregulation of the expression of BCL-2.
Rationale: Cerebral ischemia up-regulates aquaporin-4 expression, increases blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and induces brain edema. Mesenchymalstem cells (MSCs) can repress inflammatory cytokines and show great potential for ischemic stroke therapy. However, the effect of MSCs regarding the protection of ischemia-induced BBB break down is unknown. Objective: We test whether MSCs therapy protects BBB integrity and explore the molecular mechanisms of aquaporin-4 on blood-brain barrier integrity. Methods and Results: Two hundred and twenty eight adult CD1 male mice under went 90minutes transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and received 2X10(5) MSCs intracranial transplantation. The neurological severity score was improved and both ischemia-induced brain edema and BBB leakage were reduced in MSCs treated mice. MSCs therapy reduced astrocyte apoptosis and inhibited ischemia-induced aquaporin-4 up-regulation. In addition, small-interfering RNA knockdown of aquaporin-4 after cerebral ischemia effectively reduced aquaporin-4 expression, brain edema, BBB leakage and astrocyte apoptosis. Conditional medium from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia enhanced aquaporin-4 expression, p38 and JNK phosphorylation, and apoptosis of cultured astrocytes. MSC treatment reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines in LPS-activated microglia, and subsequently reduced aquaporin-4 expression and apoptosis of astrocytes. Knockdown of aquaporin-4 in cultured astrocytes also reduced apoptosis.Treatment with p38 and JNK inhibitors showed that p38, but not the JNK signaling pathway, was responsible for the aquaporin-4 up-regulation. Conclusion: MSCs protected BBB integrity by reducing the apoptosis of astrocytes after ischemic attack, which was due to the attenuation of inflammatory response and down-regulation of aquaporin-4 expression via p38 signaling pathway. Stem Cells 2014.
A hybrid coumarin-thiazole compound was developed as a novel ratiometric and colorimetric sensor for bisulfite anions. Structure identification of the compound was confirmed by (1)H?NMR, (13)C?NMR, (1)H,(1)H COSY, heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), IR, and HRMS spectroscopy. The detection of bisulfite anions was performed through the Michael addition of the bisulfite anion toward the hybrid coumarin-thiazole sensor. The reaction between the sensor and bisulfite anion caused the fluorescence intensity to decrease at 600?nm and to increase at 450?nm and simultaneously yielded a visible color change from purplish red to colorless because the ? conjugation between thiazole and coumarin was blocked. The sensor possessed high selectivity and sensitivity for bisulfite with respect to other common anions in aqueous solution. Moreover, the practical value of this sensor was confirmed by its application in the detection of bisulfite anion in human breast adenocarcinoma cells and granulated sugar.
Introduction. Surgical resection is the most effective treatment for neoplasm in the caudate lobe. Isolated caudate lobectomy is still a challenge for hepatobiliary surgeons. No widely accepted surgical strategy for the procedure has been developed yet. Objective. To get a better understanding of isolated caudate lobectomy and to optimize the procedure. Materials and Methods. 16 cases of isolated caudate lobectomy were reviewed to summarize the surgical experience. Results. All the 16 cases of isolated caudate lobectomy were carried out successfully, among which left side approach was adopted in two cases (12.5%), right side approach in three cases (18.75%), and both sides approach in 11 cases (68.75%). No severe complications occurred. Conclusion. The majority of neoplasms confined to the caudate lobe can be resected safely by left and right side approach with proper anatomic surgical procedure, usually in the sequence of mobilization, outflow control, inflow control, and division of the hepatic parenchyma. Fully mobilizing the caudate lobe from the inferior vena cava (IVC) is of great importance. Division of the retrohepatic ligament and the venous ligament facilitated the procedure.
Angiogenesis, an important process for long term neurological recovery, could be induced by ischemic brain injury. In this chapter, we describe a system to deliver adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy for ischemic stroke. This includes the methods to construct, produce, and purify an AAV vector expressing target gene and an approach to quantify the number of microvessels and capillary density with synchrotron radiation angiography (SRA) imaging.
Salvia miltiorrhiza injection (SMI) is a water?soluble agent, derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), that is traditionally used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Furthermore it has been demonstrated to possess the ability to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, it remains unclear whether SMI can induce apoptosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast?like synoviocytes (FLS), which are hyperplastic in RA due to defective apoptosis. There is also evidence that allogenic serum may be associated with the induction of apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of serum during SMI?induced apoptosis in RA FLS. The results demonstrated that SMI could induce apoptosis of RA FLS, cultured with fetal bovine serum (FBS), in a dose?dependent manner. In addition, SMI decreased the expression of nuclear factor??B in RA FLS nuclear extracts and inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor??. Fas ligand expression was not detected in RA FLS, in either the presence or absence of SMI. The pro?apoptotic genes B?cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2) associated X protein (Bax) and Fas, were shown to be upregulated following SMI stimulation, whereas the expression levels of the anti?apoptotic gene Bcl?2, were downregulated. Upon replacement of FBS with normal human serum, the apoptotic rate and Bax mRNA expression levels following SMI stimulation, were unchanged. However, culturing RA FLS with patient' serum (RPS), restored the apoptotic rate and Bax mRNA expression levels following SMI stimulation. There may be numerous mechanisms by which SMI inhibits RA FLS proliferation. The present study demonstrated that SMI can restore apoptosis of RA FLS cultured with RPS. These results indicate that SMI may have a potential role in the treatment of synovial hyperplasia of RA.
The relationship between circulating microRNA-223 and pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke is unknown. Here we investigated the roles and possible targets of circulating microRNA-223 in human ischemic stroke within the first 72 hours.
Transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) leads to better outcomes in experimental stroke, but the mechanism remains unclear. It was reported that astrocytic-high mobility group box1 (HMGB1) promoted endogenous EPC-mediated neurovascular remodeling during stroke recovery. It is unclear whether HMGB1 involves in exogenous EPC-mediated stroke recovery. In this study, we aim to explore whether microglial HMGB1 contributes to human peripheral blood-derived (hPB)-EPCs-mediated neurovascular remodeling by modulating the paracrine function of exogenous hPB-EPCs. Coculturing hPB-EPCs with lipopolysaccharides stimulated BV2 cells upregulated Interleukin-8 expression in hPB-EPCs; this was blocked by treating BV2 cells with HMGB1 inhibitor Glycyrrhizin. Conditioned medium (CM) of hPB-EPCs cocultured with BV2 cells promoted the viability and tube formation of human umbilical cord vein cells. Inhibiting either HMGB1 or IL-8 could block the effect of hPB-EPCs CM. In vivo study showed hPB-EPCs transplantation improved neurobehavioral outcomes, reduced brain atrophy volume, and enhanced neovascularization in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) mice. Intraperitoneally administration of HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin blocked the beneficial effect of hPB-EPC transplantation. We did not observe the integration of green fluorescent protein-labeled hPB-EPCs with microvessels in peri-infarct areas at day-14 after tMCAO. In summary, the result suggested that HMGB1 upregulation in postischemic brain could promote exogenous hPB-EPC-mediated stroke recovery by modulating paracrine function of hPB-EPCs.
Rapamycin has been demonstrated to exhibit neuroprotective functions via the activation of autophagy in a cerebral ischemia model. However, the involvement of mitophagy in this process and its contribution to the protection of mitochondrial function remains unknown. The present study explored the characteristics of mitophagy after cerebral ischemia and the effect of rapamycin on mitochondrial function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Neurological deficits scores; infarct volumes; mitophagy morphology; and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potentials (??m) were examined. The expression of LC3, Beclin-1 and p62 in the mitochondrial fraction combined with transmission electronic microscopy were used to explore mitophagic activity after ischemia. We also blocked autophagosome formation using 3-methyladenine (3-MA) to check the linkage between the mitochondrial protective effect of rapamycin and enhanced mitophagy. We observed that rapamycin significantly enhanced mitophagy, as evidenced by the increase in LC3-II and Beclin-1 expression in the mitochondria and p62 translocation to the mitochondria. Rapamycin reduced infarct volume, improved neurological outcomes and inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction compared with the control animals (p<0.05). However, these protective effects were reversed by 3-methyladenine treatment after rapamycin. The present study indicates that rapamycin treatment attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction following cerebral ischemia, which is linked to enhanced mitophagy.
Spirocyclization of xanthene dyes has become a powerful technique for developing fluorescent probes. Herein, we extend this unique fluorescence switching mechanism to a near-infrared (NIR) dye, 2-(7-diethylamino-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl)-4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-7-diethylamino-1-benzopyrylium (CB), and construct a ratiometric fluorescent probe 1 for cysteine (Cys)/homocysteine (Hcy). The ratiometric sensing of probe 1 toward Cys/Hcy is realized by utilizing a tandem native chemical ligation/spirocyclization reaction to interrupt the large ?-conjugated system of CB fluorophore, thereby affording remarkable blue shifts in the spectra of sensing system (from 669 to 423 nm in absorption spectra and from 694 to 474 nm in emission spectra). Probe 1 shows a high sensitivity for Cys/Hcy, and the detection limits (3 ?) for Cys and Hcy are 1.6 × 10(-7) and 1.8 × 10(-7) M, respectively. Moreover, since both the sulfhydril and the adjacent amino groups are involved in the sensing process, probe 1 is selective toward Cys/Hcy over other thiols such as glutathione. All these unique features make it particularly favorable for ratiometric Cys/Hcy sensing and bioimaging applications. It has been preliminarily used for Cys detection in rabbit serum samples and the ratiometric fluorescent imaging of Cys in living HepG2 cells.
The present study examined nociceptive behaviors and the expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) evoked by bee venom (BV). The effect of intraplantar preapplication of the somatostatin analog octreotide on nociceptive behaviors and pCREB expression was also examined. Subcutaneous injection of BV into the rat unilateral hindpaw pad induced significant spontaneous nociceptive behaviors, primary mechanical allodynia, primary thermal hyperalgesia, and mirror-thermal hyperalgesia, as well as an increase in pCREB expression in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn and DRG. Octreotide pretreatment significantly attenuated the BV-induced lifting/licking response and mechanical allodynia. Local injection of octreotide also significantly reduced pCREB expression in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn and DRG. Furthermore, pretreatment with cyclosomatostatin, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, reversed the octreotide-induced inhibition of the lifting/licking response, mechanical allodynia, and the expression of pCREB. These results suggest that BV can induce nociceptive responses and somatostatin receptors are involved in mediating the antinociception, which provides new evidence for peripheral analgesic action of somatostatin in an inflammatory pain state.
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), the hydroxylated analog of chloroquine, is an antimalarial lysomotropic agent that inhibits autophagy due to lysosomal acidification, and subsequently blocks the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes which leads to the accumulation of autophagosomes that may accelerate tumor cell death. Given these hypothesis the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HCQ in the inhibition of autophagy and the induction of apoptosis in cervical cancer SiHa cells. Cervical cancer SiHa cells were cultured with Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) as positive control of autophagy or treated with HCQ as part of the experimental groups. LC3 and P62/SQSTM1 were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively in order to evaluate initially autophagosome formation and their degradation. Specific green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3 was subsequently detected by fluorescence microscopy in order to confirm the formation of autophagosomes. MTT and flow cytometry were adopted respectively to assess the proliferation and apoptosis of the SiHa cells. miRNA-9* was also investigated. The results demonstrated that HCQ increased the expressions of LC3 mRNA and LC3II protein and GFP-LC3 signalling but reduced the expression of p62/STSQM1 in cervical cancer SiHa cells. These results indicated HCQ has the ability to inhibit autophagy as incapable of degrading the autophagosome. However, HCQ may promote SiHa cell apoptosis as the MTT, apoptotic assay and miRNA-9* results revealed. HCQ has the ability to inhibit autophagy by blocking the degradation of autophagosomes and subsequently facilitates the apoptosis of cervical cancer SiHa cells.
Neural stem cells (NSCs) show therapeutic potential for ischemia in young-adult animals. However, the effect of aging on NSC therapy is largely unknown. In this work, NSCs were transplanted into aged (24-month-old) and young-adult (3-month-old) rats at 1 day after stroke. Infarct volume and neurobehavioral outcomes were examined. The number of differentiated NSCs was compared in aged and young-adult ischemic rats and angiogenesis and neurogenesis were also determined. We found that aged rats developed larger infarcts than young-adult rats after ischemia (P<0.05). The neurobehavioral outcome was also worse for aged rats comparing with young-adult rats. Brain infarction and neurologic deficits were attenuated after NSC transplantation in both aged and young-adult rats. The number of survived NSCs in aged rats was similar to that of the young-adult rats (P>0.05) and most of them were differentiated into glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) (GFAP(+)) cells. More importantly, angiogenesis and neurogenesis were greatly enhanced in both aged and young-adult rats after transplantation compared with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control (P<0.05), accompanied by increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our results showed that NSC therapy reduced ischemic brain injury, along with increased angiogenesis and neurogenesis in aged rats, suggesting that aging-related microenvironment does not preclude a beneficial response to NSCs transplantation during cerebral ischemia.
Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is grown in different geographical regions of the world. It is adapted to different environments by modification of flowering time and requirement for cold. A broad variation exists from very early-flowering spring-type to late-flowering winter cultivars which only flower after exposure to an extended cold period. B. napus is an allopolyploid species which resulted from the hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PEBP-domain genes FLOWERING LOCUS-T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER-1 (TFL1) are important integrators of different flowering pathways. Six FT and four TFL1 paralogs have been identified in B. napus. However, their role in flowering time control is unknown. We identified EMS mutants of the B. napus winter-type inbreed line Express 617. In total, 103 mutant alleles have been determined for BnC6FTb, BnC6FTa, and BnTFL1-2 paralogs. We chose three non-sense and 15 missense mutant lines (M3) which were grown in the greenhouse. Although only two out of 6 FT paralogs were mutated, 6 out of 8 BnC6FTb mutant lines flowered later as the control, whereas all five BnC6FTa mutant lines started flowering as the non-mutated parent. Mutations within the BnTFL1-2 paralog had no large effects on flowering time but on yield components. F1 hybrids between BnTFL1-2 mutants and non-mutated parents had increased seed number per pod and total seeds per plant suggesting that heterozygous mutations in a TFL1 paralog may impact heterosis in rapeseed. We demonstrate that single point-mutations in BnFT and BnTFL1 paralogs have effects on flowering time despite the redundancy of the rapeseed genome. Moreover, our results suggest pleiotropic effects of BnTFL1 paralogs beyond the regulation of flowering time.
Aneurysm embolization with coil is now widely used clinically. However, the recurrence of aneurysms after embolization has always plagued neurosurgeons because the endothelial layer of the aneurysm neck loses its integrity after being embolized by coil. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) could be incorporated into injured endothelium and differentiate into mature endothelial cells during vascular repairing processes. The aim of our study is to explore the effects of BM-EPCs on aneurysm repairing and remodeling in a rat embolization model of abdominal aortic aneurysm. BM-EPC proliferation, migration and tube formation were not affected by super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO) labeling compared to the controls (p>0.05). The number of SPIO-labeled cells greatly increased in EPC transplanted rats compared to that of phosphate buffered saline treated rats. SPIO-labeled EPC (SPIO-EPC) are mainly located in the aneurysm neck and surrounded by fibrous tissue. A histology study showed that the aneurysm orifice was closed with neointima and the aneurysm was filled with newly formed fibrous tissue. The SPIO-EPC accumulated in the aneurysm neck, which accelerated focal fibrous tissue remodeling, suggesting that BM-EPCs play a crucial role in repairing and remodeling the aneurysm neck orifice.
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important enzyme in regulation of cellular energy homeostasis. We have previously shown that AMPK activation by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR) results in suppression of immune responses, indicating the pivotal role of AMPK in immune regulation. However, the cellular mechanism underpinning AMPK inhibition on immune response remains largely to be elucidated. The study aimed to investigate the effects of AMPK inhibition on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) signaling and endotoxemia-induced liver injury.
This study was to observe the effect and possible mechanism of somatostatin analogue octreotide (OCT) on cross excitation of adjacent segment of spinal nerve in rat. Cutaneous branches of T9-T13 spinal dorsal rami were chosen and dissected free for the following recording and stimulation. Only single unit fiber was used for recording, and the adjacent segment of nerve stem was used for antidromic electrical stimulation. To investigate the change of discharge rate and mechanical threshold, OCT and (or) somatostatin receptor antagonist cyclo-somatostatin (c-SOM) were applied to the receptive field following the antidromic electrical stimulation. The result showed that injection of OCT inhibited the increase of discharge rate and the decrease of mechanical threshold induced by the electrical stimulation (cross excitation); c-SOM reversed the effects of OCT. Application of c-SOM alone enhanced the cross excitation effects. The results suggest local application of somatostatin analogue OCT can inhibit the cross excitation between the two segments of spinal nerve by somatostatin receptor.
Transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) can jointly regulate target gene expression in the forms of feed-forward loops (FFLs) or feedback loops (FBLs). These regulatory loops serve as important motifs in gene regulatory networks and play critical roles in multiple biological processes and different diseases. Major progress has been made in bioinformatics and experimental study for the TF and miRNA co-regulation in recent years. To further speed up its identification and functional study, it is indispensable to make a comprehensive review. In this article, we summarize the types of FFLs and FBLs and their identified methods. Then, we review the behaviors and functions for the experimentally identified loops according to biological processes and diseases. Future improvements and challenges are also discussed, which includes more powerful bioinformatics approaches and high-throughput technologies in TF and miRNA target prediction, and the integration of networks of multiple levels.
The problem of noise and baseline drift is a hot topic in infrared spectral harmonic detection system. This paper presents a new algorithm based on wavelet transform Mallet decomposition to solve the problem of eliminating a variety of complex noise and baseline drift in the harmonic detection. In the algorithm, the appropriate wavelet function and decomposition level were selected to decomposed the noise, baseline drift and useful signal in the harmonic curve into different frequency bands. the bands information was analysed and a detecting band was set, then the information in useful frequency was reserved by zeroing method of treatment and the coefficient of the threshold. We can just use once transform and reconstruction to remove interference noise and baseline from double-harmonic signal by applying the wavelet transform technique to the harmonic detection spectrum pretreatment. Experiments show that the wavelet transform method can be used to different harmonic detection systems and has universal applicability.
This study was aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of the Naja Naja Actra Venom Component (NNAVC) combined with activated immune cells on human acute myeloblastic leukemia line KG1a cells. The cytotoxic effects of NNAVC at different concentrations on KG1a cells were measured by CCK-8 method. LDH releasing assay was used to detect the cytotoxic effects of activated immune cells, NNAVC combined with activated immune cells on KG1a cells and the sensitivity of KG1a treated with NNAVC to activated immune cells. The results showed that the inhibitory rate of NNAVC on KG1a cells increased with the concentration enhancement, the cytotoxicity of activated immune cells at the different effector to target (E:T) ratios(6.25:1, 12.5:1, 25:1) on KG1a cells were 12.30%, 24.85% and 52.26%. The cytotoxicity of NNAVC combined with activated immune cells at the different E:T cell ratios (10:1, 20: 1) on KG1a cells were 56.21% and 85.59%, which were higher than that of NNAVC or activated immune cells alone. The cytotoxicity of activated immune cells at the E: T cell ratio of 10:1 on KG1a cells treated with NNAVC at different concentrations were 25.65%, 31.33%, 28.63% and 16.78%, respectively, and that at the E:T cell ratio of 20: 1 were 40.62%, 44.70%, 44.62% and 40.72%. It is concluded that:both of NNAVC and activated immune cells have lethal effect on KG1a cells, and the combination of NNAVC and activated immune cells can strengthen their effect on KG1a.
Evidence shows that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in microRNA (miRNA) target sites can create, destroy, or modify the miRNA/mRNA binding, therefore modulating gene expression and affecting cancer susceptibility. The transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in tumor initiation and progression. Intriguingly, recent advances of genome-wide association studies have identified multiple risk loci in this pathway to be associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). To test the hypothesis that genetic variants in miRNA target sites in genes of the TGF-? signaling pathway may also be associated with CRC risk, we first systematically scanned the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of TGF-? signaling pathway which potentially affect the miRNA/mRNA bindings. Through a series of filters, we narrowed down these candidates to four SNPs. Then, we conducted a case-control study with 600 CRC patients and 638 controls in Han Chinese population. We observed that compared with A carriers (AA?+?AG), the GG genotype of rs12997:ACVR1 is associated with a significantly higher risk of CRC (OR?=?1.52, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI)?=?1.04-2.21, P?=?0.031), particularly in nonsmokers with a higher OR of 1.63 (95 % CI?=?1.04-2.55, P?=?0.032). Our study suggested that SNPs in miRNA target sites could contribute to the likelihood of CRC susceptibility and emphasized the important role of polymorphisms at miRNA-regulatory elements in carcinogenesis.
Abstract To examine whether certain mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and/or alterations affect susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis (AgP), we analyzed the mtDNA D-Loop region in a Han Chinese population. The mtDNA haplogroups were analyzed in 58 patients with AgP and 50 periodontally healthy controls. The frequency of haplogroups A in AgP group was significantly higher than that in the control group (p?=?0.007). Furthermore, the frequency of haplogroup D was higher in the control group than that in AgP group (p?=?0.007). The frequencies of D-Loop polymorphisms m.16126T?>?C, m.16290C?>?T and m.152?T?>?C were significantly higher in patients with AgP compared with controls (p?=?0.029, 0.014 and 0.022, respectively). Additionally, the frequencies of three other D-Loop polymorphisms, m.16223C?>?T m.489?T?>?C and m.515CA deletion (del) were significantly lower in patients with AgP compared with controls (p?=?0.042, 0.003 and 0.026, respectively). Our study showed for the first time, an association between AgP and mtDNA haplogroups. Haplogroups A was implicated as a risk factor for AgP, while haplogroups D exhibited a protective effect in this disease. These observations may provide a new perspective on the study of the pathogenesis of periodontitis.
The brain vasculature has been increasingly recognized as a key player that directs brain development, regulates homeostasis, and contributes to pathological processes. Following ischemic stroke, the reduction of blood flow elicits a cascade of changes and leads to vascular remodeling. However, the temporal profile of vascular changes after stroke is not well understood. Growing evidence suggests that the early phase of cerebral blood volume (CBV) increase is likely due to the improvement in collateral flow, also known as arteriogenesis, whereas the late phase of CBV increase is attributed to the surge of angiogenesis. Arteriogenesis is triggered by shear fluid stress followed by activation of endothelium and inflammatory processes, while angiogenesis induces a number of pro-angiogenic factors and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The status of collaterals in acute stroke has been shown to have several prognostic implications, while the causal relationship between angiogenesis and improved functional recovery has yet to be established in patients. A number of interventions aimed at enhancing cerebral blood flow including increasing collateral recruitment are under clinical investigation. Transplantation of EPCs to improve angiogenesis is also underway. Knowledge in the underlying physiological mechanisms for improved arteriogenesis and angiogenesis shall lead to more effective therapies for ischemic stroke.
We report herein the development of a simple, sensitive colorimetric magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-enzyme-based DNA sandwich assay that is suitable for simultaneous, label-free quantitation of two DNA targets down to 50 fM level. It can also effectively discriminate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with human cancers (KRAS codon 12/13 SNPs). This assay uses a pair of specific DNA probes, one being covalently conjugated to an MNP for target capture and the other being linked to an enzyme for signal amplification, to sandwich a DNA target, allowing for convenient magnetic separation and subsequent efficient enzymatic signal amplification for high sensitivity. Careful optimization of the MNP surfaces and assay conditions greatly reduced the background, allowing for sensitive, specific detection of as little as 5 amol (50 fM in 100 ?L) of target DNA. Moreover, this sensor is robust, it can effectively discriminate cancer-specific SNPs against the wild-type noncancer target, and it works efficiently in 10% human serum. Furthermore, this sensor can simultaneously quantitate two different DNA targets by using two pairs of unique capture- and signal-DNA probes specific for each target. This general, simple, and sensitive DNA sensor appears to be well-suited for a wide range of genetics-based biosensing and diagnostic applications.
We report herein the successful preparation of a compact and functional CdSe-ZnS core-shell quantum dot (QD)-DNA conjugate via highly efficient copper-free "click chemistry" (CFCC) between a dihydro-lipoic acid-polyethylene glycol-azide (DHLA-PEG-N3) capped QD and a cyclooctyne modified DNA. This represents an excellent balance between the requirements of high sensitivity, robustness and specificity for the QD-FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) based sensor as confirmed by a detailed FRET analysis on the QD-DNA conjugate, yielding a relatively short donor-acceptor distance of ~5.8 nm. We show that this CFCC clicked QD-DNA conjugate is not only able to retain the native fluorescence quantum yield (QY) of the parent DHLA-PEG-N3 capped QD, but also well-suited for robust and specific biosensing; it can directly quantitate, at the pM level, both labelled and unlabelled complementary DNA probes with a good SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) discrimination ability in complex media, e.g. 10% human serum via target-binding induced FRET changes between the QD donor and the dye acceptor. Furthermore, this sensor has also been successfully exploited for the detection, at the pM level, of a specific protein target (thrombin) via the encoded anti-thrombin aptamer sequence in the QD-DNA conjugate.
14,15-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (14,15-EETs) generated from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases have beneficial effects in certain cardiovascular diseases, and increased 14,15-EET levels protect the cardiovascular system. 14,15-EETs are rapidly hydrolyzed by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to the corresponding 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (14,15-DHETs), which are generally less biologically active but more stable metabolite. A functionally relevant polymorphism of the CYP2J2 gene is independently associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and the major CYP2J2 product is 14,15-EETs. 14,15-DHETs can be considered a relevant marker of CYP2J2 activity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the plasma 14,15-DHET levels to reflect the 14,15-EET levels in an indirectly way in patients with CHD, and to highlight the growing body of evidence that 14,15-EETs also play a role in anti-inflammatory and lipid-regulating effects in patients with CHD. This was achieved by investigating the relationship between 14,15-DHETs and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and blood lipoproteins.
In this Letter, the 1.5 ?m polarization entanglement generation is realized in a silicon wire waveguide utilizing its birefringence. In this scheme, two orthogonal polarized correlated states are generated by scalar processes of spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in the quasi-transverse electrical and quasi-transverse magnetic modes, respectively. Meanwhile, the vector processes of SFWM are suppressed by the group birefringence in the waveguide. The maximum polarization entangled state is generated by optimizing the pump polarization, which is demonstrated by the experiments of two-photon interference and polarization indistinguishability at one side. The fringe visibilities of two-photon interferences are 96.8±4.7% and 86.0±3.7% under two nonorthogonal polarization detection settings, respectively. This scheme provides a simple way to realize silicon integrated sources for 1.5 ?m polarization entanglement generation.
We present a kinetic model to investigate the anomalous thermal conductivity in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) by focusing on the mechanism of phonon-boundary scattering. Our theoretical model takes into account the anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering and the angle-dependent phonon scattering from the SiNWs surface. For SiNWs with diameter of 27.2 nm, it is found that in the case of specular reflection at lateral boundaries, the thermal conductivity increases as the length increases, even when the length is up to 10 ?m, which is considerably longer than the phonon mean free path (MFP). Thus the phonon-phonon scattering alone is not sufficient for obtaining a normal diffusion in nanowires. However, in the case of purely diffuse reflection at lateral boundaries, the phonons diffuse normally and the thermal conductivity converges to a constant when the length of the nanowire is greater than 100 nm. Our model demonstrates that for observing the length dependence of thermal conductivity experimentally, nanowires with smooth and non-contaminated surfaces, and measuring at low temperature, are preferred.
Frizzleds (FZDs) are transmembrane receptors in the Wnt signaling pathway and they play pivotal roles in developments. The Frizzled-like extracellular Cysteine-rich domain (Fz-CRD) has been identified in FZDs and other proteins. The origin and evolution of these proteins with Fz-CRD is the main interest of this study. We found that the Fz-CRD exists in FZD, SFRP, RTK, MFRP, CPZ, CORIN, COL18A1 and other proteins. Our systematic analysis revealed that the Fz-CRD domain might have originated in protists and then fused with the Frizzled-like seven-transmembrane domain (7TM) to form the FZD receptors, which duplicated and diversified into about 11 members in Vertebrates. The SFRPs and RTKs with the Fz-CRD were found in sponge and expanded in Vertebrates. Other proteins with Fz-CRD may have emerged during Vertebrate evolution through domain fusion. Moreover, we found a glycosylation site and several conserved motifs in FZDs, which may be related to Wnt interaction. Based on these results, we proposed a model showing that the domain fusion and expansion of Fz-CRD genes occurred in Metazoa and Vertebrates. Our study may help to pave the way for further research on the conservation and diversification of Wnt signaling functions during evolution.
bHLH/PAS genes encode a family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors with bHLH, PAS and PAS_3 domain. bHLH/PAS genes are involved in many essential physiological and developmental processes, such as hypoxic response neural development, the circadian clock, and learning ability. Despite their important functions, the origin and evolution of this bHLH/PAS gene family has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we aim to explore the origin, evolution, gene structure conservation of this gene family and provide a model to analyze the evolution of other gene families. Our results show that genes of the bHLH/PAS family only exist in metazoans. They may have originated from the common ancestor of metazoans and expanded into vertebrates. We identified bHLH/PAS genes in more than ten species representing the main lineages and constructed the phylogenetic trees (Beyasian, ML and NJ) to classify them into three groups. The exon-intron structure analysis revealed that a relatively conserved "1001-0210" eight-exon structure exists in most groups and lineages. In addition, we found the exon fusion pattern in several groups in this conserved eight-exon structure. Further analysis indicated that bHLH/PAS protein paralogs evolved from several gene duplication events followed by functional divergence and purifying selection. We presented a phylogenetic model to describe the evolutionary history of the exon structures of bHLH/PAS genes. Taken together, our study revealed the evolutionary model, functional divergence and gene structure conservation of bHLH/PAS genes. These findings provide clues for the functional and evolutionary mechanism of bHLH/PAS genes.
Idiopathic flexible flatfoot in children most frequently improves with age and remains asymptomatic. It is a physiological variation of the normality that does not require treatment unless it becomes symptomatic. The aim of this research was to investigate the reason why some individuals with flexible flatfoot become symptomatic by analysis of the differences in the relative alignment of each segment of the foot between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with idiopathic flexible flatfoot using radiographic measurements.
The objective of this study was to explore the potential of CO? single contrast in-line phase contrast imaging (PCI) for pre-clinical small intestine investigation. The absorption and phase contrast images of CO? gas production were attained and compared. A further increase in image contrast was observed in PCI. Compared with CO?-based absorption contrast imaging (ACI), CO?-based PCI significantly enhanced the detection of mucosal microstructures, such as pits and folds. The CO?-based PCI could provide sufficient image contrast for clearly showing the intestinal mucosa in living mice without using barium. We concluded that CO?-based PCI might be a novel and promising imaging method for future studies of gastrointestinal disorders.
Open reduction of the radial head is usually necessary in the treatment of a missed Monteggia fracture. However, the best way to stabilize the reduction remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to present our experience using the dual-socket external fixator to stabilize the ulna osteotomy and capture the reduction of the radial head.
Tongxinluo (TXL), a renowned traditional Chinese medicine, consists of several different kinds of ingredients and has been widely used to treat myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. However, the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms are not fully understood.
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been shown to be beneficial intreating cerebral ischemia. However, such benefit is limited by the low survival oftransplanted MSCs in an ischemic microenvironment. Previous studies showed thatmelatonin pretreatment can increase MSC survival in the ischemic kidney. However, whetherit will improve MSC survival in cerebral ischemia is unknown. Our study examined the effectof melatonin pretreatment on MSCs under ischemia-related conditions in vitro and aftertransplantation into ischemic rat brain. Results showed that melatonin pretreatment greatlyincreased MSC survival in vitro and reduced their apoptosis after transplantation intoischemic brain. Melatonin-treated MSCs (MT-MSCs) further reduced brain infarction andimproved neurobehavioral outcomes. Angiogenesis, neurogenesis and the expression ofvascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were greatly increased in the MT-MSC-treatedrats. Melatonin treatment increased the level of p-Erk1/2 in MSCs, which can be blocked bythe melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole. Erk phosphorylation inhibitor U0126 completelyreversed the protective effects of melatonin, suggesting that melatonin improves MSCsurvival and function through activating the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Thus, stem cellspretreated by melatonin may represent a feasible approach for improving the beneficialeffects of stem cell therapy for cerebral ischemia.
We report herein the development of a highly sensitive and selective approach for label-free DNA detection by combining target-recycled ligation (TRL), magnetic nanoparticle assisted target capture/separation, and efficient enzymatic amplification. We show that our approach can detect as little as 30 amol (600 fM in 50 ?L) of unlabelled single-stranded DNA targets and offer an exquisitely high discrimination ratio (up to >380 fold with background correction) between a perfect-match cancer mutant and its single-base mismatch (wild-type) DNA target. Furthermore, it can quantitate the rare cancer mutant (KRAS codon 12) in a large excess of coexisting wild-type DNAs down to 0.75%. This sensor appears to be well-suited for sensitive SNP detection and a wide range of DNA mutation based diagnostic applications.
This study was aimed to explore the effect of NVP-BEZ235, a dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, on proliferation, cell cycle and colony forming capability of CD34(+)CD38(-) human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) KG1a cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect expression of CD34 and CD38 on the surface of human AML KG1a cells; Trypan blue assay was used to analyze the effect of NVP-BEZ235 at various concentrations on proliferation of KG1a cells; flow cytometry was performed to examine the cell cycle of KG1a cells after NVP-BEZ235 treatment; Soft agar colony-forming experiment was used to detect the colony forming ability of KG1a cells treated with NVP-BEZ235 at various concentrations. The results indicated that the percentage of CD34(+)CD38(-) AML KG1a cells was (98.02 ± 0.72)%. NVP-BEZ235 (0.125 - 1 µmol/L) inhibited the proliferation of KG1a cells in a time-and dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05) and the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) at 24 h and 48 h were 0.597 µmol/L and 0.102 µmol/L, respectively. KG1a cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase after treating with 0.5 µmol/L NVP-BEZ235 for 24 h, it was significantly higher than that of control group (83.2 ± 3.80)% vs (43.47 ± 9.60)% (P < 0.05). KG1a cells treated with NVP-BEZ235 (0 - 1 µmol/L) for 14 d and 21 d, the number of colony decreased respectively from (375.67 ± 21.46) per 2500 KG1a cells and (706.33 ± 87.31) per 2500 KG1a cells to 0, with statistical significance (P < 0.05). It is concluded that NVP-BEZ235 can inhibit proliferation and colony-forming capability of CD34(+)CD38(-) human AML KG1a cells.
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