JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Responsive aqueous foams stabilised by silica nanoparticles hydrophobised in situ with a switchable surfactant.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the recent past there has been a growing interest in switchable surfactants and stimuli-responsive surface-active particles, since both have surface activity which is either switchable or controllable and they can be recovered and re-used afterwards. Among various triggers the CO2/N2 trigger is particularly environmentally benign. In this paper a facile protocol to obtain switchable surface-active silica nanoparticles using a CO2/N2 trigger is proposed and their utilization in producing responsive aqueous foams with the same trigger is examined. Using a switchable surfactant, N'-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylacetamidinium bicarbonate, which can be switched between a cationic surfactant and a surface-inactive neutral form by bubbling with CO2 and N2 respectively, bare silica nanoparticles can be hydrophobised in situ to become surface-active nanoparticles and the switch of the surfactant can thus be transferred to the particles. Thus responsive particle-stabilised aqueous foams can be prepared. Compared with foams stabilised by specially synthesized switchable or stimuli-responsive particles, the method reported here is much easier, whereas compared with those stabilised by switchable or stimuli-responsive surfactants the method here requires a relatively low concentration.
Related JoVE Video
Protease-activated receptor (PAR)1, PAR2 and PAR4 expressions in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Here, we used reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot to detect protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1, PAR 2 and PAR 4 expression in cancer tissues and cell lines of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and investigated the co-relationship between PAR expression and clinic-pathological data for esophageal cancer. The methylation of PAR4 gene promoter involved in esophageal carcinoma was also analyzed. By comparing the mRNA expressions of normal esophageal tissue and human esophageal epithelial cells (HEEpiC), we found that among the 28 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, PAR1 (60%) and PAR2 (71%) were elevated in 17 and 20 cases, respectively, and PAR4 (68%) expression was lowered in 19 cases. Whereas, in human esophageal squamous cells (TE-1 and TE-10), PAR1 and PAR2 expression was increased but PAR4 was decreased. Combined with clinical data, the expression of PAR1 in poorly differentiated (P=0.016) and middle and lower parts of the esophagus (P=0.016) was higher; expression of PAR4 in poorly differentiated carcinoma was lower (P=0.049). Regarding TE-1 and TE-10 protein expression, we found that in randomized esophageal carcinoma, PAR1 (P=0.027) and PAR2 (P=0.039) expressions were increased, but lowered for PAR4 (P=0.0001). In HEEpiC, TE-1, TE-10, esophageal and normal esophagus tissue samples (case No. 7), the frequency of methylation at the 19 CpG loci of PAR4 was 35.4%, 95.2%, 83.8%, 62.6% and 48.2%, respectively. Our results indicate that the expression of PAR1 and PAR2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is increased but PAR4 is decreased. Hypermethylation of the promoter of the PAR4 gene may contribute to reduced expression of PAR4 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
The interaction between aggrecan gene VNTR polymorphism and obesity in predicting incident symptomatic lumbar disc herniation.
Connect. Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract An association between aggrecan gene variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR) and symptomatic lumbar disc herniation (LDH) has been reported in Chinese Han of Northern China, and obesity had previously been suspected of causing severe LDH. However, the interaction between aggrecan VNTR and obesity in symptomatic LDH has not been well studied. To examine the interaction between aggrecan VNTR and obesity in the susceptibility of symptomatic LDH, 259 participants participated in this study and donated a blood sample. The disease group comprised 61 patients already diagnosed with symptomatic LDH. The control group consisted of 198 healthy blood donors without symptoms of LDH who were not diagnosed with LDH. The aggrecan gene VNTR region was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. The data indicated that between the two groups, participants carrying one or two alleles ?25 repeats who were non-obese people showed a 1.057-fold increase in risk for symptomatic LDH (p?=?0.895, changing the number of repeat alleles to <25 repeats alone did not demonstrably change the risk of LDH), and participants carrying two alleles >25 repeats who were obese people showed an 1.061-fold higher risk (p?=?0.885, adding obesity to the mix alone did not demonstrably increase the risk of LDH), while participants carrying one or two alleles ?25 repeats who were obese people showed a 4.667-fold increase in risk for symptomatic LDH (p?=?0.0003, adding obesity plus changing the repeat allele number significantly increased the risk of LDH by 4.667). Overall, the findings suggest an underlying interaction between aggrecan VNTR and obesity in symptomatic LDH.
Related JoVE Video
Bioactivity and Chemical Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Its Derivatives.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), as one of the main active ingredients of the natural product propolis, shows the unique biological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, immune regulation, and so on. These have attracted the attention of many researchers to explore the compound with potent biological activities. This review aims to summarize its bioactivities, synthetic methods and derivatives, which will be helpful for further study and development of CAPE and its derivatives.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on experiment of absorption spectroscopy detection of pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Absorption spectra were studied for the carbendazim, in the mixed solution of orange juice and carbendazim using spectrophotometer. The most intensive characteristic peak (285 nm) was found in the spectrum of carbendazim standard solution. Compared with the carbendazim drug solution, the peak position of absorption spectrum has the blue shift (285-280 nm) when carbendazim (0.28 mg x mL(-1))was added in the orange juice. So that we can conclude that interaction happened between the orange juice and carbendazim. Through the method of least squares fitting, the prediction models between the absorbance of orange juice and carbendazim content was obtained with a good linear relationship. The linear function model was: I = 2.41 + 9.26x, the correlation coefficient was 0.996, and the recovery was: 81%-102%. According to the regression model, we can obtain the amount of carbendazim pesticide residues in orange juice. It was verified that the method of using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra was feasible to detect the carbendazim residues in orange juice. The result proved that it is possible to detect pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice, and it can meet the needs of rapid analysis. This study provides a new way for the detection of pesticide residues.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of Pellet Characteristics on L-Lactic Acid Fermentation by R. oryzae: Pellet Morphology, Diameter, Density, and Interior Structure.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effects of pellet morphology, diameter, density, and interior structure on L-lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae were characterized for different inoculum sizes and concentrations of peptone and CaCO3. Inoculum size was the most important factor determining pellet formation and diameter. The diameter decreased with increasing inoculum size, and larger pellets were observed for lower inoculum sizes. Peptone concentration had the greatest effect on pellet density, which increased with increasing peptone concentration. L-lactic acid production depended heavily on pellet density but not on pellet diameter. Low-density pellets formed easily under conditions of low peptone concentration and often had a relatively hollow structure, with a thin condensed layer surrounding the pellet and an extraordinarily loose biomass or hollow center. As expected, this structure greatly decreased production. The production of L-lactic acid increased until the density reached a certain level (50-60 kg/m(3)), in which the compact part was distributed homogeneously in the thick outer layer of the pellet and loose in the central layer. Homogeneously structured, denser pellets had limited mass transfer, causing a lower overall turnover rate. However, the interior structure remained nearly constant throughout all fermentation phases for pellets with the same density. CaCO3 concentration only had a slight influence on pellet diameter and density, probably because it increases spore germination and filamentous hypha extension. This work also provides a new analysis method to quantify the interior structure of pellets, thus giving insight into pellet structure and its relationship with productivity.
Related JoVE Video
Two new quinochalcone C-glycosides from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two new quinochalcone C-glycosides, named hydroxysafflor yellow B (1) and hydroxysafflor yellow C (2), along with two known quinochalcone C-glycosides, safflomin C (3) and saffloquinoside C (4), and one known flavanone, (2R)-4',5-dihydroxyl-6, 7-di-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl flavanone (5), were isolated from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR) analyses. In addition, these quinochalcone C-glycosides together with hydroxysafflor yellow A and anhydrosafflor yellow B were evaluated for their anti-oxidative effects against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in cultured H9c2 cells. Among them, compound 2 exhibited significant anti-oxidative effects.
Related JoVE Video
Alpha-fetoprotein level as a biomarker of liver fibrosis status: a cross-sectional study of 619 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis B.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and pathological stages of liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
Related JoVE Video
The Regulation of Sox2 and Sox9 Stimulated by ATP in Spinal Cord Astrocytes.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
After spinal cord injury (SCI), the level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and extracellular matrix (ECM) is increased. Formation of the glial scar is a complex process that is primarily attributed to astrocytic proliferation, and the fibrotic scar results from ECM deposition. In our previous researches, ATP and fibronectin was able to separately stimulate the proliferation of astrocytes. Moreover, fibronectin increases the expression of P2Y1 receptor and offers more binding sites for ATP, which aggravates the proliferation. Meanwhile, ATP was also able to stimulate the release of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), but fibronectin does not. Recently, it has been reported that over-expressing P2Y1 receptor could promote the level of Sox9. However, the regulation of Sox genes by ATP is still little known in spinal cord astrocytes. In the present study, we discovered that ATP was able to increase the expression of Sox2 and Sox9; fibronectin did not have this direct function. Sox9 was only involved in the proliferation increased by ATP, and Sox2 influenced the release of IL-6 stimulated by ATP. Understanding the critical role of Sox2 and Sox9 mediated by ATP may provide a potential target for therapeutic intervention in spinal cord injury.
Related JoVE Video
The putative signal peptide of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is not required for receptor synthesis but promotes receptor expression.
Biosci. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) mediates the "incretin effect" and many other anti-diabetic actions of its cognate ligand, GLP-1. It belongs to the class B family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and possesses an N-terminal putative signal peptide. It has been reported that this sequence is required for the synthesis of GLP-1R and is cleaved after receptor synthesis. In this study, we conducted an in-depth exploration towards the role of the putative signal peptide in GLP-1R synthesis. A mutant GLP-1R without this sequence was expressed in HEK293 cells and displayed normal functionality with respect to ligand binding and activation of adenylate cyclase. Thus, the putative signal peptide does not seem to be required for receptor synthesis. Immunoblotting analysis shows that the amount of GLP-1R synthesized in HEK293 cells is low when the putative signal peptide is absent. This indicates that the role of the sequence is to promote the expression of GLP-1R. Furthermore, epitopes tagged at the N-terminal of GLP-1R are detectable by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting in our experiments. In conclusion, the present study points to different roles of signal peptide in GLP-1R expression which broadens our understanding of the functionality of this putative signal peptide of GLP-1R, and possibly other Class B GPCRs.
Related JoVE Video
Arterial wall degeneration plus hemodynamic insult cause arterial wall remodeling and nascent aneurysm formation at specific sites in dogs.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine whether arterial wall degeneration, in combination with hemodynamic insult, causes cerebral artery aneurysms in a dog model, we simulated the geometry and hemodynamics of a human artery by surgical reconstruction of both common carotid arteries in 12 dogs. The dogs were then randomly assigned to one of the following groups: hemodynamic insult + elastase insult group ( n = 6), hemodynamic insult group (n = 6), or elastase control group (n = 3), in which the straight common carotid arteries were subjected to elastase alone. Angiography and hemodynamic analysis were performed immediately and at 12 weeks after surgery; the animals were then killed for histologic evaluation. The 12 surgically reconstructed distal internal carotid arteries simulated the human artery well with respect to geometric and hemodynamic measurements, with the intended aneurysm sites exposed to higher wall shear stress and velocity, lower pressure, turbulent flow, and changes in wall shear stress gradient. Nascent aneurysms developed in 4 hemodynamic insult + elastase insult group dogs at 12 weeks; blood flow analysis demonstrated decreased wall shear stress, increased pressure, and wall shear stress gradient from the neck to the dome. Arterial wall remodeling or nascent aneurysm formation in the hemodynamic insult + elastase insult group versus the other groups was indicated by internal elastic lamina/elastic fiber disruption, muscular layer thinning, increased smooth muscle cell proliferation, macrophage infiltration, and high expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the media. These data suggest that nascent aneurysms were caused by the combination of arterial wall degeneration and hemodynamic perturbations in this distal internal carotid artery dog model.
Related JoVE Video
[Pharmacokinetic study of six aconitine alkaloids in aconiti lateralis radix praeparata in beagle dogs].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the pharmacokinetics characteristics of six Aconitum alkaloids aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA), hypaconitine (HA), benzoylaconine (BAC), benzoylmesaconine (BMA) and benzoylhypaconine (BHA) in beagle dogs.
Related JoVE Video
Novel CO2-capture derived from the basic ionic liquids orientated on mesoporous materials.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two new basic ionic liquids (ILs) are designed and synthesized in order to conquer the challenge arising from the capture of CO2 in flue gas whose temperature is over 373 K, and they possess a suitable basic strength to adsorb CO2 at 393 K with the capacity of 22-49 mg g(-1). After these ILs are immobilized on mesoporous alumina or silica, equimolar CO2 capture is realized at 393 K for the first time. Besides, these adsorbents can be regenerated at 443 K to form a feasible cycle for controlling CO2 emission in flue gas. Theoretical calculations indicated the key role played by the mesoporous support in promoting CO2 adsorption via electrostatic interactions between support and ILs. An unwonted promotion of the support's ?-potential on the performance of ILs is revealed, which induces the immobilized ILs to be oriented in a favorable dispersion, enhancing the efficiency of ILs in the CO2 adsorption at elevated temperature. This study proposes a new strategy for the sustainable development of novel adsorbent.
Related JoVE Video
Open achilles tendon defects: a 12-year study on the injury mechanisms, reconstructions, and late complications.
J Reconstr Microsurg
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Open injuries of the Achilles tendon, which can be complicated by skin and bone injuries, continue to be a great challenge for surgeons. This study aims to report our experience with treatment of open Achilles tendon defects, focusing on the injury mechanisms, soft tissue coverage and late complications.
Related JoVE Video
A comparative study of different level interpolations for improving spatial resolution in diffusion tensor imaging.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper studies and evaluates the feasibility and the performance of different level interpolations for improving spatial resolution of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI or DTI). In particular, the following techniques are investigated: anisotropic interpolation operating on scalar gray-level images, log-Euclidean interpolation method, and the quaternion interpolation method, which operate on diffusion tensor fields. The performance is evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively using criteria such as tensor determinant, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), fiber length, etc. We conclude that tensor field interpolations allow avoiding undesirable swelling effect in DTI, which is not the case with scalar gray-level interpolation, and that scalar gray-level image interpolation and log-Euclidean tensor field interpolation suffer from decrease in FA and MD, which may mislead the interpretation of the clinical parameters FA and MD. In contrast, the quaternion tensor field interpolation avoids such FA and MD decrease, which suggests its use for clinical applications.
Related JoVE Video
A Systematic Review of the Benefits and Risks of Anticoagulation Following Traumatic Brain Injury.
J Head Trauma Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To synthesize the existing literature on benefits and risks of anticoagulant use after traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Related JoVE Video
Genistein inhibits the replication of avian leucosis virus subgroup J in DF-1 cells.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the antiviral effects of genistein on the replication of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) in DF-1 cells, the cells were treated with genistein at different time points and the antiviral effects were examined by using a variety of assays. We determined that genistein strongly inhibited viral gene expression and decreased the viral protein level in the cell supernatant and the cytoplasm without alerting virus receptor expression and viral attachment. We also observed that genistein was not found to interfere with virus entry, but significantly inhibited both viral gene transcriptions at 24h post infection and virus release, which indicate that genistein exerts its inhibitory effects on the late phase of ALV-J replicative cycle. These results demonstrate that genistein effectively block ALV-J replication by inhibiting virus transcription and release in DF-1 cells, which may be useful for therapeutic drug design.
Related JoVE Video
Variation in Apoptotic Gene Expression in Cervical Cancer Through Oligonucleotide Microarray Profiling.
J Low Genit Tract Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The current study aimed to investigate the molecular basis of cervical cancer development using a microarray to identify the differentially expressed genes. This study also aimed to detect apoptosis genes and proteins to find those genes most aberrantly expressed in cervical cancer and to explore the cause of Uighur cervical cancer.
Related JoVE Video
A new model for predicting liver cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers with low serum alanine transaminase activity.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To develop a cirrhosis-predicted model in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers with alanine transarninase (ALT) less than two times the upper limit of normal (ULN).
Related JoVE Video
Retrograde Transplantar Arch Angioplasty of Below-the-Knee Arterial Occlusions: Outcomes Compared to Anterograde Recanalization.
Acad Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the clinical outcomes of retrograde transplantar arch angioplasty and conventional below-the-knee (BTK) anterograde recanalization.
Related JoVE Video
Zirconium phenylphosphonate-anchored methyltrioxorhenium as novel heterogeneous catalyst for epoxidation of cyclohexene.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epoxidation of olefins to epoxides is widely recognized as an important unit process in the manufacture of fine chemicals and intermediates. Developing an environmentally benign heterogeneous catalytic system for olefin epoxidation with high activity and selectivity is still a challenge in this research field. Herein, we report our attempts to synthesize novel zirconium phenylphosphonate-anchored methyltrioxorhenium (MTO/ZrPP) heterogeneous catalysts by a conventional impregnation method and evaluate their catalytic performance for epoxidation of cyclohexene using urea-hydrogen peroxide adduct (UHP) as oxidant without the addition of base ligands. The MTO/ZrPP catalyst samples are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-ES), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and solid-state (1)H magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H MAS NMR) techniques. Meanwhile, the density functional theory (DFT) calculation is carried out to further understand the structure feature and interactions of the MTO/ZrPP catalyst. It is revealed that MTO is anchored on support surface by the favored hydrogen-bonding interaction between two oxo ligands of MTO and two H atoms from the adjacent phenyls of ZrPP. MTO/ZrPP catalyst displays excellent catalytic activity for cyclohexene epoxidation. Moreover, only cyclohexene oxide production can be obtained under the employed reaction conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Polycythemia vera transforming to myelofibrosis and then biphenotype acute leukemia.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A case with 17-year detailed illness history including evolution of polycythemia vera (PV) to myelofibrosis (MF) and then biphenotype acute leukemia (BAL) was reported. Ten years of PV followed by seven years of MF and then BAL, the patient experienced a classical "complete course" of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). High WBC counts as well as low Hb and platelet counts in MF phase, long disease course, older than 50 years age, and positive JAK2 were her high risk factors of transformation from MPN to leukemia. Pancytopenia in her secondary MF phase responded well to the therapy of corticosteroids, which indicated that the immune mechanism was involved in the pathogenesis of MF. Progression of PV to MF and then BAL might be related to discontinuation of interferon-alpha because of poor tolerance.
Related JoVE Video
Sliding mode output feedback control based on tracking error observer with disturbance estimator.
ISA Trans
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
For a class of systems who suffers from disturbances, an original output feedback sliding mode control method is presented based on a novel tracking error observer with disturbance estimator. The mathematical models of the systems are not required to be with high accuracy, and the disturbances can be vanishing or nonvanishing, while the bounds of disturbances are unknown. By constructing a differential sliding surface and employing reaching law approach, a sliding mode controller is obtained. On the basis of an extended disturbance estimator, a creative tracking error observer is produced. By using the observation of tracking error and the estimation of disturbance, the sliding mode controller is implementable. It is proved that the disturbance estimation error and tracking observation error are bounded, the sliding surface is reachable and the closed-loop system is robustly stable. The simulations on a servomotor positioning system and a five-degree-of-freedom active magnetic bearings system verify the effect of the proposed method.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the anthocyanidin reductase gene from Vitis bellula.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) is an NADPH-/NADH-dependent enzyme that transfers two hydrides to anthocyanidins to produce three types of isomeric flavan-3-ols. This reductase forms the ANR pathway toward the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs, which are also called condensed tannins). Here, we report cloning and functional characterization of an ANR (called VbANR) homolog from the leaves of Vitis bellula, a newly developed grape crop in southern China. The open reading frame (ORF) of VbANR is 1,017 bp in length and encodes 339 amino acids. A phylogenetic analysis and an alignment using 17 sequences revealed that VbANR is approximately 99.9 % identical to the ANR homolog from Vitis vinifera. The VbANR ORF is fused to the Trx gene containing a His-tag in the pET32a(+) vector to obtain a pET32a(+)-VbANR construct for expressing the recombinant VbANR. In vitro enzyme assays show that VbANR converts cyanidin, delphinidin, and pelargonidin to their corresponding flavan-3-ols. Enzymatic products include 2S,3R-trans- and 2R,3R-cis-flavan-3-ols isomers, such as (-)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. In addition, the third compound that is observed from the enzymatic products is most likely a 2S,3S-cis-flavan-3-ol. To analyze the kinetics and optimize pH and temperature values, a UV spectrometry method was developed to quantify the concentrations of total enzymatic products. The optimum pH and temperature values are 4.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The K m , K cat, V max, and K cat/K m values for pelargonidin and delphinidin were similar. In comparison, VbANR exhibits a slightly lower affinity to cyanidin. VbANR uses both NADPH and NADH but prefers to employ NADPH. GFP fusion and confocal microscopy analyses revealed the cytosolic localization of VbANR. The overexpression of VbANR in ban mutants reconstructed the biosynthetic pathway of PAs in the seed coat. These data demonstrate that VbANR forms the ANR pathway, leading to the formation of three types of isomeric flavan-3-ols and PAs in the leaves of V. bellula.
Related JoVE Video
Elevated TIM3+ hematopoietic stem cells in untreated myelodysplastic syndrome displayed aberrant differentiation, overproliferation and decreased apoptosis.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
TIM3, as a negative regulator of anti-tumor immunity, is highly expressed on LSCs, but not on normal HSCs. TIM3 on HSCs in MDS patients has not been clarified. Here, both the percentage of TIM3 on HSCs and the MFI of TIM3+ HSCs were higher in untreated MDS than control and were closed to AML, and excessive TIM3+ HSCs was closely related to clinical parameters: WPSS score, karyotype analysis, morphologic blasts, the number of cytopenia involving hematopoietic lineages, anemia and granulocytopenia. TIM3+ HSCs expressed lower CD11b, TpoR, EpoR, G-CSFR and Annexin V, and higher CD71 and GATA2. TIM3+ HSCs displayed aberrant differentiation, overproliferation and decreased apoptosis. TIM3 might be a promising marker for identifying malignant clone cells in MDS and a candidate for targeted therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Fibronectin enhances spinal cord astrocyte proliferation by elevating P2Y1 receptor expression.
J. Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
After spinal cord injury (SCI), the formation of glial scar is a complex process that is attributed primarily to astrocytic proliferation, but the mechanism of astrocytes proliferation is still unclear. Fibronectin is a large extracellular glycoprotein that helps organize the matrix protein, and its main membrane receptor is the ?5 ?1 integrin subunit. In this study, fibronectin stimulated spinal cord astrocytic proliferation from two directions: fibronectin increased astrocytic proliferation via ?5 ?1 integrin receptor, and fibronectin upregulated the expression of P2Y1 receptor, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) could enhance the astrocytic proliferation and induce more release of arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 via P2Y1. The upregulation of P2Y1 by fibronectin required [Ca2+]i and the activation of integrin link kinase (ILK) and Akt. We found that [Ca2+]i stimulated by fibronectin was ?5 ?1 integrin receptor dependent and that the phosphorylation of Akt or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) induced by fibronectin mediated the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). Our research suggests that the release of fibronectin and ATP could stimulate the spinal cord astrocytic proliferation after SCI, and the expression of P2Y1 increased by fibronectin would provide more sites for ATP, which could aggravate the proliferation and inflammation of spinal cord astrocytes.
Related JoVE Video
Patency of runoff detected by MR angiography at 3.0 T with cuff-compression: a predictor of successful endovascular recanalization below the knee.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our aim was to assess the reliability of detecting distal runoff vessels using contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) that were occult on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for predicting the outcome of endovascular recanalization (ER).
Related JoVE Video
Krukenberg tumor in a pregnant patient with severe preeclampsia.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Krukenberg tumors accompanied by gestational hypertension are rare and have a poor patient prognosis. A gravida 1, para 0 patient was submitted to Tianjin Medical University General Hospital (Tianjin, China) at 32 weeks gestation with symptoms of nausea, vomiting and hypertension. Diagnosis from the gastroscopic biopsy was of a gastric ulcer. A unilateral ovarian mass was identified with B-scan ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, but was confirmed pathologically as a bilateral Krukenberg tumor. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography revealed a high radioactive uptake in the lesser curvature wall of the stomach, and postoperative pathology revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach. As Krukenberg tumors are difficult to diagnose, exhibit fast progression and have a poor clinical outcome, developing a greater understanding of Krukenberg tumors is crucial. Imaging manifestations combined with serological examination may aid in early detection, which may lead to improved patient management.
Related JoVE Video
Fast functionalization of silver decahedral nanoparticles with aptamers for colorimetric detection of human platelet-derived growth factor-BB.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aptamer-silver decahedral nanoparticles (Ag10NPs-aptamer) based detection was developed for protein. Ag10NPs were synthesized by photochemical method. The advantage of Ag10NPs was its tolerance of NaCl which facilitates the functionalization of silver nanoparticles with all kinds of ssDNA. Attaching aptamers to Ag10NPs could be achieved within 2 h, much faster than traditional methods. Human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) was used as a model protein to test the binding capacity of aptamers attached on Ag10NPs. Our data showed that the aptamer-Ag10NPs conjugates were successful in detecting human PDGF-BB. Furthermore, we developed an aptamer-Ag10NPs conjugates-based colorimetric sensor to detect PDGF-BB. The results showed a linear relationship between PDGF-BB concentrations (5 ng mL(-1)-200 ng mL(-1)) and ?OD with excellent detection specificity in serum. Therefore, the sensor based on aptamer-Ag10NPs conjugates was highly effective and sensitive and had great promise for further development and applications.
Related JoVE Video
Authentication of Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae by RAPD-derived DNA markers.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bulbus Fritillariae is the most commonly used antitussive herb in China. Eleven species of Fritillaria are recorded as Bulbus Fritillariae in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae is a group of six Fritillaria species with higher efficiency and lower toxicity derived mainly from wild sources. Because of their higher market price, five other Fritillaria species are often sold deceptively as Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae in the herbal market. To ensure the efficacy and safety of medicinal herbs, the authentication of botanical resources is the first step in quality control. Here, a DNA based identification method was developed to authenticate the commercial sources of Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae. A putative DNA marker (0.65 kb) specific for Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae was identified using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. A DNA marker representing a Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) was developed from a RAPD amplicon. The SCAR marker was successfully applied to differentiate Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae from different species of Fritillaria. Additionally, the SCAR marker was also useful in identifying the commercial samples of Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae. Our results indicated that the RAPD-SCAR method was rapid, accurate and applicable in identifying Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae at the DNA level.
Related JoVE Video
Regulatory T cells protect fine particulate matter-induced inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the role of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells (Tregs) in protecting fine particulate matter (PM-) induced inflammatory responses, and its potential mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Nonvirus encoded proteins could be embedded into Bombyx mori cypovirus polyhedra.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore whether the nonvirus encoded protein could be embedded into Bombyx mori cypovirus (BmCPV) polyhedra. The stable transformants of BmN cells expressing a polyhedrin (Polh) gene of BmCPV were constructed by transfection with a non-transposon derived vector containing a polh gene. The polyhedra were purified from the midguts of BmCPV-infected silkworms and the transformed BmN cells, respectively. The proteins embedded into polyhedra were determined by mass spectrometry analysis. Host derived proteins were detected in the purified polyhedra. Analysis of structure and hydrophilicity of embedded proteins indicated that the hydrophilic proteins, in structure, were similar to the left-handed structure of polyhedrin or the N-terminal domain of BmCPV structural protein VP3, which were easily embedded into the BmCPV polyhedra. The lysate of polyhedra purified from the infected transformation of BmN cells with modified B. mori baculovirus BmPAK6 could infect BmN cells, indicating that B. mori baculovirus could be embedded into BmCPV polyhedra. Both the purified polyhedra and its lysate could be coloured by X-gal, indicating that the ?-galactosidase expressed by BmPAK6 could be incorporated into BmCPV polyhedra. These results suggested that some heterologous proteins and baculovirus could be embedded into polyhedra in an unknown manner.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp. indicated by metagenomics.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp. at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Lamellomorpha sp.. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp..
Related JoVE Video
Identification of ractopamine glucuronides and determination of bioactive ractopamine residues and its metabolites in food animal urine by ELISA, LC-MS/MS and GC-MS.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ractopamine glucuronides have been identified in cattle urine sampled by LC-MS/MS. An ELISA method, which was capable of specifically determining (1R, 3R)-ractopamine stereoisomer and its glucuronide metabolites, had more than 100% recovery with an acceptable coefficient of variation in the inter- and intra-assay variation tests for RR-ractopamine. The concentration levels of parent ractopamine and ractopamine glucuronide metabolites as the main components of total ractopamine in cattle and sheep urine showed similar depletion trends, in which the concentration curves increased and reached a climax during the feeding period, and then dropped quickly when entering the withdrawal period. Data from the three methods had very good pair-wise correlations. In the cattle urine samples, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) for parent ractopamine between the ELISA and the LC-MS/MS or GC-MS results were 0.93 or 0.92; R(2) values for parent ractopamine and total ractopamine data measured by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were 0.9651 and 0.9677, respectively. All R(2) values for data gained from sheep urine samples were >0.95. The study indicated that the close levels of RR-ractopamine stereoisomer in cattle and sheep urine samples may imply the presence of a similar depletion pattern in other livestock, and thus would facilitate an accurate detection and management of ractopamine usage in food safety.
Related JoVE Video
Humeral brown tumor as first presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by ectopic parathyroid adenomas: report of two cases and review of literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two cases of brown tumor of the humerus caused by ectopic parathyroid adenomas were presented, which to our knowledge has not been previously documented in the international literature. There are two highlights in these two cases. First, brown tumors of the long bones may commonly involve femur and tibia, rarely involve humerus in association with primary hyperparathyroidism. Second, ectopic parathyroid adenomas of our patient had an unusual location of this disorder. We explored the role of ultrasound, MIBI scintigraphy as well as FNAB (fine needle aspiration biopsy) in diagnosis of brown tumor especially simultaneously occurrence of ectopic parathyroid adenomas and the importance of a thorough diagnostic work-up. The contemporary diagnosis and treatment options will be emphasized.
Related JoVE Video
The first complete genome sequence of the class Fimbriimonadia in the phylum Armatimonadetes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we present the complete genome of Fimbriimonas ginsengisoli Gsoil 348T belonging to the class Fimbriimonadia of the phylum Armatimonadetes, formerly called as candidate phylum OP10. The complete genome contains a single circular chromosome of 5.23 Mb including a 45.5 kb prophage. Of the 4820 open reading frames (ORFs), 3,000 (62.2%) genes could be classified into Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) families. With the split of rRNA genes, strain Gsoil 348T had no typical 16S-23S-5S ribosomal RNA operon. In this genome, the GC skew inversion which was usually observed in archaea was found. The predicted gene functions suggest that the organism lacks the ability to synthesize histidine, and the TCA cycle is incomplete. Phylogenetic analyses based on ribosomal proteins indicated that strain Gsoil 348T represents a deeply branching lineage of sufficient divergence with other phyla, but also strongly involved in superphylum Terrabacteria.
Related JoVE Video
A meta analysis of lumbar spinal fusion surgery using bone morphogenetic proteins and autologous iliac crest bone graft.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) as a substitute for iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) has been increasingly widely used in lumbar fusion. The purpose of this study is to systematically compare the effectiveness and safety of fusion with BMPs for the treatment of lumbar disease.
Related JoVE Video
[Unbalanced subtelomic rearrangement involving 9q and 22q in a child with mental retardation and multiple congenital anomalies].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine genetic cause for a patient with development delay and multiple congenital anomalies.
Related JoVE Video
Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis and microsurgical treatment of cavernous sinus hemangiomas.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective To summarize the magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)features and microsurgical treatment of cavernous sinus hemangiomas(CSH). Methods Twenty-three patients with surgically and pathologically verified CSH were reviewed. All patients underwent computed tomography(CT)and MR scan, 19 cases underwent MR diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI)and 7 underwent single voxel (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy((1)HMRS)before operation. The microsurgery through modified pterional approach was performed in 11 cases and 12 cases removal was achieved in combined fronto-temporal preauricular subtemporal approach. Ninteen cases with large tumors were treated by Leksell Gamma knife(LGK)before operation. Results CSHs were single, large, and spherical/lie gourd-shaped tumors across the inside and outside the sella. CSH showed equal or slightly low signal on T1WI, high signal on T2WI and FLAIR, homogeneous or heterogeneous great enhancement on MR enhancement scan 19 cases showed equal or slightly low signal on DWI, 7 cases showed no NAA, Cr, and Cho peak, and 6 cases showed Lip peak on (1)HMRS. In 23 cases, the tumors were totally removed in 18, subtotally removed in 3, and partially removed in 2. No perioperative death was reported. The postoperative symptoms were improved in 17 cases but remained unchanged in 4 cases two patients suffered from new nervous symptoms after the surgery, which were improved or cured after three weeks of treatment. In 5 patients who had received subtotal or partial removal of the lesions, LGK was peformed postoperatively, which resulted in smaller residual tumors in 4 cases and unchanged tumor in one patient. Conclusions CSH has some unique MRI features, and therefore MRI is helpful to improve the preoperative localization and qualitative diagnosis. The microsurgery through modified pterional approach combined with fronto-temporal preauricular subtemporal approach is an effective procedure for CSH.
Related JoVE Video
[Simultaneous determination of six ingredients in Huoxiang Zhengqi oral liquid by UPLC].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To develop a UPLC method for the simultaneous determination of liquiritin, narirutin, hesperidin, ammonium glycyrrhetate, honokiol and magnolol in Huoxiang Zhengqi oral liquid.
Related JoVE Video
A case of parachordoma on the chest wall and literature review.
J Cancer Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Parachordoma is an extremely uncommon soft-tissue tumor, which mainly occurs in the deep soft-tissue of the distal parts of the limbs, such as deep fascia, muscle tendon, synovial or soft-tissue closed to the bone. Nevertheless, the literature reports about parachordoma on the thoracic wall were scarce. The clinical and imaging manifestation has a non-specific appearance. In this article, we reported one case of parachordoma of the thoracic wall that we met in clinical works and reviewed the literature.
Related JoVE Video
[Hepatitis B surface antigen affects the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in HepG2 cells].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the influence of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-encoded small surface protein (SHBs) on hepatic cell expression of host genes related to lipid metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
[Degradation of phenol with a Fe/cu-catalytic heterogeneous-Fenton process].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The catalysts of Fe/AC, Cu/AC and Fe-Cu/AC with active carbon as support were prepared by a wet impregnation method, and were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements; the catalytic heterogeneous-Fenton processes of phenol degradation with these catalysts were also investigated, and the degradation mechanism was discussed with analysis of intermediate products and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement. The results showed that the active component states varied in different catalysts; CuO was the main state of Cu in Cu/AC and Fe exhibited various valence states in Fe/AC. The degradation rate of phenol with Fe/AC, Cu/AC and Fe-Cu/AC as catalyst in the initial 60 min reached 96.7%, 77.5% and 99%, respectively; the dissolution of a little active-component metal was found in Cu/AC and Fe-Cu/AC, but little Fe in Fe/AC was dissolved; the degradation of phenol was performed by heterogeneous Fe/AC instead of dissolved Fe, and the degradation rate was above 93% after Fe/AC was used for three cycle runs, showing a stable catalytic activity. Under the optimum conditions of pH = 3, T = 303 K, and 4.38 mmol x L(-1) H2O2, the removal of phenol and TOC in the Fe/AC-catalytic Fenton process could reach 97% and 53%, respectively, while little phenol was degraded without catalyst. The ESR results indicated that hydroxyl radical was produced in the catalytic decomposition of H2O2 with Fe/AC as catalyst, demonstrating that the degradation of phenol mainly followed an oxidation pathway of hydroxyl radical; intermediates such as hydroquinone, p-benzenequinone and catechol were obtained, and the results showed thatortho- and para-substitution reaction by hydroxyl might be the main mechanism of phenol oxidation.
Related JoVE Video
[Determination of huperzine A and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of lysine decarboxylase gene in different parts of Huperzia serrata from western Hunan].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the content of huperzine A in the root, stem and leaf of Huperzia serrata from western Hunan, and analyze the relationship between the distribution of huperzine A and the expression of lysine decarboxylase gene in different parts of huperzia serrata.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment of complete fracture-dislocation of thoracolumbar spine.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A retrospective study.
Related JoVE Video
Laminoplasty versus skip laminectomy for the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a systematic review.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Laminoplasty and skip laminectomy are two specific posterior surgical approaches for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review comparing the clinical results and complications of laminoplasty and skip laminectomy in the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy.
Related JoVE Video
Geometric, hemodynamic, and pathological study of a distal internal carotid artery aneurysm model in dogs.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We created a distal internal carotid artery side-wall aneurysm model in dogs and compared its geometric, hemodynamic, and histological similarities with human models.
Related JoVE Video
Switchable pickering emulsions stabilized by silica nanoparticles hydrophobized in situ with a switchable surfactant.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Back and forth: The CO2 /N2 trigger of a switchable surfactant (neutral amidine/cationic amidinium) was transferred to mineral nanoparticles through in?situ hydrophobization in water. Switchable oil-in-water Pickering emulsions that entail a CO2 /N2 trigger were obtained by using negatively charged silica nanoparticles and a trace amount of the switchable surfactant as the stabilizer.
Related JoVE Video
The memory plate for four-corner fusion of scaphoid non-union advanced collapse.
J Plast Surg Hand Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of the memory plates for four-corner fusion (FCF) of scaphoid non-union advanced collapse (SNAC). From 2005-2010, 11 cases of SNAC received FCF with the memory plate designed by the authors. At an average follow-up of 21 months, there were no non-unions and postoperative infections. One patient complained of dorsal impingement. The pain relief rate was 100% and the average grip strength increased from 11.3% preoperatively to 56.3% postoperatively of the contralateral side. The primary results of FCF with memory plates are promising. By its compressive property, the memory plate facilitates the arthrodesis with a lower complication rate.
Related JoVE Video
Incisional negative-pressure wound therapy versus conventional dressings following abdominal wall reconstruction: a comparative study.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Improvements in surgical techniques have allowed us to achieve primary closure in a high percentage of large abdominal hernia repairs. However, postoperative wound complications remain common. The benefits of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in the management of open abdominal wounds are well described in the literature. Our study investigates the effects of incisional NPWT after primary closure of the abdominal wall.
Related JoVE Video
Kai-xin-san, a chinese herbal decoction containing ginseng radix et rhizoma, polygalae radix, acori tatarinowii rhizoma, and poria, stimulates the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors in cultured astrocytes.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. In China, KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness. Although animal study has supported the antidepression function of KXS, the mechanism in cellular level is still unknown. Here, a chemically standardized water extract of KXS was applied onto cultured astrocytes in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment, which significantly stimulated the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, in a dose-dependent manner: the stimulation was both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction. The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase. The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction.
Related JoVE Video
Solution phase van der Waals epitaxy of ZnO wire arrays.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As an incommensurate epitaxy, van der Waals epitaxy allows defect-free crystals to grow on substrates even with a large lattice mismatch. Furthermore, van der Waals epitaxy is proposed as a universal platform where heteroepitaxy can be achieved irrespective of the nature of the overlayer material and the method of crystallization. Here we demonstrate van der Waals epitaxy in solution phase synthesis for seedless and catalyst-free growth of ZnO wire arrays on phlogopite mica at low temperature. A unique incommensurate interface is observed even with the incomplete initial wetting of ZnO onto the substrate. Interestingly, the imperfect contacting layer does not affect the crystalline and optical properties of other parts of the wires. In addition, we present patterned growth of a well-ordered array with hexagonal facets and in-plane alignment. We expect our seedless and catalyst-free solution phase van der Waals epitaxy synthesis to be widely applicable in other materials and structures.
Related JoVE Video
Shotgun proteomic analysis of wing discs from the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) during metamorphosis.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Proteomic profiles from the wing discs of silkworms at the larval, pupal, and adult moth stages were determined using shotgun proteomics and MS sequencing. We identified 241, 218, and 223 proteins from the larval, pupal, and adult moth stages, respectively, of which 139 were shared by all three stages. In addition, there were 55, 37, and 43 specific proteins identified at the larval, pupal, and adult moth stages, respectively. More metabolic enzymes were identified among the specific proteins expressed in the wing disc of larvae compared with pupae and moths. The identification of FKBP45 and the chitinase-like protein EN03 as two proteins solely expressed at the larval stage indicate these two proteins may be involved in the immunological functions of larvae. The myosin heavy chain was identified in the pupal wing disc, suggesting its involvement in the formation of wing muscle. Some proteins, such as proteasome alpha 3 subunits and ribosomal proteins, specifically identified from the moth stage may be involved in the degradation of old cuticle proteins and new cuticle protein synthesis. Gene ontology analysis of proteins specific to each of these three stages enabled their association with cellular component, molecular function, and biological process categories. The analysis of similarities and differences in these identified proteins will greatly further our understanding of wing disc development in silkworm and other insects.
Related JoVE Video
Chemical changes of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Chuanxiong Rhizoma by wine treatment: chemical profiling and marker selection by gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.
Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR) can be treated with wine to promote their biological functions in Chinese medicine. Both ASR and CR contain similar volatile chemicals that could be altered after wine treatment. This study aims to identify the differential chemical profiles and to select marker chemicals of ASR and CR before and after wine treatment.
Related JoVE Video
FOXO3a involvement in the release of TNF-? stimulated by ATP in spinal cord astrocytes.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Spinal cord injury is characterized by an inflammatory response that includes the increased expression of several cytokines and chemokines. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) acts as a critical endogenous signaling molecule in inflammation and immunity. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the proinflammatory cytokines stimulated by ATP are poorly understood. Mammalian forkhead members of the class O (FOXO) are involved in a variety of signaling pathways. In this study, we have found that ATP could selectively decrease the expression of FOXO1 and FOXO3a via the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Akt in spinal cord astrocytes. However, ATP had no effect on the expression of FOXO4 and FOXO6, and EGFR, Akt, and ERK1/2 all involve in the release of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) induced by ATP. In addition, we have researched that the overexpressed FOXO3a could specially inhibit the release of TNF-? increased by ATP, but the level of IL-6 induced by ATP was not decreased. Meanwhile, there was no change in the release of IL-6 and TNF-? after FOXO1 was overexpressed. Understanding the critical role of FOXO3a in astrocytes stimulated by ATP may provide a potential target for therapeutic intervention after spinal cord injury.
Related JoVE Video
New method for retrospective study of hemodynamic changes before and after aneurysm formation in patients with ruptured or unruptured aneurysms.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prospective observation of hemodynamic changes before and after formation of brain aneurysms is often difficult. We used a vessel surface repair method to carry out a retrospective hemodynamic study before and after aneurysm formation in a ruptured aneurysms of the posterior communicating artery (RPcomAA) and an unruptured aneurysms of the posterior communicating artery (URPcomAA).
Related JoVE Video
Light-activated serotonin for exploring its action in biological systems.
Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator involved in regulating mood, appetite, memory, learning, pain, and establishment of left-right (LR) asymmetry in embryonic development. To explore the role of 5-HT in physiology, we have created two forms of "caged" 5-HT, BHQ-O-5HT and BHQ-N-5HT. When exposed to 365 or 740 nm light, BHQ-O-5HT releases 5-HT through one- or two-photon excitation, respectively. BHQ-O-5HT mediated changes in neural activity in cultured mouse primary sensory neurons and the trigeminal ganglion and optic tectum of intact zebrafish larvae in the form of high-amplitude spiking in response to light. In Xenopus laevis embryos, light-activated 5-HT increased the occurrence of LR patterning defects. Maximal rates of LR defects were observed when 5-HT was released at stage 5 compared with stage 8. These experiments show the potential for BHQ-caged serotonins in studying 5-HT-regulated physiological processes.
Related JoVE Video
A study of multiple biliary hamartomas based on 1697 liver biopsies.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multiple biliary hamartomas (MBHs) are rare benign malformations of the intrahepatic bile ducts. There are only a handful of clinical studies based on large populations on the incidence of MBHs.
Related JoVE Video
Foot and ankle reconstruction: An experience on the use of 14 different flaps in 226 cases.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this report was to present our experience on the use of different flaps for soft tissue reconstruction of the foot and ankle. From 2007 to 2012, the soft tissue defects of traumatic injuries of the foot and ankle were reconstructed using 14 different flaps in 226 cases (162 male and 64 female). There were 62 pedicled flaps and 164 free flaps used in reconstruction. The pedicled flaps included sural flap, saphenous flap, dorsal pedal neurocutaneous flap, pedicled peroneal artery perforator flap, pedicled tibial artery perforator flap, and medial plantar flap. The free flaps were latissimus musculocutaneous flap, anterolateral thigh musculocutaneous flap, groin flap, lateral arm flap, anterolateral thigh perforator flap, peroneal artery perforator flap, thoracdorsal artery perforator flap, medial arm perforator flap. The sensory nerve coaptation was not performed for all of flaps. One hundred and ninety-four cases were combined with open fractures. One hundred and sixty-two cases had tendon. Among 164 free flaps, 8 flaps were completely lost, in which the defects were managed by the secondary procedures. Among the 57 flaps for plantar foot coverage (25 pedicled flaps and 32 free flaps), ulcers were developed in 5 pedicled flaps and 6 free flaps after weight bearing, and infection was found in 14 flaps. The donor site complications were seen in 3 cases with the free anterolateral thigh perforator flap transfer. All of limbs were preserved and the patients regained walking and daily activities. All of patients except for one regained protective sensation from 3 to 12 months postoperatively. Our experience showed that the sural flap and saphenous flap could be good options for the coverage of the defects at malleolus, dorsal hindfoot and midfoot. Plantar foot, forefoot and large size defects could be reconstructed with free anterolateral thigh perforator flap. For the infected wounds with dead spce, the free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap remained to be the optimal choice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2013.
Related JoVE Video
What interests them in the pictures?--differences in eye-tracking between rhesus monkeys and humans.
Neurosci Bull
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies estimating eye movements have demonstrated that non-human primates have fixation patterns similar to humans at the first sight of a picture. In the current study, three sets of pictures containing monkeys, humans or both were presented to rhesus monkeys and humans. The eye movements on these pictures by the two species were recorded using a Tobii eye-tracking system. We found that monkeys paid more attention to the head and body in pictures containing monkeys, whereas both monkeys and humans paid more attention to the head in pictures containing humans. The humans always concentrated on the eyes and head in all the pictures, indicating the social role of facial cues in society. Although humans paid more attention to the hands than monkeys, both monkeys and humans were interested in the hands and what was being done with them in the pictures. This may suggest the importance and necessity of hands for survival. Finally, monkeys scored lower in eye-tracking when fixating on the pictures, as if they were less interested in looking at the screen than humans. The locations of fixation in monkeys may provide insight into the role of eye movements in an evolutionary context.
Related JoVE Video
Application of the Willis covered stent using the telescopic technique for the treatment of fusiform aneurysm in a canine model.
Neurol India
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background: The covered stent is one of the most promising tools for the treatment of intracranial fusiform aneurysms. We developed an in vivo model of fusiform aneurysms and evaluated the effectiveness of double telescoping Willis covered stents for their treatment. Materials and Methods: An external jugular vein graft was anastomosed with the common carotid artery (CCA) to construct the fusiform aneurysm model. After at least 4 weeks, two Willis covered stents were implanted in a telescopic fashion. Angiography follow-up was performed at 2 weeks and 1 and 3 months to examine the grafts. The animals were sacrificed at 1 or 3 months of the follow-up period, and the stents were examined histologically. Results: A total of eight fusiform aneurysms in four canines were created and 16 covered stents were implanted successfully. No technical or device-related difficulties occurred. The angiographic follow-up results showed that six fusiform aneurysms were completely occluded, and a minimal endoleak occurred in two fusiform aneurysms. Histological examination revealed endothelial progress and all aneurysm sacs were filled with thrombi. Conclusion: Vein graft anastomosis with CCA to construct a model of fusiform aneurysm may reproduce the clinical conditions. This study demonstrated that the implantation of two Willis covered stents in a telescoping fashion is an effective way to treat an experimental model of fusiform aneurysm.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on operative parameters and outcome in patients with peritoneal dissemination from high-grade appendiceal cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-grade appendiceal adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy with propensity for peritoneal metastases (PM). The impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on operative cytoreduction (CRS) and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) and patient survival was reviewed.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of clinical benefit and quality of life in patients undergoing cytoreduction and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) for management of peritoneal metastases.
J Gastrointest Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peritoneal metastasis is a significant clinical challenge; life expectancy following diagnosis is usually very short. Surgical cytoreduction with HIPEC is being used with increasing frequency in selected patients; most outcome data have shown that prolonged median survivals can be observed in selected patients. This review summarizes the published data related to outcome and quality of life after cytoreduction and HIPEC to provide insights into its use in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis.
Related JoVE Video
An essential requirement for the SCAP/SREBP signaling axis to protect cancer cells from lipotoxicity.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) are key transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism and cellular growth. It has been proposed that SREBP signaling regulates cellular growth through its ability to drive lipid biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, we find that loss of SREBP activity inhibits cancer cell growth and viability by uncoupling fatty acid synthesis from desaturation. Integrated lipid profiling and metabolic flux analysis revealed that cancer cells with attenuated SREBP activity maintain long-chain saturated fatty acid synthesis, while losing fatty acid desaturation capacity. We traced this defect to the uncoupling of fatty acid synthase activity from stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1)-mediated desaturation. This deficiency in desaturation drives an imbalance between the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid pools resulting in severe lipotoxicity. Importantly, replenishing the monounsaturated fatty acid pool restored growth to SREBP-inhibited cells. These studies highlight the importance of fatty acid desaturation in cancer growth and provide a novel mechanistic explanation for the role of SREBPs in cancer metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
UNC5H4-induced apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer is not dependent on p53 status only.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression profile and prognostic significance of uncoordinated 5 homolog 4 (UNC5H4) in patients with lung cancer and to evaluate whether UNC5H4 expression may serve as an index for radiosensitivity. UNC5H4 and p53 expression levels were detected by immunohistochemistry, apoptosis was determined by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay and caspase 3 activation was determined by western blotting. The results showed that UNC5H4 expression was largely located in the membrane of the normal bronchial epithelium, but absent in the membranous regions or ectopic cytoplasm of 80/130 (61.5%) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue samples. Abnormal UNC5H4 expression was demonstrated to correlate with the degree of differentiation (P=0.015), TNM staging (P=0.037). Cytoplasmic UNC5H4 expression was shown to correlate negatively with p53 mutant type (mt) expression (r=-0.270; P=0.002) and positively with the apoptotic index (r=0.254; P=0.004). The statistical analyses indicated that the prognosis of patients with normal UNC5H4 expression was improved compared with that of patients with abnormal UNC5H4 expression, however, no significant difference was identified (P=0.125). Exposure of NSCLC tissue samples to X-radiation increased UNC5H4 expression and caspase 3 activity significantly, irrespective of p53 mutation status. In conclusion, these results indicate that X-rays induce apoptosis via the p53 pathway, and when this pathway is compromised, an additional pathway is utilized.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-edema effect of epigallocatechin gallate on spinal cord injury in rats.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies indicated that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) had neuroprotective effects on spinal cord injury (SCI).The current study was performed to determine the anti-edema effect of EGCG after SCI in rats. EGCG (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to rats immediately following SCI. It was found that EGCG (100 mg/kg) could significantly reduce spinal cord water content. In addition, EGCG (100mg/kg) significantly reduced the expression of aquaporin-4(AQP4) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) level at 24, 48 and 72h after injury, but it did not have this effect at 12 h after injury. The changes of AQP4 and GFAP protein induced by EGCG (100 mg/kg) treatment were accompanied by a reduction of spinal cord edema. Our results indicated that EGCG (100 mg/kg) could reduce spinal cord edema after SCI, which could be correlated with the down-regulation the expression of AQP4 and GFAP protein level after SCI.
Related JoVE Video
Development of simulator guidelines for resident assessment in flexible endoscopy.
Am Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Virtual reality (VR) simulators may hold a role in the assessment of trainee abilities independent of their role as instructional instruments. Thus, we piloted a course in flexible endoscopy to surgical trainees who had met Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education endoscopy requirements to establish the relationship between metrics produced by a VR endoscopic simulator and trainee ability. After a didactic session, we provided faculty instruction to senior residents for Case 1 upper endoscopy and colonoscopy modules on the CAE EndoscopyVR. Course conclusion was defined as a trainee meeting all proficiency standards in basic endoscopic procedures on the simulator. Simulator metrics and course evaluation comprised data. Eleven and eight residents participated in the colonoscopy and upper endoscopy courses, respectively. Average time to reach proficiency standards for esophagogastroduodenoscopy was 6 and 13 minutes for colonoscopy after a median of one (range, one to two) and one (range, one to four) task repetitions, respectively. Faculty instruction averaged 7.5 minutes of instruction per repetition. A subjective course evaluation demonstrated that the course improved learners knowledge of the subject and comfort with endoscopic equipment. Within a VR-based curriculum, experienced residents rapidly achieved task proficiency. The resultant scores may be used as simulator guidelines for resident assessment and readiness to perform flexible endoscopy.
Related JoVE Video
Feature-preserving smoothing of diffusion weighted images using nonstationarity adaptive filtering.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although promising for studying the microstructure of in vivo tissues, the performance and the potentiality of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging are hampered by the presence of high-level noise in diffusion weighted (DW) images. This paper proposes a novel smoothing approach, called the nonstationarity adaptive filtering, which estimates the intensity of a pixel by averaging intensities in its adaptive homogeneous neighborhood. The latter is determined according to five constraints and spatiodirectional nonstationarity measure maps. The proposed approach is compared with an anisotropic diffusion method used in DW image smoothing. Experimental results on both synthetic and real human DW images show that the proposed method achieves a better compromise between the smoothness of homogeneous regions and the preservation of desirable features such as boundaries, even for highly noisy data, thus leading to homogeneously consistent tensor fields and consequently more coherent fibers.
Related JoVE Video
Gum chewing: another simple potential method for more rapid improvement of postoperative gastrointestinal function.
Digestion
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sham feeding has been reported to enhance bowel motility. Here, to promote gastrointestinal function after postoperative ileus, the effect of gum chewing (GC) was evaluated.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.