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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crumb tyre rubber catalysed by rutile TiO2 under UV irradiation.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crumb tyre rubber were firstly degraded under UV irradiation in the presence of rutile TiO2 and hydrogen peroxide. The effects of light intensity, catalyst amount, oxidant amount, initial pH value, co-solvent content, and reaction time on degradation efficiency of typical PAHs in crumb tyre rubber were studied. The results indicated that UV irradiation, rutile TiO2, and hydrogen peroxide were beneficial to the degradation of PAHs and co-solvent could accelerate the desorption of PAHs from crumb tyre rubber. Up to 90% degradation efficiency of total 16 PAHs could be obtained in the presence of rutile TiO2 (1?wt%) and hydrogen peroxide (1.0?mL) under 1800?µW?cm(-2) UV irradiation for 48?h. The high molecular weight PAHs (such as benz(a)pyrene) were more difficult to be degraded than low molecular weight PAHs (such as phenanthrene, chrysene). Moreover, through the characterization of reaction solution and degradation products via GC-MS, it was proved that the PAHs in crumb tyre rubber were successfully degraded.
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Regularized linearization for quantum nonlinear optical cavities: application to degenerate optical parametric oscillators.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Nonlinear optical cavities are crucial both in classical and quantum optics; in particular, nowadays optical parametric oscillators are one of the most versatile and tunable sources of coherent light, as well as the sources of the highest quality quantum-correlated light in the continuous variable regime. Being nonlinear systems, they can be driven through critical points in which a solution ceases to exist in favour of a new one, and it is close to these points where quantum correlations are the strongest. The simplest description of such systems consists in writing the quantum fields as the classical part plus some quantum fluctuations, linearizing then the dynamical equations with respect to the latter; however, such an approach breaks down close to critical points, where it provides unphysical predictions such as infinite photon numbers. On the other hand, techniques going beyond the simple linear description become too complicated especially regarding the evaluation of two-time correlators, which are of major importance to compute observables outside the cavity. In this article we provide a regularized linear description of nonlinear cavities, that is, a linearization procedure yielding physical results, taking the degenerate optical parametric oscillator as the guiding example. The method, which we call self-consistent linearization, is shown to be equivalent to a general Gaussian ansatz for the state of the system, and we compare its predictions with those obtained with available exact (or quasi-exact) methods. Apart from its operational value, we believe that our work is valuable also from a fundamental point of view, especially in connection to the question of how far linearized or Gaussian theories can be pushed to describe nonlinear dissipative systems which have access to non-Gaussian states.
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Diabetes Mellitus Does Not Increase the Risk of Adverse Long-Term Outcomes After Intracranial Stent Placement.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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The present study is to investigate whether diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk of adverse long-term outcomes after intracranial stent placement. Patients receiving intracranial stenting were assigned to DM group and non-DM group according to diabetes status. The long-term follow-up endpoint was composite of any stroke and death within 30 days, any ischemic stroke beyond 30 days, and transient ischemic attack in the territory of the stented artery at any time. A total of 44 stenoses in 43 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The cumulative probability of the composite outcomes were 15.4 % (95 % CI 15.3-47.3 %) at 1 year and 30.8 % (95 % CI 26.5-33.6 %) at 2 years for DM group; 17.5 % (95 % CI 16.0-31.2 %) at both 1 year and 2 years for non-DM group (log-rank test, P = 0.424). After adjusting for the confounders, the risk of DM versus non-DM for composite outcomes remained insignificant (hazard ratio: 2.84, 95 % CI 0.46-17.66; P = 0.26). Our results showed that there is no significant difference between patients with DM and without DM in cumulative probability of the composite outcomes. It suggests that based on our data, there is no evidence that DM increases the risk of adverse long-term outcomes after intracranial stent placement.
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[Effect of adrenomedullin on renal arteriole remodeling in spontaneous hypertensive rats].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To investigate the effect of adrenomedullin (ADM) on renal arteriole remodeling and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
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The association between leukoaraiosis and carotid atherosclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The association between large-artery atherosclerosis and leukoaraiosis (LA) has been increasingly reported with inconsistent conclusion. This systematic review examines the relationship between LA and carotid atherosclerosis, manifested as atherosclerotic stenosis, plaques and increased intima-media thickness (IMT). PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for articles published up to February 2014. Thirty-two studies that examined the relationship between LA and carotid atherosclerosis were included. All statistical analysis was conducted with Review Manager 5.2.4. Finally, 32 studies including 17,721 patients were identified. There were 7 (30%) out of 23 studies reporting significant association between LA and carotid stenosis; 11 (79%) out of 14 studies reporting significant association between LA and carotid plaque; all 9 studies reporting significant association between LA and carotid IMT; one study showing an association between LA and CAWT (similar to the role of the IMT). The quantitative meta-analysis of 10 studies showed that carotid atherosclerosis was not associated with LA (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.61-1.98). A significant association was found between LA and carotid plaque (OR = 3.53; 95% CI = 1.83-6.79), and the result of IMT group showed that IMT increased risk of LA (MD = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.01-0.22). This systematic review suggested that LA has a tendency of association with carotid plaques but no association with simple carotid stenosis.
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Association Between Zolpidem Use and Glaucoma Risk: A Taiwanese Population-Based Case-Control Study.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Background: To date, the relationship between zolpidem use and subsequent risk of glaucoma in a Taiwanese population has not been assessed.Methods: We used data from the National Health Insurance system to investigate whether zolpidem use was related to glaucoma risk. A 1:4 matched case-control study was conducted. The cases were patients newly diagnosed with glaucoma from 2001 to 2010. The controls were randomly selected non-glaucoma subjects matched by sex and age (±5 years). Zolpidem exposure and/or the average dosage of zolpidem used (mg/year) were evaluated. Medical comorbidities were considered as confounding factors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the potential risk of zolpidem exposure on glaucoma with/without adjustment for the effects of confounding variables.Results: The exposure rate of zolpidem use in the glaucoma group was significantly higher than that of the control group (2.8% vs. 2.0%, P < 0.0001). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of the risk of glaucoma for those with zolpidem use vs. those without was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.38). Compared to non-zolpidem users, zolpidem users with an average dose of more than 200 mg/year had significantly increased risk of glaucoma (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.03-1.68).Conclusions: This study suggests that the use of zolpidem might increase the risk of subsequent glaucoma. Further confirmatory studies are recommended to clarify this important issue.
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The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of GSK 3? gene and sporadic alzheimer's disease in a cohort of southern Chinese Han population.
Neurotox Res
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Recent studies suggest that genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK 3?) is an important molecule which regulates tau phosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangles formation. GSK 3? gene may be a potential candidate gene for the risk of sAD. To investigate the association of the polymorphisms in GSK 3? gene with sAD, we conducted a case-control study in a southern Chinese Han cohort including 302 sAD patients and 315 control participants. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3732361, rs56728675, rs60393216, and rs334558) within the promoter region of GSK 3? gene were selected and genotyped with a polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection (PCR-LDR) method. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between target SNPs and the risk of sAD. After adjusting for age, sex, and APOE ?4 status, no association was revealed between these SNPs and sAD (P > 0.05). The SNPs in the selected regions of GSK 3? gene are unlikely to confer the susceptibility of sAD in southern Chinese Han population. Further studies with a larger sample size and different ethnic populations are needed to reveal the role of SNPs of GSK 3? gene in the pathogenesis of sAD.
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Reactive heart rate variability in male patients with first-episode major depressive disorder.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The association between cardiovascular reactivity and major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unclear. This study aimed to examine this association via reactive heart rate variability (HRV) in a well-diagnosed first-episode MDD group and a control group.
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The impact of nasal surgery on sleep quality: a prospective outcomes study.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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(1) Evaluate the impact of nasal airway surgery on sleep quality using validated outcome measurements, (2) compare the utility of Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) versus Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) as a reflection of sleep quality, and (3) identify perioperative variables that might correlate with a beneficial effect of nasal surgery on sleep quality.
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CUDT: a CUDA based decision tree algorithm.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Decision tree is one of the famous classification methods in data mining. Many researches have been proposed, which were focusing on improving the performance of decision tree. However, those algorithms are developed and run on traditional distributed systems. Obviously the latency could not be improved while processing huge data generated by ubiquitous sensing node in the era without new technology help. In order to improve data processing latency in huge data mining, in this paper, we design and implement a new parallelized decision tree algorithm on a CUDA (compute unified device architecture), which is a GPGPU solution provided by NVIDIA. In the proposed system, CPU is responsible for flow control while the GPU is responsible for computation. We have conducted many experiments to evaluate system performance of CUDT and made a comparison with traditional CPU version. The results show that CUDT is 5 ? 55 times faster than Weka-j48 and is 18 times speedup than SPRINT for large data set.
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A Pilot Study: Association between Minor Physical Anomalies in Childhood and Future Mental Problems.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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This study aims to investigate association between early recognizable minor physical abnormality (MPA) during childhood is associated with mental health problems in young adults.
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Meta-analysis of stratus OCT glaucoma diagnostic accuracy.
Optom Vis Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of glaucoma in different stages, different types of glaucoma, and different ethnic groups using Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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Neuroprotective effect of curcumin against oxidative damage in BV-2 microglia and high intraocular pressure animal model.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The involvement of local and systemic oxidative stress in intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation and optic nerve damage has been hypothesized in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. In this study, we aim to evaluate the antioxidant effects of curcumin in BV-2 microglia oxidative damage and assess its neuroprotective effects in a chronic high IOP rat model.
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Transient childhood psychosis after upper respiratory infection.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Two cases of psychosis after upper respiratory infection were reported. New mental illness among children was substantiated after analyzing the cause of psychosis during the past 10 years of practice. It is confirmed that there is an association between psychosis and upper respiratory infection.
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Obstructive sleep apnea patients having surgery are less associated with glaucoma.
J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Objective. To investigate if different treatment strategy of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was associated glaucoma risk in Taiwanese population. Methods. Population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using data sourced from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. We included 2528 OSA patients and randomly selected and matched 10112 subjects without OSA as the control cohort. The risk of glaucoma in OSA patients was investigated based on the managements of OSA (without treatment, with surgery, with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment, and with multiple modalities). The multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) after adjusting for sex, age, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease. Results. The adjusted HR of glaucoma for OSA patients was 1.88 (95% CI: 1.46-2.42), compared with controls. For patients without treatment, the adjusted HR was 2.15 (95% CI: 1.60-2.88). For patients with treatments, the adjusted HRs of glaucoma were not significantly different from controls, except for those with CPAP (adjusted HR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.09-2.49). Conclusions. OSA is associated with an increased risk of glaucoma. However, surgery reduces slightly the glaucoma hazard for OSA patients.
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Effects of acupressure on fatigue of lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: an experimental pilot study.
Complement Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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This study explored the effects of acupressure on fatigue of lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
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Improvement of strain discrimination by combination of superantigen profiles, PFGE, and RAPD for Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical samples and food-poisoning cases.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacterial species that may cause clinical infection and food-poisoning cases. Strains of this bacterial species may produce a series of superantigens (SAgs) (i.e., staphylococcal enterotoxins [SEs], staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxins, and toxic shock syndrome toxin). In this study, S. aureus strains from clinical samples and food-poisoning cases in Taiwan were collected; their SAg profiles, and SmaI digestion patterns determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), were then analyzed. Results showed that their SAg gene profiles and SmaI digestion patterns of chromosomal DNA were highly diverse. Although PFGE has been used as a criterion standard for typing of S. aureus strains, and the SAg profiles have been used in combination with PFGE for typing of S. aureus strains, we found that strains grouped in these combined patterns could be further discriminated by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Thus, the combined use of SAg profiles, PFGE, and RAPD patterns permits high discrimination for typing of S. aureus strains from not only the clinical samples but also the food-poisoning cases. Such a combined method may be used as a highly accurate approach for epidemiological study and tracing of the contamination origin of staphylococcal infections either in hospitals or food-poisoning cases.
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Association between intercellular adhesion molecule-1 gene K469E polymorphism and the risk of stroke in a Chinese population: a meta-analysis.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Several epidemiologic studies have evaluated the association between intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) gene K469E polymorphism and stroke, but the results were inconsistent. The present meta-analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between K469E polymorphism and stroke in the Chinese population. A comprehensive search for related studies from the electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CBMdisc and CNKI as well as a manual search of the references of identified articles was performed. Data were extracted to calculate for allelic, additive, dominant and recessive models using pooled odds ratios (ORs) along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by Review Manager 5.0 and Stata 11.0. Different effect models, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, publication bias and power calculations were used to improve the comprehensive analysis. Finally, a total of 12 studies containing 1593 cases and 1555 controls were included in the final meta-analysis. No evidence of significant association between ICAM-1 gene K469E polymorphism and stroke was found in all four models (allelic model: OR = 1.07, 95%CI = 0.78-1.47; additive model: OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.67-2.16 (EE vs. KK); OR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.75-1.45 (EK vs. KK); dominant model: OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.73-1.56; and recessive model: OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.77-1.83, respectively) based on the overall population, as well as subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis showed no evidence of significant association between ICAM-1 gene K469E polymorphism and stroke in the Chinese population. Nonetheless, this conclusion should be interpreted cautiously due to the low statistical power and considerable heterogeneity. Therefore, larger sample-size studies with homogeneous cases and well-matched controls are needed to further address this correlation.
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Bufalin exerts inhibitory effects on IL-1?-mediated proliferation and induces apoptosis in human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RAFLSs) proliferate abnormally and resist apoptosis. Bufalin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells. In this study, we explored the effects of bufalin on interleukin-1beta (IL-1?)-induced proliferation and apoptosis of RAFLSs. The cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay and annexin V/propidium iodide staining, respectively. Bufalin dose-dependently inhibited IL-1?-induced RAFLS proliferation. Mechanistically, bufalin decreased the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), both of which are involved in IL-1?-mediated RAFLS proliferation. Moreover, bufalin induced apoptosis and mitochondrial damage of RAFLSs, which was associated with Bcl-2 downregulation, Bax upregulation, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and enhanced cleavages of caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Collectively, our results reveal that bufalin suppresses IL-1?-induced proliferation of RAFLSs through MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways and induces RAFLS apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway.
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Activation of spinal glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors specifically suppresses pain hypersensitivity.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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This study aims to identify the inhibitory role of the spinal glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling in pain hypersensitivity and its mechanism of action in rats and mice. First, GLP-1Rs were identified to be specifically expressed on microglial cells in the spinal dorsal horn, and profoundly upregulated after peripheral nerve injury. In addition, intrathecal GLP-1R agonists GLP-1(7-36) and exenatide potently alleviated formalin-, peripheral nerve injury-, bone cancer-, and diabetes-induced hypersensitivity states by 60-90%, without affecting acute nociceptive responses. The antihypersensitive effects of exenatide and GLP-1 were completely prevented by GLP-1R antagonism and GLP-1R gene knockdown. Furthermore, exenatide evoked ?-endorphin release from both the spinal cord and cultured microglia. Exenatide antiallodynia was completely prevented by the microglial inhibitor minocycline, ?-endorphin antiserum, and opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. Our results illustrate a novel spinal dorsal horn microglial GLP-1R/?-endorphin inhibitory pathway in a variety of pain hypersensitivity states.
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Telmisartan-induced PPAR? activity attenuates lipid accumulation in VSMCs via induction of autophagy.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Foam cell formation is the hallmark of atherosclerosis. Both telmisartan and autophagy protect against the development of atherosclerosis. However, it has yet to be elucidated whether telmisartan prevents vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-derived foam cell formation. Vascular smooth muscle cells isolated from the thoracic aorta of male C57BL/6J mice were used for this study. To induce foam cell formation, primary VSMCs were incubated in 80 ?g/ml oxLDL for 24 h. LC3, beclin-1, PPAR?, AMPK, p-AMPK, mTOR and p-mTOR expression were determined via Western blot. Lipid accumulation was evaluated via oil red O staining and intracellular total cholesterol level measurement. Our study demonstrated that telmisartan dose-dependently increased the expression of beclin-1, the LC3II/LC3I ratio and the quantity of GFP-labeled autophagosomes, displaying a peak effect at 10 ?M. In control siRNA-transfected VSMCs, telmisartan (10 ?M) decreased lipid droplet accumulation and the total cholesterol level significantly. In contrast, in Atg7 siRNA-transfected VSMCs, telmisartan failed to attenuate lipid accumulation. In addition, telmisartan dose-dependently increased the expression of PPAR? and p-AMPK and decreased the expression of p-mTOR. GW9662 attenuated the telmisartan-induced increase in PPAR? expression, the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and p-AMPK expression and the telmisartan-induced decrease in p-mTOR expression. Compound C restored mTOR activity and abolished the increase in the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Rapamycin significantly reduced p-mTOR expression and increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the chronic pharmacological activation of the PPAR?-mediated autophagy pathway using telmisartan may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis.
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Association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risk of cerebrovascular disease in Chinese population: an updated meta-analysis.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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A variety of epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T polymorphism and cerebrovascular disease, but the results were inconsistent. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to investigate the relationship between C677T polymorphism and cerebrovascular disease in Chinese population. Systematically searching for related studies from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CBMdisc and CNKI databases up to 20 September 2013 and manual searching of the reference lists of identified articles was performed. Information was extracted to calculate for the additive, dominant, and recessive models using the pooled odds ratios (ORs) along with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), using Review Manager 5.0, STATA 11.0 and SPSS 17. Logistic regression, fixed or random effects model, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, meta-regression analysis and publication bias were conducted to improve the comprehensive analysis. A total of 68 case-control studies containing 7,990 cases and 6,941 controls were included in the final meta-analysis. Evidence of significant association between C677T polymorphism and risk of cerebrovascular disease was found in all three genetic models (additive model OR 1.472, 95 % CI 1.368-1.585, P L < 0.001 (CT vs. CC); OR 1.819, 95 % CI 1.666-1.985, P L < 0.001 (TT vs. CC); dominant model OR 1.77, 95 % CI 1.57-1.98, p < 0.00001; and recessive model OR 1.54, 95 % CI 1.39-1.71, p < 0.00001, respectively) based on the overall population. In addition, the results were verified by the subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis. The present meta-analysis suggests that MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism is significantly associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. TT genotype may act as an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular disease in Chinese population.
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Correction of astigmatism and coma using analytic theory of aberrations in imaging spectrometer based on concentric off-axis dual reflector system.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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A specific imaging spectrometer based on a concentric off-axis dual reflector system is proposed, free of astigmatism and coma. The described imaging spectrometer consists of four spherical mirrors and a plane grating. The analytic theory of aberrations and the optical path-length concept are used to derive the astigmatism elimination and coma removal. It is shown that the astigmatism in these imaging spectrometers is eliminated by characterizing three angles, and the coma is corrected when unequal mirror radii are configured in collimating and condensing optics. The developed aberration principle is verified by comparing the performance of the astigmatism-eliminated spectrometer with the spectrometer which has neither astigmatism nor coma.
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Identification and characterization of the arsenite methyltransferase from a protozoan, Tetrahymena pyriformis.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Arsenic (As) methylation in aquatic microbes plays a major role in the biogeochemistry of As. Protozoa, especially the free-living freshwater species, are important players in aquatic ecological health. In this study, an arsenite (As(III)) methyltransferase, TpyArsM, was identified and characterized in a free-living protozoan, Tetrahymena pyriformis. In order to confirm its function, TpyarsM gene was knocked-out in Tetrahymena and was also heterologously expressed in hypersensitive E. coli; these events resulted in expected decreases in As tolerance and methylation ability, respectively. In-vitro tests revealed that purified TpyArsM protein methylated inorganic As to mono- and di- methylarsenate, and also had the novel property of producing trimethylarsenite (TMA(III)) and dimethylarsine (Me2AsH) gases. This new methyltransferase gene, identified in a species near the base of the food web, has enriched our knowledge of As methyltransferases and has great potential for bioremediation of As-contaminated environments.
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Cd-metallothioneins in three additional tetrahymena species: intragenic repeat patterns and induction by metal ions.
J. Eukaryot. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Ciliate metallothioneins (MTs) possess many unique features compared to the "classic" MTs in other organisms, but they have only been studied in a small number of species. In this study, we investigated cDNAs encoding subfamily 7a metallothioneins (CdMTs) in three Tetrahymena species (T. hegewischi, T. malaccensis, and T. mobilis). Four CdMT genes (ThegMT1, ThegMT2, TmalMT1, and TmobMT1) were cloned and characterized. They share high sequence similarity to previously identified subfamily 7a MT members. Tetrahymena CdMTs exhibit a remarkably regular intragenic repeat homology. The CdMT sequences were divided into two main types of modules, which had been previously described, and which we name "A" and "B". ThegMT2 was identified as the first MT isoform solely composed of module "B". A phylogenetic analysis of individual modules of every characterized Tetrahymena CdMT rigorously documents the conclusion that modules are important units of CdMT evolution, which have undergone frequent and rapid gain/loss and shuffling. The transcriptional activity of the four newly identified genes was measured under different heavy metal exposure (Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb) using real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that these genes were differentially induced after short (1 h) or long (24 h) metal exposure. The evolutionary diversity of Tetrahymena CdMTs is further discussed with regard to their induction by metal ions.
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Upregulation of ICAM-1 in diabetic rats after transient forebrain ischemia and reperfusion injury.
J Inflamm (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hyperglycemia exacerbates brain damage caused by cerebral ischemia. Neuroinflammation may play a role in mediating such enhanced damage. The objectives of this study were to examine the mRNA and protein levels and cell type distribution of ICAM-1 after cerebral ischemia in normo-and diabetic hyperglycemic rats.
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Efficacy of eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing for patients with posttraumatic-stress disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We performed the first meta-analysis of clinical studies by investigating the effects of eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy on the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and subjective distress in PTSD patients treated during the past 2 decades.
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Use of diffusion spectrum imaging in preliminary longitudinal evaluation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: development of an imaging biomarker.
Front Hum Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have shown white matter pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), predominantly in the motor pathways. Further these studies have shown that DTI can be used longitudinally to track pathology over time, making white matter pathology a candidate as an outcome measure in future trials. DTI has demonstrated application in group studies, however its derived indices, for example fractional anisotropy, are susceptible to partial volume effects, making its role questionable in examining individual progression. We hypothesize that changes in the white matter are present in ALS beyond the motor tracts, and that the affected pathways and associated pattern of disease progression can be tracked longitudinally using automated diffusion connectometry analysis. Connectometry analysis is based on diffusion spectrum imaging and overcomes the limitations of a conventional tractography approach and DTI. The identified affected white matter tracts can then be assessed in a targeted fashion using High definition fiber tractography (a novel white matter MR imaging technique). Changes in quantitative and qualitative markers over time could then be correlated with clinical progression. We illustrate these principles toward developing an imaging biomarker for demonstrating individual progression, by presenting results for five ALS patients, including with longitudinal data in two. Preliminary analysis demonstrated a number of changes bilaterally and asymmetrically in motoric and extramotoric white matter pathways. Further the limbic system was also affected possibly explaining the cognitive symptoms in ALS. In the two longitudinal subjects, the white matter changes were less extensive at baseline, although there was evidence of disease progression in a frontal pattern with a relatively spared postcentral gyrus, consistent with the known pathology in ALS.
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Influence of ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 R219K and M883I polymorphisms on development of atherosclerosis: a meta-analysis of 58 studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Numerous epidemiological studies have evaluated the associations between ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) R219K (rs2230806) and M883I (rs4149313) polymorphisms and atherosclerosis (AS), but results remain controversial. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether these two polymorphisms facilitate the susceptibility to AS using a meta-analysis.
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Add-on Treatment of Benzoate for Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of d-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibitor.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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IMPORTANCE In addition to dopaminergic hyperactivity, hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Enhancing NMDAR-mediated neurotransmission is considered a novel treatment approach. To date, several trials on adjuvant NMDA-enhancing agents have revealed beneficial, but limited, efficacy for positive and negative symptoms and cognition. Another method to enhance NMDA function is to raise the levels of d-amino acids by blocking their metabolism. Sodium benzoate is a d-amino acid oxidase inhibitor. OBJECTIVE To examine the clinical and cognitive efficacy and safety of add-on treatment of sodium benzoate for schizophrenia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 2 major medical centers in Taiwan composed of 52 patients with chronic schizophrenia who had been stabilized with antipsychotic medications for 3 months or longer. INTERVENTIONS Six weeks of add-on treatment of 1 g/d of sodium benzoate or placebo. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score. Clinical efficacy and adverse effects were assessed biweekly. Cognitive functions were measured before and after the add-on treatment. RESULTS Benzoate produced a 21% improvement in PANSS total score and large effect sizes (range, 1.16-1.69) in the PANSS total and subscales, Scales for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms-20 items, Global Assessment of Function, Quality of Life Scale and Clinical Global Impression and improvement in the neurocognition subtests as recommended by the National Institute of Mental Healths Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia initiative, including the domains of processing speed and visual learning. Benzoate was well tolerated without significant adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Benzoate adjunctive therapy significantly improved a variety of symptom domains and neurocognition in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The preliminary results show promise for d-amino acid oxidase inhibition as a novel approach for new drug development for schizophrenia. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00960219.
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Toll-like receptor 4 gene Asp299Gly polymorphism in ischemic cerebrovascular disease: a meta-analysis.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene Asp299Gly (rs4986790) polymorphism and the risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease, but the results are inconsistent. In an effort to clarify earlier inconclusive results, a meta-analysis was performed. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane database, Clinicaltrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, CNKI, CBMdisc, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry and Google Scholar until up to 20 July 2013. Additionally, hand searching of the references of identified articles was performed. Original observational studies investigating the association between TLR4 gene Asp299Gly polymorphism and ischemic cerebrovascular disease risk were included. All statistical analyses were performed using Stata 11.0. The search strategy identified 1038 potentially relevant articles, seven of which were included in the final meta-analysis, covering a total of 1767 cases and 2785 controls. Overall, no significant association was found between TLR4 gene Asp299Gly polymorphism and ischemic cerebrovascular disease risk (for G allele versus A allele: OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.75-1.21, p = 0.69; for G/G+A/G versus A/A: OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.75-1.22, p = 0.73). In addition, the similar results were obtained in the sensitivity analysis based on studies with the high quality. In summary, the present meta-analysis indicates that TLR4 gene Asp299Gly polymorphism is not associated with increased ischemic cerebrovascular disease risk.
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Relationships between environmental stressors and stress biobehavioral responses of preterm infants in NICU.
Adv Neonatal Care
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Although research has demonstrated that the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a stressful environment for preterm and high-risk infants, little research validates the suspected relationships between infant biobehavioral responses and environmental stress in the NICU. This exploratory study examined the relationship between environmental stress and biobehavioral responses of preterm infants. The study used a repeated-measures research design to examine research variables in one group of preterm infants. Measurements of research variables were recorded every 2 minutes during two 60-minute observation periods for each research day (1 hour in the morning and 1 hour in the afternoon) and conducted over 2 days. A convenience sample of 37 preterm infants was recruited from 2 medical centers in Taiwan. A total of 4164 observations were made and recorded during the study. There was a statistically significant (P < .05) relationship between environmental stressors and changes in physiological signals. There were also statistically significant (P < .05) relationships between environmental stress and some specific stress behaviors. This research is applicable to neonatal clinical practice because it demonstrates the importance of recognizing the preterm infants biological stress responses to environmental stressors, allowing for early interventions to reduce the possibility of more serious physiological or pathological changes in the status of the preterm infant.
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Endoscopic endonasal approach for growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas: outcomes in 53 patients using 2010 consensus criteria for remission.
Pituitary
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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We report the outcomes of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for resection of growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas using 2010 consensus criteria. We also assess outcomes with additional medical therapy and radiosurgery (RS) for patients not achieving remission with EEA alone. A retrospective review of 53 patients who had follow up endocrinologic data at least 3 months post-surgery was performed among patients who were treated by EEA between 1998 and 2012. Data were analyzed for remission using GH and IGF-I levels based on 2010 consensus criteria. We also analyzed the outcomes using 2000 consensus criteria for ease in comparison to prior studies of outcomes of surgery for acromegaly. In this series of mostly large (88.2% macroadenomas), invasive (46.9% Hardy-Wilson C, D, E) adenomas, there were 27 patients (50.9%) who achieved remission after EEA only. For patients who had no remission with EEA alone, RS and/or medical therapy were used and 37 patients (69.8 %) achieved remission overall. Statistical analysis showed larger tumor size, Hardy Stages C, D, E and Knosp Scores 3, 4 to be predictive against remission for EEA only and EEA with other modalities. The volume of residual tumor after EEA was not found to be predictive of remission with additional therapies. We used stringent consensus criteria from 2010 in a series which included a high proportion of invasive GH secreting adenomas to show that EEA alone or combined with other modalities results in comparable remission rates to earlier studies which used less strict criteria, while retaining low complication rates.
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Synergistic effects of COMT and TPH2 on social cognition.
Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Whether genetic factors affect social cognition, particularly emotion management, requires elucidation. This study investigates whether social cognition varies with genetic variations of COMT and tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), which modulate dopamine and serotonin neurotransmissions respectively, and thereby emotion regulation. NIMH-recommended "managing emotions branch and 2 subtasks" of MSCEIT and six neurocognition domains, and genotypes of COMT Val158Met and TPH2 G703T were measured in 150 Han-Chinese healthy adults. Subjects carrying the M allele (M group) of COMT exceeded Val/Val homozygotes (V group) in managing emotions branch (p = 0.032) and emotional relation subtask (p = 0.037). TPH2 T/T homozygotes (T group) excelled those with the G allele (G group) in emotional management subtask (p = 0.025). Subjects with M+T variation surpassed the other 3 groups (M+G, V+T and V+G) in managing emotion branch (p = 0.002), emotional relation subtask (p = 0.023), and emotional management subtask (p = 0.002). The findings remained after control for gender, age, education, and neurocognitive functions. Synergistically, the effect size of COMT-TPH2 combination surmounted the sum of separate effect sizes of COMT and TPH2. The findings suggest that genetic variations of COMT and TPH2 have synergistic effects on social cognition in the general population.
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To explore the neonatal nurses beliefs and attitudes towards caring for dying neonates in Taiwan.
Matern Child Health J
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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(1) To explore attitudes and beliefs of neonatal nurses toward nursing care for dying neonates; (2) to estimate the influence of neonatal nurses personal and professional characteristics on their attitudes towards end-of life care for dying infants. A cross-sectional design was used. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 80 neonatal nurses. Research setting was four level III NICUs at four medical centers around the central region of Taiwan. Research participants were neonatal nurses who had worked for at least 1 year in one of level III NICUs and had been directly involved with the care of dying infants. Research participants were 80 neonatal nurses (response rate 100 %). Research findings identified eight barriers hindering neonatal palliative care practice. These barriers were insufficient communication due to the lack of an in-service educational program; the lack of available counseling help for neonatal clinicians; inability to express personal opinions, values and beliefs towards neonatal palliative care; insufficient staffing; the lack of unit policies/guidelines for supporting palliative care; the technological imperative; parental demands and personal beliefs about death and previous experience caring for dying infants. Further studies are needed to explore each barrier and to provide in-service neonatal palliative care educational programs that are needed to decrease these barriers.
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The long-term effects of conventional and atypical antipsychotics in patients with probable Alzheimers disease.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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The authors sought to determine the effects of conventional and atypical antipsychotic use on time to nursing home admission and time to death in a group of outpatients with mild to moderate probable Alzheimers disease.
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Long-term survival in adults 65 years and older with white matter hyperintensity: association with performance on the digit symbol substitution test.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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White matter hyperintensity (WMH) confers increased mortality risk in patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about differences in survival times among adults 65 years and older who have WMH and live in the community. To characterize the factors that may reduce mortality risk in the presence of WMH, measures of race, sex, apolipoprotein E4, neuroimaging, and cardiometabolic, physiological, and psychosocial characteristics were examined, with a particular focus on information processing as measured by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST).
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[Application of mid-infrared wavelength tunable laser in glucose determination].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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The authors proposed a method of control and stabilization for laser emission wavelengths and power, and presented the mid-infrared wavelength tunable laser with broad emission spectrum band of 9.19-9.77 microm, half wave width of 4 cm(-1), spectral resolution of 2.7 x 10(4) and max power of 800 mW with fluctuation < 0.8% in the present paper. The tunable laser was employed as the light source in combination with ATR sensor for glucose measurement in PBS solution. In our experiments, absorbance at the five laser emission wavelengths, including 1 081, 1 076, 1 051, 1 041 and 1 037 cm(-1) in the 9R and 9P band of the laser emission spectrum, all correlates well with the glucose concentration (R2 > 0.99, SD < 0.0004, P < 0.000 1). Especially, the sensitivity of this laser spectroscopy system is about 4 times as high as that of traditional FTIR spectrometer.
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Child abuse is related to inflammation in mid-life women: Role of obesity.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Elevated inflammation biomarkers are associated with incident cardiovascular disease. Several studies suggest that childhood abuse may be associated with inflammation later in life. This study examined whether childhood abuse predicted elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and whether the association was due to body size.
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Meta-analysis of clinical outcomes of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: within 3 hours versus 3-4.5 hours.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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This meta-analysis was to compare clinical outcomes of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rtPA) administered within 3 hours versus 3-4.5 hours after symptom onset.
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Association between plasma endothelin-1 and severity of different types of glaucoma.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Herein, we studied whether increased levels of plasma ET-1 are associated with changes in the visual field and changes in optical coherence tomography (OCT)-measured retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with different types of glaucoma.
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Liver X receptor ? inhibits osteosarcoma cell proliferation through up-regulation of FoxO1.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy of adolescents and young adults.
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Quantification of tumor necrosis factor-? and matrix metalloproteinases-3 in synovial fluid by a fiber-optic particle plasmon resonance sensor.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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The availability of techniques for sensitive detection of early stage osteoarthritis is critical for improving patient health. This study illustrates the feasibility of a fiber-optic particle plasmon resonance (FOPPR) sensor with gold nanoparticles on the unclad region of optical fiber probes for analysis of osteoarthritis biomarkers, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3). Results show that the sensor can achieve a refractive index resolution of 5.18 × 10?? RIU and limits of detection for TNF-? and MMP-3 as low as 8.22 pg ml?¹ (0.48 pM) and 34.3 pg ml?¹ (1.56 pM), respectively. Additionally, the FOPPR sensor shows a good correlation in determining TNF-? and MMP-3 in synovial fluid with the clinically accepted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Finally, given the FOPPR sensors nature of being low-cost, label-free, highly sensitive, real-time, simple-to-operate, the FOPPR sensor could offer potential to monitor biomarkers of various diseases, and provide an ideal technical tool for point-of-care diagnostics.
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Benzoate, a D-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibitor, for the Treatment of Early-Phase Alzheimer Disease: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated neurotransmission is vital for learning and memory. Hypofunction of NMDAR has been reported to play a role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD), particularly in the early phase. Enhancing NMDAR activation might be a novel treatment approach. One of the methods to enhance NMDAR activity is to raise the levels of NMDA coagonists by blocking their metabolism. This study examined the efficacy and safety of sodium benzoate, a D-amino acid oxidase inhibitor, for the treatment of amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild AD.
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Comparison of glaucoma diagnoses using Stratus and Cirrus optical coherence tomography in different glaucoma types in a Chinese population.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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To compare the glaucoma diagnostic power of Stratus and Cirrus optical coherence tomographies (OCTs) in a Taiwan Chinese population with different glaucoma types.
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No association of SORT1 gene polymorphism with sporadic Alzheimers disease in the Chinese Han population.
Neuroreport
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Increasing evidence shows that sortilin (encoded by SORT1 gene), a member of the vacuolar protein sorting 10 family of sorting receptors, can modulate amyloid-? peptides (A?) metabolism and clearance, as well as mediate the neurotoxicity of the A? oligomer and proneurotrophins, thus playing diverse roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease. To assess the association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the SORT1 gene and sporadic Alzheimers disease (sAD) in the Chinese Han population, a case-control study was carried out including 220 sAD patients and 245 controls. One tag SNP was selected from the entire SORT1 gene through construction of linkage disequilibrium blocks, and three SNPs located in the vicinity of SORT1 that affect its expression were also selected. The four target SNPs were genotyped using a multiplex PCR-ligase detection reaction method, yielding no significant association between them or haplotypes containing three of them, and the risk of sAD. The results of this study indicate that polymorphisms of the SORT1 gene are unlikely to confer the risk of sAD in the Chinese Han population.
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Preparation and antibacterial activity of lysozyme and layered double hydroxide nanocomposites.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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It is necessary to develop "green" disinfection technology which does not produce disinfection by-products. Lysozyme-layered double hydroxide nanocomposites (LYZ-LDHs) were prepared by intercalating LYZ in LDH for the first time. Their antibacterial activity was evaluated using staphylococcus aureus as a target. The bacteria removal mechanism was also studied. Characterization of LYZ-LDHs by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that LYZ was successfully intercalated in LDH, compressed and deformed without secondary structural change. LYZ-LDHs showed excellent bactericidal effectiveness against staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial performance of LYZ-LDHs was found to be affected by the LYZ/LDH ratio and the pH of the bacteria-containing water. The bacteria removal efficiency of LYZ-LDHs with LYZ/LDH mass ratio of 0.8 was consistently above 94% over the pH range of 3-9. LYZ-LDHs adsorbed bacteria to their surface by LDH and then killed them by the immobilized LYZ. This new material integrated the bactericidal ability of LYZ and adsorption ability of LDH. Moreover, the antibacterial ability of LYZ-LDHs was persistent and not limited by the adsorption capacity.
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[Study on the distribution of Chinese medical constitutions of hypertension complicated diabetes patients].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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To investigate the distribution features of Chinese medical constitutions in hypertension complicated diabetes patients.
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Influence of interleukin-6 gene -174G>C polymorphism on development of atherosclerosis: a meta-analysis of 50 studies involving 33,514 subjects.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Increasing epidemiological studies have focused on the associations between interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene -174G>C polymorphism and atherosclerotic diseases, but the results are still controversial. This meta-analysis was designed to identify whether this association exists. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane database, Clinicaltrials.gov and Current Controlled Trials, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, CBMdisc, CNKI and Google Scholar were searched to get the genetic association studies. The crude odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the association between the IL-6 gene -174G>C polymorphism and atherosclerosis ( AS ) risk. The subgroup analyses were made on the following: ethnicity, atherosclerotic diseases and source of controls. Finally, 50 studies (15,029 cases and 18,485 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, no significant association was found between the IL-6 gene -174G>C polymorphism and AS risk (for C allele vs. G allele: OR=1.02, 95% CI=0.94-1.11, p=0.64; for C/C vs. G/G: OR=1.01, 95% CI=0.85-1.21, p=0.88; for C/C vs. C/G+G/G: OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.84-1.12, p=0.68; for C/C+C/G vs. G/G: OR=1.07, 95% CI=0.97-1.17, p=0.18). In the subgroup analyses, significant associations were found between the IL-6 gene -174G>C polymorphism and AS in non-Caucasian group (for CC+CG vs. GG: OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.06-1.41, p=0.005), other atherosclerotic diseases group (for C allele vs. G allele: OR =0.75, 95% CI=0.61-0.93, p=0.008; for C/C vs. G/G: OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.38-0.81, p=0.002; for C/C vs. C/G+G/G: OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.45-0.79, p=0.0004) and population-based group (for C allele vs. G allele: OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.00-1.18, p=0.04; for CC+CG vs. GG: OR=1.15, 95% CI=1.04-1.27, p=0.005). In summary, the present meta-analysis suggests that the IL-6 gene -174G C polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to AS. However, due to the high heterogeneity in the meta-analysis, the results should be interpreted with caution.
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[A preliminary study of the work values of male nurses in Taiwan and related factors].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Male nurses account for 1.08% of Taiwans total professional nursing workforce. While work values are known to impact the practice of female nurses, the work values of male nurses have never been fully evaluated.
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Efficacy of coupling inhibitory and facilitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to enhance motor recovery in hemiplegic stroke patients.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Although there has been extensive research on the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to improve patients motor performance after experiencing chronic stroke, explicit findings on the coupling of different rTMS protocols are meager. We designed this sham-controlled randomized study to investigate the potential for a consecutive suppressive-facilitatory TMS protocol to improve motor outcomes after chronic stroke.
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Inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation attenuates TLR4-mediated proinflammatory and proliferative phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with inflammation and vasculature dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of the ROS on vascular Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated proinflammatory and proliferative phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). A wire-induced carotid injury model was used in male TLR4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type C57BL/6J mice to induce neointima formation. In the presence or absence of the ROS scavenger apocynin for 14 days, increased TLR4 and proinflammatory cytokines were observed in wire injury-induced carotid neointima and in platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-stimulated VSMCs. The TLR4(-/-) protected the injured carotid from neointimal formation and impaired the cellular proliferation and migration in response to PDGF-BB. Apocynin attenuated intimal hyperplasia. Pre-treatment with apocynin significantly inhibited intracellular ROS generation, accompanied by a significant suppression of TLR4 and proinflammatory cytokines expression, and VSMC proliferation and migration. However, the results were not obvious in TLR4(-/-) condition. These findings highlight the importance of ROS inhibition in TLR4-mediated proinflammatory and proliferative phenotype of VSMCs, and suggest ROS as an essential therapeutic target for TLR4-associated vascular inflammation and vascular diseases.
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Predictive Value of Autoantibody Testing for Validating Self-reported Diagnoses of Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Womens Health Initiative.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) research using large databases is limited by insufficient case validity. Of 161,808 postmenopausal women in the Womens Health Initiative, 15,691 (10.2%) reported having RA, far higher than the expected 1% population prevalence. Since chart review for confirmation of an RA diagnosis is impractical in large cohort studies, the current study (2009-2011) tested the ability of baseline serum measurements of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, second-generation assay (anti-CCP2), to identify physician-validated RA among the chart-review study participants with self-reported RA (n = 286). Anti-CCP2 positivity had the highest positive predictive value (PPV) (80.0%), and rheumatoid factor positivity the lowest (44.6%). Together, use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and anti-CCP2 positivity increased PPV to 100% but excluded all seronegative cases (approximately 15% of all RA cases). Case definitions inclusive of seronegative cases had PPVs between 59.6% and 63.6%. False-negative results were minimized in these test definitions, as evidenced by negative predictive values of approximately 90%. Serological measurements, particularly measurement of anti-CCP2, improved the test characteristics of RA case definitions in the Womens Health Initiative.
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Parameniscal cyst formation in the knee is associated with meniscal tear size: an MRI study.
Knee
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The relationship between meniscal tears and parameniscal cyst formation is contentious. We investigated whether the development of a parameniscal cyst is related to the size of the meniscal tear by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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Value of Free-Run Electromyographic Monitoring of Extraocular Cranial Nerves during Expanded Endonasal Surgery (EES) of the Skull Base.
J Neurol Surg Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Objective To evaluate the value of free-run electromyography (f-EMG) monitoring of extraocular cranial nerves (EOCN) III, IV, and VI during expanded endonasal surgery (EES) of the skull base in reducing iatrogenic cranial nerve (CN) deficits. Design We retrospectively identified 200 patients out of 990 who had at least one EOCN monitored during EES. We further separated patients into groups according to the specific CN monitored. In each CN group, we classified patients who had significant (SG) f-EMG activity as Group I and those who did not as Group II. Results A total of 696 EOCNs were monitored. The number of muscles supplied by EOCNs that had SG f-EMG activity was 88, including CN III = 46, CN IV = 21, and CN VI = 21. There were two deficits involving CN VI in patients who had SG f-EMG activity during surgery. There were 14 deficits observed, including CN III = 3, CN IV = 2, and CN VI = 9 in patients who did not have SG f-EMG activity during surgery. Conclusions f-EMG monitoring of EOCN during EES can be useful in identifying the location of the nerve. It seems to have limited value in predicting postoperative neurological deficits. Future studies to evaluate the EMG of EOCN during EES need to be done with both f-EMG and triggered EMG.
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The relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms of the NTRK2 gene and sporadic Alzheimers disease in the Chinese Han population.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Alzheimers disease (AD) is characterized by the degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, whose survival and function are affected by neurotrophins and their receptors. The impaired signaling pathway of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tropomyosin-related kinase B (BDNF/TrkB) is considered to play an important role in AD pathogenesis. To explore the association of polymorphisms within the NTRK2 gene (encoding TrkB) and sporadic AD (sAD), a case-control study was conducted in a Chinese Han cohort including 216 sAD patients and 244 control participants. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with four of them within the promoter region and one in intron, were selected and genotyped with a polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction (PCR-LDR) method. No association was revealed between these SNPs or the haplotypes containing four promoter SNPs and the risk of sAD. The results of this study indicate that polymorphisms in the selected regions of the NTRK2 gene are unlikely to confer the susceptibility of sAD in the Chinese Han population.
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Value of multimodality monitoring using brainstem auditory evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials in endoscopic endonasal surgery.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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To evaluate the value of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) using brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring to predict and/or prevent postoperative neurological deficits during endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES).
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T2 values of posterior horns of knee menisci in asymptomatic subjects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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The magnetic resonance (MR) T2 value of cartilage is a reliable indicator of tissue properties and therefore may be used as an objective diagnostic tool in early meniscal degeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate age, gender, location, and zonal differences in MR T2 value of the posterior horns of knee menisci in asymptomatic subjects.
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Comparison of three different surgical approaches for treatment of thoracolumbar burst fracture.
Chin. J. Traumatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The main treatment method used for thoracolumbar fractures is open reduction and internal fixation. Commonly there are three surgical approaches: anterior, posterior and paraspinal. We attempt to compare the three approaches based on our clinical data analysis.
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Inhibition of glycine transporter-I as a novel mechanism for the treatment of depression.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Antidepressants, aiming at monoaminergic neurotransmission, exhibit delayed onset of action, limited efficacy, and poor compliance. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in depression. However, it is unclear whether enhancement of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype glutamate receptor can be a treatment for depression.
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Effect of age on febrile response in patients with healthcare-associated bloodstream infection.
Geriatr Nurs
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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This study aimed to determine the effect of age on febrile response in patients with healthcare-associated bloodstream infection (BSI).
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Clinical symptoms, mainly negative symptoms, mediate the influence of neurocognition and social cognition on functional outcome of schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The functional outcome of schizophrenia is affected by multiple factors such as cognitive function and clinical symptoms. The complex relationship among cognitive function (both neuro- and social-cognitions), clinical symptoms, and functional outcome remains unclear. The current study employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine whether clinical symptoms mediate the relationship between cognitive function and functional outcome in a large cohort of patients with schizophrenia.
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Surgical treatment of a patient with peliosis hepatis: a case report.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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This report describes a case of a space-occupying lesion in the right liver in a 38-year-old man who was found to have peliosis hepatis. Clinical data of this patient were presented, including medical history, laboratory test and imaging results, and postoperative pathological findings (hematoxylin and eosin staining). Review of his medical history showed that the patient had been bitten by a dog three years earlier. B-mode ultrasonography revealed an uneven echo mass in the right hemiliver, and magnetic resonance imaging scans also showed a mass in the anterior segment of the right liver. Upon surgical removal, the mass was found to be 4.0 cm × 3.8 cm × 3.8 cm in size and located in segment VI. The mass had a dark and soft appearance, with an irregular edge on intraoperative ultrasonography. Postoperative pathological findings revealed many small capsules filled with blood cells. The patient was diagnosed with peliosis hepatis based on his medical history of having been bitten by a dog, presence of mild anemia, and lack of characteristic symptoms, including fever of unknown origin, abdominal pain, and hepatosplenomegaly, combined with intraoperative and postoperative pathologic findings. The operation was successful, and after being treated with anti-infection agents, the patient had a good recovery.
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Barriers to seeking help among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Taiwan.
Asia Pac Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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This study explores barriers to seeking help for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan.
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Association between NADPH oxidase p22(phox) C242T polymorphism and ischemic cerebrovascular disease: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase p22(phox) C242T polymorphism and risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD), but the results remain inconclusive. This meta-analysis was therefore designed to clarify these controversies.
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Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in surface soil from a background area in China: occurrence, distribution, and congener profiles.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are extremely complex technical mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes with carbon chain lengths from C10 to C13 and chlorine content between 49 and 70%. SCCPs are under consideration for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. SCCPs have been used extensively in industrial production, but little is known about the pollution level in soil environment in China. In this study, levels and distribution of SCCPs in soil samples from Chongming Island were analyzed. Concentrations of total SCCPs in soil samples ranged from 0.42 to 420 ng?g(-1), with a median of 9.6 ng?g(-1). The ubiquitous occurrence of SCCPs in Chongming Island implied that long-range atmospheric transport and soil-air exchange may be the most important pathways for SCCP contamination in the background area. The localized SCCP contamination could be derived from an unidentified source. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that C13- and C11-congeners were predominant in most soils and C10- and C12-congeners dominated in the remaining soils. Cl7- and Cl8-congeners were on the average the most dominant chlorine congeners in nearly all soils. Principal component analysis suggested that the separation of even and odd carbon chain congeners occurred during long-range atmospheric transport and aging in soil in the study area.
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Bradyrhizobium arachidis sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Arachis hypogaea grown in China.
Syst. Appl. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Twenty-three bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of Arachis hypogaea and Lablab purpureus grown in five provinces of China were classified as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium by analyses of PCR-based RFLP of the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S IGS. To determine their taxonomic position, four representative strains were further characterized. The comparative sequence analyses of 16S rRNA and six housekeeping genes clustered the four strains into a distinctive group closely related to the defined species Bradyrhizobium liaoningense, Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, Bradyrhizobium huanghuaihaiense, Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium daqingense. The DNA-DNA relatedness between the reference strain of the novel group, CCBAU 051107(T), and the corresponding type strains of the five mentioned species varied between 46.05% and 13.64%. The nodC and nifH genes of CCBAU 051107(T) were phylogenetically divergent from those of the reference strains for the related species. The four representative strains could nodulate with A. hypogaea and L. purpureus. In addition, some phenotypic features differentiated the novel group from the related species. Based on all the results, we propose a new species Bradyrhizobium arachidis sp. nov. and designate CCBAU 051107(T) (=CGMCC 1.12100(T)=HAMBI 3281(T)=LMG 26795(T)) as the type strain, which was isolated from a root nodule of A. hypogaea and had a DNA G+C mol% of 60.1 (Tm).
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Sequential change in t2* values of cartilage, meniscus, and subchondral bone marrow in a rat model of knee osteoarthritis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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There is an emerging interest in using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2* measurement for the evaluation of degenerative cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). However, relatively few studies have addressed OA-related changes in adjacent knee structures. This study used MRI T2* measurement to investigate sequential changes in knee cartilage, meniscus, and subchondral bone marrow in a rat OA model induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLX).
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Diabetes inhibits cerebral ischemia-induced astrocyte activation - an observation in the cingulate cortex.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The objective of this study was to study the effect of diabetic hyperglycemia on astrocytes after forebrain ischemia. Streptozotocin (STZ)-injected hyperglycemic and vehicle-injected normoglycemic rats were subjected to 15 minutes of forebrain ischemia. The brains were harvested in sham-operated controls and in animals with 1 and 6 h of recirculation following ischemia. Brain damage was accessed by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and TdT-mediated-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Anti-GFAP antibody was employed to study astrocytes. The results showed that the 15-minute ischemia caused neuronal death after 1 and 6 h of reperfusion as revealed by increased numbers of karyopyknotic cells, edema, TUNEL-positive and active caspase-3-positive cells. Ischemia also activated astrocytes in the cingulated cortex as reflected by astrocyte stomata hypertrophy, elongated dendrites and increases in the number of dendrites, and immunoreactivity of GFAP. Diabetic hyperglycemia further enhanced neuronal death and suppressed ischemia-induced astrocyte activation. Further, diabetes-damaged astrocytes have increased withdrawal of the astrocyte end-foot from the cerebral blood vessel wall. It is concluded that diabetes-induced suppression and damages to astrocytes may contribute to its detrimental effects on recovery from cerebral ischemia.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.