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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Molecular insight into nanoscale water films dewetting on modified silica surfaces.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are adopted to investigate the microscopic dewetting mechanism of nanoscale water films on methylated silica surfaces. The simulation results show that the dewetting process is divided into two stages: the appearance of dry patches and the quick contraction of the water film. First, the appearance of dry patches is due to the fluctuation in the film thickness originating from capillary wave instability. Second, for the fast contraction of water film, the unsaturated electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions among water molecules are the driving forces, which induce the quick contraction of the water film. Finally, the effect of film thickness on water films dewetting is studied. Research results suggest that upon increasing the water film thickness from 6 to 8 Å, the final dewetting patterns experience separate droplets and striation-shaped structures, respectively. But upon further increasing the water film thickness, the water film is stable and there are no dry patches. The microscopic dewetting behaviors of water films on methylated silica surfaces discussed here are helpful in understanding many phenomena in scientific and industrial processes better.
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[Protection of hypothermic preserved isolated rat hearts by resveratrol and its underlying mechanism].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To investigate whether resveratrol (RES) plays a protective role in hypothermic preserved isolated rat hearts and whether it is mediated by regulation of silent information regulator protein-1 (Sirt-1) expression.
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Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase activity protects against lipopolysaccharide?induced cardiac dysfunction in rats.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Myocardial dysfunction in sepsis is associated with an increased risk of mortality. The mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) enzyme is crucial for protecting the heart from ischemic injury. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of ALDH2 in cardiac dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Male rats were treated intraperitoneally with LPS, and their stroke volume and cardiac output were evaluated using an M?mode echocardiograph. The expression levels and activity of ALDH2, nitric oxide content and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, and the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) were also evaluated. Treatment with LPS (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) resulted in a steady decrease in cardiac output and stroke volume. The ALDH2 activity was decreased in a dose?dependent manner; however, the ALDH2 protein expression levels remained unchanged. Alda?1, a specific activator of ALDH2, increased the activity of ALDH2 and lessened LPS?induced cardiac dysfunction. A marked opening of the MPTP was observed 12 h following treatment with LPS, which was prevented by Alda?1. The improvement in cardiac function in response to treatment with Alda?1, was partially prevented by treatment with the MPTP inhibitor atractyloside. LPS treatment induced an increase in iNOS activation and inhibition of ALDH2 activity. The iNOS selective inhibitor, aminoguanidine, partially reversed the LPS?induced ALDH2 activity decrease and MPTP opening. These results indicate that ALDH2 activity may have a role in protecting against LPS?induced cardiac dysfunction. The potential mechanism may involve inhibition of MPTP opening and iNOS expression.
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Different metabolic profiles of K1 serotype and non-serotype K1 and K2 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in oral infection mice model.
Microb. Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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K1 or K2 serotype Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate caused clinical pyogenic liver abscess (KLA) infection is prevalent in many areas. It has been identified that K1 or K2 serotype K. pneumoniae isolates caused KLA infection in mice by oral inoculation. In our study, K1 serotype K. pneumoniae isolate Kp1002 with hypermucoviscosity (HV)-positive phenotype caused KLA infection in C57BL/6 mice by oral inoculation. Simultaneously, non-serotype K1 and K2 isolate Kp1014 with HV-negative phenotype failed to cause KLA infection in the same manner. It seems that gastrointestinal tract translocation is the pathway by which K1 or K2 serotype K. pneumoniae caused KLA infection. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to further analyze metabolic profile changes in mice with KLA infection. Data showed that after Kp1002 or Kp1014 oral inoculation, serum Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) levels significantly changed in mice. Some PC and LPC molecules showed changes both in the Kp1002 KLA group and the Kp1014 no-KLA group compared with the control group. The level of 18:1/18:2-PC significantly changed in the Kp1002 KLA group compared with the control group, but showed no change between the Kp1014 no-KLA group and the control group. The level of 18:1/18:2-PC might have been particularly affected by KLA infection caused by K1 serotype K. pneumoniae Kp1002. It may be a potential biomarker for KLA infection.
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SeMet Mediates Anti-inflammation in LPS-Induced U937 Cells Targeting NF-?B Signaling Pathway.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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In previous studies, selenium (Se) was reported to play critical roles in anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, limited information could be obtained during inflammation about selenomethionine (SeMet) in U937 human macrophage cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of SeMet on the inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced U937 macrophage cells and the signaling pathways targeted. U937 cells were pretreated with SeMet (1 ?M) and subsequently induced with LPS (1 ?g/ml) for 24 h. In the cell counting kit-8 assay (CCK-8), SeMet significantly inhibits the proliferation of U937 cells. SeMet also inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulated by LPS. In the Western blot assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), SeMet significantly reduced protein expression and production of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and COX-2 in U937 cells. Furthermore, SeMet markedly suppressed the LPS-mediated activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) by blocking the degradation of inhibitor-?B proteins (I?B?) and lessening the translocations of P50 subunit content of NF-?B in the nucleus. These findings suggested the anti-inflammatory activity of SeMet in U937 cells; indicating that SeMet might be a potential treatment for inflammation therapy.
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Association of CVD candidate gene polymorphisms with ischemic stroke and cerebral hemorrhage in Chinese individuals.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Contribution of cardiovascular disease related genetic risk factors for stroke are not clearly defined. We performed a genetic association study to assess the association of 56 previously characterized gene variants in 34 candidate genes from cardiovascular disease related biological pathways with ischemic stroke and cerebral hemorrhage in a Chinese population.
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Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) Synthase from Agaricus bisporus 02, a thermotolerant mushroom strain.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The pabS gene ORF of Agaricus bisporus 02 encoding putative PABA synthase was cloned, then recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, under the control of isopropyl-?-D-thiogalactopyranoside inducible T7 promoter. The enzyme with N-terminal GST tag or His tag, designated GST-AbADCS or His-AbADCS, was purified by Glutathione Sepharose 4B or Ni Sepharose 6 Fast Flow. The enzyme was an aminodeoxychorismate synthase and it is necessary to add with an aminodeoxychorismate lyase for synthesizing PABA. AbADCS has an optimum temperature approximately 25degrees C and pH 8.0. Magnesium or Manganese ions are necessary for the enzymatic activity. Michaelis-menten constant for chorismate is 0.12 mM, whilst 2.55 mM for glutamine. H2O2 has distinct damage for the activity of enzyme, which can be recovered by Hsp20 feebly. Sulphydryl reagents can remarkably promote its activity, suggesting that cysteine residues are essential for catalytic function.
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[Influence of laser energy on measurement of unburned carbon in fly Ash particle flow].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The fly ash particle flow was produced by a screw feeder and then ablated by a pulse laser to create plasma. The emission spectra of fly ash were detected by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The present paper focused on the influence of laser energy on the measurement of unburned carbon. Seven groups of pulse laser in the range of 40 to 130 mJ were used to ablate the fly ash particle flow. The results show that the carbon line intensity is increased linearly with the increases in laser energy, but the SNR of carbon line increases in the range of 40 to 90 mJ and then trends to saturation, while the elimination rate of false data decreases. In this experiment, laser energy ranging from 90 to 100 mJ can enhance the plasma emission signal and improve the true spectral data of fly ash particle flow. So laser energy has close correlations with the ablation of the particle flow and the carbon line intensity. Reasonable laser energy is good for the effective ablation of the fly ash particle flow to get plasma spectra signals with good SNR.
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Engineering scaffolds integrated with calcium sulfate and oyster shell for enhanced bone tissue regeneration.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Engineering scaffolds combinging natural biomineral and artificially synthesized material hold promising potential for bone tissue regeneration. In this study, novel bioactive calcium sulfate/oyster shell (CS/OS) composites were prepared. Comparing to CS scaffold, the CS/OS composites with a controllable degradation rate displayed enhanced mineral nodule formation, higher alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity and increased proliferation rate while treated osteocytes. In CS/OS composites group, elevated mRNA levels of key osteogenic genes including bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx), and osteocalcin (OCN) were observed. Furthermore, The up-regulation of BMP-2 and type I collagen (COL-I) was observed for CS/OS composites relative to a CS group. Scaffolds were implanted into critical-sized femur cavity defects in rabbits to investigate the osteogenic capacity of the composites in vivo. The CS/OS scaffolds with proper suitable times and mechanical strength strongly promoted osteogenic tissue regeneration relative to the regeneration capacity of CS scaffolds, as indicated by the results of histological staining. These results suggest that the OS-modified CS engineering scaffolds with improved mechanical properties and bioactivity would facilitate the development of a new strategy for clinic bone defect regeneration.
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InCl3-catalyzed conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in biphasic system.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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InCl3, a water-compatible Lewis acid, was used for the conversion of microcrystalline cellulose to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in a H2O/THF biphasic system. Addition of NaCl increased the HMF yield significantly but suppressed the levulinic acid (LA) formation. The HMF yield of 39.7% was obtained in 2h at 200°C in the NaCl-H2O/THF catalytic system catalyzed by InCl3. The catalytic system also showed effectiveness to convert other carbohydrates to HMF, including glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, which demonstrated great potential towards different feedstocks.
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Streptomyces vulcanius sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from volcanic sediment.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-C3(T), was isolated from volcanic sediment collected from Longwan, Jilin province, north China and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the members of the genus Streptomyces. EzTaxon-e analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated strain NEAU-C3(T) to be most closely related to Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. ossamyceticus JCM 4965(T) (97.7 % sequence similarity) and Streptomyces torulosus JCM 4872(T) (97.7 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NEAU-C3(T) belongs within the genus Streptomyces and forms a separate subclade, an association that was supported by a bootstrap value of 72 % in the neighbour-joining tree and also recovered with the maximum-likelihood algorithm. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain NEAU-C3(T) and the two most closely related type strains were low enough to justify the assignment of the strain to a novel species. On the basis of these phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it is concluded that strain NEAU-C3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces vulcanius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-C3(T) (=CGMCC 4.7177(T)=DSM 42139(T)).
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Oil accumulation mechanisms of the oleaginous microalga Chlorella protothecoides revealed through its genome, transcriptomes, and proteomes.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Microalgae-derived biodiesel is a promising substitute for conventional fossil fuels. In particular, the green alga Chlorella protothecoides sp. 0710 is regarded as one of the best candidates for commercial manufacture of microalgae-derived biofuel. This is due not only to its ability to live autotrophically through photosynthesis, but also to its capacity to produce a large amount of biomass and lipid through fermentation of glucose. However, until the present study, neither its genome sequence nor the platform required for molecular manipulations were available.
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A solution-phase bifunctional catalyst for lithium-oxygen batteries.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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A lithium-oxygen battery would deliver the highest energy density of a rechargeable battery, but the multiphase electrochemical reaction on the air cathode has difficulty proceeding when operated with only solid catalysts. We report here the organic-electrolyte-dissolved iron phthalocyanine (FePc) as a shuttle of (O2)(-) species and electrons between the surface of the electronic conductor and the insulator Li2O2 product of discharge. The Li2O2 is observed to grow and decompose without direct contact with carbon, which greatly enhances the electrochemical performance. Our results signal that the use of molecular shuttles that are catalytically active may prove to be enablers of a practical lithium-air rechargeable battery.
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Molecular-scale Hydrophilicity Induced by Solute: Molecular-thick Charged Pancakes of Aqueous Salt Solution on Hydrophobic Carbon-based Surfaces.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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We directly observed molecular-thick aqueous salt-solution pancakes on a hydrophobic graphite surface under ambient conditions employing atomic force microscopy. This observation indicates the unexpected molecular-scale hydrophilicity of the salt solution on graphite surfaces, which is different from the macroscopic wetting property of a droplet standing on the graphite surface. Interestingly, the pancakes spontaneously displayed strong positively charged behavior. Theoretical studies showed that the formation of such positively charged pancakes is attributed to cation-? interactions between Na(+) ions in the aqueous solution and aromatic rings on the graphite surface, promoting the adsorption of water molecules together with cations onto the graphite surface; i.e., Na(+) ions as a medium adsorbed to the graphite surface through cation-? interactions on one side while at the same time bonding to water molecules through hydration interaction on the other side at a molecular scale. These findings suggest that actual interactions regarding carbon-based graphitic surfaces including those of graphene, carbon nanotubes, and biochar may be significantly different from existing theory and they provide new insight into the control of surface wettability, interactions and related physical, chemical and biological processes.
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MiR-214 and N-ras regulatory loop suppresses rhabdomyosarcoma cell growth and xenograft tumorigenesis.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a childhood malignant soft tissue cancer that is derived from myogenic progenitors trapped in a permanent mode of growth. Here, we report that miR-214 is markedly down-regulated in human RMS cell lines. Although not required for embryogenesis in mice, miR-214 suppresses mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) proliferation. When re-introduced into RD cells, a line of human embryonal RMS cells, miR-214 showed inhibition of tumor cell growth, induction of myogenic differentiation and apoptosis, as well as suppression of colony formation and xenograft tumorigenesis. We show that in the absence of miR-214, expression of proto-oncogene N-ras is markedly elevated in miR-214(-/-) MEFs, and manipulations of miR-214 levels using microRNA mimics or inhibitor in RD cells reciprocally altered N-ras expression. We further demonstrate that forced expression of N-ras from a cDNA that lacks its 3'-untranslated region neutralized the pro-myogenic and anti-proliferative activities of miR-214. Finally, we show that N-ras is a conserved target of miR-214 in its suppression of xenograft tumor growth, and N-ras expression is up-regulated in xenograft tumor models as well as actual human RMS tissue sections. Taken together, these data indicate that miR-214 is a bona fide suppressor of human RMS tumorigensis.
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Posterior iliac crescent fracture-dislocation: is it only rotationally unstable?
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Posterior iliac crescent fracture-dislocation is generally considered rotationally unstable and vertically stable. The current study (1) investigated whether vertical instability may occur in posterior iliac crescent fracture-dislocation and (2) analyzed the clinical features of vertically unstable iliac crescent fracture-dislocation as well as treatment strategies. Patients with pelvic fracture who were treated in the authors' department from June 2009 to June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. This study analyzed the clinical features, including incidence, hemodynamic state, associated injuries, injury severity score, and treatment methods for vertically unstable iliac crescent fracture-dislocation. Four patients had vertically unstable fracture-dislocation, accounting for 12.9% of all iliac crescent fracture-dislocations. All 4 patients were hemodynamically unstable on admission and had complications of associated injuries with a higher injury severity score. In 3 of the 4 patients, iliac crescent fracture-dislocations were reduced via the posterior approach at the initial stage and these patients underwent fixation with a plate. The remaining patient was initially given transcondylar traction because of severe complications and underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) via a posterior approach at a later stage. The outcomes of all 4 patients were rated as good or excellent by the Kobbe rating system at the last follow-up. Vertical instability may occur in iliac crescent fracture-dislocation. The authors propose ORIF of the fracture-dislocation via a posterior approach. When initial surgery is not possible because of severe associated organ injuries, the authors propose transcondylar traction to allow reduction of the sacroiliac joint and ORIF at a later stage.
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Improved myocardial function with supplement of levosimendan to celsior solution.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Levosimendan is a calcium-sensitizing agent shown to prevent myocardical contractile depression in various heart diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of levosimendan on cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis in hypothermic preservation rat hearts. Isolated rat hearts were preserved in Celsior solution with or without levosimendan. The left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) recovery rate of isolated rat heart significantly decreased, and the apoptosis index increased after 9 hours of hypothermic preservation. Supplement Celsior solution with levosimendan (10 and 10 mole/L) enhanced the LVDP recovery rate and reduced apoptosis. Levosimendan inhibited the hypothermic preservation-induced calpain activation and cleavage of Bid. Levosimendam induced increased myocardial inducible nitric oxide synthase but not endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. A selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 1400W, and a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate but not a sarcolemmal KATP channel blocker HMR-1098 prevented improvement effect of levosimendam on LVDP recovery rate, abolished the inhibitory effect of levosimendan on hypothermic preservation-induced activation of calpain, cleavage of Bid, and apoptosis. These data suggested that Celsior solution supplement with levosimendan improved cardiac function recovery and reduced myocyte apoptosis in hypothermic preservation rat hearts.
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Genomic analysis and expression investigation of caleosin gene family in Arabidopsis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Caleosin is a common lipid-droplet surface protein, which has the ability to bind calcium. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is considered a model organism in plant researches. Although there are growing researches about caleosin in the past few years, a systemic analysis of caleosins in Arabidopsis is still scarce. In this study, a comprehensive investigation of caleosins in Arabidopsis was performed by bioinformatics methods. Firstly, eight caleosins in Arabidopsis are divided into two types, L-caleosin and H-caleosin, according to their molecular weights, and these two types of caleosin have many differences in characteristics. Secondly, phylogenetic tree result indicates that L-caleosin may evolve from H-caleosin. Thirdly, duplication pattern analysis shows that segmental and tandem duplication are main reasons for Arabidopsis caleosin expansion with the equal part. Fourthly, the expression profiles of caleosins are also investigated in silico in different organs and under various stresses and hormones. In addition, based on promoter analysis, caleosin may be involved in calcium signal transduction and lipid accumulation. Thus, the classification and expression analysis of caleosin genes in Arabidopsis provide facilities to the research of phylogeny and functions in this gene family.
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Micromonospora zeae sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete isolated from corn root (Zea mays L.).
J. Antibiot.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-gq9(T), was isolated from corn root (Zea mays L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Micromonospora. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies, strain NEAU-gq9(T) was most closely related to Micromonospora zamorensis CR38(T) (99.3%), Micromonospora jinlongensis NEAU-GRX11(T) (99.2%), Micromonospora saelicesensis Lupac 09(T) (99.2%), Micromonospora chokoriensis 2-19(6)(T) (98.9%), Micromonospora coxensis 2-30-b(28)(T) (98.6%) and Micromonospora lupini Lupac 14N(T) (98.5%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene demonstrated that strain NEAU-gq9(T) is a member of the genus Micromonospora and supported the closest phylogenetic relationship to M. zamorensis CR38(T), M. jinlongensis NEAU-GRX11(T), M. saelicesensis Lupac 09(T), M. chokoriensis 2-19(6)(T) and M. lupini Lupac 14N(T). A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization, morphological and physiological characteristics indicated that the novel strain could be readily distinguished from the closest phylogenetic relatives. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-gq9(T) represents a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora zeae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-gq9(T) (=CGMCC 4.7092(T)=DSM 45882(T)).The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 21 May 2014; doi:10.1038/ja.2014.54.
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The diversity of quasars unified by accretion and orientation.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Quasars are rapidly accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of massive galaxies. They display a broad range of properties across all wavelengths, reflecting the diversity in the physical conditions of the regions close to the central engine. These properties, however, are not random, but form well-defined trends. The dominant trend is known as 'Eigenvector 1', in which many properties correlate with the strength of optical iron and [O III] emission. The main physical driver of Eigenvector 1 has long been suspected to be the quasar luminosity normalized by the mass of the hole (the 'Eddington ratio'), which is an important parameter of the black hole accretion process. But a definitive proof has been missing. Here we report an analysis of archival data that reveals that the Eddington ratio indeed drives Eigenvector 1. We also find that orientation plays a significant role in determining the observed kinematics of the gas in the broad-line region, implying a flattened, disk-like geometry for the fast-moving clouds close to the black hole. Our results show that most of the diversity of quasar phenomenology can be unified using two simple quantities: Eddington ratio and orientation.
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The effect of postural correction and subsequent balloon inflation in deformity correction of acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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To determine deformity correction by postural correction and subsequent balloon inflation in acute vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) and to examine the effect of bone mineral density on deformity correction.
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Actinomycetospora atypica sp. nov., a novel soil actinomycete and emended description of the genus Actinomycetospora.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-st4(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Shaanxi province, Northwest China and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NEAU-st4(T) has the highest sequence similarities with Actinomycetospora rishiriensis RI109-Li102(T) (99.4 %), Actinomycetospora corticicola 014-5(T) (99.1 %), Actinomycetospora chiangmaiensis YIM 0006(T) (98.8 %) and Actinomycetospora iriomotensis IR73-Li102(T) (98.2 %). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness differentiated strain NEAU-st4(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. The main chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-st4(T), such as the diamino acid of the peptidoglycan, the whole-cell hydrolysates, the predominant menaquinones and the phospholipid profile, supported its classification within the genus Actinomycetospora. The distinctive morphology of this strain compared with that of other members in the genus Actinomycetospora is the formation of sporangia directly on the substrate hyphae. Phenotypic and genotypic differences also allowed the distinction of the strain from closely related species. Consequently, strain NEAU-st4(T) represents a new species of the genus Actinomycetospora, for which the name Actinomycetospora atypica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-st4(T) (=CGMCC 4.7093(T) = DSM 45873(T)).
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Requirement of Smurf-mediated endocytosis of Patched1 in sonic hedgehog signal reception.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Cell surface reception of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) must ensure that the graded morphogenic signal is interpreted accordingly in neighboring cells to specify tissue patterns during development. Here, we report endocytic sorting signals for the receptor Patched1 (Ptch1), comprising two 'PPXY' motifs, that direct it to degradation in lysosomes. These signals are recognized by two HECT-domain ubiquitin E3 ligases, Smurf1 and Smurf2, which are induced by Shh and become enriched in Caveolin-1 lipid rafts in association with Ptch1. Smurf-mediated endocytic turnover of Ptch1 is essential for its clearance from the primary cilium and pathway activation. Removal of both Smurfs completely abolishes the ability of Shh to sustain the proliferation of postnatal granule cell precursors in the cerebellum. These findings reveal a novel step in the Shh pathway activation as part of the Ptch1 negative feedback loop that precisely controls the signaling output in response to Shh gradient signal.
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An obesity genetic risk score predicts risk of insulin resistance among Chinese children.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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A great number of body mass index (BMI)/obesity-related loci have been identified by recent genome-wide association studies. The objective of the study is to investigate the associations of 11 obesity-related loci with insulin resistance (IR) in a Chinese children population. Participants included 3,468 Chinese children, aged 6-18 years. The 75 percentile (equal to 2.93) of homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) index was considered as the cut-off of IR. A total of 868 IR cases and 2,600 control children were identified. In age- and sex-adjusted model, only two SNPs in/near GNPDA2 and KCTD15 genes were significantly associated with risk of IR [GNPDA2 rs10938397: allelic odds ratio (OR) = 1.19, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.34, P = 0.003; KCTD15 rs29941: allelic OR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.31, P = 0.034]; genetic risk score was also significantly associated risk of IR (OR = 1.08, 95 % 1.04-1.12, P = 1.18 × 10(-4)). After additional adjustment for BMI, none remained significant. The associations of GNPDA2 rs10938397 and the SNPs in combination with risk of IR remained statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. The present study demonstrated that the associations of GNPDA2 rs10938397 and the SNPs in combination with risk of IR were statistically significant, which were dependent on BMI.
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Linkages between microbial functional potential and wastewater constituents in large-scale membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Large-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have been widely used for the municipal wastewater treatment, whose performance relies on microbial communities of activated sludge. Nevertheless, microbial functional structures in MBRs remain little understood. To gain insight into functional genes and their steering environmental factors, we adopted GeoChip, a high-throughput microarray-based tool, to examine microbial genes in four large-scale, in-operation MBRs located in Beijing, China. The results revealed substantial microbial gene heterogeneity (43.7-85.1% overlaps) among different MBRs. Mantel tests indicated that microbial nutrient cycling genes were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated to influent COD, [Formula: see text] -N, TP or sulfate, which signified the importance of microbial mediation of wastewater constituent removal. In addition, functional genes shared by all four MBRs contained a large number of genes involved in antibiotics resistance, metal resistance and organic remediation, suggesting that they were required for degradation or resistance to toxic compounds in wastewater. The linkages between microbial functional structures and environmental variables were also unveiled by the finding of hydraulic retention time, influent COD, [Formula: see text] -N, mixed liquid temperature and humic substances as major factors shaping microbial communities. Together, the results presented demonstrate the utility of GeoChip-based microarray approach in examining microbial communities of wastewater treatment plants and provide insights into the forces driving important processes of element cycling.
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Recurrent huge leiomyoma of the urethra in a female patient: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Urethral leiomyoma is an extremely rare condition that arises from the smooth muscle of the urethra. To the best of our knowledge, there is only a single reported recurrence treated by a repeat excision in the literature to date. The present study reports an exceptionally rare case of a recurrent huge leiomyoma of the female urethra. The 47-year-old female was diagnosed with a huge mass located between the urethra and vagina during a gynecological examination. The patient had no symptoms and was successfully treated with transabdominal excision. Pathological examinations revealed a leiomyoma of the urethra. The patient was followed up for one year without any sign of recurrence.
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Identification and catalytic characterization of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like (NRPS-like) enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of echosides from Streptomyces sp. LZ35.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Echosides, isolated from Streptomyces sp. LZ35, represent a class of para-terphenyl natural products that display DNA topoisomerase I and II? inhibitory activities. By analyzing the genome draft of strain LZ35, the ech gene cluster was identified to be responsible for the biosynthesis of echosides, which was further confirmed by gene disruption and HPLC analysis. Meanwhile, the biosynthetic pathway for echosides was proposed. Furthermore, the echA-gene, encoding a tri-domain nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-like enzyme, was identified as a polyporic acid synthetase and biochemically characterized in vitro. This is the first study to our knowledge on the biochemical characterization of an Actinobacteria quinone synthetase, which accepts phenylpyruvic acid as a native substrate. Therefore, our results may help investigate the function of other NRPS-like enzymes in Actinobacteria.
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Identification and characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster of divergolides from Streptomyces sp. W112.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Divergolides are a group of structurally unprecedented ansamacrolactam antibiotics with antibacterial and antitumor activities. A biosynthetic gene cluster predicted to encode the biosynthesis of divergolides was cloned and sequenced from endophytic Streptomyces sp. W112. The gene cluster of divergolides (div) spans a DNA region of 61-kb and consists of 20 open reading frames (ORFs) that encode polyketide synthases (PKSs), enzymes for the synthesis of AHBA and PKS extender units, and post-PKS modifications, proposed regulators, and putative transporters. Disruption of the AHBA synthase gene (divK) completely abolished the production of divergolides proved its involvement in the biosynthesis of divergolides. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the regulatory gene div8 in div gene cluster might encode a positive regulator for the biosynthesis of divergolides. Constitutive overexpression of div8 improved the production of divergolides E, implying that div gene cluster maybe responsible for the biosynthesis of divergolides. These findings set the stage for fully investigating the biosynthesis of divergolides and rational engineering of new divergolide analogs by genetic modifications, and pave the way to further improve the production of divergolides.
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Reprint of "induction of heme oxygenase-1 ameliorates vascular dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats".
Vascul. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To explore the effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on vascular dysfunction in high fat diet streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats.
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Induction of heme oxygenase-1 ameliorates vascular dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.
Vascul. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To explore the effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on vascular dysfunction in high fat diet streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats.
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Bioactive calcium sulfate/magnesium phosphate cement for bone substitute applications.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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A novel calcium sulfate/magnesium phosphate cement (CSMPC) composite was prepared and studied in the present work. The physical properties including the phases, the microstructures, the setting properties and the compressive strengths of the CSMPCs were studied. The bio-performances of the CSMPCs were comprehensively evaluated using in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) method and in vitro cell culture. The dependence of the physical and chemical properties of the CSMPC on its composition and microstructure was studied in detail. It is found that the CSMPC composites exhibited mediate setting times (6-12 min) compared to the calcium sulfate (CS) and the magnesium phosphate cement (MPC). They showed an encapsulation structure in which the unconverted hexagonal prism CSH particles were embedded in the xerogel-like MPC matrix. The phase compositions and the mechanical properties of the CSMPCs were closely related to the content of MPC and the hardening process. The CSMPCs exhibited excellent bioactivity and good biocompatibility to support the cells to attach and proliferate on the surface. The CSMPC composite has the potential to serve as bone grafts for the bone regeneration.
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Plasminogen initiates and potentiates the healing of acute and chronic tympanic membrane perforations in mice.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Most tympanic membrane (TM) perforations heal spontaneously, but approximately 10-20% remain open as chronic TM perforations. Chronic perforations can lead to an impaired hearing ability and recurrent middle ear infections. Traditionally, these perforations must be surgically closed, which is costly and time consuming. Therefore, there is a need for simpler therapeutic strategies. Previous studies by us have shown that plasminogen (plg) is a potent pro-inflammatory regulator that accelerates cutaneous wound healing in mice. We have also shown that the healing of TM perforations is completely arrested in plg-deficient (plg(-/-)) mice and that these mice develop chronic TM perforations. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of local plg injection in acute and chronic TM perforation mice models.
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A case of spontaneous tubal pregnancy with caesarean scar pregnancy.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tubal pregnancy with caesarean scar pregnancy is rare. Early, accurate diagnosis and treatment for this kind of ectopic pregnancy can lead to a decrease of maternal morbidity and mortality. Here, we report a rare case of spontaneous tubal pregnancy co-existing with caesarean scar pregnancy. After timely emergency laparoscopy and curettage, the patient was cured.
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MicroRNA-206 suppresses gastric cancer cell growth and metastasis.
Cell Biosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death world-wide and carries a high rate of metastatic risk. In addition to other protein-coding oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, microRNAs play an important role in gastric cancer tumorigenic progression. Here, we show that miR-206 is expressed at markedly low levels in a cohort of gastric tumors compared to their matching normal tissues, and in a number of gastric cancer cell lines. Down-regulation of miR-206 was particularly significant in tumors with lymphatic metastasis, local invasion, and advanced TNM staging. We find that forced expression of miR-206 suppressed the proliferation, colony-formation, and xenograft tumorigenesis of SCG-7901 cells, a line of gastric cancer cells. Forced expression of miR-206 also suppressed SCG-7901 cell migration and invasion, as well as metastasis in cell culture or tail-vein injected mouse models, respectively. The anti-metastatic effect of miR-206 is likely mediated by targeting metastasis regulatory genes STC2, HDAC4, KLF4, IGF1R, FRS2, SFRP1, BCL2, BDNF, and K-ras, which were drastically down-regulated by stable expression of exogenous miR-206 in SCG-7901 cells. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-206 is a tumor suppressor of gastric cancer acting at steps that regulate metastasis.
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Age- and sex-dependent association between FTO rs9939609 and obesity-related traits in Chinese children and adolescents.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The associations between common variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene and obesity-related traits may be age-dependent and may differ by sex. The present study aimed to assess the association of FTO rs9939609 with body mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity from childhood to adolescence, and to determine the age at which the association becomes evident.
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Cuevaenes C-E: Three new triene carboxylic derivatives from Streptomyces sp. LZ35?gdmAI.
Beilstein J Org Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Two pairs of geometrical isomers - cuevaenes A (1) and C (3) as well as cuevaenes D (4) and E (5) - and cuevaene B (2) were isolated from gdmAI-disrupted Streptomyces sp. LZ35. The constitution of cuevaene C (3) was found to be identical to cuevaene A (1) by means of NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. However, the relative configurations of the triene side chain moieties were determined to be different. It was established on the basis of spectroscopic data that cuevaenes D (4) and E (5) are amides and geometrical isomers. Cuevaenes A-C (1-3) displayed moderate activity against Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC 11060) and modest activity against fungi (e.g., Fusarium verticillioides strain S68 and Rhizoctonia solani strain GXE4). However, cuevaenes D (4) and E (5) showed no inhibitory activity against any of the tested microbes.
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Molecular cloning, overexpression and characterization of a novel water channel protein from Rhodobacter sphaeroides.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Aquaporins are highly selective water channel proteins integrated into plasma membranes of single cell organisms; plant roots and stromae; eye lenses, renal and red blood cells in vertebrates. To date, only a few microbial aquaporins have been characterized and their physiological importance is not well understood. Here we report on the cloning, expression and characterization of a novel aquaporin, RsAqpZ, from a purple photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides ATCC 17023. The protein was expressed homologously at a high yield (?20 mg/L culture) under anaerobic photoheterotrophic growth conditions. Stopped-flow light scattering experiments demonstrated its high water permeability (0.17±0.05 cm/s) and low energy of activation for water transport (2.93±0.60 kcal/mol) in reconstituted proteoliposomes at a protein to lipid ratio (w/w) of 0.04. We developed a fluorescence correlation spectroscopy based technique and utilized a fluorescent protein fusion of RsAqpZ, to estimate the single channel water permeability of RsAqpZ as 1.24 (±0.41) x 10(-12) cm(3)/s or 4.17 (±1.38)×10(10) H2O molecules/s, which is among the highest single channel permeability reported for aquaporins. Towards application to water purification technologies, we also demonstrated functional incorporation of RsAqpZ in amphiphilic block copolymer membranes.
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[Risk of obesity-related gene polymorphism on the incidence and durative of childhood obesity].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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To examine the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs)in obesity-related genes on the incidence and durative of obesity in childhood and adolescence.
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FTIR spectroscopic studies of lithium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate+diethyl carbonate mixtures.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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FTIR (Fourier transformed infrared) spectra have been collected and analyzed for solutions of lithium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate (PC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), and PC+DEC mixtures. It has been shown that the carbonyl stretch bands of PC and DEC, the ring of PC and the ether oxygen stretch bands of DEC are all very sensitive to the interaction between Li(+) and the solvent molecules. New shoulders appear and the original bands split with the addition of LiBF4, indicating that a strong interaction between Li(+) and molecules of PC and DEC exists through the oxygen group of CO and ring of PC and both CO oxygen and ether oxygen atoms of DEC. In addition, no preferential solvation of Li(+) in LiBF4/PC+DEC solutions was detected.
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PCAF impairs endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation by down-regulating ?3-integrin expression via HOXA10 acetylation.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Homeobox A10 (HOXA10), a key transcription factor, plays a critical role in endometrial receptivity by regulating the expression of downstream target genes, such as ?3-integrin (ITGB3), but little is understood about the mechanisms of the posttranslational modification of HOXA10 during embryo implantation.
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Separation of water-soluble polysaccharides from Cyclocarya paliurus by ultrafiltration process.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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In this study, ultrafiltration membrane process was employed to separate polysaccharides from Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (C. paliurus) to simulate industrial production. Meanwhile, the molecular weight distribution of C. paliurus polysaccharides was investigated by gel permeation chromatography. Four fractions were obtained and named as CPPS-A, CPPS-B, CPPS-C and CPPS-D, respectively. CPPS-A and CPPS-B contained approximately 69.5% and 12.7% of polysaccharides, whose molecular weight were in the range of 100-300kDa and 120kDa, respectively. CPPS-C was comprised of two polysaccharides with average molecular weight of 40kDa and 15kDa. Results showed that ultrafiltration resulted in the removal of parts of small molecule weight polysaccharides, the increase of proportion of high molecule weight ones and the obvious improvement of quality of products. Compared with ethanol precipitation and gel permeation chromatography techniques, ultrafiltration showed many advantages, and also provided theoretical support for industrial manufacturing of C. paliurus polysaccharides in separation.
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Cordycepin prevented IL-?-induced expression of inflammatory mediators in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes.
Int Orthop
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Cordycepin, a nucleoside derivative isolated from Cordyceps, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antidiabetic and renoprotective effects. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with an inflammatory component that drives the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix. This study aimed to assess the effects of cordycepin on human OA chondrocytes.
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Increased osteopontin expression is associated with progression from vulvar precancerous lesions to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) contributes to about 3-5 % of all gynecological cancers. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS) are regarded as precancerous lesions. Early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions may prevent development of VSCC. Osteopontin (OPN) has been shown to be involved in many physiological and pathological processes, such as tumor progression, by promoting cancer cell invasion and metastasis. As a result of these findings, OPN has been described as a potential marker for tumor progression in some malignancies. In this study, we investigated the expression of OPN in vulvar tissue specimens and compared its expression between different histopathological grades.
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Key role for the transcriptional factor, osterix, in spine development.
Spine J
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Osterix (Osx) is an important transcriptional factor for bone formation; however, its role in spine development has not been determined.
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Asymmetric Facet Joint Osteoarthritis and its Relationships to Facet Orientation, Facet Tropism and Ligamentum Flavum Thickening.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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The degrees of osteoarthritis of the left and right facet joints were evaluated by using computerized tomography (CT) among elderly patients with low back or leg pain.
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An obesity genetic risk score is associated with metabolic syndrome in Chinese children.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI)/obesity. In this study, we aim to examine the associations of obesity related loci with risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a children population from China. A total of 431 children with MetS and 3046 controls were identified based on the modified ATPIII definition. 11 SNPs (FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, GNPDA2 rs10938397, BDNF rs6265, FAIM2 rs7138803, NPC1 rs1805081, SEC16B rs10913469, SH2B1 rs4788102, PCSK1rs6235, KCTD15 rs29941, BAT2 rs2844479) were genotyped by TaqMan 7900. Of 11 SNPs, GNPDA2 rs10938397, BDNF rs6265, and FAIM2 rs7138803 were nominally associated with risk of MetS (GNPDA2 rs10938397: odds ratio (OR)=1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-1.40, P=0.016; BDNF rs6265: OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.03-1.39, P=0.021; FAIM2 rs7138803: OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.02-1.40, P=0.025); genetic risk score (GRS) was significantly associated with risk of MetS (OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.04-1.15, P=5.26×10(-4)). After further adjustment for BMI, none of SNPs were associated with risk of MetS (all P>0.05); the association between GRS and risk of MetS remained nominally (OR=1.02, 95%CI=0.96-1.08, P=0.557). However, after correction for multiple testing, only GRS was statistically associated with risk of MetS in the model without adjustment for BMI. The present study demonstrated that there were nominal associations of GNPDA2 rs10938397, BDNF rs6265, and FAIM2 rs7138803 with risk of MetS. The SNPs in combination have a significant effect on risk of MetS among Chinese children. These associations above were mediated by adiposity.
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Nonomuraea shaanxiensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a soil sample.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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A novel actinomycete, strain NEAU-st1(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in Shaanxi province, Northwest China and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-st1(T) belongs to the genus Nonomuraea, being most closely related to Nonomuraea rosea GW12687(T) (98.91 %), Nonomuraea solani NEAU-Z6(T) (98.44 %), Nonomuraea rhizophila YIM67092(T)(98.24 %) and Nonomuraea monospora PT708(T) (98.02 %); similarities to sequences of other type strains of the genus Nonomuraea were lower than 98 %. Both tree-making algorithms used also supported the position that strain NEAU-st1(T) formed a distinct clade with its most closely related species. Morphological and physiological characteristics confirmed that the strain belongs to the genus Nonomuraea and distinguished it from its most closely related species. DNA-DNA hybridization further differentiated strain NEAU-st1(T) from its nearest phylogenetic neighbours. These results suggested that strain NEAU-st1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea shaanxiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-st1(T) (=CGMCC 4.7096(T) = DSM 45877(T)).
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Discovery of Dap-3 polymyxin analogues for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative nosocomial infections.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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We report novel polymyxin analogues with improved antibacterial in vitro potency against polymyxin resistant recent clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . In addition, a human renal cell in vitro assay (hRPTEC) was used to inform structure-toxicity relationships and further differentiate analogues. Replacement of the Dab-3 residue with a Dap-3 in combination with a relatively polar 6-oxo-1-phenyl-1,6-dihydropyridine-3-carbonyl side chain as a fatty acyl replacement yielded analogue 5x, which demonstrated an improved in vitro antimicrobial and renal cytotoxicity profiles relative to polymyxin B (PMB). However, in vivo PK/PD comparison of 5x and PMB in a murine neutropenic thigh model against P. aeruginosa strains with matched MICs showed that 5x was inferior to PMB in vivo, suggesting a lack of improved therapeutic index in spite of apparent in vitro advantages.
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Common genetic variants associated with lipid profiles in a Chinese pediatric population.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified many candidate genes that are associated with blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. In this study, we want to know whether the results from European for lipid-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are generalizable to Chinese children. We genotyped seven SNPs in Chinese school-age children (n = 3,503) and assessed the associations of these SNPs with lipids profiles and dyslipidemia. After false discovery rate correction, of the seven SNPs, six (rs2144300, p ~ 9.30 × 10(-3); rs1260333, p ~ 6.20 × 10(-11); rs1260326, p ~ 8.73 × 10(-11); rs10105606, p ~ 0.010; rs1748195, p ~ 0.016 and rs964184, p ~ 2.33 × 10(-13)) showed strong association with triglycerides. Three SNPs (rs1260333, p ~ 3.30 × 10(-3); rs1260326, p ~ 4.39 × 10(-3) and rs2954029, p ~ 6.36 × 10(-4)) showed strong association with total cholesterol. Two SNPs (rs10105606, p ~ 6.66 × 10(-4) and rs1748195, p ~ 2.55 × 10(-3)) showed strong association with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Four SNPs (rs1260333, p ~ 0.017; rs1260326, p ~ 0.013; rs2954029, p ~ 1.09 × 10(-3) and rs964184, p ~ 5.51 × 10(-3)) showed strong association with low density lipoprotein cholesterol. There were significant associations between rs1260333 (OR is 0.82, 95 % CI 0.74-0.92, p ~ 3.96 × 10(-4)), rs1260326 (OR is 0.82, 95 % CI 0.74-0.92, p ~ 5.31 × 10(-4)), and rs964184 (OR is 1.36, 95 % CI 1.20-1.55, p ~ 1.89 × 10(-6)) and dyslipidemia. These SNPs generated strong combined effects on lipid profiles and dyslipidemia. Our study demonstrates that SNPs associated with lipids from European GWA studies also play roles in Chinese children, which broadened the understanding of lipids metabolism.
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Effects of extracellular calcium on viability and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro.
Hum. Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been extensively used for tissue engineering. However, the effect of Ca(2+) on the viability and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs has yet to be evaluated. To determine the dose-dependent effect of Ca(2+) on viability and osteogenesis of BMSCs in vitro, BMSCs were cultured in calcium-free DMEM medium supplemented with various concentrations of Ca(2+) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mM) from calcium citrate. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay and osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, Von Kossa staining, and real-time PCR. Ca(2+) stimulated BMSCs viability in a dose-dependent manner. At slightly higher concentrations (4 and 5 mM) in the culture, Ca(2+) significantly inhibited the activity of ALP on days 7 and 14 (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), significantly suppressed collagen synthesis (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), and significantly elevated calcium deposition (P < 0.01) and mRNA levels of osteocalcin (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) and osteopontin (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Therefore, elevated concentrations of extracellular calcium may promote cell viability and late-stage osteogenic differentiation, but may suppress early-stage osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs.
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Structural insights into the inhibition of type VI effector Tae3 by its immunity protein Tai3.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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The recently described T6SS (type VI secretion system) acts as a needle that punctures the membrane of the target cells to deliver effector proteins. Type VI amidase effectors can be classified into four divergent families (Tae1-Tae4). These effectors are secreted into the periplasmic space of neighbouring cells via the T6SS and subsequently rupture peptidoglycan. However, the donor cells are protected from damage because of the presence of their cognate immunity proteins [Tai1 (type VI amidase immunity 1)-Tai4]. In the present paper, we describe the structure of Tae3 in complex with Tai3. The Tae3-Tai3 complex exists as a stable heterohexamer, which is composed of two Tae3 molecules and two Tai3 homodimers (Tae3-Tai34-Tae3). Tae3 shares a common NlpC/P60 fold, which consists of N-terminal and C-terminal subdomains. Structural analysis indicates that two unique loops around the catalytic cleft adopt a closed conformation, resulting in a narrow and extended groove involved in the binding of the substrate. The inhibition of Tae3 is attributed to the insertion of the ?-loop (loop of ?3-?4) of Tai3 into the catalytic groove. Furthermore, a cell viability assay confirmed that a conserved motif (Gln-Asp-Xaa) in Tai3 members may play a key role in the inhibition process. Taken together, the present study has revealed a novel inhibition mechanism and provides insights into the role played by T6SS in interspecific competition.
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Analysis of monosaccharide composition of Cyclocarya paliurus polysaccharide with anion exchange chromatography.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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A simple, rapid and sensitive analytical method for the determination of monosaccharide composition in Cyclocarya paliurus polysaccharide was developed and validated. This method was based on hydrolysis of the polysaccharides followed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography analysis. The effects of sodium hydroxide concentration and column temperature on retention and separation of the monosaccharide were investigated with Carbo PAC™ PA10 analytical column. The established method was validated and the results showed that this method had good linearity (R(2), 0.9987-0.9999), adequate accuracy (98.53-102.13% recovery), high precision (relative standard deviation <3.8%) and sensitive detection limits (2.57-7.86 nM), with a simple preparation of the samples (no need to derivatize the samples) and short run time (20 min). The results showed that the C. paliurus polysaccharide consisted of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose and xylose in the molar ratio of 1.00:1.85:3.26:3.12:0.85:0.29.
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cis-2,3-Disubstituted cyclopropane 1,1-diesters in [3 + 2] annulations with aldehydes: highly diastereoselective construction of densely substituted tetrahydrofurans.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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A series of cis-2,3-disubstituted cyclopropane 1,1-diesters were examined in the AlCl3-promoted [3 + 2]-annulations with aldehydes. In this reaction, these cis-cyclopropanes displayed reactivities starkly different from their trans counterparts in terms of the high chemical yields (up to 98%) and provided the desired annulation products with excellent diastereomeric purity. This protocol provides a facile and highly stereoselective way to construct synthetically useful pentasubstituted tetrahydrofurans not easily accessible using other methods.
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The influence of anhedonia on feedback negativity in major depressive disorder.
Neuropsychologia
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Anhedonia is associated with reward-processing deficits of the dopamine system, which may increase the risk of depression. Nevertheless, few previous studies have examined the influence of hedonic tone on event-related potential (ERP) measures of reward processing in major depressive disorder. A simple gambling task was used to elicit feedback negativity (FN), an ERP component elicited by feedback indicating gain versus loss, in 27 patients with major depression and 27 healthy participants. We found that participants with depression were characterized by reduced FN responses, especially towards monetary gains, but not losses, compared with healthy individuals. In addition, the amplitude of FN to gain feedback in participants with depression was related to anhedonia severity and depressive symptoms. These findings indicate an association between low hedonic capacity and reduction in FN. As a neural measure of reward sensitivity, FN may be generated in part by reward-related activity.
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Mycoepoxydiene inhibits antigen-stimulated activation of mast cells and suppresses IgE-mediated anaphylaxis in mice.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Mycoepoxydiene (MED) is a polyketide isolated from a marine fungus associated with mangrove forest. It has been shown that MED has many kinds of effects such as anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its effects on anaphylaxis are still unknown. Mast cells play a pivotal role in IgE-mediated allergic response. Aggregation of the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc?RI) on the surface of mast cell activates a cascade of signaling events leading to the degranulation and cytokine production in mast cells. Our study showed that MED could significantly suppress antigen-stimulated degranulation and cytokine production in mast cells and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in mice. Furthermore, we found that MED suppressed antigen-induced activation of Syk, and subsequently inhibited the phosphorylation of PLC?1, Akt, and MAPKs such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 in mast cells. Collectively, our study demonstrates that MED can inhibit the activation of mast cells and protect mice from mast cell-mediated allergic response through inhibiting the activation of Syk. These results suggest that MED is a potential compound for developing a promising anti-anaphylaxis drug.
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Influence of obesity on association between genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies and hypertension risk in Chinese children.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Childhood hypertension is a complex disease influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to examine how obesity status influences the association of 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) with systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) and hypertension in Chinese children.
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Sex-dependent associations of genetic variants identified by GWAS with indices of adiposity and obesity risk in a Chinese children population.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are associated with body mass index (BMI)/obesity. This study aimed to examine the identified associations among a population of Chinese children.
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Piperine inhibits IL-? induced expression of inflammatory mediators in human osteoarthritis chondrocyte.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a common remedy in Traditional Chinese Medicine and possesses diverse biological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with an inflammatory component that drives the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix. The present study aimed to assess the effects of piperine, the active phenolic component in black pepper extract, on human OA chondrocytes. In this study, human OA chondrocytes were pretreated with piperine at 10, 50 or 100?g/ml and subsequently stimulated with IL-1? (5ng/ml) for 24h. Production of PGE2 and NO was evaluated by the Griess reaction and an ELISA. Gene expression of MMP-3, MMP-13, iNOS and COX-2 was measured by real-time PCR. MMP-3 and MMP-13 proteins in culture medium were determined using cytokine-specific ELISA. Western immunoblotting was used to analyze the iNOS and COX-2 protein production in the culture medium. The regulation of NF-kB activity and the degradation of IkB were explored using luciferase and Western immunoblotting, respectively. We found that piperine inhibited the production of PGE2 and NO induced by IL-1?. Piperine significantly decreased the IL-1?-stimulated gene expression and production of MMP-3, MMP-13, iNOS and COX-2 in human OA chondrocytes. Piperine inhibited the IL-1?-mediated activation of NF-?B by suppressing the degradation of its inhibitory protein I?B? in the cytoplasm. The present report is first to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of piperine in human OA chondrocytes. Piperine can effectively abrogate the IL-1?-induced over-expression of inflammatory mediators; suggesting that piperine may be a potential agent in the treatment of OA.
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Withdrawal of GnRH agonist decreases oestradiol and VEGF concentrations in high responders.
Reprod. Biomed. Online
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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This study evaluated whether the withdrawal of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist before triggering ovulation reduces the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in high-risk infertility patients who were treated with gonadotrophins. GnRH agonist was withdrawn for 2 or 3 days when dominant follicles were ?14mm in diameter, according to the GnRH agonist long protocol. Non-withdrawal of GnRH agonist was used as control. The serum concentration of oestradiol on the ovulation trigger day was significantly decreased in the GnRH agonist withdrawal group compared with the control group (5750.78±2344.77pg/ml versus 8076.43±1981.67pg/ml); however, the number of retrieved oocytes and the fertilization rate were similar between the groups. In addition, the concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor in plasma on day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration and follicular fluid on the oocyte retrieval day were decreased following GnRH agonist withdrawal. In fresh embryo transfer cycles, rates of clinical pregnancy, implantation and OHSS were not different between the groups. When GnRH agonist withdrawal was followed by total embryos cryopreserved, the rate of OHSS was decreased compared with the control group (0% versus 8.70%). Clinical pregnancy rates in cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles were comparable between the two groups.
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Impaired error-monitoring function in people with internet addiction disorder: an event-related FMRI study.
Eur Addict Res
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of IAD should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity. This study was set to investigate the error-monitoring ability in IAD subjects.
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STK39 polymorphism is associated with essential hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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A recent genome-wide association study identified STK39as a candidate gene for blood pressure (BP) in Europeans. Subsequently, several studies have attempted to replicate the association across different ethnic populations. However, the results have been inconsistent.
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Improvement on the modified Lowry method against interference of divalent cations in soluble protein measurement.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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This paper systematically investigated the interference of calcium and magnesium in protein measurement with a modified Lowry method first proposed by Frølund et al. (Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 43:755-761, 1995). This interference has in the past been largely ignored resulting in variable and unreliable results when applied to natural water matrices. We discovered significant formation of calcium and magnesium precipitates that lead to a decline in light absorbance at 750 nm during protein determination. Underestimation of protein concentration (sometimes even yielding negative concentrations) and low experiment reproducibility were demonstrated at high concentrations of divalent cations (e.g., [Ca(2+)] over 1 mmol?L(-1)). To eliminate interference from calcium and magnesium, two pretreatment strategies were established based on cation exchange and dialysis. These pretreatments were convenient and were found to be highly effective in removing calcium and magnesium in protein samples. By using the modified Lowry method with these pretreatments, proteins in standard solutions and in wastewater samples were successfully quantified with good reliability and reproducibility. In addition, we demonstrated that simultaneous quantification of humic substances with the modified Lowry method was not affected by the two pretreatments. These approaches are expected to be applicable to protein and humic substance determination in different research fields, in cases where the modified Lowry method is sensitive to divalent cation concentrations.
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Percutaneous compression plate versus proximal femoral nail anti-rotation in treating elderly patients with intertrochanteric fractures: a prospective randomized study.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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The treatment and management of hip fracture poses a great challenge for clinicians in osteology and surgery. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical effectiveness of the percutaneous compression plate (PCCP) versus proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients.
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Type 2C protein phosphatase ABI1 is a negative regulator of strawberry fruit ripening.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Although a great deal of progress has been made toward understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in fruit ripening, many components in the ABA signalling pathway remain to be elucidated. Here, a strawberry gene homologous to the Arabidopsis gene ABI1, named FaABI1, was isolated and characterized. The 1641bp cDNA includes an intact open reading frame that encodes a deduced protein of 546 amino acids, in which putative conserved domains were determined by homology analysis. Transcriptional analysis showed that the levels of FaABI1 mRNA expression declined rapidly during strawberry fruit development as evidenced by real-time PCR, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and northern blotting analyses, suggesting that the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase PP2C1 encoded by FaABI1 may be involved in fruit ripening as a negative regulator. The results of Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing and PBI121 vector-mediated overexpression suggested that the down- and up-regulation of FaABI1 mRNA expression levels in degreening strawberry fruit could promote and inhibit ripening, respectively. Furthermore, alteration of FaABI1 expression could differentially regulate the transcripts of a set of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, SnRK2, ABRE1, CHS, PG1, PL, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, and UFGT. Taken together, the data provide new evidence for an important role for ABA in regulating strawberry fruit ripening in the processes of which the type 2C protein phosphatase ABI1 serves as a negative regulator. Finally, a possible core mechanism underlying ABA perception and signalling transduction in strawberry fruit ripening is discussed.
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Enantioseparation using ortho- or meta-substituted phenylcarbamates of amylose as chiral stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Six ortho- and six meta-substituted phenylcarbamate derivatives of amylose were prepared and their chiral recognition abilities were evaluated as chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The substitution at the meta-position on the aromatic ring was more preferable than that at the ortho-position to obtain CSPs with a high chiral recognition ability, and the introduction of either an electron-withdrawing or electron-donating substituent can improve the chiral resolving power of the meta-substituted phenylcarbamates of amylose. The chiral recognition ability of the amylose phenylcarbamates and elution order of the enantiomers were significantly dependent on the position, nature and number of the substituents on the phenyl group. Correlations between the chiral recognition ability and the N-H frequencies in the IR spectra and the chemical shifts of the N-H protons in the (1)H NMR spectra of the carbamate moieties of the amylose derivatives were discussed. The structures of the amylose derivatives were also investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy.
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GCKR variants increase triglycerides while protecting from insulin resistance in Chinese children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Variants in gene encoding glucokinase regulator protein (GCKR) were found to have converse effects on triglycerides and glucose metabolic traits. We aimed to investigate the influence of GCKR variants for triglycerides and glucose metabolic traits in Chinese children and adults.
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Dose-dependent effects of nicotine on proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells and the antagonistic action of vitamin C.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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A range of biological and molecular effects caused by nicotine are considered to effect bone metabolism. Vitamin C functions as a biological antioxidant. This study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of nicotine on human bone marrow stromal cells and whether Vitamin C supplementation show the antagonism action to high concentration nicotine. We used CCK-8, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, Von Kossa staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot to evaluate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. The results indicated that the proliferation of BMSCs increased at the concentration of 50, 100 ng/ml, got inhibited at 1,000 ng/ml. When Vitamin C was added, the OD for proliferation increased. For ALP staining, we found that BMSCs treated with 50 and 100 ng/ml nicotine showed a higher activity compared with the control, and decreased at the 1,000 ng/ml. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression and the calcium depositions decreased at 100 and 1,000 ng/ml nicotine, while the addition of Vitamin C reversed the down regulation. By real-time PCR, we detected that the mRNA expression of collagen type I (COL-I) and ALP were also increased in 50 and 100 ng/ml nicotine groups (P < 0.05), while reduced at 1,000 ng/ml (P < 0.05). When it came to osteocalcin (OCN), the changes were similar. Taken all together, it is found that nicotine has a two-phase effect on human BMSCs, showing that low level of nicotine could promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation while the high level display the opposite effect. Vitamin C could antagonize the inhibitory effect of higher concentration of nicotine partly.
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Simultaneous analysis of 18 mineral elements in Cyclocarya paliurus polysaccharide by ICP-AES.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The contents of 18 kinds of mineral elements in Cyclocarya paliurus polysaccharide samples were determined by ICP-AES. The limits of detection (LOD) of the method for 18 elements were in the range of 0.01-3.80 mg/kg. The average recoveries obtained by the standard addition method were found between 94.34% and 105.69% (RSD, 1.01-4.23%). The results showed that C. paliurus polysaccharides were abundant in major and trace elements which are healthy for human body. The contents of Ca, Al, Mg, K, Fe, Mn and P were very high, ranging from 274.5±10.3 to 5980.0±102.7 mg/kg, while the contents of Zn, Na, Se, Cr, Pb, Cu and As ranged from 0.9±0.1 to 37.1±4.2 mg/kg. Finally, the levels of Ni, Cd, V and Co were not detected in the samples. ICP-AES is a simple, precise and efficient method for the determination of many mineral elements in polysaccharide samples simultaneously.
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The rs10947803 SNP of KCNK17 is associated with cerebral hemorrhage but not ischemic stroke in a Chinese population.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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KCNK17 (potassium channel, subfamily K, member17) was first discovered to associate with the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke in the first genome-wide association study. The rs10947803 SNP in KCNK17 is significantly associated with ischemic stroke in Caucasian populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association with strokes in the Chinese population. A total of 1364 stroke patients and 1293 controls were examined using a case-control methodology. The rs10947803 SNP in KCNK17 was genotyped by a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. The rs10947803 SNP (A allele) of KCNK17 was significantly associated with cerebral hemorrhage (for AA+AC versus CC, unadjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-2.69; P=0.020). After adjustment for age and sex, the association remained significant for AA+AC versus CC, OR=1.65; 95% CI, 1.04-2.62; P=0.033. In addition, the rs10947803 SNP in KCNK17 was not associated with ischemic stroke (for AA+AC versus CC, unadjusted OR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.81-1.05; P=0.212, after age- and sex-adjustment, OR=0.87; 95% CI, 0.72-1.05; P=0.143). The rs10947803 SNP (A allele) in KCNK17 increases the risk of cerebral hemorrhage but not ischemic stroke in the Chinese population.
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