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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Repair of full-thickness lower eyelid defect following surgical excision of malignant tumor using Hughes technique].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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To evaluate surgical outcome of reconstruction of full-thickness lower eyelid defect resulting from tumor excision.
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A tunable ZnO/electrolyte heterojunction for a self-powered photodetector.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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A self-powered photodetector was fabricated by taking advantage of the band bending at the ZnO/electrolyte interface. And a 48% performance enhancement was achieved with the introduction of 0.15% compressive strain due to the generation of piezopolarization charges. This result could be extended to other solid-liquid reactions, such as photoelectrochemical or photocatalytic processes.
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Polymorphisms of TERT and CLPTM1L and the Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Chinese Males.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and cleft lip and palate trans-membrane 1 like (CLPTM1L) genes located on chromosome 5p15.33 are known to influence the susceptibility to various cancers. Here, we examined the association of TERT and CLPTM1L single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Highly efficient conductivity modulation of cinnamate-based light-responsive ionic liquids in aqueous solutions.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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A new class of cinnamate-based light-responsive ionic liquids was synthesized and characterized, and these ionic liquids with longer alkyl chains showed a remarkable increase in ionic conductivity under UV light irradiation in aqueous solutions.
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[Effects of Betel shisanwei ingredients pill on AC-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathways in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of depressive rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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To observe the effects of Mongolian pharmaceutical Betel shisanwei ingredients pill on AC-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathways in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of depressive rats.
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Weak base pairing in both seed and 3' regions reduces RNAi off-targets and enhances si/shRNA designs.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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The use of RNA interference is becoming routine in scientific discovery and treatment of human disease. However, its applications are hampered by unwanted effects, particularly off-targeting through miRNA-like pathways. Recent studies suggest that the efficacy of such off-targeting might be dependent on binding stability. Here, by testing shRNAs and siRNAs of various GC content in different guide strand segments with reporter assays, we establish that weak base pairing in both seed and 3' regions is required to achieve minimal off-targeting while maintaining the intended on-target activity. The reduced off-targeting was confirmed by RNA-Seq analyses from mouse liver RNAs expressing various anti-HCV shRNAs. Finally, our protocol was validated on a large scale by analyzing results of a genome-wide shRNA screen. Compared with previously established work, the new algorithm was more effective in reducing off-targeting without jeopardizing on-target potency. These studies provide new rules that should significantly improve on siRNA/shRNA design.
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Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters for controlling the growth of organic single-crystalline nanopillars in photovoltaics.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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The most efficient architecture for achieving high donor/acceptor interfacial area in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) would employ arrays of vertically interdigitated p- and n- type semiconductor nanopillars (NPs). Such morphology could have an advantage in bulk heterojunction systems; however, precise control of the dimension morphology in a crystalline, interpenetrating architecture has not yet been realized. Here we present a simple, yet facile, crystallization technique for the growth of vertically oriented NPs utilizing a modified thermal evaporation technique that hinges on a fast deposition rate, short substrate-source distance, and ballistic mass transport. A broad range of organic semiconductor materials is beneficial from the technique to generate NP geometries. Moreover, this technique can also be generalized to various substrates, namely, graphene, PEDOT-PSS, ZnO, CuI, MoO3, and MoS2. The advantage of the NP architecture over the conventional thin film counterpart is demonstrated with an increase of power conversion efficiency of 32% in photovoltaics. This technique will advance the knowledge of organic semiconductor crystallization and create opportunities for the fabrication and processing of NPs for applications that include solar cells, charge storage devices, sensors, and vertical transistors.
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[Diagnosis and clinical characteristics of patients with non-allergic rhinitis].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To explore a step-by-step exclusive diagnosis and analyze the clinical characters of non-allergic rhinitis (NAR).
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Human GH Receptor-IGF-1 Receptor Interaction: Implications for GH Signaling.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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GH signaling yields multiple anabolic and metabolic effects. GH binds the transmembrane GH receptor (GHR) to activate the intracellular GHR-associated tyrosine kinase, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and downstream signals, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) activation and IGF-1 gene expression. Some GH effects are partly mediated by GH-induced IGF-1 via IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), a tyrosine kinase receptor. We previously demonstrated in non-human cells that GH causes formation of a GHR-JAK2-IGF-1R complex and that presence of IGF-1R (even without IGF-1 binding) augments proximal GH signaling. In this study, we use human LNCaP prostate cancer cells as a model system to further study the IGF-1R's role in GH signaling. GH promoted JAK2 and GHR tyrosine phosphorylation and STAT5 activation in LNCaP cells. By coimmunoprecipitation and a new split luciferase complementation assay, we find that GH augments GHR/IGF-1R complex formation, which is inhibited by a Fab of an antagonistic anti-GHR monoclonal antibody. Short hairpin RNA-mediated IGF-1R silencing in LNCaP cells reduced GH-induced GHR, JAK2, and STAT5 phosphorylation. Similarly, a soluble IGF-1R extracellular domain fragment (sol IGF-1R) interacts with GHR in response to GH and blunts GH signaling. Sol IGF-1R also markedly inhibits GH-induced IGF-1 gene expression in both LNCaP cells and mouse primary osteoblast cells. On the basis of these and other findings, we propose a model in which IGF-1R augments GH signaling by allowing a putative IGF-1R-associated molecule that regulates GH signaling to access the activated GHR/JAK2 complex and envision sol IGF-1R as a dominant-negative inhibitor of this IGF-1R-mediated augmentation. Physiological implications of this new model are discussed.
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CSF3R, SETBP1 and CALR mutations in chronic neutrophilic leukemia.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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The WHO 2008 definition of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is based on clinical and laboratory parameters but not on molecular abnormalities. Mutations in CSF3R, SETBP1 and CALR are reported in patients with chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL). However, because CNL is rare, there are few large studies of this issue. We sequenced these genes in 14 patients who met the WHO-criteria of CNL. 8 subjects had CSF3RT618I, 6 SETBP1 mutations and 1 a CALR mutation. Our data suggest mutation analysis of CSF3R, SETBP1 and CALR should be included in the diagnostic criteria for CNL. These data may also have therapy implications.
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Establishment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and application on determination of ginsenoside Re in human saliva.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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This work describes an immunochemical approach for the quality control of Panax ginseng and a pharmacological study of ginsenoside Re, a major bioactive constituent in P. ginseng, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A hybridoma secreting monoclonal antibody against ginsenoside Re was produced by fusing splenocytes immunized with a ginsenoside Re-bovine serum albumin conjugate with the hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine-sensitive mouse myeloma SP2/0 cell line. The method, at an effective measuring range of 7.8-500 ng?·?mL(-1) of ginsenoside Re, successfully detected ginsenoside Re in Chinese traditional herb prescriptions. The results demonstrate that we generated a novel and reliable assay system for measuring ginsenoside Re in Chinese medicines more efficiently. Futhermore, we determined the ginsenoside Re concentrations in the saliva of six healthy adults after the oral administration of a ginseng capsule to study the pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside Re in human saliva.
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Dynamic Analysis of GH Receptor Conformational Changes by Split Luciferase Complementation.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The transmembrane GH receptor (GHR) exists at least in part as a preformed homodimer on the cell surface. Structural and biochemical studies suggest that GH binds GHR in a 1:2 stoichiometry to effect acute GHR conformational changes that trigger the activation of the receptor-associated tyrosine kinase, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and downstream signaling. Despite information about GHR-GHR association derived from elegant fluorescence resonance energy transfer/bioluminescence resonance energy transfer studies, an assessment of the dynamics of GH-induced GHR conformational changes has been lacking. To this end, we used a split luciferase complementation assay that allowed detection in living cells of specific ligand-independent GHR-GHR interaction. Furthermore, GH treatment acutely augmented complementation of enzyme activity between GHRs fused, respectively, to N- and C-terminal fragments of firefly luciferase. Analysis of the temporal pattern of GH-induced complementation changes, pharmacological manipulation, genetic alteration of JAK2 levels, and truncation of the GHR intracellular domain (ICD) tail suggested that GH acutely enhances proximity of the GHR homodimer partners independent of the presence of JAK2, phosphorylation of GHR-luciferase chimeras, or an intact ICD. However, subsequent reduction of complementation requires JAK2 kinase activity and the ICD tail. This conclusion is in contrast to existing models of the GHR activation process.
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Cytogenetic studies and their prognostic contribution in 565 Chinese patients with primary myelofibrosis.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To study the feature and prognostic contribution of cytogenetic information in Chinese patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF), we analyzed cytogenetic data from 565 patients with PMF. One hundred and sixty-two subjects (29%) had abnormal karyotypes, including trisomy 8 (45; 28%), deletion of 20q (25; 15%), deletion of 13q (13; 8%), deletion of 11q (12; 7%), and abnormal chromosome 1 (21; 13%); balanced translocations (14; 9%); a complex karyotype (CK; 30; 19%), and a monosomal karyotype (MK; 19; 12%). Using these data, we showed that the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS)-plus, which includes cytogenetic information, is a better survival predictor than the DIPSS. We next used our data to construct the following two cytogenetic-based cohorts: (1) favorable karyotype-subjects with a normal karyotype, a CK that is not a MK, +8 only or a balanced translocation only and (2) unfavorable karyotype-all others. The median survival times were not reached and were 52 month (95% CI, 32-72 months; P?=?0.01) in patients with favorable and unfavorable karyotypes, respectively. These data provided the detailed cytogenetic information in Chinese patients with PMF and confirmed the impact of cytogenetic abnormalities on survival in Chinese patients. Am. J. Hematol. 89:1043-1046, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Improving Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Pretreated by Ethylene Glycol-Perchloric Acid-Water Mixture.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To improve the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass, a mixture of ethylene glycol-HClO4-water (88.8:1.2:10, w/w/w) was used for pretreating corn stover in this study. After the optimization in oil-bath system, the optimum pretreatment temperature and time were 130 °C and 30 min, respectively. After the saccharification of 10 g/L pretreated corn stover for 48 h, the saccharification rate was obtained in the yield of 77.4 %. To decrease pretreatment temperature and shorten pretreatment time, ethylene glycol-HClO4-water (88.8:1.2:10, w/w/w) media under microwave irradiation was employed to pretreat corn stover effectively at 100 °C and 200 W for 5 min. Finally, the recovered hydrolyzates containing glucose obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated corn stovers could be fermented into ethanol efficiently. These results would be helpful for developing a cost-effective pretreatment combined with enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic materials for the production of lignocellulosic ethanol.
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Spirometry effects on conventional and multiple flow exhaled nitric oxide in children.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Abstract Objective: Clinical and research settings often require sequencing multiple respiratory tests in a brief visit. Guidelines recommend measuring the concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) before spirometry, but evidence for a spirometry carryover effect on FeNO is mixed. Only one study has investigated spirometry carryover effects on multiple flow FeNO analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate evidence for carryover effects of recent spirometry on three exhaled NO summary measures: FeNO at 50?ml/s, airway wall NO flux [J'awNO] and alveolar NO concentration [CANO] in a population-based sample of schoolchildren. Methods: Participants were 1146 children (191 with asthma), ages 12-15, from the Southern California Children's Health Study who performed spirometry and multiple flow FeNO on the same day. Approximately, half the children performed spirometry first. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate differences in exhaled NO summary measures associated with recent spirometry testing, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: In the population-based sample, we found no evidence of spirometry carryover effects. However, for children with asthma, there was a suggestion that exhaled NO summary measures assessed ?6?min after spirometry were lower (FeNO: 25.8% lower, 95% CI: -6.2%, 48.2%; J'awNO: 15.1% lower 95% CI: -26.5%, 43.0%; and CANO 0.43 parts per billion lower, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.98). Conclusions: In clinical settings, it is prudent to assess multiple flow FeNO before spirometry. In studies of healthy subjects, it may not be necessary to assess FeNO first.
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[Comparison of low-dose thalidomide and prednisone combined with or without danazol for the treatment of primary myelofibrosis-associated anemia].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To observe the clinical effects of low-dose thalidomide (THAL) and prednisone (PRED) with or without danazol (DANA) in patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) associated anemia.
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Prognostic impact of splenomegaly on survival of Chinese with primary myelofibrosis.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Predicting survival in persons with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is typically based on the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), the Dynamic IPSS (DIPSS) or the DIPSS-Plus. These scoring systems use clinical and laboratory data developed predominately in persons of European descent. Splenomegaly is not a prognostic variable in any of these scoring systems. Recently, we reported differences in clinical and laboratory features between Chinese vs. persons of European descent with PMF. Based on this we developed a modified prognostic model to predict survival of Chinese subjects in which splenomegaly is an independent favorable prognostic factor. In the current study, we analyzed data from 874 Chinese with PMF including 495 with splenomegaly. Subjects with splenomegaly had significantly higher hemoglobin concentrations (P<0.001), higher levels of WBCs (P<0.001), platelets (P<0.001), excess blood blasts (? 1%; P=0.012), less RBC-transfusion-dependence (P<0.001) and lower DIPSS risk distribution (P=0.024). Frequency of JAK2(V617F) (62% vs. 50%; P=0.003) was also different. In univariate analyses subjects without splenomegaly had briefer survival (median, 64 mo [95% CI, 43-85] vs. 110 mo [95% CI, 67-153]; P<0.001). In multivariate analyses, splenomegaly was a favorable prognostic correlate of survival independent of DIPSS risk-cohort (hazard ratio [HR]=1.445; [95% CI, 1.101-1.895]; P=0.008). Our data suggest including splenomegaly improves the predictive accuracy of the prognostic model to estimate survival of Chinese with PMF.
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Phase II Study of Modified FOLFOX6 With Bevacizumab in Metastatic Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma.
Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The median survival for patients with metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma is <12 months. Bevacizumab has demonstrated promising activity in metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma when used in combination with cisplatin-based regimens for patients from the Americas. We conducted a prospective phase II trial to investigate the efficacy of bevacizumab in combination with the oxaliplatin-based regimen, modified FOLFOX6, in patients with metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma.
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Cecropin A-melittin mutant with improved proteolytic stability and enhanced antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi associated with gastroenteritis in vitro.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Cecropin A-melittin (CAM), a chimeric antimicrobial peptide with potent antimicrobial activity, is threatened by some special extracellular proteases when used to deal with certain drug-resistant pathogenic microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, a four-tryptophan-substitution mutant (CAM-W) from CAM was developed via the replacement of special amino acid residues to enhance the antimicrobial potency and to improve the proteolytic stability of this agent. The pharmaceutical index of CAM-W was investigated, with a focus on biological potency, cytotoxicity, and proteolytic stability, as well as pH and thermal resistance. CAM-W exhibited potent antimicrobial activity and was approximately 3-12 times higher than that of CAM. CAM-W also exhibited a strong antifungal activity against a series of common pathogenic fungi, in a lower IC50 range between 2.1mg/L and 3.3mg/L than that of its reference CAM ranging from 9.8mg/L to 14.2mg/L. Besides, CAM-W showed moderate cytotoxicity (IC50>300mg/L) in erythrocyte lysis test. In addition, CAM-W overcame challenges under various conditions, including specific temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90°C), pH values (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0), and proteases (trypsin, pepsin, human neutrophil elastase, Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase, and Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease) that are commonly present in human gastrointestinal tract. These results suggest that the four-tryptophan-substitution can confer CAM-W with a high pharmaceutical index, which is important for CAM-W to become a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics against bacteria and fungi associated with gastroenteritis.
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Neurological antiphospholipid syndrome: Clinical, neuroimaging, and pathological characteristics.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Neurological antiphospholipid syndrome (NAPS) is often misdiagnosed or missed. Only limited clinical and neuroimaging information about it is available, and the pathological characteristics was rarely reported before. This study aimed to explore the clinical, neuroimaging, and pathological characteristics of NAPS.
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Resolving fluorophores by unmixing multispectral fluorescence tomography with independent component analysis.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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It is a challenging problem to resolve and identify drug (or non-specific fluorophore) distribution throughout the whole body of small animals in vivo. In this article, an algorithm of unmixing multispectral fluorescence tomography (MFT) images based on independent component analysis (ICA) is proposed to solve this problem. ICA is used to unmix the data matrix assembled by the reconstruction results from MFT. Then the independent components (ICs) that represent spatial structures and the corresponding spectrum courses (SCs) which are associated with spectral variations can be obtained. By combining the ICs with SCs, the recovered MFT images can be generated and fluorophore concentration can be calculated. Simulation studies, phantom experiments and animal experiments with different concentration contrasts and spectrum combinations are performed to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can not only provide the spatial information of fluorophores, but also recover the actual reconstruction of MFT images.
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Role for heat shock protein 90? in the proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells and in the deep second-degree burn wound healing in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Inflammation, proliferation, and tissue remodeling are essential steps for wound healing. The hypoxic wound microenvironment promotes cell migration through a hypoxia--heat shock protein 90 alpha (Hsp90?)--low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) autocrine loop. To elucidate the role of this autocrine loop on burn wound healing, we investigated the expression profile of Hsp90? at the edge of burn wounds and found a transient increase in both mRNA and protein levels. Experiments performed with a human keratinocyte cell line--HaCaT also confirmed above results. 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17demethoxygeldanamycin hydrochloride (17-DMAG), an Hsp90? inhibitor, was used to further evaluate the function of Hsp90? in wound healing. Consistently, topical application of Hsp90? in the early stage of deep second-degree burn wounds led to reduced inflammation and increased tissue granulation, with a concomitant reduction in the size of the wound at each time point tested (p<0.05). Consequently, epidermal cells at the wound margin progressed more rapidly causing an expedited healing process. In conclusion, these results provided a rationale for the therapeutic effect of Hsp90? on the burn wound management.
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Magnetoelectric assisted 180° magnetization switching for electric field addressable writing in magnetoresistive random-access memory.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Magnetization-based memories, e.g., hard drive and magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM), use bistable magnetic domains in patterned nanomagnets for information recording. Electric field (E) tunable magnetic anisotropy can lower the energy barrier between two distinct magnetic states, promising reduced power consumption and increased recording density. However, integration of magnetoelectric heterostructure into MRAM is a highly challenging task owing to the particular architecture requirements of each component. Here, we show an epitaxial growth of self-assembled CoFe2O4 nanostripes with bistable in-plane magnetizations on Pb(Mg,Nb)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates, where the magnetic switching can be triggered by E-induced elastic strain effect. An unprecedented magnetic coercive field change of up to 600 Oe was observed with increasing E. A near 180° magnetization rotation can be activated by E in the vicinity of the magnetic coercive field. These findings might help to solve the 1/2-selection problem in traditional MRAM by providing reduced magnetic coercive field in E field selected memory cells.
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N-acetyltransferase 2 gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to cancer: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is a polymorphic enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of various potential carcinogens. In recent years, a number of studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the rs1799930 and rs1799931 polymorphism in NAT2 and cancer risk in multiple populations for different types of cancer. However, the results were not consistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to further explore the relationship between NAT2 polymorphism and the risk of cancer. A total of 21 studies involving 15, 450 subjects for rs1799930 and 13, 011 subjects for rs1799931 were included in this meta-analysis. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess strength of associations. We also evaluated the publication bias and performed a sensitivity analysis. Overall, our results showed an apparent significant association between the NAT2 rs1799930 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility in Asians (GA vs. GG: OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.03-1.45; dominant model: OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.03-1.43) and population-based controls (GA vs. GG: OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.01-1.19; dominant model: OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.01-1.18). In contrast, a significant association was observed between the NAT2 rs1799931 G>A polymorphism and decreased cancer susceptibility in overall meta-analysis (AA vs. GG: OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.33-0.93; GA vs. GG: OR=1.00, 95% CI=0.88-1.14; dominant model: OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.86-1.10; recessive model: OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.34-0.94) and the Asian group (AA vs. GG: OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.26-0.94; recessive model, OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.27-0.94). We found that the NAT2 rs1799930 may be a risk factor, while the NAT2 rs1799931 polymorphism is associated with a decreased risk of cancer and is likely a protective factor against cancer development.
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Piezotronic interface engineering on ZnO/Au-based Schottky junction for enhanced photoresponse of a flexible self-powered UV detector.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Exploiting piezoelectric effect to engineer material interface has been confirmed as a promising way to optimize the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, by using this effect, we have greatly improved the photoresponse of the fabricated ZnO/Au Schottky junction based self-powered UV detector. A 440% augment of photocurrent, together with 5× increased sensitivity, was obtained when the device was subjected to a 0.580% tensile strain. The enhancement can be attributed to the facility separation and extraction of photoexcites due to the formation of the stronger and expanding built-in field, which is a result of charge redistribution induced by piezoelectric polarization at the ZnO/Au interface. This study not only can strengthen the understanding of piezoelectric effects on energy devices but also can be extended to boost performances of optoelectronic devices made of piezoelectric semiconductor materials.
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Mice lacking Axl and Mer tyrosine kinase receptors are susceptible to experimental autoimmune orchitis induction.
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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The mammalian testis is an immunoprivileged organ where male germ cell autoantigens are immunologically ignored. Both systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens and local immunosuppressive milieu contribute to the testicular immune privilege. Testicular immunosuppression has been intensively studied, but information on systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens is lacking. In the present study, we aimed to determine the role of Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases in maintaining the systemic tolerance to male germ cell antigens using the experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) model. Axl and Mer double-knockout (Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-)) mice developed evident EAO after a single immunization with germ cell homogenates emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant. EAO was characterized by the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the testis. Damage to the seminiferous epithelium was also observed. EAO induction was associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation in the testes, impaired permeability of the blood-testis barrier and generation of autoantibodies against germ cell antigens in Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-) mice. Immunization also induced mild EAO in Axl or Mer single-gene-knockout mice. By contrast, a single immunization failed to induce EAO in wild-type mice. The results indicate that Axl and Mer receptors cooperatively regulate the systemic immune tolerance to male germ cell antigens.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 18 November 2014; doi:10.1038/icb.2014.97.
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Differential protein expression profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana callus under microgravity on board the Chinese SZ-8 spacecraft.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Exposure of Arabidopsis callus to microgravity has a significant impact on the expression of proteins involved in stress responses, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis, intracellular trafficking, signaling, and cell wall biosynthesis. Microgravity is among the main environmental stress factors that affect plant growth and development in space. Understanding how plants acclimate to space microgravity is important to develop bioregenerative life-support systems for long-term space missions. To evaluate the spaceflight-associated stress and identify molecular events important for acquired microgravity tolerance, we compared proteomic profiles of Arabidopsis thaliana callus grown under microgravity on board the Chinese spacecraft SZ-8 with callus grown under 1g centrifugation (1g control) in space. Alterations in the proteome induced by microgravity were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling. Forty-five proteins showed significant (p < 0.05) and reproducible quantitative differences in expression between the microgravity and 1g control conditions. Of these proteins, the expression level of 24 proteins was significantly up-regulated and that of 21 proteins was significantly down-regulated. The functions of these proteins were involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including general stress responses, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis/degradation, intracellular trafficking/transportation, signaling, and cell wall biosynthesis. Several proteins not previously known to be involved in the response to microgravity or gravitational stimuli, such as pathogenesis-related thaumatin-like protein, leucine-rich repeat extension-like protein, and temperature-induce lipocalin, were significantly up- or down-regulated by microgravity. The results imply that either the normal gravity-response signaling is affected by microgravity exposure or that microgravity might inappropriately induce altered responses to other environmental stresses.
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Color Doppler Imaging Analysis of Retrobulbar Blood Flow Velocities in Diabetic Patients Without or With Retinopathy: A Meta-analysis.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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To analyze hemodynamic changes in retrobulbar blood vessels using color Doppler imaging in diabetic patients without or with retinopathy.
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TRIB2 inhibits Wnt/?-Catenin/TCF4 signaling through its associated ubiquitin E3 ligases, ?-TrCP, COP1 and Smurf1, in liver cancer cells.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) is specifically regulated by Wnt signaling in liver cancer cells but not in colon cancer cells. However, whether and how TRIB2 regulates Wnt signaling in liver cancer cells remains unclear. Here, we report that TRIB2 negatively regulates Wnt activity through a reduction in protein stability of TCF4 and ?-Catenin. Mechanistically, TRIB2 associated-ubiquitin E3 ligases beta-transducin repeat-containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (?-TrCP), COP1 and Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) reduced TCF4/?-Catenin expression, and these effects could be enhanced by TRIB2. Moreover, deletion of the binding regions of these E3-ligases within the TRIB2 protein decreased ubiquitination of TCF4/?-Catenin and reduced nuclear accumulation of ?-TrCP, COP1 and Smurf1, which suggested that TRIB2 regulated-Wnt activity is closely correlated with its associated E3 ligases.
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Rotenone remarkably attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in chronic obstructive uropathy.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Mitochondrial abnormality has been shown in many kidney disease models. However, its role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) is still uncertain. In present study, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone was applied to the mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Following 7-days rotenone treatment, a remarkable attenuation of tubular injury was detected by PAS staining. In line with the improvement of kidney morphology, rotenone remarkably blunted fibrotic response as shown by downregulation of fibronectin (FN), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), collagen I, collagen III, and ?-SMA, paralleled with a substantial decrease of TGF-? 1. Meanwhile, the oxidative stress markers thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and inflammatory markers TNF-?, IL-1?, and ICAM-1 were markedly decreased. More importantly, the reduction of mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (mtND1) expression in obstructed kidneys was moderately but significantly restored by rotenone, suggesting an amelioration of mitochondrial injury. Collectively, mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone protected kidneys against obstructive injury possibly via inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis, suggesting an important role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of obstructive kidney disease.
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Enhanced photoelectrochemical property of ZnO nanorods array synthesized on reduced graphene oxide for self-powered biosensing application.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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We have realized the direct synthesis of ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) array on reduced graphene layer (rGO), and demonstrated the enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) property of the rGO/ZnO based photoanode under UV irradiation compared with the pristine ZnO NRs array. The introduction of the rGO layer resulted in a favorable energy band structure for electron migration, which finally led to the efficient photoinduced charge separation. Such nanostructure was subsequently employed for self-powered PEC biosensing of glutathione in the condition of 0V bias, with a linear range from 10 to 200µM, a detection limit of 2.17µM, as well as excellent selectivity, reproducibility and stability. The results indicated the rGO/ZnO nanostructure is a competitive candidate in the PEC biosensing field.
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Tumor suppressor miR-1 restrains epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma via the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Aberrant expression of miR-1 has been implicated in various cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying the role of miR-1 in CRC progression still have not been clarified clearly. Here, we showed the decreased expression of miR-1 in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tissues and cell lines. Ectopic introduction of miR-1 suppressed cell proliferation and migration, whereas miR-1 inhibitor performed contrary functions in CRC cells. Stable overexpression of miR-1 was sufficient to inhibit tumor growth and homing capacity in vivo. Proteomic analysis revealed that miR-1 modulated the expression of key cellular molecules and involved in the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways by inhibiting phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Meanwhile, miR-1 also reversed epithelial¿mesenchymal transition (EMT), which played a pivotal role in the initiation of metastasis. Further studies found that miR-1 can target the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP1) mRNA and suppress the expression of LASP1, identified as a CRC-associated protein. In contrast to the phenotypes induced by miR-1 restoration, LASP1-induced cell proliferation and migration partly rescued miR-1-mediated biological behaviors. Our results illustrated that miR-1 play a critical role in CRC progression, which suggests its potential role in the molecular therapy of cancer.
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Synthesis and Photophysical Behavior of a Supramolecular Nanowire made from Dithienylethene-Bridged Bis(permethyl-?-cyclodextrin)s and Porphyrins.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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A photochromic dithienylethene-bridged bis(permethyl-?-cyclodextrin)s was successfully synthesized through an amide condensation reaction, and its photochromic properties were also investigated by (1) H?NMR spectra and UV/vis spectroscopy. Moreover, taking advantage of the strong interaction between permethyl-?-cyclodextrin and water soluble porphyrins, a supramolecular nanowire was then successfully constructed and characterized by UV/vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Significantly, the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process from the porphyrin to the dithienylethene core can be modulated by alternate irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light and, thus, light-controlled quenching and recovery of fluorescence of porphyrins was realized.
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Calreticulin mutations in Chinese with primary myelofibrosis.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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We tested 357 Chinese with primary myelofibrosis for mutations in CALR, JAK2 and MPL. CALR mutations were detected in 76 subjects (21%). There were 24 (32%) type-1?L367fs*46?and 49 (64%) type-2 (K385fs*47) mutations. 72 of 168 subjects (43%) without a JAK2 or MPL mutation had a CALR mutation. Subjects with type-2 CALR mutations had lower hemoglobin concentrations (P=0.001), lower WBC levels (P<0.001), higher percent blood blasts (P=0.009), and higher conventional (P<0.001) and Chinese-adjusted Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System scores (P<0.001) compared with subjects with JAK2 mutations. These subjects were also likely to have abnormal platelet levels (<100x10E+9/L; P=0.01 or >450x10E+9/L; P=0.042) and no splenomegaly (P=0.004). Type-2 CALR mutation or no detectable mutation was an independent high-risk factor for survival in multivariate analyses. These data suggest the ratio between type-1 and -2 mutations is reversed in Chinese with primary myelofibrosis compared with populations of persons with primary myelofibrosis of predominately European descent. The unfavorable prognostic impact of CALR mutations in Chinese with primary myelofibrosis operate only in those with type-2 mutations. These data underscore the need to evaluate the prognostic impact of genetic mutations in different populations.
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Temporal relationship between hospital admissions for pneumonia and weather conditions in Shanghai, China: a time-series analysis.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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To explore the association between weather conditions and hospital admissions for pneumonia in Shanghai.
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Effects of maximal sodium and potassium conductance on the stability of Hodgkin-Huxley model.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) equation is the first cell computing model in the world and pioneered the use of model to study electrophysiological problems. The model consists of four differential equations which are based on the experimental data of ion channels. Maximal conductance is an important characteristic of different channels. In this study, mathematical method is used to investigate the importance of maximal sodium conductance gNA and maximal potassium conductance gK. Applying stability theory, and taking gNA and gK as variables, we analyze the stability and bifurcations of the model. Bifurcations are found when the variables change, and bifurcation points and boundary are also calculated. There is only one bifurcation point when gNA is the variable, while there are two points when gK is variable. The (gNA,? gK) plane is partitioned into two regions and the upper bifurcation boundary is similar to a line when both gNA and gK are variables. Numerical simulations illustrate the validity of the analysis. The results obtained could be helpful in studying relevant diseases caused by maximal conductance anomaly.
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Relationship of cystatin-C change and the prevalence of death or dialysis need after acute kidney injury: A meta-analysis.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Cystatin-C (CysC) has been demonstrated as a sensitive and reliable biomarker to predict the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, there are few studies concerned about the relationship between CysC and the outcomes of AKI. The aim of the present study was to determine whether CysC elevation prior to definite diagnosis of AKI is related to higher prevalence of death and dialysis need outcome.
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Identification and characterization of cold-responsive microRNAs in tea plant ( Camellia sinensis ) and their targets using high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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BackgroundMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 19¿~¿21 nucleotide noncoding RNAs produced by Dicer-catalyzed excision from stem-loop precursors. Many plant miRNAs have critical functions in development, nutrient homeostasis, abiotic stress responses, and pathogen responses via interaction with specific target mRNAs. Camellia sinensis is one of the most important commercial beverage crops in the world. However, miRNAs associated with cold stress tolerance in C. sinensis remains unexplored. The use of high-throughput sequencing can provide a much deeper understanding of miRNAs. To obtain more insight into the function of miRNAs in cold stress tolerance, Illumina sequencing of C. sinensis sRNA was conducted.ResultSolexa sequencing technology was used for high-throughput sequencing of the small RNA library from the cold treatment of tea leaves. To align the sequencing data with known plant miRNAs, we characterized 106 conserved C. sinensis miRNAs. In addition, 215 potential candidate miRNAs were found, among, which 98 candidates with star sequences were chosen as novel miRNAs. Both congruously and differentially regulated miRNAs were obtained, and cultivar-specific miRNAs were identified by microarray-based hybridization in response to cold stress. The results were also confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. To confirm the targets of miRNAs, two degradome libraries from two treatments were constructed. According to degradome sequencing, 455 and 591 genes were identified as cleavage targets of miRNAs from cold treatments and control libraries, respectively, and 283 targets were present in both libraries. Functional analysis of these miRNA targets indicated their involvement in important activities, such as development, regulation of transcription, and stress response.ConclusionsWe discovered 31 up-regulated miRNAs and 43 down-regulated miRNAs in `Yingshuang¿, and 46 up-regulated miRNA and 45 down-regulated miRNAs in `Baiye 1¿ in response to cold stress, respectively. A total of 763 related target genes were detected by degradome sequencing. The RLM-5¿RACE procedure was successfully used to map the cleavage sites in six target genes of C. sinensis. These findings reveal important information about the regulatory mechanism of miRNAs in C. sinensis, and promote the understanding of miRNA functions during the cold response. The miRNA genotype-specific expression model might explain the distinct cold sensitivities between tea lines.
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microRNA sponge blocks the tumor-suppressing functions of microRNA-122 in human hepatoma and osteosarcoma cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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microRNAs (miRNAs), as gene expression regulators, have been identified to be closely associated with tumorigenesis. Thus a loss-of-function study is more likely to reveal the biological roles of endogenous miRNAs. Genetic knockout, antisense oligonucleotide inhibitors, and miRNA sponge (miR?SP) are usually performed to inhibit the activities of miRNAs of interest. In the present study, we utilized the miR-SP method, which has long-term rather than short-term effects of antisense oligonucleotide inhibitors, to generate a microRNA-122 sponge (miR-122-SP) mediated by lentivirus, and identified its silencing role in the Huh7 hepatoma cell line and U2OS osteosarcoma cell line. The results showed that miR-122-SP effectively sequestered ectopic miR-122 and restored the expression of miR-122 which targets cyclin G1 (CCNG1), Bcl-w and disintegrin and metalloprotease 10. Moreover, miR-122-SP overexpression rescued the effects of ectopic miR-122 on suppressing proliferation, inhibiting cell migration and invasion, arresting cell cycle at G1 phase, and activating caspase-3/7, not only in Huh7 human hepatoma cells, but also in U2OS osteosarcoma cells. miR-122-SP also knocked down endogenous miR-122 expression in Huh7 and promoted tumorigenesis in vivo. miR-122-SP therefore is a useful tool that may be utilized to study the functions of miR-122 with regard to liver development and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo.
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Monosomal karyotype is an independent predictor of survival in patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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A monosomal karyotype (MK) correlates with poor survival in patients with acute myeloid leukemia, although whether this is also the case in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) remains controversial. Some studies report a correlation between a MK and a worse survival, whereas others claim that this correlation arises because of a confounding effect between a MK and a complex karyotype (CK). To address this question, we analyzed the clinical data and karyotypes of 610 adults with MDS. A MK was identified in 60 patients, of whom 55 (92%) also fulfilled the criteria for a CK. Conversely, a CK was found in 85 patients, of whom 55 (65%) also had a MK. To determine the impact of a MK on survival, 464 patients who received nonintensive therapies for MDS were analyzed separately. Patients with a MK demonstrated worse survival than those without a MK in univariate analyses (median, 8 months [95% CI, 3-12 months] versus 83 months [63-103 months]; P < 0.001). This effect was observed predominately in the cohorts of higher-risk patients according to the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System and the World Health Organization Prognostic Scoring System (HR [hazard ratio] 3.94 [1.97-7.89]; P < 0.001 and 4.937 [2.45-9.94]; P < 0.001, respectively) and surpassed the impact of a CK in the final survival models. Our data suggest that the addition of MK as a binary variable could improve the predictive accuracy of current models to estimate the survival of patients with MDS.
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Predictive factors for acute proximal junctional failure after adult deformity surgery with upper instrumented vertebrae in the thoracolumbar spine.
Evid Based Spine Care J
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Study Type?Retrospective cohort study. Introduction?Acute proximal junctional failure (APJF) was recently defined by the International Spine Study Group as: postoperative fracture of the upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV) or UIV?+?1; UIV implant failure; proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) increase?>?15 degrees; or need for proximal extension of the fusion within 6 months of surgery.1 The incidence and revision rates of APJF have been reported to be higher when the UIV is located in the lower thoracolumbar (TL) spine mostly because of high incidence of UIV or UIV?+?1 fractures.2 Sagittal deformity overcorrection has been considered as a potential risk factor.34 Objective?The purpose of this study is to assess independent predictive factors and timing for revisions of APJF in adult deformity patients with UIV in the TL (T9-L2) spine. Methods?Retrospective review of 135 consecutive patients with minimum 2-year follow-up, treated at a single institution for adult spinal deformity, all with UIV in the TL spine (T9-L2). Fusions were divided into three cohorts based on the UIV location (T9-T10 vs. T11-T12 vs. L1-L2). Demographic data were reviewed and radiographic parameters were measured preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, at 6 months and at the final follow-up. Incidence and failure modes of APJF, as well as timing for APJF revision are reported. Risk factors for APJF were assessed with univariate and multivariate regression analysis models. Results?A total of 135 consecutive patients were reviewed, with mean follow-up 42 months (24-126). Mean age was 66 years (24-86). There were no differences in the preoperative radiographic parameters between patients in any of the three cohorts with APJF. The incidence of APJF was 38.5%, with a trend toward higher APJF in the T9-T10 group (p?=?0.07) (Table 1). When UIV was at T10, the incidence of APJF was 57.1%, significantly higher than the adjacent vertebrae, T9 and T11 (p?=?0.03 and p?=?0.01, respectively). The overall revision rate for APJF was 17%, most often for UIV fracture, while PJK?>?15 degrees alone had the highest 2 and 5 years survival (100%) (Fig. 1). Univariate analysis revealed preoperative sagittal vertical axis?>?5 cm, postoperative PJA?>?5 degrees and thoracic kyphosis?>?30 degrees, and instrumentation to the pelvis as risk factors for APJF (Table 2). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed postoperative PJA?>?5 degrees, and greater correction of lumbar lordosis (LL) as independent risk factors for APJF (Table 3). Conclusion?The incidence of APJF in adult deformity patients is high if the UIV is in the lower thoracic or lumbar spine, with a trend toward higher rates when the UIV is at T10. Fracture at the UIV lead to the highest revision rate, while PJK?>?15 degrees without fracture or hardware failure had the longest revision-free survival. Postoperative PJA?>?5 degrees and greater correction of LL are independent risk factors for APJF.
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LMO1 is a novel oncogene in lung cancer, and its overexpression is a new predictive marker for anti-EGFR therapy.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. We report that one oncogene amplified on chromosome 3q26, LMO1, a master transcriptional regulator of stemness, operates to drive strong growth phenotype in NSCLC. We first validate gene expression changes of LMO genes by real-time quantitative RT-PCR real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunohistochemistry, and we identified gene overexpression of LMO1 compared with non-cancerous tissues (p < 0.01). Next, we discovered that LMO1 promoted cancer cell proliferation in our in vitro/vivo cell proliferation assay, and our cell signaling experiments showed that LMO1 expression correlated with elevated AKT phosphorylation in NSCLC, while the AKT phosphorylation was required for LMO1's oncogenic effects. In addition, we compared complete response rate, stable disease rate, disease progression rate, and the disease control rate of patient with different LMO1 gene expression which pointed to the usefulness of LMO1 overexpression, as a new predictive marker for responsiveness to cetuximab. All in all, LMO1 is a commonly activated tumor promoter that activates AKT signaling in NSCLC and a new predictive marker for targeted therapy.
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Solid-solid grinding/templating route to magnetically separable nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon for the removal of Cu(2+) ions.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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N-doped ordered mesoporous carbon materials (NOMC) with 2D hexagonal symmetry structure were synthesized via a facile solid-solid grinding/templating route, in which the ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-cyanoethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and SBA-15 were employed as the precursor and hard template, respectively. The as-synthesized NOMC features with a uniform mesoporous size (3.5nm), ropes-like morphology (0.4-1?m in length) and high surface area (803m(2)/g). The quantitative analysis revealed the nitrogen content on the surface of NOMC is 5.5at%. Magnetic iron nanoparticles were successfully embedded into the carbon matrix by introducing iron chloride to the mixture of SBA-15 and ILs during the synthesis process. The NOMC-Fe composite possessed superior adsorption capacity of Cu(2+) ions (23.6mg/g). Kinetic and isothermal analysis demonstrated the strong interactions between Cu(2+) ion and the adsorbent. Furthermore, the composite was magnetically separable from solution under an external magnetic field and thus displayed a superior reusability in the recycling test.
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Validated LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of chlorambucil and its prodrug in mouse plasma and brain, and application to pharmacokinetics.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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A simple, sensitive and rapid LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of chlorambucil (CHL) and the prodrug of chlorambucil (CHLS) in mouse plasma and brain tissue. Detection was performed on a Diamonsil ODS chromatography column using gradient elution with a mobile phase of 0.2% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile. Mass spectrometry was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring mode using a positive electrospray ionization interface. Good linearity was found for CHLS and CHL in plasma and brain tissue in different linear ranges (r>0.9996). Intra-day and inter-day precision was within 9.11% and accuracy was not more than 11.07%. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of CHLS and CHL in mice after intravenous administration.
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Laparoscopic versus open distal pancreatectomy: a single-institution comparative study.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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This study was designed to compare clinical outcomes for laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) and open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) performed at a single institution.
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N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene polymorphism and exposure to smoking in lung cancer of Chinese males.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is a polymorphic gene encoding the enzyme that metabolizes arylamine and hydrazine moieties. The NAT2 rs1799930 (G590A) may change drug-induced toxicity and affect cancer susceptibility. To investigate the association between NAT2 rs1799930 polymorphism and susceptibility to lung cancer, we performed a hospital-based case-control study, including 259 lung squamous carcinoma patients and 375 cancer-free hospital controls who were matched by age. A total of 10 ml of venous blood from each patient was collected for the genotype testing. NAT2 rs1799930 polymorphism was analyzed by TaqMan allelic discrimination. Our results showed the evidence by the stratified analysis that smokers with dominant genetic model and A allele in NAT2 rs1799930 decreased risk of lung squamous carcinoma with adjusted OR of 0.64 (95 % CI 0.42-0.96, P = 0.032) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.54-1.00, P = 0.049), respectively. The significantly increased risk of lung squamous carcinoma was observed in those whose pack-years ?30 or smoking-index ?400 with adjusted OR of 3.62 (95 % CI 2.49-5.26, P < 0.001) and 4.29 (95 % CI 2.90-6.36, P < 0.001), respectively. In conclusion, NAT2 rs1799930 polymorphism is an important factor of lung squamous carcinoma resistance in Chinese smoking males. People who smoked heavily had a significantly increased risk of lung cancer.
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Laparoscopic central pancreatectomy for solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas: our experience with ten cases.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs) of the pancreas are a rare neoplasm. There are few reports of laparoscopic central pancreatectomies (LCPs) for SPT of the pancreas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and long-term outcome of LCP based on a series of SPT patients.
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Maternal transmission risk and antibody levels against hepatitis B virus e antigen in pregnant women.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The generation of antibodies (anti-HBe) against hepatitis B virus (HBV) e antigen (HBeAg) often coincides with clinical remission in chronic HBV patients. We aimed to examine the effect of maternal anti-HBe in protection against HBV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT).
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Transcriptomic analysis of the phytopathogenic oomycete Phytophthora cactorum provides insights into infection-related effectors.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Phytophthora cactorum, a hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen, can cause destructive diseases on numerous crops worldwide, leading to essential economic losses every year. However, little has been known about its molecular pathogenicity mechanisms. To gain insight into its repertoire of effectors, the P. cactorum transcriptome was investigated using Illumina RNA-seq.
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Enhancing the performance of solution-processed n-type organic field-effect transistors by blending with molecular "aligners".
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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A novel approach to enhancing the performance of solution-processed n-type organic field-effect transistors by using trace amounts of molecular "aligners" to manipulate the assembly of "matrix" molecules in thin films is demonstrated. The device performance is one order of magnitude higher in 1wt% blended thin films than that in neat films, which correlates to an induced change of preferred orientation of the in-plane ?-stacking molecules upon blending.
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Transcriptional landscape of repetitive elements in normal and cancer human cells.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Repetitive elements comprise at least 55% of the human genome with more recent estimates as high as two-thirds. Most of these elements are retrotransposons, DNA sequences that can insert copies of themselves into new genomic locations by a "copy and paste" mechanism. These mobile genetic elements play important roles in shaping genomes during evolution, and have been implicated in the etiology of many human diseases. Despite their abundance and diversity, few studies investigated the regulation of endogenous retrotransposons at the genome-wide scale, primarily because of the technical difficulties of uniquely mapping high-throughput sequencing reads to repetitive DNA.
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Ficus carica polysaccharides promote the maturation and function of dendritic cells.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Various polysaccharides purified from plants are considered to be biological response modifiers and have been shown to enhance immune responses. Ficus carica L. is a Chinese traditional plant and has been widely used in Asian countries for its anti-tumor properties. Ficus carica polysaccharides (FCPS), one of the most essential and effective components in Ficus carica L., have been considered to be a beneficial immunomodulator and may be used in immunotherapy. However, the immunologic mechanism of FCPS is still unclear. Dectin-1 is a non-toll-like pattern recognition receptor, predominately expressed on dendritic cells (DCs). Activation of DCs through dectin-1 signaling can lead to the maturation of DC, thus inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses against tumor development and microbial infection. In our study, we found that FCPS could effectively stimulate DCs, partially through the dectin-1/Syk pathway, and promote their maturation, as shown by the up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII). FCPS also enhanced the production of cytokines by DCs, including IL-12, IFN-?, IL-6, and IL-23. Moreover, FCPS-treated DCs showed an enhanced capability to stimulate T cells and promote T cell proliferation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that FCPS are able to activate and maturate DCs, thereby up-regulating the immunostimulatory capacity of DCs, which leads to enhanced T cell responses.
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The gene polymorphisms of UCP1 but not PPAR ? and TCF7L2 are associated with diabetic retinopathy in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus cases.
Acta Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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This study was designed to investigate the association between the polymorphisms in three insulin resistance-related genes, uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) and the susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cohort.
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A study on small-world brain functional networks altered by postherpetic neuralgia.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Understanding the effect of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) pain on brain activity is important for clinical strategies. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to relate PHN pain to small-world properties of brain functional networks. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to construct functional brain networks of the subjects during the resting state. Sixteen patients with PHN pain and 16 (8 males, 8 females for both groups) age-matched controls were studied. The PHN patients exhibited decreased local efficiency along with non-significant changes of global efficiency in comparison with the healthy controls. Moreover, regional nodal efficiency was found to be significantly affected by PHN pain in the areas related to sense (postcentral gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus and thalamus), memory/affective processes (parahippocampal gyrus) and emotional activities (putamen). Significant correlation (p<0.05) was also found between the nodal efficiency of putamen and pain intensity in PHN patients. Our results suggest that PHN modulates the local efficiency, and the small-world properties of brain networks may have potentials to objectively evaluate pain information in clinic.
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MTA1 overexpression induces cisplatin resistance innasopharyngeal carcinoma by promoting cancer stem cells properties.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Themetastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA1) oncogene hasbeen suggested to be involved in the regulation of cancer progression. However, there is still no direct evidence that MTA1 regulates cisplatin (CDDP) resistance, as well as cancer stem cell properties. In this study, we found that MTA1 was enriched in CNE1/CDDP cells. Knock down of MTA1 in CNE1/CDDP cells reversed CSCs properties and CDDP resistance. However, ectopic expression of MTA1 in CNE1 cells induced CSCs phenotypes and CDDP insensitivity. Interestingly, ectopic overexpression of MTA1-induced CSCs properties and CDDP resistance were reversed in CNE1 cells after inhibition of PI3K/Akt by LY294002. In addition, MTA1 expression and Akt activity in CNE1/CDDP cells was much higher than that in CNE1 cells. These results suggested that MTA1 may play a critical role in promoting CDDP resistance in NPC cells by regulatingcancer stem cell properties via thePI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Our findings suggested that MTA1 may be a potential target for overcoming CDDP resistance in NPC therapy.
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A pipeline for neuron reconstruction based on spatial sliding volume filter seeding.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Neuron's shape and dendritic architecture are important for biosignal transduction in neuron networks. And the anatomy architecture reconstruction of neuron cell is one of the foremost challenges and important issues in neuroscience. Accurate reconstruction results can facilitate the subsequent neuron system simulation. With the development of confocal microscopy technology, researchers can scan neurons at submicron resolution for experiments. These make the reconstruction of complex dendritic trees become more feasible; however, it is still a tedious, time consuming, and labor intensity task. For decades, computer aided methods have been playing an important role in this task, but none of the prevalent algorithms can reconstruct full anatomy structure automatically. All of these make it essential for developing new method for reconstruction. This paper proposes a pipeline with a novel seeding method for reconstructing neuron structures from 3D microscopy images stacks. The pipeline is initialized with a set of seeds detected by sliding volume filter (SVF), and then the open curve snake is applied to the detected seeds for reconstructing the full structure of neuron cells. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pipeline exhibits excellent performance in terms of accuracy compared with traditional method, which is clearly a benefit for 3D neuron detection and reconstruction.
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Regulation of microRNA-mediated gene silencing by microRNA precursors.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Processing of microRNAs (miRNAs) from their precursors to their biologically active mature forms is regulated during development and cancer. We show that mouse pri- or pre-miR-151 can bind to and compete with mature miR-151-5p and miR-151-3p for binding sites contained within the complementary regions of the E2f6 mRNA 3' untranslated region (UTR). E2f6 mRNA levels were directly regulated by pri- or pre-miR-151. Conversely, miR-151-mediated repression of ARHGDIA mRNA was dependent on the level of mature miR-151 because only the mature miRNA binds the 3' UTR. Thus, processing of miR-151 can have different effects on separate mRNA targets within a cell. A bioinformatics pipeline revealed additional candidate regions where precursor miRNAs can compete with their mature miRNA counterparts. We validated this experimentally for miR-124 and the SNAI2 3' UTR. Hence, miRNA precursors can serve as post-transcriptional regulators of miRNA activity and are not mere biogenesis intermediates.
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Selection and evaluation of clinically relevant AAV variants in a xenograft liver model.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors have shown early promise in clinical trials. The therapeutic transgene cassette can be packaged in different AAV capsid pseudotypes, each having a unique transduction profile. At present, rAAV capsid serotype selection for a specific clinical trial is based on effectiveness in animal models. However, preclinical animal studies are not always predictive of human outcome. Here, in an attempt to further our understanding of these discrepancies, we used a chimaeric human-murine liver model to compare directly the relative efficiency of rAAV transduction in human versus mouse hepatocytes in vivo. As predicted from preclinical and clinical studies, rAAV2 vectors functionally transduced mouse and human hepatocytes at equivalent but relatively low levels. However, rAAV8 vectors, which are very effective in many animal models, transduced human hepatocytes rather poorly-approximately 20 times less efficiently than mouse hepatocytes. In light of the limitations of the rAAV vectors currently used in clinical studies, we used the same murine chimaeric liver model to perform serial selection using a human-specific replication-competent viral library composed of DNA-shuffled AAV capsids. One chimaeric capsid composed of five different parental AAV capsids was found to transduce human primary hepatocytes at high efficiency in vitro and in vivo, and provided species-selected transduction in primary liver, cultured cells and a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model. This vector is an ideal clinical candidate and a reagent for gene modification of human xenotransplants in mouse models of human diseases. More importantly, our results suggest that humanized murine models may represent a more precise approach for both selecting and evaluating clinically relevant rAAV serotypes for gene therapeutic applications.
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Scorpion Venom Heat-Resistant Peptide (SVHRP) Enhances Neurogenesis and Neurite Outgrowth of Immature Neurons in Adult Mice by Up-Regulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2'-dexoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells, BrdU- positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB) in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but not nerve growth factor (NGF) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values of SVHRP.
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Effects of meteorological factors on daily hospital admissions for asthma in adults: a time-series analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There is limited evidence for the impacts of meteorological changes on asthma hospital admissions in adults in Shanghai, China.
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[Influence of negative pressure wound therapy on the angiogenesis of wounds in diabetic rats].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To observe the influence of negative pressure wound therapy on the angiogenesis of wounds in diabetic rats.
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In vivo tomographic imaging with fluorescence and MRI using tumor-targeted dual-labeled nanoparticles.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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Dual-modality imaging combines the complementary advantages of different modalities, and offers the prospect of improved preclinical research. The combination of fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides cross-validated information and direct comparison between these modalities. Here, we report on the application of a novel tumor-targeted, dual-labeled nanoparticle (NP), utilizing iron oxide as the MRI contrast agent and near infrared (NIR) dye Cy5.5 as the fluorescent agent. Results of in vitro experiments verified the specificity of the NP to tumor cells. In vivo tumor targeting and uptake of the NPs in a mouse model were visualized by fluorescence and MR imaging collected at different time points. Quantitative analysis was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of MRI contrast enhancement. Furthermore, tomographic images were also acquired using both imaging modalities and cross-validated information of tumor location and size between these two modalities was revealed. The results demonstrate that the use of dual-labeled NPs can facilitate the dual-modal detection of tumors, information cross-validation, and direct comparison by combing fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and MRI.
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[Endoscopic coblation assisted arytenoidectomy in the treatment of bilateral vocal cord paralysis].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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To introduce a new surgical technique for the treatment of bilateral vocal cord paralysis.
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Complex Refractive Indices of Thin Films of Secondary Organic Materials by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry from 220 to 1200 nm.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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The complex refractive indices of three different types of secondary organic material (SOM) were obtained for 220 to 1200 nm using a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer. Aerosol particles were produced in a flow tube reactor by ozonolysis of volatile organic compounds, including the monoterpenes ?-pinene and limonene and the aromatic catechol (benzene-1,2-diol). Optically reflective thin films of SOM were grown by electrostatic precipitation of the aerosol particles onto silicon substrates. The ellipsometry analysis showed that both the real and imaginary components of the refractive indices decreased with increasing wavelength. The real part n(?) could be parametrized by the three-term form of Cauchys equation, as follows: n(?) = B + C/?(2) + D/?(4) where ? is the wavelength and B, C, and D are fitting parameters. The real refractive indices of the three SOMs ranged from 1.53 to 1.58, 1.49-1.52, and 1.48-1.50 at 310, 550, and 1000 nm, respectively. The catechol-derived SOM absorbed light in the ultraviolet (UV) range. By comparison, the UV absorption of the monoterpene-derived SOMs was negligible. On the basis of the measured refractive indices, optical properties were modeled for a typical atmospheric particle population. The results suggest that the wavelength dependence of the refractive indices can vary the Angstrom exponent by up to 0.1 across the range 310 to 550 nm. The modeled single-scattering albedo can likewise vary from 0.97 to 0.85 at 310 nm (UV-B). Variability in the optical properties of different types of SOMs can imply important differences in the relative effects of atmospheric particles on tropospheric photochemistry, as well as possible inaccuracies in some satellite-retrieved properties such as optical depth and mode diameter.
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Activation of mTORC1 in Collecting Ducts Causes Hyperkalemia.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Mutation of TSC (encoding tuberous sclerosis complex protein) and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several renal diseases, such as diabetic nephropathy and polycystic kidney disease. However, the role of mTOR in renal potassium excretion and hyperkalemia is not known. We showed that mice with collecting-duct (CD)-specific ablation of TSC1 (CDTsc1KO) had greater mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activation in the CD and demonstrated features of pseudohypoaldosteronism, including hyperkalemia, hyperaldosteronism, and metabolic acidosis. mTORC1 activation caused endoplasmic reticulum stress, columnar cell lesions, and dedifferentiation of CD cells with loss of aquaporin-2 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenotypes. Of note, mTORC1 activation also reduced the expression of serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1, a crucial regulator of potassium homeostasis in the kidney, and decreased the expression and/or activity of epithelial sodium channel-?, renal outer medullary potassium channel, and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the CD, which probably contributed to the aldosterone resistance and hyperkalemia in these mice. Rapamycin restored these phenotypic changes. Overall, this study identifies a novel function of mTORC1 in regulating potassium homeostasis and demonstrates that loss of TSC1 and activation of mTORC1 results in dedifferentiation and dysfunction of the CD and causes hyperkalemia. The CDTsc1KO mice provide a novel model for hyperkalemia induced exclusively by dysfunction of the CD.
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[Relationship between polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene and primary myelodysplastic syndromes].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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To investigate the association of single nucleus polymorphisms(SNP)of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) gene (-308 G>A and -238 G>A genotypes) with susceptibility to primary myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).
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[MAPK p38 pathway may be involved in renal function improvement in chronic renal failure rats treated with Jianpi Qinghua decoction].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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To investigate the involvement of MAPK p38 pathway in treatment of chronic renal failure with Jianpi Qinghua Decoction in rats.
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Carbon fiber-ZnO nanowire hybrid structures for flexible and adaptable strain sensors.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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We report the flexible piezotronic strain sensors fabricated using carbon fiber-ZnO nanowire hybrid structures by a novel and reliable method. The I-V characteristic of the sensor shows high sensitivity to external strain due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which has a linear relationship with strain. This fabricated strain sensor has a quick, real-time current response under both static and dynamic mechanical loads. The change in SBH resulted from the strain-induced piezoelectric potential is investigated by band gap theory. In this work we develop a new feasible method to fabricate a flexible strain sensor within the fabric adapted to textile structures, able to measure their strain.
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Restraint stress aggravates rat kidney injury caused by a crush injury through endoplasmic reticulum stress.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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The present study aimed to determine whether restraint stress aggravates kidney injury caused by a crush injury through endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.