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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Silicon carbide coated with TiO2 with enhanced cobalt active phase dispersion for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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The introduction of a thin layer of TiO2 on ?-SiC allows a significant improvement of the cobalt dispersion. This catalyst exhibits an excellent and stable catalytic activity for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) with high C5+ selectivity, which contributes to the development of a new active catalyst family in the gas-to-liquid process.
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An improved scheme for Flip-OFDM based on Hartley transform in short-range IM/DD systems.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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In this paper, an improved Flip-OFDM scheme is proposed for IM/DD optical systems, where the modulation/demodulation processing takes advantage of the fast Hartley transform (FHT) algorithm. We realize the improved scheme in one symbol period while conventional Flip-OFDM scheme based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) in two consecutive symbol periods. So the complexity of many operations in improved scheme is half of that in conventional scheme, such as CP operation, polarity inversion and symbol delay. Compared to FFT with complex input constellation, the complexity of FHT with real input constellation is halved. The transmission experiment over 50-km SSMF has been realized to verify the feasibility of improved scheme. In conclusion, the improved scheme has the same BER performance with conventional scheme, but great superiority on complexity.
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Magnetic resonance study of the structure and function of the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with depression.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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The hippocampus and amygdala exhibit structural and functional alterations in patients with depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the structural and functional relationships between these core regions.
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Effectiveness of wound, ostomy and continence-certified nurses on individual patient outcomes in home health care.
Home Healthc Nurse
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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To assess whether there was a significant improvement and stabilization (not worse at discharge) in pressure ulcers, lower extremity venous ulcers, surgical wounds, urinary incontinence, bowel incontinence, and urinary tract infections in home health care (HHC) patients cared for by a certified WOC nurse.
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Vitamin D Suppresses Leptin Stimulation of Cancer Growth through microRNA.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Obesity is a pandemic and major risk factor for cancers. The reduction of obesity would have been an effective strategy for cancer prevention, but the reality is that worldwide obesity has kept increasing for decades, remaining a major avoidable cancer risk secondary only to smoke. The present studies suggest that vitamin D may be an effective agent to reduce obesity-associated cancer risks in women. Molecular analyses showed that leptin increased human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA expression and cell growth through estrogen receptor-? (ER?) activation in ovarian cancer cells, which was suppressed by 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. The suppression was compromised when miR-498 induction by the hormone was depleted with microRNA (miRNA) sponges. In mice, high-fat diet (HFD) stimulation of ovarian tumor growth was remarkably suppressed by 1,25(OH)2D3 analogue EB1089, which was also compromised by miR-498 sponges. EB1089 did not alter HFD-induced increase in serum leptin levels but increased miR-498 and decreased the diet-induced hTERT expression in tumors. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed an inverse correlation between hTERT mRNA and miR-498 in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 in estrogen-sensitive ovarian, endometrial, and breast cancers. The studies suggest that miR-498-mediated hTERT downregulation is a key event mediating the anti-leptin activity of 1,25(OH)2D3 in estrogen-sensitive tumors in women. Cancer Res; 74(21); 6194-204. ©2014 AACR.
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Kinesin spindle protein inhibitor SB743921 induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis and overcomes imatinib resistance of chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Inhibition of the cell mitotic pathway may provide a novel means for therapeutic intervention in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Kinesin spindle protein (KSP), a microtubule-associated motor protein which is essential for cell cycle progression, is overexpressed in bcr-abl+ CML cells. Retrovirus mediated bcr-abl transduction increases KSP expression in cord blood CD34 + cells. SB743921 is a selective KSP inhibitor which is being investigated in ongoing clinical trials for treatment of myeloma, leukemia and solid tumors. Treatment of CML cells with SB743921 resulted in reduced proliferation and colony forming cell (CFC) formation ability. SB743921 also actively blocked cell cycle progression, leading to apoptosis in both primary CML cells and cell lines. KSP inhibition sensitized CML cells to imatinib-induced apoptosis. Importantly, SB743921 inhibited the proliferation of various CML cells including T315I mutation-harboring cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that SB743921 treatment suppressed ERK and AKT activity in CML cells. These data indicate that SB743921 may become a novel treatment agent for patients with CML.
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Overexpression of Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing 1 (CTHRC1) is associated with tumour aggressiveness and poor prognosis in human non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Collagen triple helix repeat-containing 1 (CTHRC1), a novel oncogene, was identified to be aberrantly overexpressed in several malignant tumors. However, the expression profile of CTHRC1 and its clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unknown. In this study, we showed that CTHRC1 was evidently overexpressed in human NSCLC tissues and NSCLC cell lines at the protein and mRNA level. Ectopic up-regulation of CTHRC1 in cancer cells resulted in elevated invasive and proliferative abilities, which were attenuated by the specific CTHRC1 siRNA. The biological effect of CTHRC1 on metastasis and proliferation was mediated by the activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Furthermore, CTHRC1 immunoreactivity was evidently overexpressed in paraffin-embedded NSCLC tissues (212/292, 72.60%) in comparison to corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues (6/66, 9.09%) (p<0.001). Clinicopathologic analysis showed that CTHRC1 expression was significantly correlated with differentiation degree (p<0.001), clinical stage (p<0.001), T classification (p<0.001), lymph node metastasis (p=0.013) and distant metastasis (p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with high CTHRC1 expression had poorer overall survival rates than those with low CTHRC1 expression. Multivariate analysis indicated that CTHRC1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival of NSCLC patients. Collectively, CTHRC1 plays important roles in NSCLC progression, and the evaluation of CTHRC1 expression could serve as a potential marker for metastasis progression and prognosis in NSCLC patients.
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The synthesis of 5-alkyl[3,4-c]thienopyrrole-4,6-dione-based polymers using a Pd-catalyzed oxidative C-H/C-H homopolymerization reaction.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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A new, simple, mild, atom economical homopolymerization method through Pd-catalyzed oxidative C-H/C-H coupling was developed for the preparation of a series of 5-alkyl[3,4-c]thienopyrrole-4,6-dione-based conjugated polymers.
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Hierarchical li1.2 ni0.2 mn0.6 o2 nanoplates with exposed {010} planes as high-performance cathode material for lithium-ion batteries.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Hierarchical Li1.2 Ni0.2 Mn0.6 O2 nanoplates with exposed {010} planes are designed and synthesized. In combination with the advantages from the hierarchical archi-tecture and the exposed electrochemically active {010} planes of layered materials, this material satisfies both efficient ion and electron transport and thus shows superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability.
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Comparison of whole-body computed tomography vs selective radiological imaging on outcomes in major trauma patients: a meta-analysis.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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IntroductionThe purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore the value of whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) in major trauma patients (MTPs).MethodsA comprehensive search for articles from Jan 1, 1980 to Dec 31, 2013 was conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library database, China biology medical literature database, Web of knowledge, ProQuest, EBSCO, OvidSP, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Studies which compared whole-body CT with conventional imaging protocol (X-ray of the pelvis and chest, trans-abdominal sonography, and/or selective CT) in MTPs were eligible. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. The second endpoints included: time spent in the emergency department (ED), the duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS), the incidence of Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) /Multiple Organ Failure (MOF). Analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.2.10 and Stata 12.0.ResultsEleven trials enrolling 26371 patients were analyzed. In MTPs, the application of WBCT was associated with lower mortality rate (pooled OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.85) and a shorter stay in the ED (weighted mean difference (WMD), ¿27.58 min; 95% CI, ¿43.04 to ¿12.12]. There was no effect of WBCT on the length of ICU stay (WMD, 0.95 days; 95% CI: ¿0.08 to 1.98) and the length of hospital stay (WMD, 0.56 days; 95% CI: ¿0.03 to 1.15). Patients in the WBCT group had a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (WMD, 0.96 days, 95% CI: 0.32 to 1.61) and higher incidence of MODS/MOF (OR, 1.44, 95% CI: 1.35-1.54; P¿=¿0.00001).ConclusionsThe present meta-analysis suggests that the application of whole-body CT significantly reduces the mortality rate of MTPs and markedly reduces the time spent in the emergency department.
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Design low crosstalk ring-slot array structure for label-free multiplexed sensing.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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We theoretically demonstrate a low crosstalk ring-slot array structure used for label-free multiplexed sensing. The proposed sensors array is based on an array of three ring-slot and input/output line defect coupling waveguides. Each ring-slot cavity has slightly different cavity spacing and different resonant frequency. Results obtained using two dimensional finite-difference time-domain (2D-FDTD) simulation indicate that the resonant frequencies of each sensor unit in response to the refractive index variations are independent. The refractive index sensitivity is 134 ~ 145.5 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and the Q factors more than 10(4) can be achieved. The calculated detect limit lower than 1.13 × 10(-4) RIU is obtained. In addition, an extremely small crosstalk lower than -25.8 dB is achieved among the array of three ring-slot cavities. The results demonstrate that this multiplexed sensor array is a promising platform for integrated optical devices and enables highly parallel label-free detection.
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Microscopy and genomic analysis of Mycoplasma parvum strain Indiana.
Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Mycoplasma parvum [Eperythrozoon parvum] is the second hemotrophic mycoplasma (hemoplasma) described in pigs. Unlike M. suis, its closest phylogenetic relative, M. parvum, is considered a non-pathogenic bacterium in this host species. Natural infection of a domestic, 6-month-old splenectomized pig with M. parvum strain Indiana is described herein. Light and scanning electron microscopy of the bacteria were performed in addition to whole genome sequencing, analysis, and comparison to the genome of M. suis strain Illinois. Neither clinical signs nor anemia were observed during the infection. Microscopy analyses revealed coccoid to rod- shaped organisms varying from 0.2 to 0.5 ?m; they were observed individually or in short chains by both light and electron microscopy, however less than 30% of the red blood cells were infected at peak bacteremia. The single circular chromosome of M. parvum was only 564 395 bp, smaller than M. genitalium, previously considered the tiniest member of the Mollicutes. Its general genomic features were similar to others in this class and species circumscription was verified by phylogenomic analysis. A gene-by-gene comparison between M. suis and M. parvum revealed all protein coding sequences (CDS) with assigned functions were shared, including metabolic functions, transporters and putative virulence factors. However, the number of CDS in paralogous gene families was remarkably different with about half as many paralogs in M. parvum. The differences in paralogous genes may be implicated in the different pathogenic potential of these two species, however variable gene expression may also play a role. Both are areas of ongoing investigation.
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Performance evaluation of time-aware enhanced software defined networking (TeSDN) for elastic data center optical interconnection.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Data center interconnection with elastic optical networks is a promising scenario to meet the high burstiness and high-bandwidth requirements of data center services. We previously implemented enhanced software defined networking over elastic optical network for data center application [Opt. Express 21, 26990 (2013)]. On the basis of it, this study extends to consider the time-aware data center service scheduling with elastic service time and service bandwidth according to the various time sensitivity requirements. A novel time-aware enhanced software defined networking (TeSDN) architecture for elastic data center optical interconnection has been proposed in this paper, by introducing a time-aware resources scheduling (TaRS) scheme. The TeSDN can accommodate the data center services with required QoS considering the time dimensionality, and enhance cross stratum optimization of application and elastic optical network stratums resources based on spectrum elasticity, application elasticity and time elasticity. The overall feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture is experimentally verified on our OpenFlow-based testbed. The performance of TaRS scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on TeSDN architecture in terms of blocking probability and resource occupation rate.
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Deep sequencing of the scallop Chlamys farreri transcriptome response to tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) stress.
Mar Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) is currently the most widely used brominated flame retardant (BFR) and has been proven to have a very high toxicity to aquatic organisms including bivalves. However, molecular responses to TBBPA in bivalve remain largely unknown. Novel high-throughput deep sequencing technology has been a powerful tool for looking at molecular responses to toxicological stressors in organisms. Using Illumina's digital gene expression (DGE) system, we investigated TBBPA-induced transcriptome response in the digestive gland tissue of scallop Chlamys farreri. In total, 173 and 266 genes were identified as significantly up- or down-regulated, respectively. Functional analysis based on gene ontology (GO) classification system and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database revealed that TBBPA significantly altered the expression of genes involved in stress response, detoxification, antioxidation, and innate immunity which were extensively discussed. In particular, evidence for the endocrine disrupting effect of TBBPA on bivalve was first obtained in this study. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to ascertain the mRNA expression of several genes identified by the DGE analysis. The results of this study may serve as a basis for future research on molecular mechanism of toxic effects of TBBPA on marine bivalves.
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Research approaches to mass casualty incidents response: development from routine perspectives to complexity science.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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To review the research methods of mass casualty incident (MCI) systematically and introduce the concept and characteristics of complexity science and artificial system, computational experiments and parallel execution (ACP) method.
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Direct Laser Writing of Nanodiamond Films from Graphite under Ambient Conditions.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Synthesis of diamond, a multi-functional material, has been a challenge due to very high activation energy for transforming graphite to diamond, and therefore, has been hindering it from being potentially exploited for novel applications. In this study, we explore a new approach, namely confined pulse laser deposition (CPLD), in which nanosecond laser ablation of graphite within a confinement layer simultaneously activates plasma and effectively confine it to create a favorable condition for nanodiamond formation from graphite. It is noteworthy that due to the local high dense confined plasma created by transparent confinement layer, nanodiamond has been formed at laser intensity as low as 3.7?GW/cm(2), which corresponds to pressure of 4.4?GPa, much lower than the pressure needed to transform graphite to diamond traditionally. By manipulating the laser conditions, semi-transparent carbon films with good conductivity (several k?/Sq) were also obtained by this method. This technique provides a new channel, from confined plasma to solid, to deposit materials that normally need high temperature and high pressure. This technique has several important advantages to allow scalable processing, such as high speed, direct writing without catalyst, selective and flexible processing, low cost without expensive pico/femtosecond laser systems, high temperature/vacuum chambers.
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Deep sequencing-based transcriptome profiling analysis of Chlamys farreri exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Whole-genome transcriptome measurements are pivotal for characterizing molecular mechanisms of chemicals and predicting toxic classes, such as genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, from in vitro and in vivo assays. We analyzed the dynamic defense transcriptome responsive to Chlamys farreri upon exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) using a digital gene expression (DGE) approach. Following exposure, 251 and 177 genes were up-regulated, and 142 and 300 genes were down-regulated at 3 days post-exposure and 10 days post-exposure, respectively. The differentially expressed genes were related to toxicological response, oxidative stress and the metabolism of proteins and fats. Of these genes, most genes up-regulated at the early stage of exposure tended to be constantly down-regulated at the later stage whereas the landscape of the up- or down-regulated genes differed significantly at the two time points investigated. Functional enrichment analyses show that RNA-seq yields more insight into the biological mechanisms related to the toxic effects caused by BaP, i.e., two to fivefold more affected pathways and biological processes. Besides, we observed a change in the expression of ten genes which are important and differentially-expressed detoxification-related genes, and this was subsequently confirmed via quantitative real-time PCR. Our results provide evidence that RNA-seq is a powerful tool for toxicology and is capable of generating novel and valuable information at the transcriptome level for characterizing deleterious effects caused by BaP.
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Digital gene expression analysis of reproductive toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene in male scallop chlamys farreri.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and is studied widely for its strong toxicity and wide distribution. Although BaP pollution in marine environment is increasing, molecular mechanisms underlying reproductive toxicity of BaP in marine mollusks have been seldom systematically studied, especially in males. In this study, genes that regulated reproductive responses of Chlamys farreri under BaP stress were analyzed through digital gene expression (DGE) sequencing with testis tissues. A total of 12,485,055 and 14,454,127 clean reads were generated from control and BaP exposure DGE libraries, respectively. After comparing two libraries, 1051 differentially expressed genes were detected, with 223 up-regulated and 828 down-regulated genes. Gene ontology (GO) annotation and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were performed on all genes to understand their biological functions and processes. The results showed that numerous enriched, differentially expressed genes related to aromatic compound catabolic processes, spermatid development, microtubule-based movement, energy production and immune response. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expressed genes of DGE. The study generated data to show the overall reproductive transcription responses of male C. farreri under BaP stress, and it also can serve as the reference for future study of organic pollutions in aquatic mollusks.
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[Value of strain means of quantitative parameters in diagnosis of liver fibrosis].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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To explore the value of the strain means of the quantitative parameters of organization diffusion in determining the degree of liver fibrosis.
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Ultrathin spinel membrane-encapsulated layered lithium-rich cathode material for advanced Li-ion batteries.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become a technological bottleneck for the commercial development of advanced Li-ion batteries. We have proposed a biomimetic design and versatile synthesis of ultrathin spinel membrane-encapsulated layered lithium-rich cathode, a modification by nanocoating. The ultrathin spinel membrane is attributed to the superior high reversible capacity (over 290 mAh g(-1)), outstanding rate capability, and excellent cycling ability of this cathode, and even the stubborn illnesses of the layered lithium-rich cathode, such as voltage decay and thermal instability, are found to be relieved as well. This cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.
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Molecular cloning and characterization of a MXR-related P-glycoprotein cDNA in scallop Chlamys farreri: transcriptional response to benzo(a)pyrene, tetrabromobisphenol A and endosulfan.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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ATP-binding cassette transmembrane transporters (ABC transporters) have a potential role in xenobiotic resistance. In this study, we cloned full-length cDNA encoding an important ABC transporter, P-glycoprotein (Pgp) homologue from scallop Chlamys farreri (designated Cf-Pgp). The Cf-Pgp sequence is constituted by an ORF of 4152bp encoding for 1383 amino acids (GenBank accession no. ACL80139). The predicted molecular weight is 150.7kDa. The comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences with the Pgps from vertebrates showed high conservation of the residues and domains essential to the function of Pgp, including the ATP-binding cassettes and transmembrane domains. The mRNA expression of Cf-Pgp was detected in gill, digestive gland, mantle, hemocyte, adductor muscle and mature male and female gonad. We then utilized the real-time PCR to study expression levels of the Cf-Pgp gene in response to exposure of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and endosulfan (ES) (0.05, 0.5?g/L and 5?g/L) for 96 hours. The results showed that Cf-Pgp was significantly upregulated in the gill upon exposure to TBBPA and ES, but downregulated in the gill after exposure to BaP. These results suggested that the Cf-Pgp was a constitutive and inducible acute-phase protein that perhaps involved in the xenobiotic resistance of scallop C. farreri.
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Dynamic study of the hippocampal volume by structural MRI in a rat model of depression.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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The reduction of hippocampal volume remains controversial in depression because of the variability among individuals in clinical studies. Here, a reliable experimental rat model of depression, established by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), was used. Thirty rats were randomly divided into two groups (CUMS group and control group). Hippocampal volume was dynamically measured every 2 weeks in a 56-day chronic stress procedure using structural magnetic resonance imaging, and the correlation between the hippocampal volume and the learning and memory changes was investigated. Our results demonstrated that CUMS rats showed significantly smaller volumes of the bilateral hippocampus compared to that of the controls, changing dramatically with the development of CUMS procedure. The left hippocampal volume was reduced earlier and more markedly than the right one from the 2nd week to the 8th week of the CUMS procedure (on the 8th week: left: approximately 15.3 %; right: approximately 8.4 % reduction). Additionally, the hippocampal volume of CUMS rats was significantly negatively correlated with the learning and memory changes. Of note, it showed that the more obviously the hippocampal volume reduced, the more severely the learning and memory damaged. In conclusion, the hippocampal volume decreased gradually and dynamically and was correlated with the impairment of the learning and memory in depression.
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A validated RP-HPLC method to investigate finasteride in human skin after in vitro topically applying vesicular nanocarrier.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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The pharmacotherapeutic efficiency of topical drug delivery systems is mainly dominated by the skin distribution of therapeutic agents. In this work, a sensitive, rapid and fully-validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed to determine finasteride in human cadaver skin after different vesicular formulations were applied. Drug in different depth of skin layers were measured with an EclipseXDB-C18 column. The mobile phase consisted of 75% (v/v) methanol containing 0.2% phosphoric acid buffered to pH 3.0 with triethylamine under isocratic conditions. The system was operated at 40°C and the mobile phase flow rate was set at 1 mL/min. The standard-calibration curve was linear within range of 5 to 200 ng/ml with correlation coefficient 0.9996. The intra-assay precision was less than 3.9% while the inter-assay precision was less than 7.1% with the bias range of -8.6 to 4.1%. This method was found to be specific, accurate, and sensitive and was successfully used to determine the accumulation of finasteride after in-vitro percutaneous delivery by liposomal or ethosomal drug delivery nanocarriers.
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Experimental performance evaluation of software defined networking (SDN) based data communication networks for large scale flexi-grid optical networks.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Software defined networking (SDN) has become the focus in the current information and communication technology area because of its flexibility and programmability. It has been introduced into various network scenarios, such as datacenter networks, carrier networks, and wireless networks. Optical transport network is also regarded as an important application scenario for SDN, which is adopted as the enabling technology of data communication networks (DCN) instead of general multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS). However, the practical performance of SDN based DCN for large scale optical networks, which is very important for the technology selection in the future optical network deployment, has not been evaluated up to now. In this paper we have built a large scale flexi-grid optical network testbed with 1000 virtual optical transport nodes to evaluate the performance of SDN based DCN, including network scalability, DCN bandwidth limitation, and restoration time. A series of network performance parameters including blocking probability, bandwidth utilization, average lightpath provisioning time, and failure restoration time have been demonstrated under various network environments, such as with different traffic loads and different DCN bandwidths. The demonstration in this work can be taken as a proof for the future network deployment.
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Sedative and hypnotic effect of freeze-dried paeoniflorin and sini san freeze-dried powder in pentobarbital sodium-induced mice.
J Tradit Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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To investigate the sedative and hypnotic activity of paeoniflorin and freeze-dried Sini San powder on mice and provide a reliable method for determining the pharmacodynamic material basis of Sini San.
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Phosphorylation of a WRKY transcription factor by MAPKs is required for pollen development and function in Arabidopsis.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Plant male gametogenesis involves complex and dynamic changes in gene expression. At present, little is known about the transcription factors involved in this process and how their activities are regulated. Here, we show that a pollen-specific transcription factor, WRKY34, and its close homolog, WRKY2, are required for male gametogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. When overexpressed using LAT52, a strong pollen-specific promoter, epitope-tagged WRKY34 is temporally phosphorylated by MPK3 and MPK6, two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, or MPKs), at early stages in pollen development. During pollen maturation, WRKY34 is dephosphorylated and degraded. Native promoter-driven WRKY34-YFP fusion also follows the same expression pattern at the protein level. WRKY34 functions redundantly with WRKY2 in pollen development, germination, and pollen tube growth. Loss of MPK3/MPK6 phosphorylation sites in WRKY34 compromises the function of WRKY34 in vivo. Epistasis interaction analysis confirmed that MPK6 belongs to the same genetic pathway of WRKY34 and WRKY2. Our study demonstrates the importance of temporal post-translational regulation of WRKY transcription factors in the control of developmental phase transitions in plants.
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Ultrafast and scalable laser liquid synthesis of tin oxide nanotubes and its application in lithium ion batteries.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Laser-induced photo-chemical synthesis of SnO2 nanotubes has been demonstrated by employing a nanoporous polycarbonate membrane as a template. The SnO2 nanotube diameter can be controlled by the nanoporous template while the nanotube length can be tuned by laser parameters and reaction duration. The microstructure characterization of the nanotubes indicates that they consist of mesoporous structures with sub 5 nm size nanocrystals connected by the twinning structure. The application of SnO2 nanotubes as an anode material in lithium ion batteries has also been explored, and they exhibited high capacity and excellent cyclic stability. The laser based emerging technique for scalable production of crystalline metal oxide nanotubes in a matter of seconds is remarkable. The compliance of the laser based technique with the existing technologies would lead to mass production of novel nanomaterials that would be suitable for several emerging applications.
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Two Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, MPK3 and MPK6, Are Required for Funicular Guidance of Pollen Tubes in Arabidopsis.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Double fertilization in flowering plants requires the delivery of two immotile sperm cells to the female gametes by a pollen tube, which perceives guidance cues, modifies its tip growth direction, and eventually enters the micropyle of the ovule. In spite of the recent progress, so far, little is known about the signaling events in pollen tubes in response to the guidance cues. Here, we show that MPK3 and MPK6, two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitogen-activated protein kinases, mediate the guidance response in pollen tubes. Genetic analysis revealed that mpk3 mpk6 double mutant pollen has reduced transmission. However, direct observation of mpk3 mpk6 mutant pollen phenotype was hampered by the embryo lethality of double homozygous mpk3(-/-) mpk6(-/-) plants. Utilizing a fluorescent reporter-tagged complementation method, we showed that the mpk3 mpk6 mutant pollen had normal pollen tube growth but impaired pollen tube guidance. In vivo pollination assays revealed that the mpk3 mpk6 mutant pollen tubes were defective in the funicular guidance phase. By contrast, semi-in vitro guidance assay showed that the micropylar guidance of the double mutant pollen tube was normal. Our results provide direct evidence to support that the funicular guidance phase of the pollen tube requires an in vivo signaling mechanism distinct from the micropyle guidance. Moreover, our finding opened up the possibility that the MPK3/MPK6 signaling pathway may link common signaling networks in plant stress response and pollen-pistil interaction.
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Ad5/48 hexon oncolytic virus expressing sTGF?RIIFc produces reduced hepatic and systemic toxicities and inhibits prostate cancer bone metastases.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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We are interested in developing oncolytic adenoviruses for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastases. A key limitation of Adenovirus 5 (Ad5) is that upon systemic administration, it produces major liver and systemic toxicities. To address this issue, a chimaeric Ad5/48 adenovirus mHAd.sT?RFc was created. Seven hypervariable regions of Ad5 hexon present in Ad5-based Ad.sT?RFc expressing soluble transforming growth factor beta receptor II-Fc fusion protein (sTG?RIIFc), were replaced by those of Ad48. mHAd.sT?RFc, like Ad.sT?RFc, was replication competent in the human PCa cells, and produced high levels of sTG?RIIFc expression. Compared to Ad.sT?RFc, the systemic delivery of mHAd.sT?RFc in nude mice resulted in much reduced systemic toxicity, and reduced liver sequestration. Ad.sT?RFc produced significant liver necrosis, and increases in alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-6 levels, while mHAd.sT?RFc produced much reduced responses of these markers. Intravenous delivery of Ad.sT?RFc or mHAd.sT?RFc (5 × 10(10) viral particles/mouse) in nude mice bearing PC-3-luc PCa bone metastases produced inhibition of bone metastases. Moreover, a larger dose of the mHAd.sT?RFc (4 × 10(11) viral particles /mouse) was also effective in inhibiting bone metastases. Thus, mHAd.sT?RFc could be developed for the treatment of PCa bone metastases.
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Room-temperature self-powered ethanol sensing of a Pd/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator driven by human finger movement.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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A flexible room-temperature self-powered active ethanol sensor has been realized from a Pd/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator. Pd nanoparticles are uniformly loaded on the whole surface of the ZnO nanowire arrays by a simple hydrothermal method. The piezoelectric output of the Pd/ZnO nanowire arrays can act as both the power source of the device and the room-temperature ethanol sensing signal. Upon exposure to 800 ppm ethanol gas at room temperature, the piezoelectric output voltage decreased from 0.52 V (in air) to 0.25 V. Such a room-temperature self-powered ethanol sensing behavior can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Pd, the Schottky barrier at the Pd/ZnO interface, and the piezotronics effect of the ZnO nanowires. Moreover, this flexible device can be driven by tiny mechanic energy in the environment, such as human finger movement. The present results can stimulate a research trend on designing new material systems and device structures in self-powered ethanol sensing at room temperature.
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Effects of ozonation on disinfection byproduct formation and speciation during subsequent chlorination.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Ozone has been widely used for drinking water treatment recently. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dosing ozone on the formation potentials and speciation of disinfection by-products (DBPs, brominated DBPs in particular) during subsequent chlorination. Trihalomethanes (THMs), trihaloacetic acids (THAAs), dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs), dihaloacetonitriles (DHANs), chloral hydrate (CH)and trichloronitromethane (TCNM) were included. The results showed that the yields of THMs, THAAs and DHAAs reached the maxima at 1.83, 0.65 and 0.56?M, respectively, corresponding to an ozone dose approximately at 2mgL(-1). The formation potentials of CH and TCNM increased, while that of DHAN decreased, with the increase of ozone dose up to 6mgL(-1). The bromide incorporation factor values of THMs, THAAs, DHAAs and DHANs increased from 0.62, 0.37, 0.45 and 0.39 at O3=0mgL(-1) to 0.89, 0.65, 0.62 and 0.89 at O3=6mgL(-1), respectively. It indicated that the use of ozone as a primary disinfectant may cause a shift to more brominated DBPs during subsequent chlorination, and the shift may be more evident with increased ozone dose. The total percentage of brominated DBPs (as bromide) reached the maximum value of 55% at 2mgL(-1) ozone dose.
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Cerebral microdialysis in glioma studies, from theory to application.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Despite recent advances in the treatment of solid tumors, there are few effective treatments for malignant gliomas due to the infiltrative nature, and the protective shield of blood-brain barrier or blood-tumor barriers that restrict the passage of chemotherapy drugs into the brain. Imaging techniques, such as PET and MRI, have allowed the assessment of tumor function in vivo, but they are indirect measures of activity and do not easily allow continuous repeated evaluations. Because the biology of glioma on a cellular and molecular level is fairly unknown, especially in relation to various treatments, the development of novel therapeutic approaches to this devastating condition requires a strong need for a deeper understanding of the tumor's pathophysiology and biochemistry. Cerebral microdialysis, a probe-based sampling technique, allows a discrete volume of the brain to be sampled for neurochemical analysis of neurotransmitters, metabolites, biomarkers, and chemotherapy drugs, which has been employed in studying brain tumors, and is significant for improving the treatment of glioma. In this review, the current concepts of cerebral microdialysis for glioma are elucidated, with a special emphasis on its application to neurochemistry and pharmacokinetic studies.
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A novel function of the Fe65 neuronal adaptor in estrogen receptor action in breast cancer cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Fe65 is a multidomain adaptor with established functions in neuronal cells and neurodegeneration diseases. It binds to the C terminus of the A? amyloid precursor protein and is involved in regulating gene transcription. The present studies show that Fe65 is expressed in breast cancer (BCa) cells and acts as an ER? transcriptional coregulator that is recruited by 17?-estradiol to the promoters of estrogen target genes. Deletion analyses mapped the ER? binding domain to the phosphotyrosine binding domain 2 (PTB2). Ectopic Fe65 increased the transcriptional activity of the ER? in a PTB2-dependent manner in reporter assays. Fe65 knockdown decreased, whereas its stable expression increased the transcriptional activity of endogenous ER? in BCa cells and the ability of estrogens to stimulate target gene expression, ER?, and coactivator recruitment to target gene promoters and cell growth. Furthermore, Fe65 expression decreased the antagonistic activity of tamoxifen (TAM), suggesting a role for Fe65 in TAM resistance. Overall, the studies define a novel role for the neuronal adaptor in estrogen actions in BCa cells.
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Enhancing targeted tumor treatment by near IR light-activatable photodynamic-photothermal synergistic therapy.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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For several decades, cancer has been one of the most life-threatening diseases. For enhancing anticancer efficiency with minimum side effects, combination therapy is envisioned. The current manuscript reports for the first time the development of a methylene blue (MB) bound nanoplatform, which is capable of delivering targeted diagnostic and combined synergistic photothermal and photodynamic treatment of cancer. Experimental data found that, once the nanoparticle binds with the target cell surface, it can detect LNCaP human prostate cancer cell selectively using fluorescence imaging. Our result shows that the therapeutic actions can be controlled with external NIR light. No cytotoxicity was observed in the absence of NIR light. Targeted photodynamic and photothermal treatment using 785 nm NIR light indicates that the multimodal treatment enhances the possibility of destroying LNCaP prostate cancer cells in vitro dramatically. We discuss the operating principle for the targeted imaging and possible mechanisms for combined therapeutic actions. Our experimental data show that NIR light activated combined therapy for cancer may become a highly effective treatment procedure in clinical settings.
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MAVS-MKK7-JNK2 defines a novel apoptotic signaling pathway during viral infection.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Viral infection induces innate immunity and apoptosis. Apoptosis is an effective means to sacrifice virus-infected host cells and therefore restrict the spread of pathogens. However, the underlying mechanisms of this process are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS/VISA/Cardif/IPS-1) is critical for SeV (Sendai virus)-induced apoptosis. MAVS specifically activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) but not other MAP kinases. Jnk2-/- cells, but not Jnk1-/- cells, are unable to initiate virus-induced apoptosis and SeV further fails to trigger apoptosis in MAPK kinase 7 (MKK7) knockout (Mkk7-/-) cells. Mechanistically, MAVS recruits MKK7 onto mitochondria via its 3D domain, which subsequently phosphorylates JNK2 and thus activates the apoptosis pathway. Consistently, Jnk2-/- mice, but not Jnk1-/- mice, display marked inflammatory injury in lung and liver after viral challenge. Collectively, we have identified a novel signaling pathway, involving MAVS-MKK7-JNK2, which mediates virus-induced apoptosis and highlights the indispensable role of mitochondrial outer membrane in host defenses.
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Fischer-Tropsch reaction on a thermally conductive and reusable silicon carbide support.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, in which synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal, natural gas, and biomass is converted into synthetic liquid fuels and chemicals, is a strongly exothermic reaction, and thus, a large amount of heat is generated during the reaction that could severely modify the overall selectivity of the process. In this Review, we report the advantages that can be offered by different thermally conductive supports, that is, carbon nanomaterials and silicon carbide, pure or doped with different promoters, for the development of more active and selective FT catalysts. This Review follows a discussion regarding the clear trend in the advantages and drawbacks of these systems in terms of energy efficiency and catalytic performance for this most-demanded catalytic process. It is demonstrated that the use of a support with an appropriate pore size and thermal conductivity is an effective strategy to tune and improve the activity of the catalyst and to improve product selectivity in the FT process. The active phase and the recovery of the support, which also represents a main concern in terms of the large amount of FT catalyst used and the cost of the active cobalt phase, is also discussed within the framework of this Review. It is expected that a thermally conductive support such as ?-SiC will not only improve the development of the FT process, but that it will also be part of a new support for different catalytic processes for which high catalytic performance and selectivity are strongly needed.
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Endovascular treatment for symptomatic iliac vein compression syndrome: a prospective consecutive series of 48 patients.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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We sought to assess the prevalence of iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS) in patients with unilateral left lower limb chronic venous disease and evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of endovascular treatment for IVCS.
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Metabolites analysis, metabolic enzyme activities and bioaccumulation in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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A study was performed on clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) exposed to 0.03, 0.3 and 3?g/L benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) for 21 days. B[a]P metabolite contents, activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT) and uridinediphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT) and B[a]P bioaccumulation were assayed in gills and digestive glands. Results showed that the order of B[a]P phase I metabolite contents was 9-hydroxy-B[a]P>B[a]P-1,6-dione>B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol, and the concentration of B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol sulfate conjugates was higher than that of B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol glucuronide conjugates. B[a]P accumulation and the activities of AHH, EROD, EH, DD, SULT and UGT increased first and then reached equilibrium. GST activity was induced first and then depressed. The concentration of B[a]P was far higher than that of its metabolites. Besides, there were no significant differences between enzyme activities in gills and those in digestive glands. These results provided information on B[a]P metabolic mechanism in bivalve and scientific data for pollution monitoring and food security.
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Ectopic expression of RBP4 impairs the insulin pathway and inguinal fat deposition in mice.
J. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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A large body of evidence has linked retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) to systemic insulin resistance, but little is known about its function in fat deposition. This study aimed to confirm the involvement of RBP4 in inguinal fat deposition and insulin by intraperitoneal injection of adenovirus-mediated RBP4 to mice. Intraperitoneal injection of adenoviral vectors was validated as an efficient gene manipulation tool for over-expressing recombinant proteins in vivo. Ectopic expression of RBP4 decelerated inguinal fat deposition by decreasing the size of adipocytes. Moreover, the introduction of exogenous RBP4 blunted the response of inguinal adipocytes to insulin signals. These findings suggest that RBP4 impaired in vivo adipogenesis, partly through the repression of the insulin pathway.
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1H-proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy differentiates dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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FDG-PET and SPECT studies suggest that hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in occipital lobe and posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG) are prominent features of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), respectively. Cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism are tightly linked to brain energy metabolism. 1H-MRS is a useful tool to directly detect energy metabolism. We aimed to use 1H-MRS to characterize metabolite concentrations in the occipital lobe and PCG in DLB and AD patients, and estimate their usefulness in the diagnosis of DLB. Nineteen DLB, 21 AD, and 18 normal control (NC) subjects underwent 1H-MRS with the voxels placed in bilateral occipital lobes and left PCG. The N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate (Glu) concentrations in occipital lobe in DLB were lower than those in AD and NC. Concentrations of these two metabolites in PCG in DLB were lower than those in NC, and were the same as those in AD. These results remained robust after correcting for relative gray matter volume in the region of interest. The NAA and Glu concentrations in occipital lobe in DLB were found correlated with global cognitive function. From the ROC curves with Glu concentrations in occipital lobe, the mean areas under the curve were 0.845 for the DLB/control (with sensitivity 83.3% and specificity 84.2%) and 0.773 for the DLB/AD (with sensitivity 66.7% and specificity 84.2%). Our study suggests that 1H-MRS investigation is valuable to detect the characteristic patterns of metabolite concentrations and is helpful in the diagnostic process and assessing dementia severity in DLB.
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Crystal Structures of PI3K? Complexed with PI103 and Its Derivatives: New Directions for Inhibitors Design.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway plays important roles in cell proliferation, growth, and survival. Hyperactivated PI3K is frequently found in a wide variety of human cancers, validating it as a promising target for cancer therapy. We determined the crystal structure of the human PI3K?-PI103 complex to unravel molecular interactions. Based on the structure, substitution at the R1 position of the phenol portion of PI103 was demonstrated to improve binding affinity via forming a new H-bond with Lys802 at the bottom of the ATP catalytic site. Interestingly, the crystal structure of the PI3K?-9d complex revealed that the flexibility of Lys802 can also induce additional space at the catalytic site for further modification. Thus, these crystal structures provide a molecular basis for the strong and specific interactions and demonstrate the important role of Lys802 in the design of novel PI3K? inhibitors.
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MicroRNAs: Novel Mechanism Involved in the Pathogenesis of Microwave Exposure on Rats' Hippocampus.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Microwave-induced adverse health outcomes have been gaining much attention in recent years. The hippocampus is sensitive and vulnerable to microwave exposure. Studies from our group and others showed that microwave-induced structural and functional injury of hippocampus, accompanied with alteration of gene and protein expression. It has been demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) were involved in the physiological and pathological processes of brain. In this study, the miRNAs expression profiles of microwave-exposed hippocampus were detected by microarray analysis and verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At 7 days after 30 mW/cm(2) microwave exposure, the expression of 12 miRNAs increased, while other 70 miRNAs decreased in rats' hippocampus. However, most of miRNAs restored to normal levels at 14 days after exposure, only two upregulated miRNAs and 14 downregulated miRNAs were detected. Gene transcription, neuroprotection and receptors function related target genes were predicated by miRDB, miRbase and miRanda. Moreover, these differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in brain-related signaling pathways, such as synaptic vesicle cycle, long-term depression, calcium signaling and neurotrophin signaling pathways. In conclusion, we successfully characterized the miRNA profiles in microwave-exposed hippocampus, and that will be helpful to clarify the molecular mechanism and provide potential therapeutic targets.
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Optical frequency comb based multi-band microwave frequency conversion for satellite applications.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Based on optical frequency combs (OFC), we propose an efficient and flexible multi-band frequency conversion scheme for satellite repeater applications. The underlying principle is to mix dual coherent OFCs with one of which carrying the input signal. By optically channelizing the mixed OFCs, the converted signal in different bands can be obtained in different channels. Alternatively, the scheme can be configured to generate multi-band local oscillators (LO) for widely distribution. Moreover, the scheme realizes simultaneous inter- and intra-band frequency conversion just in a single structure and needs only three frequency-fixed microwave sources. We carry out a proof of concept experiment in which multiple LOs with 2 GHz, 10 GHz, 18 GHz, and 26 GHz are generated. A C-band signal of 6.1 GHz input to the proposed scheme is successfully converted to 4.1 GHz (C band), 3.9 GHz (C band) and 11.9 GHz (X band), etc. Compared with the back-to-back (B2B) case measured at 0 dBm input power, the proposed scheme shows a 9.3% error vector magnitude (EVM) degradation at each output channel. Furthermore, all channels satisfy the EVM limit in a very wide input power range.
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Ultrasonic Nakagami-parameter characterization of parotid-gland injury following head-and-neck radiotherapy: a feasibility study of late toxicity.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The study aims to investigate whether Nakagami parameters--estimated from the statistical distribution of the backscattered ultrasound radio-frequency (RF) signals--could provide a means for quantitative characterization of parotid-gland injury resulting from head-and-neck radiotherapy.
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Response of detoxification gene mRNA expression and selection of molecular biomarkers in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) has a high carcinogenic potential. B[a]P concentrations and molecular biomarkers (mRNA expressions of Pgp, AhR, CYP4, CYP414A1, GST-pi, GST-S2, Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD) were assayed in gills and digestive glands of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to 0.03, 0.3 and 3 ?g/L B[a]P for 21 days and then exposed to natural seawater for 15 days. Results showed that B[a]P was rapidly accumulated in and then eliminated from tissues of the clams. All gene mRNA expressions in the treated groups were induced significantly with the exception of CYP414A1 and Cu/Zn-SOD in the 0.03 ?g/L B[a]P group. According to correlation analysis, mRNA expressions of AhR, GST-pi and Mn-SOD in gills and GST-pi in digestive glands had good correlations with B[a]P concentrations and could be used as molecular biomarkers of B[a]P exposure. This study investigated the molecular response of the genes mentioned above and selected useful molecular biomarkers for B[a]P pollution monitoring.
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Effectiveness of wound, ostomy, and continence nurses on agency-level wound and incontinence outcomes in home care.
Home Healthc Nurse
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence, incidence, and effectiveness of home health care (HHC) agencies' services with and without a WOC nurse related to wounds, incontinence, and urinary tract infection (UTI) patient outcomes.
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Cardiac-specific expression of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under the control of a TnIc promoter confers a heart protective effect after myocardial infarction (MI).
Curr Gene Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Uncontrolled therapeutic gene expression and neovascularization in non-specific tissues has lowered the safety of gene therapy. The aim of the study was to identify a cardiac-specific promoter to control target gene expression in heart tissue in vitro and in vivo.
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miR-145 sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel by targeting Sp1 and Cdk6.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major obstacle to effective chemotherapy treatment in ovarian cancer. In our study, paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer patients and cell lines had decreased miR-145 levels and expressed high levels of Sp1 and Cdk6. Introducing miR-145 into SKOV3/PTX and A2780/PTX cells led to a reduction in Cdk6 and Sp1 along with downregulation of P-gp and pRb. These changes resulted in increased accumulation of antineoplastic drugs and G1 cell cycle arrest, which rendered the cells more sensitive to paclitaxel in vitro and in vivo. These effects could be reversed by reintroducing Sp1 or Cdk6 into cells expressing high levels of miR-145, resulting in restoration of P-gp and pRb levels. Furthermore, we confirmed that both Cdk6 and Sp1 are targets of miR-145. Intriguingly, demethylation with 5-aza-dC led to reactivation of miR-145 expression in drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines, which also resulted in increased sensitivity to paclitaxel. Collectively, these findings begin to elucidate the role of miR-145 as an important regulator of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer by controlling both Cdk6 and Sp1.
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Multi-armed poly(L-glutamic acid)-graft-polypropyleneinime as effective and serum resistant gene delivery vectors.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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A new series of multi-armed MP-g-PPI dendrimers were synthesized by polymerization of BLG-NCA using G2.0PPI as macromolecular initiator and subsequent aminolysis with G1.0PPI or G2.0PPI. The chemical structure and composition of the MP-g-PPI dendrimers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). The MP-g-PPI showed a great ability to combine with pDNA to form complexes, which protect the pDNA from nuclease degradation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement illustrated that the sizes of complexes were in range of 111-219 nm. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) observation showed that the morphology of these complexes was spherical. The MTT assay demonstrated that cytotoxicity of the MP-g-PPI was lower than that of PEI 25K. The in vitro transfection test indicated that MP-g-PPI gene vectors displayed relative high transfection efficiency than that of PEI 25K and Lipofectamine 2000 in serum-containing medium. Furthermore, MP-g-PPI at the weight ratio of 7.5 displayed better serum-resistant capability than that of PEI 25K and Lipofectamine 2000. The above facts revealed that multi-armed MP-g-PPI dendrimers may be promising gene vectors with low cytotoxicity, high transfection efficiency and serum-resistant ability.
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CD137-CD137L interaction regulates atherosclerosis via cyclophilin A in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Our previous studies showed that increased levels of cyclophilin A (CyPA) may be a valuable marker for predicting the severity of acute coronary syndromes and that interruption of CD137-CD137L interactions diminished the formation and progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. Here, we sought to determine whether the proinflammatory factor CyPA is involved in atherosclerosis regulated by CD137-CD137L interactions.
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Epigenetic reprogramming in Mist1(-/-) mice predicts the molecular response to cerulein-induced pancreatitis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gene expression is affected by modifications to histone core proteins within chromatin. Changes in these modifications, or epigenetic reprogramming, can dictate cell fate and promote susceptibility to disease. The goal of this study was to determine the extent of epigenetic reprogramming in response to chronic stress that occurs following ablation of MIST1 (Mist1(-/-) ), which is repressed in pancreatic disease. Chromatin immunoprecipitation for trimethylation of lysine residue 4 on histone 3 (H3K4Me3) in purified acinar cells from wild type and Mist1(-/-) mice was followed by Next Generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) or ChIP-qPCR. H3K4Me3-enriched genes were assessed for expression by qRT-PCR in pancreatic tissue before and after induction of cerulein-induced pancreatitis. While most of H3K4Me3-enrichment is restricted to transcriptional start sites, >25% of enrichment sites are found within, downstream or between annotated genes. Less than 10% of these sites were altered in Mist1(-/-) acini, with most changes in H3K4Me3 enrichment not reflecting altered gene expression. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of genes differentially-enriched for H3K4Me3 revealed an association with pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in Mist1(-/-) tissue. Most of these genes were not differentially expressed but several were readily induced by acute experimental pancreatitis, with significantly increased expression in Mist1(-/-) tissue relative to wild type mice. We suggest that the chronic cell stress observed in the absence of MIST1 results in epigenetic reprogramming of genes involved in promoting pancreatitis to a poised state, thereby increasing the sensitivity to events that promote disease.
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Genetic analysis of group composition and relatedness in white-headed langurs.
Integr Zool
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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We collected fecal samples of white-headed langurs from 3 of the 4 remaining habitat fragments (Fa, Fb and CZ) located in southwestern Guangxi, China in Nov 2005, and used 5 microsatellite loci and the SRY gene to assess the relatedness between 46 langurs within and between groups. We observed 2 forms of group structure: one-male/multi-female groups (OMGs) and all-male groups (AMGs). One AMG in Fa was composed of 2 generations, included a father, 2 sons and 1 unrelated male, and all OMGs in all 3 habitats included 1 resident male, several adult females and offspring. Of the 21 identified father-offspring cases, the resident male fathered 20 (95%) and the non-resident male sired 1 (5%), suggesting that adult males had overwhelming priority of access to females as the resident male in an OMG, while the non-resident male may also have the opportunity to adopt surreptitious mating strategies.
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Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma parvum (Formerly Eperythrozoon parvum), a Diminutive Hemoplasma of the Pig.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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We report the complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma parvum strain Indiana. Its circular chromosome is 564,395 bp, which is smaller than that of Mycoplasma genitalium, which was previously considered the smallest member of the Mollicutes. Comparative analyses of the genomes of M. parvum and Mycoplasma suis will provide novel insights into the molecular basis of their virulence.
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Experimental demonstration of elastic optical networks based on enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) for data center application.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Due to the high burstiness and high-bandwidth characteristics of the applications, data center interconnection by elastic optical networks have attracted much attention of network operators and service providers. Many data center applications require lower delay and higher availability with the end-to-end guaranteed quality of service. In this paper, we propose and implement a novel elastic optical network based on enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) architecture for data center application, by introducing a transport-aware cross stratum optimization (TA-CSO) strategy. eSDN can enable cross stratum optimization of application and elastic optical network stratum resources and provide the elastic physical layer parameter adjustment, e.g., modulation format and bandwidth. We have designed and verified experimentally software defined path provisioning on our testbed with four real OpenFlow-enabled elastic optical nodes for data center application. The overall feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture is also experimentally demonstrated and compared with individual CSO and physical layer adjustment strategies in terms of path setup/release/adjustment latency, blocking probability and resource occupation rate.
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Identification of differentially expressed genes in the digestive gland of manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to BDE-47.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify alterations in gene transcription of the manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure to 5?g/L 2,2,4,4-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) for 15 days. The ability to accumulate BDE-47 in digestive gland and gill was also evaluated in order to provide information for food safety. Analysis of tissue extracts indicated that digestive gland had the higher BDE-47 levels (12463.1±1334.8 ng/g d.w.) compare to gill (6368.6±738.7ng/g d.w.) after a 15-day exposure period. Forward and reverse SSH libraries were made from pooled digestive glands of R. philippinarum, from which 75 high quality sequences were obtained by BLAST analysis. The expression of 39 genes with significant homology (E-value<10(-5)) out of the 75 sequences was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. Among the 39 genes, 27 genes were found up-regulated while 12 genes were found down-regulated after the BDE-47 exposure. The 39 genes involved in cellular cycle, cytoskeleton, substance and energy metabolism, stress response, innate immunity and cell signaling and transport which were extensively discussed. This study provides a preliminary basis for studying the response of marine bivalves upon exposure to PBDEs in terms of regulated gene expression.
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Multifunctional nanoplatforms for targeted multidrug-resistant-bacteria theranostic applications.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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The emergence of multidrug-resistant-bacteria (MDRB) infection poses a major burden to modern healthcare. Early detection in the bloodstream and a new strategy development for MDRB infection treatment without antibiotics are clinically significant to save millions of lives every year. To tackle the MDRB challenge, the current manuscript reports the design of "multifunctional nanoplatforms" consisting of a magnetic core-plasmonic shell nanoparticle, a methylene blue-bound aptamer, and an MDRB Salmonella DT104 specific antibody. The reported "multifunctional nanoplatform" is capable of targeted separation from a blood sample and sensing and multimodal therapeutic killing of MDRB. Experimental data using an MDRB-infected whole-blood sample show that nanoplatforms can be used for selective magnetic separation and fluorescence imaging. In vitro light-triggered photodestruction of MDRB, using combined photodynamic and photothermal treatment, shows that the multimodal treatment regime can enhance MDRB killing significantly. We discussed the possible mechanisms on combined synergistic therapy for killing MDRB. The "multifunctional nanoplatform" reported in this manuscript has great potential for the imaging and combined therapy of MDRB in clinical settings.
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Performance analysis for IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function in radio-over-fiber-based distributed antenna systems.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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In this paper, we analyze the performance of IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function in simulcast radio-over-fiber-based distributed antenna systems (RoF-DASs) where multiple remote antenna units (RAUs) are connected to one wireless local-area network (WLAN) access point (AP) with different-length fiber links. We also present an analytical model to evaluate the throughput of the systems in the presence of both the inter-RAU hidden-node problem and fiber-length difference effect. In the model, the unequal delay induced by different fiber length is involved both in the backoff stage and in the calculation of Ts and Tc, which are the period of time when the channel is sensed busy due to a successful transmission or a collision. The throughput performances of WLAN-RoF-DAS in both basic access and request to send/clear to send (RTS/CTS) exchange modes are evaluated with the help of the derived model.
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Penetration profile and human cadaver skin distribution of finasteride from vesicular nanocarriers.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Abstract The skin accumulation of therapeutic agents affects the efficiency of topical drug delivery. In this study, in vitro distribution of finasteride of ethosomes and liposomes in human cadaver skin after percutaneous delivery were investigated. Experiments were performed using modified Franz diffusion cells. Finasteride ethosomes, liposomes or hydroethanolic solutions were used as donor medium. Drug distribution at different skin layers and depths were studied by hotplate separation and frozen horizontal slicing technique. The result showed that the accumulation of finasteride in skin ranged from 9.7-24.3??g/cm(2) at 12 or 24 hours. The ethosomes demonstrated better enhancing ability to deliver finasteride into the dermis layer than liposomes did. The finasteride concentration in the dermis layer from ethosomes was more than sevenfold higher than from liposomes. The finasteride accumulation in ethosomes group showed a distinctive reversed distribution profile. This distinctive reversed distribution profile is meaningful for exerting a favorable pharmacological effect for finasteride. The drug distribution profile in skin layers showed no significant difference between 12 and 24 hours application (p?>?0.05). The study demonstrated that finasteride can be accumulated at target site more effectively and maintained at higher level through the application of novel ethosomal carriers.
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[Therapeutic effect and hepatotoxicity of Tripterygium wilfordii compound recipe gel on adjuvant-induced arthritis rat].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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To investigate the therapeutic effect and the impact on liver function of different-dose Tripterygium wilfordii compound recipe gel (TWCG) for external use on adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) rats.
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Stable radio-frequency delivery by ? dispersion-induced optical tunable delay.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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We propose and demonstrate a novel stable radio frequency (RF) delivery system based on a radio-over-fiber link. The proposed scheme acts as a long phase-locking loop where an optical tunable delay line is involved to compensate dynamically for the time-delay variation that arises from fiber-link fluctuation. An optical carrier with variable wavelength under fiber-link dispersion results in the desired tunable delay. The tunable range is in proportion to the length of the fiber link, so a large phase-error correction capacity under long-distance delivery can be realized. The large as well as fine optical-delay tunability is experimentally demonstrated, and the RF reference of 2.42 GHz is transferred for 54 km where a time jitter compression factor of 588 is achieved.
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Statistical characterization of the nonlinear noise in 2.8 Tbit/s PDM-16QAM CO-OFDM system.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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We show for the first time through comprehensive simulations under both uncompensated transmission (UT) and dispersion managed transmission (DMT) systems that the statistical distribution of the nonlinear interference (NLI) within the polarization multiplexed 16-state quadrature amplitude modulation (PM-16QAM) Coherent Optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) system deviates from Gaussian distribution in the absence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. We also observe that the dependences of the variance of the NLI noise on both the launch power and the transmission distance (logrithm) seem to be in a simple linear way.
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Signaling in pollen tube growth: crosstalk, feedback, and missing links.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Pollen tubes elongate rapidly at their tips through highly polarized cell growth known as tip growth. Tip growth requires intensive exocytosis at the tip, which is supported by a dynamic cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking. Several signaling pathways have been demonstrated to coordinate pollen tube growth by regulating cellular activities such as actin dynamics, exocytosis, and endocytosis. These signaling pathways crosstalk to form a signaling network that coordinates the cellular processes required for tip growth. The homeostasis of key signaling molecules is critical for the proper elongation of the pollen tube tip, and is commonly fine-tuned by positive and negative regulations. In addition to the major signaling pathways, emerging evidence implies the roles of other signals in the regulation of pollen tube growth. Here we review and discuss how these signaling networks modulate the rapid growth of pollen tubes.
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Phylogenetic affinity of tree shrews to Glires is attributed to fast evolution rate.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Previous phylogenetic analyses have led to incongruent evolutionary relationships between tree shrews and other suborders of Euarchontoglires. What caused the incongruence remains elusive. In this study, we identified 6845 orthologous genes between seventeen placental mammals. Tree shrews and Primates were monophyletic in the phylogenetic trees derived from the first or/and second codon positions whereas tree shrews and Glires formed a monophyly in the trees derived from the third or all codon positions. The same topology was obtained in the phylogeny inference using the slowly and fast evolving genes, respectively. This incongruence was likely attributed to the fast substitution rate in tree shrews and Glires. Notably, sequence GC content only was not informative to resolve the controversial phylogenetic relationships between tree shrews, Glires, and Primates. Finally, estimation in the confidence of the tree selection strongly supported the phylogenetic affiliation of tree shrews to Primates as a monophyly.
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Influence of vascular comorbidities and race on erectile dysfunction after prostate cancer radiotherapy.
J Sex Med
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Vascular comorbidities (VC) (hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia) are known factors related to erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. However, no data are yet available for the effects of VC on ED incidence after prostate cancer radiotherapy (XRT).
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Preparation and characterization of novel microparticles based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyoctanoate).
J Microencapsul
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Abstract In this study, a novel poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyoctanoate) (P(HB-HO)) microparticle with an encapsulated antibiotic (azithromycin, AZI) was prepared by the electrospinning method. The resulting microparticles were evaluated for surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug-release and degradation. The in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo pharmacokinetics were also studied. The sizes of microparticles showed a narrow monodisperse size distribution approximately from 3 to 30?µm. In vitro release experiments exhibited sustained release behavior. The results of in vitro degradation tests demonstrated that the mass loss of the P(HB-HO) microparticles was 9.6% and the morphology varied greatly within 24 weeks. P(HB-HO) showed no cytotoxicity to fibroblast when incubated with blank P(HB-HO) microparticles during the tests. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the microparticles exhibited longer circulation properties than free AZI. It is suggested that novel AZI-loaded P(HB-HO) microparticles can be utilized as a biodegradable and biocompatible drug delivery system.
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Exploiting dimensionality and defect mitigation to create tunable microwave dielectrics.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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The miniaturization and integration of frequency-agile microwave circuits--relevant to electronically tunable filters, antennas, resonators and phase shifters--with microelectronics offers tantalizing device possibilities, yet requires thin films whose dielectric constant at gigahertz frequencies can be tuned by applying a quasi-static electric field. Appropriate systems such as BaxSr1-xTiO3 have a paraelectric-ferroelectric transition just below ambient temperature, providing high tunability. Unfortunately, such films suffer significant losses arising from defects. Recognizing that progress is stymied by dielectric loss, we start with a system with exceptionally low loss--Srn+1TinO3n+1 phases--in which (SrO)2 crystallographic shear planes provide an alternative to the formation of point defects for accommodating non-stoichiometry. Here we report the experimental realization of a highly tunable ground state arising from the emergence of a local ferroelectric instability in biaxially strained Srn+1TinO3n+1 phases with n???3 at frequencies up to 125?GHz. In contrast to traditional methods of modifying ferroelectrics-doping or strain-in this unique system an increase in the separation between the (SrO)2 planes, which can be achieved by changing n, bolsters the local ferroelectric instability. This new control parameter, n, can be exploited to achieve a figure of merit at room temperature that rivals all known tunable microwave dielectrics.
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Thrombocytopenia associated with 5-aminosalicylate prodrug, olsalazine: is the devil still there?
Int J Clin Pharm
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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We present a case of a 63-year-old Chinese female who developed severe thrombocytopenia after receiving olsalazine 1.5 g daily for 3 months, and eventually culminated in hospital admission. According to a Medline search, this is the first case report of olsalazine-associated thrombocytopenia in Asia.
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Baiji genomes reveal low genetic variability and new insights into secondary aquatic adaptations.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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The baiji, or Yangtze River dolphin (Lipotes vexillifer), is a flagship species for the conservation of aquatic animals and ecosystems in the Yangtze River of China; however, this species has now been recognized as functionally extinct. Here we report a high-quality draft genome and three re-sequenced genomes of L. vexillifer using Illumina short-read sequencing technology. Comparative genomic analyses reveal that cetaceans have a slow molecular clock and molecular adaptations to their aquatic lifestyle. We also find a significantly lower number of heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the baiji compared to all other mammalian genomes reported thus far. A reconstruction of the demographic history of the baiji indicates that a bottleneck occurred near the end of the last deglaciation, a time coinciding with a rapid decrease in temperature and the rise of eustatic sea level.
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Andrographolide inhibits the activation of NF-?B and MMP-9 activity in H3255 lung cancer cells.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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This study aimed to determine the effect of andrographolide (AD) on the growth of H3255 lung cancer cells and its possible impact on the expression and activity of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 protein. H3255 cells were cultured in vitro, and treated with AD (1, 5 or 10 ?M) for 24, 48 or 72 h. Cell proliferation was detected using an MTT assay and the expression of MMP-9 mRNA was measured using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The activity of MMP-9 was assessed by gelatin zymography, while the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65 subunit and the phosphorylation of I?B were determined by western blotting. AD inhibited the proliferation of the H3255 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, in addition to downregulating the expression of MMP-9 mRNA and the activity of MMP-9. Moreover, AD significantly inhibited the nuclear translocation of the NF-?B p65 subunit and suppressed I?B phosphorylation. The significant inhibition of H3255 cell proliferation by AD may have been correlated with the reduction in MMP-9 expression and activity through the inhibition of the phosphorylation of I?B and the translocation of NF-?B. The results suggest that AD is a promising drug candidate for the treatment of the migration and invasion of malignant tumors.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.