Antrodia camphorata is a fungus native to Taiwan, and it is considered a precious medicinal agent. We analyzed triterpenoids, polysaccharides and 1,3-?-d-glucan, three major effective components in A. camphorata extracts (ACE). ACE exhibited a selective cytotoxic effect on BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cells. ACE markedly inhibited the migration ability of BxPC-3 cells. Treatment of BxPC-3 cells with ACE resulted in the increase of cells in the sub-G1 phase and G2/M phase arrest. Apoptosis was confirmed by validating phosphatidylserine externalization, the observation of characteristic chromatin condensation, and nuclear DNA fragmentation. ACE induced apoptosis in BxPC-3 cells through a mitochondria-dependent pathway by triggering an appropriate balance of bax/bcl-2, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. ACE shows great therapeutic potential due to its cytotoxic effects against BxPC-3 cells which include inhibiting cell migration and inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.
The process involved in organ procurement and transplantation is very complex that requires multidisciplinary coordination and teamwork. To prevent error during the processes, teamwork education and training might play an important role. We wished to evaluate the efficacy of implementing a Team Resource Management (TRM) program on patient safety and the behaviors of the team members involving in the process.
This study investigated the relationships between types of activity and quality of life (QOL) for older men and women at different ages. Based on cross-sectional data that included 220 community-dwelling elderly persons aged 65 and older in southern Taiwan, the results showed that the participation rates in many activities declined with age for both genders. Social activity and solitary leisure activity were significantly associated with QOL for old-old men, but not for young-old men. Only social activity was significantly associated with QOL for young-old women, but there was no significant association between any activity and QOL for old-old women.
The purpose of this study was to explore self-identified motivators for regular physical activity among ambulatory nursing home older residents. A qualitative exploratory design was adopted. Purposive sampling was performed to recruit 18 older residents from two nursing homes in Taiwan. The interview transcripts were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Five motivators of physical activity emerged from the result of analysis: eagerness for returning home, fear of becoming totally dependent, improving mood state, filling empty time, and previously cultivated habit. Research on physical activity from the perspectives of nursing home older residents has been limited. An empirically grounded understanding from this study could provide clues for promoting and supporting lifelong engagement in physical activity among older residents. The motivators reported in this study should be considered when designing physical activity programs. These motivators can be used to encourage, guide, and provide feedback to support older residents in maintaining physical activity.
Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the major infectious pathogens worldwide. DENV infection is a highly dynamic process. Currently, no antiviral drug is available for treating DENV-induced diseases since little is known regarding how the virus interacts with host cells during infection. Advanced molecular imaging technologies are powerful tools to understand the dynamics of intracellular interactions and molecular trafficking. This study exploited a single-virus particle tracking technology to address whether DENV interacts with autophagy machinery during the early stage of infection. Using confocal microscopy and three-dimensional image analysis, we showed that DENV triggered the formation of green fluorescence protein-fused microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) puncta, and DENV-induced autophagosomes engulfed DENV particles within 15-min postinfection. Moreover, single-virus particle tracking revealed that both DENV particles and autophagosomes traveled together during the viral infection. Finally, in the presence of autophagy suppressor 3-methyladenine, the replication of DENV was inhibited and the location of DENV particles spread in cytoplasma. In contrast, the numbers of newly synthesized DENV were elevated and the co-localization of DENV particles and autophagosomes was detected while the cells were treated with autophagy inducer rapamycin. Taken together, we propose that DENV particles interact with autophagosomes at the early stage of viral infection, which promotes the replication of DENV.
GnRH regulates circulating levels of the gonadotropins but has also been implicated in establishing the gonadotrope cell population. Consistent with this, GnRH induces proliferation of partially differentiated gonadotropes, while reducing the numbers of fully differentiated cells. We have previously reported that the proapoptotic protein, prohibitin (PHB) is expressed more abundantly in gonadotrope-derived L?T2 cells than in partially differentiated ?T3-1 gonadotrope precursor cells, suggesting a possible role for PHB in GnRH-induced apoptosis. We show here that PHB is required for GnRH-induced apoptosis in mature gonadotropes. PHB expression and activity are regulated by GnRH: its transcription is via c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, whereas its nuclear export follows activation of ERK. Moreover, PHB levels are down-regulated by microRNA27, which is expressed at lower levels in mature gonadotropes, possibly explaining the switch to an apoptotic response with development. PHB is required for mitochondrial import of the proapoptotic BAX, whose expression is also induced by GnRH-activated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, as is expression of the BH3-only protein, HRK, and this too plays a role in GnRH-induced apoptosis. Finally, we show that gonadotrope-specific PHB-knockout mice display reproductive abnormalities, including a larger gonadotrope population, increased LH levels, reduced fertility, and altered gonad development. We thus demonstrate a role for PHB in GnRH-induced cell death in mature gonadotropes, which is crucial for the normal development and function of the reproductive axis.
Gastric carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies and the second most lethal cancer worldwide. The mechanisms underlying aggressiveness of gastric cancer still remain obscure. c-Myc promoter binding protein 1 (MBP-1) is a negative regulator of c-myc expression and ubiquitously expressed in normal human tissues. It is produced by alternative translation initiation of ?-enolase gene. Both MBP-1 and ?-enolase are involved in the control of tumorigenesis including gastric cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis and could have diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential. In this study, whether miRNAs modulate tumorigenesis of gastric cancer cells through targeting MBP-1 was evaluated. We found that miR-363 targets 3-untranslated region of human MBP-1/?-enolase messenger RNA. The exogenous miR-363 promotes growth, viability, progression, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumorsphere formation of SC-M1 gastric cancer cells through downregulation of MBP-1, whereas the knockdown of endogenous miR-363 suppresses tumorigenesis and progression of SC-M1 cells via upregulation of MBP-1. The miR-363/MBP-1 axis is also involved in the control of carcinogenesis in KATO III and SNU-16 gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, miR-363 induces the xenografted tumor growth and lung metastasis of SC-M1 cells through MBP-1 in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-363 plays an important role in the increment of gastric carcinogenesis via targeting MBP-1.
To determine the association of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) with bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and patient outcomes of out of hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) in an Asian metropolitan area.
Taura syndrome virus (TSV) has spread worldwide, causing significant economic losses since Taura syndrome was first described in Ecuador in 1992. To determine the prevalence and impact of TSV infection on the shrimp farming industry in Taiwan, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei B. were collected from 220 farms between 2004 and 2006 for viral detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Data showed that the overall TSV prevalence rate was 20% (43/220 farms). Comparing shrimp growth stages, TSV prevalence rates were 4% for postlarvae, 24% for juveniles, 24% for subadults, 32% for adults, and 5% for brooders. Among TSV-positive farms, average infection incidence was 35% in postlarvae farms, 55% in juvenile farms, 39% in subadult farms, 31% in adult farms, and 20% in brooder farms. Notably, TSV was also detected in Exopalaemon orientis H. from 1 of 10 farms. Tail fans and appendages had red pigmentation, which is characteristic of TSV infection. Of shrimp with pathological lesions, 100% had lesions on tail fans, 88% on appendages, and 80% in gills. Sequence comparison using the TSV VP1 (structural protein) gene showed that 9 isolates from the farms had 92.3 to 99.5% nucleotide sequence identity with strains in the GenBank database from Taiwan (AF406789 and AY355310) and Venezuela (DQ212790). This is the first broad epidemiological study of TSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan.
This study explores the gender differences in the relationship between social activity and quality of life (QOL). A cross-sectional survey of 220 community-dwelling elderly people was conducted in southern Taiwan. Social activity was classified into six categories. The brief version of the World Health Organization QOL (WHOQOL-BREF) was used to measure QOL. Findings revealed that the associations of six types of social activities with QOL were weaker among women than men. The regression analyses further showed that for women, only religious activity was positively related to total QOL, while for men only involvement in formal group activity was positively related to total QOL.
This study investigated the effects of alkylsulfonated chitosan of different molecular weights on intestinal lipid absorption, blood lipid profiles and circulating adhesion molecules. Syrian hamsters were fed an AIN-93G-based high?fat diet (HFD) and were orally administered 5 or 10 mg/kg BW of oligomer (6 kDa) chitosan (OC), low?molecular-weight (70 kDa) chitosan (LMC) or high?molecular-weight (200 kDa) chitosan (HMC) four times per week for 12 weeks. Animals receiving 2.5 mg/kg BW lovastatin (LOVA) served as a positive control. The blood lipid profiles of these control animals revealed that all chitosans and LOVA significantly decreased total triglyceride, total cholesterol, low?density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and very?low?density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol levels in a dose?dependent manner compared to the HFD-fed controls (P<0.05). The blood lipid lowering effectiveness of the three chitosans followed the order of LMC>OC>HMC. Hamsters receiving 5 and 10 mg/kg LMC (P<0.05) exhibited an increase in fecal fat content. Immunoblot assay revealed that acyl?coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT-2) expression was suppressed in all chitosan-fed animals compared to the HFD-fed controls (P<0.05). These results suggest that chitosan effectively decreases blood lipid content, and its effectiveness depends on the molecular size of chitosan. The hypolipidemic effect of chitosan is partly attributed to its suppression of intestinal lipid absorption and hepatic ACAT-2 expression.
Increasing evidence has shown that the immunological reaction of leukocytes plays a crucial role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. We conducted transcriptome analysis of leukocytes from patients of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimers disease (AD), as well as normal controls (NC) by oligonucleotide microarray. The differentially expressed genes of interest were selected by pathway-based functional enrichment and were then validated in 60 subjects (17 NC, 20 MCI and 23 AD) by quantitative PCR (QRT-PCR). Thirty-four differentially expressed genes between NC and AD were enriched in ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, Gly/Ser/Thr metabolism, transforming growth factor-? signaling, and extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction pathways (Welch t-test; p < 0.05). Comparison of NC, MCI and AD transcriptomes identified 8 genes significantly associated with purine metabolism and the ABC transporters. Furthermore, 13 out of 18 genes selected from the above lists were successfully validated by QRT-PCR (Mann-Whitney U-test), and only ABCB1 gene exhibited significantly positive correlation with MMSE scores among NC, MCI, and AD subjects (r = 0.3858, p = 0.0011). With a limited number of study population, our study may provide a novel direction for evaluating diagnostic biomarkers in monitoring AD progression.
Zingerone, one of the active components of ginger, is a phenolic alkanone with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The effects of zingerone supplementation on the growth, immunity, and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles were studied. Four experimental diets, including a control diet (without zingerone enrichment) and 1, 2.5, and 5 mg zingerone (kg diet)(-1) were used. After 56 days of culture, shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1, 2.5, and 5 mg zingerone (kg diet)(-1) had significantly greater weight gain and feed efficiency than the controls. Furthermore, after 56 days of culture, shrimp fed all doses of the zingerone diet had higher survival rates compared to the controls after 24-72 h of challenge by the pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus. Significantly increased phenoloxidase levels were found in shrimp fed the zingerone diets at all doses, and respiratory bursts, lysozyme and phagocytic activities of shrimp fed 2.5 and 5 mg zingerone (kg diet)(-1) also significantly increased. Neither the total hemocyte count nor superoxide dismutase activity of the experimental and control groups revealed significant differences at any dose. The results indicate that zingerone can be recommended as a supplement to shrimp feed to increase growth, immunity, and disease resistance against the pathogen, V. alginolyticus. Use of zingerone as appetizer and immunostimulant in shrimp is promising.
Twenty-six female student dancers of Chung-hua school of Art (mean age 17.5 ± 0.5 years) and twenty-five healthy active female collegiate students (mean age 18.1 ± 1.0 years) participated in this study to investigate the effects of dancing exercise on postural stability of adolescent female through a comparison study of two cohorts. The groups were matched in height and weight. Participants were excluded for left-side dominance, sustained lower extremity injury, any known vestibular system dysfunction, uncorrected visual problems, and other neurological conditions. Static and dynamic standing balances were measured by means of Biodex Stability System in six conditions include bilateral, dominant, and nondominant single leg stances with eye-open and eye-closed conditions. To investigate the difference between static and dynamic stabilities, two protocols were performed: the first protocol consisted of four positions including static position, Level 8, Level 4, and Level 1, respectively. They were instructed to maintain a level platform as stably as possible for a period of 30 seconds for each test and given a 30-second rest between tests. The second protocol was descending stability level that was gradually changed from Level 12 to Level 1 for 60 seconds. Balance indices included overall stability index, anterior-posterior stability index (APSI), and medial-lateral stability index. The results of first protocol showed that there were significant differences in overall stability index score between study and control groups at Level 8 with dominant single leg standing in the eye-open condition and the APSI score at Level 8 and at Level 4 with dominant single-leg standing in the eye-closed condition. There was no significant difference in the second protocol. The possible explanation is loss of familiarization adaptation because of level change consequently in both the groups, not step-by-step as in the first protocol study. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between the dancing experience and the APSI at Level 8 and Level 4 with dominant single-leg standing in the eye-closed condition. In conclusion the findings implied that dancing exercise results in better postural stability and less visual dependence on postural control in adolescent females.
The present report investigated the pathway(s) involved in the inhibition of apoptosis by the synthetic androgen, R1881 in serum-starved LNCaP cells exposed to the pi3K inhibitor, LY294002. R1881 blocked LY294002-induced apoptosis through the inhibition of Bak activation via an increase in Bcl-xL transcription and protein expression. In addition, R1881 treatment enhanced the stability of the Pim-1 kinase, resulting in the inhibition of the activation of the BH3-only protein Bad through its phosphorylation at ser75. Pharmacological inhibition of the Pim-1 kinase activity with quercetagetin, a highly selective Pim-1 inhibitor, prevented R1881-mediated increase in Bad phosphorylation and restored cell sensitivity to LY294002-induced apoptosis despite the increase in Bcl-xL expression. These results demonstrate for the first time that the inhibition of LY294002-induced apoptosis by androgen is a function of an androgen receptor-dependent genomic signaling pathway leading to an increase in Bcl-xL expression as well as a non-genomic, Pim-1-dependent, signaling pathway mediated via phosphorylation of Bad at ser75.
Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most common infectious pathogens worldwide. One major clinical and pathogenic feature of DENV infection is the elevation of interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression; however, little is known about the molecular mechanism of DENV-induced chemokine production. The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) composed of CDK9 and cyclin T1 stimulates gene expression by enhancing RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) processivity. This study examined the possibility that P-TEFb mediates DENV-induced IL-8 expression. The treatment of either a pharmacological inhibitor of P-TEFb, 5,6-dichloro-1-?-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) or cyclin T1 siRNA prior to DENV infection abolished the elevation of IL-8, indicating that P-TEFb is essential for IL-8 induction. Moreover, DENV core protein participated in the activation of IL-8 promoter in a P-TEFb-dependent manner. Immunostaining and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the association between P-TEFb and DENV core protein. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) results indicated that P-TEFb and DENV core protein were recruited to the transcriptionally active IL-8 gene promoter. Taken together, this study showed that P-TEFb and DENV core protein work in concert to enhance IL-8 gene expression by DENV infection. This is the first demonstration of P-TEFb being directly involved in virus-induced host gene expression by interacting with a viral structural protein.
Resveratrol exhibits potential anti-carcinogenic activities. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key enzymes in the degradation of extracellular matrix, and their expression may be dysregulated in lung cancer metastasis. In this study, we investigated the anti-invasive mechanism of resveratrol in lung cancer cells. HO-1 was shown to be elevated (approximately 4.7-fold) in lung cancer tumor samples as compared with matched normal tissues. After treatment of lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells with resveratrol (50 microM) for 24 h, the migratory and invasive abilities (38 and 30% inhibition, respectively) of A549 cells were significantly reduced. Resveratrol significantly inhibited HO-1-mediated MMP-9 (35% inhibition) and MMP-2 (28% inhibition) expression in lung cancer cells. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB inhibitor induced a marked reduction in MMP-9 and MMP-2 expression, suggesting NF-kappaB pathway could play an important role. Furthermore, HO-1 inhibition and silencing significantly suppressed MMPs and invasion of lung cancer cells. Our results suggest that resveratrol inhibited HO-1 and subsequently MMP-9 and MMP-2 expression in lung cancer cells. The inhibitory effects of resveratrol on MMP expression and invasion of lung cancer cells are, in part, associated with the HO-1-mediated NF-kappaB pathway.
We report a 24-year-old man who developed postoperative pulmonary edema and desaturation, after open reduction with internal fixation for left femoral shaft fracture sustained in a motorcycle accident. Cardiac catheterization revealed a left anterior descending coronary artery dissection. Review of his present history, showed that he neither had chest discomfort nor suffered from hemodynamic decompensation preoperatively. Only the abnormal 12-lead ECG with moderate tachycardia was suggestive of myocardial ischemia. Coronary artery dissection, although uncommon, is a disastrous complication following blunt chest trauma, and needs thorough preoperative evaluation to exclude its occurrence.
Respiratory burst, lysozyme and phagocytic activities, and immunoglobulin levels in response to the pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila were examined in tilapia (Oreochromis mossanbicus, 10.65 +/- 2.5 g) injected individually with hot-water extract of Toona sinensis at 4 or 8 microg g(-1). Tilapia receiving the hot-water extract of T. sinensis at either dose had significantly increased respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and lysozyme activity towards A. hydrophila by 1 and 2 days post injection. No significant differences in total immunoglobulin levels were observed among the tilapia that received the two different doses of hot-water extract of T. sinensis at 4 and 8 microg g(-1). In another experiment, a Tilapia that had been injected with hot-water extract of T. sinensis was challenged with A. hydrophila at 5 x 10(7) colony-forming units (cfu) fish(-1). The survival of tilapia that received the hot-water extract of T. sinensis at 8 microg g(-1) was significantly higher than fish that received phosphate buffered saline and the control fish after 2 days, and at the termination of the experiment (7 days after the challenge). It was concluded that the hot-water extract of T. sinensis at 8 microg g(-1) or less had increased the immune response and resistance to A. hydrophila infection in tilapia.
This article reviewed and summarized the findings of previously published studies on the leisure activities of community elders over 55 years of age. A total of 17 related articles, published before 2008, were identified in the search of electronic databases, which included the Chinese Periodical Table of Contents Index Image System, CEPS, Medline and Ageline. Leisure activities measurements used in this study consisted of recoding activities either categorically or by frequency. The majority of research indicated that elderly engage in primarily static activities and that participation in leisure activities had positive effects on cognitive and psychological health. However, inconsistencies in results were found due to differences in measurement tools and sample populations used among studies, making it difficult to conduct a valid comparison of specific features of elderly leisure activities. Most current leisure activity studies utilize cross-sectional research methodologies with restricted topics, which result in limited applicability of research results. In conclusion, we suggest that future studies should develop instruments to assess leisure activities that correspond to local conditions identified through qualitative research. With such, researchers can study different age groups by applying relevant ageing theories to construct empirical data related to current elderly leisure activities.
For infant and child resuscitation, current basic life support guidelines recommend a compression depth of one third to one half of the anteroposterior chest diameter. This study was conducted to assess the actual compression depths in infants and children when current guidelines are strictly followed.
The full-length complementary (c)DNA of the alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M) gene was cloned from haemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) methods. The 4875-bp cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 4419 bp, a 95-bp 5-untranslated region (UTR), and a 361-bp 3 UTR containing the poly A tail. The ORF encodes a protein of 1472 amino acids (aa) with a 23-residue signal sequence. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence (1449 aa) was 163.29 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.88. The M. rosenbergii alpha2M sequence contains putative functional domains including a bait region and a GCGEQ internal thiol ester site, and a receptor-binding domain is present as in other aquatic arthropod alpha2Ms. Sequence comparison showed that alpha2M of this prawn had overall respective identities of 38.4%, 45.9%, 45.9%, and 46.0% to those of Scylla serrata, Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon, and Marsupenaeus japonicus. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that M. rosenbergii alpha2M is the more-primitive genotype, and it showed significant differentiation from marine crustacean alpha2Ms. alpha2M was mainly expressed in haemocytes. The quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that alpha2M mRNA transcripts significantly increased in the A stage, achieved the highest level in the C stage, then declined in the D(0/1) stage, and reached the lowest level in the D(2/3) stage in haemocytes of prawn. alpha2Ms expression in haemocytes of M. rosenbergii significantly increased at 24 h and 12 h after injection with heat-killed Lactococcus garvieae and Vibrio alginolyticus, respectively, which indicates that alpha2M is involved in the immune response of prawn.
While the outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) are reported for many regions, none is reported for Asian countries. We report the outcomes of CPR for pediatric IHCA in a tertiary medical center in Taiwan and also identify prognostic factors associated with poor outcome.
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