Three hundred and nineteen extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-positive Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates were screened for qnr genes. Twelve isolates were positive for qnr, including one qnrA1, two qnrB1, three qnrB2, one qnrB4, one qnrB6 and four qnrS1. No qnr-positive strains were identified among the isolates recovered before 2006. The first qnr-positive Escherichia coli was detected from a patient in 2006. qnr genes remained rare in E. coli (6/288; 2.1%), but appeared to be more prevalent in Klebsiella pneumoniae (4/25; 16%) and Enterobacter cloacae (2/3; 66.7%). All qnr-positive isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid while presenting varied susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones. Isolates harbouring qnrB4 or qnrB6 were highly resistant to all the fluoroquinolones tested. Their high-level resistance is associated with multiple chromosomal substitutions in gyrA and parC. Alterations at codons Ser-83 and Asp-87 in GyrA and at codons Ser-80 and Glu-84 in ParC were observed in these isolates.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.