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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
HIV virological failure and drug resistance among injecting drug users receiving first-line ART in China.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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To explore HIV virological failure and drug resistance among injecting drug users (IDUs) receiving first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) in China.
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[Syphilis incidence and its risk factors in a cohort of young men who have sex with men].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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To investigate the incidence of syphilis infection and to determine the risk factors related to syphilis infection among young men who had sex with men (YMSM), which were documented for developing effective intervention to prevent sexually transmitted diseases among YMSM.
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Hepatotoxicity in a 52-week randomized trial of short-term versus long-term treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone in HIV-negative injection opioid users in China and Thailand.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NX), an effective treatment for opioid dependence, has been implicated in hepatic toxicity. However, as persons taking BUP/NX have multiple hepatic risk factors, comparative data are needed to quantify the risk of hepatoxicity with BUP/NX.
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HIV risk perception among HIV negative or status-unknown men who have sex with men in China.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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To evaluate HIV risk perception and its associated factors among Chinese MSM.
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HIV prevention services and testing utilization behaviors among men who have sex with men at elevated risk for HIV in Chongqing, China.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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To investigate barriers and correlates of the use of HIV prevention services and HIV testing behaviors among men who have sex with men in Chongqing.
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Nitrite inhalants use and HIV infection among men who have sex with men in China.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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This is the first study in China to examine the use of nitrite inhalants and its correlates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China.
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Prevalence and seroincidence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection in high risk people who inject drugs in china and Thailand.
Hepat Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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We determined the prevalence and incidence of HBV and HCV infection in people who inject drugs (PWIDs) at high risk for HIV in China and Thailand and determined the association of HBV and HCV incidence with urine opiate test results and with short-term versus long-term buprenorphine-naloxone (B-N) treatment use in a randomized clinical trial (HPTN 058). 13.8% of 1049 PWIDs in China and 13.9% of 201 PWIDs in Thailand were HBsAg positive at baseline. Among HBsAg negative participants, the HBsAg incidence rate was 2.7/100 person years in China and 0/100 person years in Thailand. 81.9% of 1049 PWIDs in China and 59.7% of 201 in Thailand were HCV antibody positive at baseline. The HCV confirmed seroincidence rate among HCV antibody negative PWIDs was 22/100 person years in China and 4.6/100 person years in Thailand. Incident HBsAg was not significantly different in the short-term versus long-term B-N arm in China or Thailand. Participants with positive opiate results in at least 75% of their urines during the time period were at increased risk of incident HBsAg (HR = 5.22; 95% CI, 1.08 to 25.22; P = 0.04) in China, but not incident HCV conversion in China or Thailand.
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Co-evolution of compensatory mutation K43E with mutation M41L in long-term HIV antiretroviral treatment.
Curr. HIV Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Compensatory mutations have been observed to emerge with drug resistance (DR) mutations, but their effects on virological response to treatment have not been fully examined. In this study, we characterized the emergence and depletion dynamics of a compensatory mutation K43E that correlated with primary nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drug resistance mutations in Chinese HIV patients on antiretroviral treatment.
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Changing the landscape of the HIV epidemic among MSM in China: results from three consecutive respondent-driven sampling surveys from 2009 to 2011.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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This study assessed the changes of HIV incidence and its predictors among Beijing's men who have sex with men (MSM). Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys were carried out using a consistent respondent-driven sampling (RDS) approach in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Structured-questionnaire based interviews were completed with computer-assisted self-administration. Incident infection was examined with BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA). The overall rate of HIV prevalence was 8.0% in the three years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9%-11.2%). The overall rate of BED-CEIA incidence was 7.8/100 person years (PY) (95% CI: 5.5-10.1) with 6.8/100PY (95% CI: 3.4-10.2) in 2009, 11.2/100PY (95% CI: 6.2-16.3) in 2010, and 5.8/100PY (95% CI: 2.4-9.3) in 2011, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that, compared with HIV-negative MSM, recently infected MSM were more likely to be bisexual (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.1), live in Beijing ?3 years (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-4.0), and have a negative attitude towards safe sex (AOR = 1.1 per scale point, 95% CI: 1.0-1.1). This study demonstrated a disturbing rise of HIV infections among Beijing's MSM. These findings underscored the urgency of scaling up effective and better-targeted intervention services to stop the rapid spread of the virus.
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Alcohol use among Chinese men who have sex with men: an epidemiological survey and meta-analysis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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The HIV/AIDS epidemic among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) has become a significant public health concern. Knowledge of alcohol consumption in this population is limited. In this study, 1,155 Chinese MSM were surveyed to assess alcohol use and its correlates. A meta-analysis was also performed to aggregate pooled prevalence of current alcohol use. MSM who were unmarried (aOR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.29-2.71) or unemployed/retired (aOR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.73-4.45) were more likely to drink alcohol more than once per week. MSM who consumed alcohol more than once per week were more likely to use drug (P < 0.01), have sex with women (P < 0.01), have unprotected insertive (P = 0.04) or receptive (P = 0.03) anal sex with men, have more than 10 lifetime male sex partners (P < 0.01), predominantly practice insertive anal sex (P < 0.01), and trade sex for money (P < 0.01). Pooled overall alcohol use prevalence was 32%. Pooled prevalence for MSM who drank alcohol more than once per week and who drank alcohol before sex with male partners was 23%. Our findings provide the basis for further exploring the alcohol-HIV association and developing risk reduction interventions.
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Prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection among men who have sex with men in China: a meta-analysis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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To figure out the most current prevalence of HIV and syphilis in MSM in China.
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Sexual risk reduction for HIV-infected persons: a meta-analytic review of "positive prevention" randomized clinical trials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Prevention intervention trials have been conducted to reduce risk of sexual transmission among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), but the findings were inconsistent. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate overall efficacy of prevention interventions on unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse (UVAI) among PLWHA from randomized clinical trials (RCTs).
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HIV incidence and risk factors in Chinese young men who have sex with men--a prospective cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To assess HIV incidence and its associated risk factors among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in urban areas, China.
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Modeling the impact on HIV incidence of combination prevention strategies among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To project the HIV/AIDS epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) under different combinations of HIV testing and linkage to care (TLC) interventions including antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Beijing, China.
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Efficacy of peer-led interventions to reduce unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of peer-led interventions in reducing unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among men who have sex with men (MSM).
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Virological outcomes and drug resistance in Chinese patients after 12 months of 3TC-based first-line antiretroviral treatment, 2011-2012.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To determine the prevalence of virological failure and HIV drug resistance among Chinese patients one year after initiating lamivudine-based first-line antiretroviral treatment.
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HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis interest among female sex workers in Guangxi, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and willingness to participate in a clinical trial for both safety and efficacy of PrEP were investigated among female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangxi, China.
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HIV, syphilis, and behavioral risk factors among female sex workers before and after implementation of harm reduction programs in a high drug-using area of China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To evaluate the impact of harm reduction programs on HIV and syphilis infection and related risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) in a drug trafficking city in Southwest China.
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Meta-Analysis of Interventions for Reducing Number of Sexual Partners and Drug and Alcohol Abuse among People Living with HIV/AIDS.
J AIDS Clin Res
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of risk reduction interventions on HIV-related risk behaviors among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA).
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Frequency of HLA-A 03 associates with HIV-1 infection in a Chinese cohort.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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During the early mid-1990s, a number of rural farmers across central China were employed to the unregulated plasmaselling-activity and many of them were infected by HIV-1. However, AIDS progression in the former blood donors (FBDs) is various. The aim of this study is to assess human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I allele distribution in FBDs and evaluate its association with HIV-1 infection and disease progression. A total of 353 FBDs were enrolled in the cohort including 294 ART naïve HIV-1 seropositive and 59 HIV-1 seronegative age-matched subjects. The viral load and CD4/CD8 T cell counts were assessed in all subjects. Compared with HIV-seropositive group, the frequency of HLA-A 03 in control was significantly higher. After classifying the HLA-B alleles of the subjects according to the presence of Bw4/Bw6 serological epitopes, detrimental effect of HLA Bw6/ Bw6 homozygosity was also confirmed in the HIV-seropositive subjects. This study provides novel evidence on HLA class I allele distribution and association of HLA-A 03 frequency with HIV-1 infection and viremia in the HIV-1 infected FBDs, which may throw light on intervention strategy for the HIV-1 infection and our understanding how host immunity and genetic background affect HIV infection and AIDS progression.
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HIV vulnerabilities and coercive sex at same-sex sexual debut among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Few studies have examined coercive sex and HIV vulnerabilities among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. The present study seeks to compare individual characteristics between MSM who did and did not experience coercive sex at their MSM sexual debut and to identify HIV risk factors correlated with coercive sex at MSM sexual debut. In 2007, we recruited 167 MSM in Beijing, China by peer-referred social network sampling. Each participant then completed self-administered questionnaires regarding their sexual experiences and practices. Results show that 14% of participants reported coercive sex at MSM sexual debut, of whom 48% reported recent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Coercive sex at MSM sexual debut was significantly associated with UAI [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 5.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.95-14.87] and lifetime number of male sex partners (AOR: 7.25, 95% CI: 2.39-22.01). Coercive sex is harming MSM in China and should be immediately addressed by researchers, public health officials, and MSM community stakeholders.
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The Potential Role of CD16(+) V?2V?2 T Cell-Mediated Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity in Control of HIV Type 1 Disease.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Abstract Increasing evidence has suggested that HIV infection severely damages the V?2V?2 (V?2) T cells that play an important role in the first-line host response to infectious disease. However, little is known about V?2 T cell-mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV disease. We found that although the CD16(+) V?2 T cell subset hardly participated in phosphoantigen responses dominated by the CD16(-) V?2 T cell subset, the potency of the ADCC function of V?2 T cells was correlated with the frequency of the CD16(+) subset. Thus, two distinct and complementary V?2 T cell subsets discriminated by CD16 were characterized to explore the respective impacts of HIV-1 infection on them. HIV-1 disease progression was not only associated with the phosphoantigen responsiveness of the CD16(-) V?2 subset, but also with the ability of the CD16(+) V?2 subset to kill antibody-coated target cells. Furthermore, both of the two V?2 functional subsets could be partially restored in HIV-infected patients with antiretroviral therapy. Notably, in the context of an overall HIV-mediated V?2 T cell depletion, despite the decline of phosphoantigen-responsive CD16(-) V?2 cells, CD16(+) V?2 cell-mediated ADCC was not compromised but exhibited a functional switch with dramatic promotion of degranulation in the early phase of HIV infection and chronic infection with slower disease progression. Our study reveals functional characterizations of the two V?2 T cell subsets with different activation pathways during HIV-1 infection and provides a rational direction for activating the CD16(+) V?2 T cells capable of mediating ADCC as a means to control HIV-1 disease.
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Acceptance of Male Circumcision Among Male Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Western China.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Abstract To describe the acceptability of male circumcision (MC) and explore potential factors associated with MC acceptability among male rural-to-urban migrants in western China, a cross-sectional survey of MC acceptability was conducted with 1,904 subjects in three western provinces with high HIV prevalence (Guangxi, Chongqing, and Xinjiang) in China between June 2009 and November 2009. Through face-to-face interviews, the participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about demographics, MC knowledge, willingness and reasons to accept or refuse MC, sexual behaviors, and other psychosocial variables. Factors associated with acceptability of MC were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the participants (n=1,904), 710 men were willing to accept MC (37.3%); the reasons included promotion of the partners genital hygiene (54.9%), redundant prepuce or phimosis (43.1%), enhancement of sexual pleasure (40.6%), prevention of penile inflammation or cancer (35.5%), and protection against HIV and sexual transmitted diseases (STDs)(31.1%). A multivariable logistic regression showed that four factors were associated with acceptability of MC, including education level (OR=1.286, 95% CI=1.025?1.614), redundant prepuce or phimosis (OR=13.751, 95% CI=10.087?18.745), having one or more circumcised friends (OR=2.468, 95% CI=1.953?3.119), and having sexual intercourse with a temporary partner in the past year (OR=1.543, 95% CI=1.101?2.162). Compared with previously published data among the general population in China or worldwide, the acceptability of MC (37.3%) was low among the male rural-to-urban migrants in western China. Nevertheless, appropriate education could greatly improve the acceptability of MC. More public campaigns and health education on MC are needed to increase the rate of MC in China.
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Prevalence and related risk behaviors of HIV, syphilis, and anal HPV infection among men who have sex with men from Beijing, China.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Specific risk behaviors related to different sexually transmitted infections have not been widely evaluated among men who have sex with men in China. In the present study, a total of 302 MSM were recruited from Beijing with a prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and anal HPV infection as 9.9, 19.2 and 71.4%, respectively. Lower education level was observed to be related to higher infection rate of HIV and syphilis. "Ever found sexual partners in gay venues" was significantly associated with HIV infection as well. "Taking anilinction as regular sexual behavior" was observed to be a significant predictor for anal HPV infection.
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Sex with women among men who have sex with men in China: prevalence and sexual practices.
AIDS Patient Care STDS
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are a potential bridge population for transmitting HIV to heterosexual women. This study assessed key characteristics of this subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Of 1141 eligible MSM, 45.6% reported bisexual behaviors. Besides marriage as a strong predictor (odds ratio: 23.90, 95% confidence interval: 14.29-39.98), older age (1.12, 1.10-1.15) and lower education (or no college education) (1.98, 1.52-2.59) were also independently associated with having ever had sex with women. MSMW reported higher proportions of alcohol drinking, heterosexual/bisexual orientation, and preference for an insertive role in anal sex than men who had sex with men only; but there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and in history of sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention intervention programs should break the bridging role of HIV transmission in MSMW population.
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The rapidly expanding CRF01_AE epidemic in China is driven by multiple lineages of HIV-1 viruses introduced in the 1990s.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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We sought to comprehensively analyze the origin, transmission patterns and sub-epidemic clusters of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE strains in China.
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Impact of HIV drug resistance on virologic and immunologic failure and mortality in a cohort of patients on antiretroviral therapy in China.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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To study the dynamics of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) and its association with virologic and immunologic failure as well as mortality among patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in China.
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Anal human papillomavirus infection among HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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In light of Chinas unique ethnic and sociocultural context, and a marked rise in HIV prevalence among MSM, it is important to determine prevalence, genotypes and predictors of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China.
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Alcohol use and HIV risk taking among Chinese MSM in Beijing.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Few studies have used standardized alcohol use measures among men who have sex with men in China.
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Evaluation of harm reduction programs on seroincidence of HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis among intravenous drug users in southwest China.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted harm reduction program by comparing seroincidence rates of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and syphilis before and after implementation of harm reduction strategies among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in a drug-trafficking city in Southwest China.
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Predictors of HIV testing among men who have sex with men in a large Chinese city.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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HIV testing is the gateway for prevention and care. We explored factors associated with HIV testing among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM).
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Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviors among drug users in western China: implications for HIV transmission.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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The prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviors among drug users in western China and the implications for HIV transmission in this population are described. A cross-sectional survey of male drug users was conducted in methadone maintenance therapy clinics and detoxification centers in three western provinces of China between September 2009 and December 2010. Participants in the study completed a questionnaire about demographics, HIV/AIDS knowledge, drug use history, sexual risk behaviors, and other psychosocial variables. Factors associated with HIV sexual risk behaviors were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Of 1,304 drug users surveyed, nearly 54% never used condoms during sexual intercourse with a spouse or cohabitant, and this behavior was associated with coming from Chongqing (OR=1.86, p<0.05), being aged 36 and older (OR=5.03, p<0.05), being married or cohabiting (OR=1.68, p<0.05), having first taken drugs at age 30 and above (OR=1.80, p<0.05), and having received AIDS advice or detection from authorities in the past year (OR=1.95, p<0.05). Twenty-six percent had had sex with casual sexual partners in the past year, and this behavior was associated with being married or cohabiting (OR=0.30, p<0.05), first taking drugs at age 31 and above (OR=0.42, p<0.05), and receiving AIDS advice or HIV detection from authorities in the past year (OR=0.70, p<0.05). About 34% never used a condom when having sex with casual sexual partners, and this behavior was associated with coming from Guangxi (OR=2.81, p<0.05) or Chongqing (OR=2.73, p<0.05). Almost 14% had had commercial sex in the past year, and this behavior was associated with coming from Guangxi (OR=6.26, p<0.05) or Chongqing (OR=5.44, p<0.05) and having exchanged needles or received clean needles from the Needle Exchange Centers in the past year (OR=2.76, p<0.05). Nearly 23% had never used condoms when having commercial sex, and this behavior was associated with having received free condoms from authorities in the past year (OR=0.26, p<0.05). Sexual risk behaviors among drug users in Guangxi, Chongqing, and Xinjiang are common. Additional intervention strategies are needed to control the spread of HIV in this population.
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HIV drug resistance and its impact on antiretroviral therapy in Chinese HIV-infected patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly decreased mortality among Chinese HIV patients. However, emerging HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a growing threat to the long-term success and durability of HAART.
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Effectiveness of HIV risk reduction interventions among men who have sex with men in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To evaluate the effect of risk reduction interventions on HIV knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China.
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Comparison of three intervention models for promoting circumcision among migrant workers in western China to reduce local sexual transmission of HIV.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Three models for promoting male circumcision (MC) as a preventative intervention against HIV infection were compared among migrant worker populations in western China.
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Willingness to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Early detection of HIV infection enables timely care and treatment. However, many men who have sex with men (MSM) remain unaware of their HIV status because they do not or are unable to access HIV testing services. Oral fluid HIV rapid tests have the potential to increase HIV testing. This study is the first to evaluate willingness to use the oral fluid test among MSM in China.
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Incidence and associated factors of HIV drug resistance in Chinese HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A critical indicator of the future success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the incidence of HIV drug resistance, which has not been studied in China on the national scale.
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Factors Associated with Recent Risky Drug Use and Sexual Behaviors among Drug Users in Southwestern China.
J AIDS Clin Res
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2007 among 504 drug users who were recruited mainly from detoxification centers in southwest China. About one-third (34.3%) of participants reported recent risky drug use behavior, which was defined as injecting drugs in the past 3 months, and more than one-fifth (21.6%) reported recent risky sexual behavior, or had multiple sexual partners in the past 30 days. Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-3.2) and more episodes of detoxification (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.3-6.0) were associated with higher odds of risky drug use behavior, while unmarried status (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9), higher personal annual income (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.8) and history of sexually transmitted infections (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.1-6.6) were associated with higher odds of having risky sexual behavior. Subgroup analyses showed 15% participants who used drugs in the past 3 months also shared needles, and 77% participants who had multiple sexual partners in the past 30 days did not use condoms during sex with non-primary sexual partners. The study findings are useful for developing HIV risk reduction intervention programs among drug users.
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Untested and undiagnosed: barriers to HIV testing among men who have sex with men, Beijing, China.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
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Undiagnosed HIV presents great potential for the spread of infection. The authors identify the prevalence and correlates of never testing and being unaware of HIV infection in Beijing men who have sex with men (MSM).
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Sexual mixing patterns among social networks of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Beijing men who have sex with men: a multilevel comparison using roundtable network mapping.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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Men who have sex with men (MSM) are of immediate concern in Chinas HIV epidemic. In 2008, approximately 2.5-6.5% of Chinas eight million MSM were HIV positive, while MSM represented 11% of all new HIV cases. Two factors that will in-part determine HIV-transmission dynamics among MSM, are sexual mixing patterns and the social networks which shape them. Sexual mixing patterns and social networks of Chinese MSM, however, remain poorly understood with little refined data available. One reason is that stigma discourages disclosure of names and identifiers to researchers. Using an alternative network-mapping approach, matched case-control design, and snowball sampling, this pilot study sought to compare characteristics of social networks of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Beijing MSM at the individual, dyad, and network levels. First, HIV-negative MSM controls were matched to HIV-positive MSM cases based on age, education, residency, and ethnicity. Then, each case or control and their MSM social network convened at a specific time and location with study investigators. Venues included health clinics, karaoke clubs, brothels, and community centers. Then, using arbitrarily assigned numbers in lieu of actual names, all participants simultaneously completed self-administered surveys regarding their sexual relationships with other participants of the same social network. These new findings indicate that cross-generational sex (anal or oral sex between men with ?10 years age difference) was more prevalent among social networks of HIV-positive MSM, and was due to older age structure of the social network, rather than behavioral differences in sex-partner selection. Members of social networks of HIV-positive MSM were also less likely to have ever disclosed their MSM identity to non-MSM. Future studies should partner with MSM advocacy groups to explore behavioral and structural interventions as possible means of reducing the cross-generational sex and sexual identity-development issues elevating HIV risk for young Chinese MSM.
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Factors associated with HIV virologic failure among patients on HAART for one year at three sentinel surveillance sites in China.
Curr. HIV Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Emerging HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a growing threat to the long-term success and durability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
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Virologic outcomes of first-line HAART and associated factors among Chinese patients with HIV in three sentinel antiretroviral treatment sites.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2010
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To evaluate HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) among Chinese patients with HIV receiving first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
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Anal HPV infection in HIV-positive men who have sex with men from China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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Anal HPV infection, which contributes to the development of anal warts and anal cancer, is well known to be common among men who have sex with men (MSM), especially among those HIV positives. However, HIV and anal HPV co-infection among MSM has not been addressed in China.
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Correlates of incident infections for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B virus in a cohort of men who have sex with men in Beijing.
AIDS Patient Care STDS
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2010
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Recent data suggest that the prevalence of HIV/syphilis infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China increased rapidly. This cohort study was to assess the correlates of the incident infections for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) among sexually active and HIV-negative MSM in China. A cohort of 507 HIV-seronegative MSM was recruited from November 2006 to February 2007. Sociodemographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, uptake of HIV-prevention services, and HIV, syphilis, and HBV seroconversions were assessed at 6- and 12- month follow-up. The incidence rates were 2.6 per 100 person-years for HIV, 16.9 per 100 person-years for syphilis, and 3.3 per 100 person-years for HBV. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that syphilis infection (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-11.6) and no perceived risk of HIV infection (HR = 6.0; 95% CI: 1.6-22.7) were independently associated with HIV seroconversion. Predictors for syphilis seroconversion included less education (HR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3), found male sex partners through bathhouses/public washrooms/parks (HR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.2-4.0), drank alcohol 4 or more times monthly (HR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.1-3.6), and had sexually transmitted diseases (HR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.5-4.5). The only predictor for incident HBV seroconvension was having more male sex partners in the past 3 months (HR = 11.8; 95% CI: 1.5-90.4). Alarmingly high incidence rates of HIV, syphilis, and HBV were found among MSM concurrently with high prevalent risky behaviors and low uptakes of health care services. The findings of this study underscore the urgent needs for a comprehensive intervention strategy to curtail the rapid spread of HIV, syphilis, and HBV.
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Willingness to participate in HIV vaccine clinical trials among Chinese men who have sex with men.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2010
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HIV vaccine trials require volunteers. Little is known about willingness to participate (WTP) in HIV vaccine trials among Chinese MSM. A survey of 550 MSM was conducted from March to June 2008, in Beijing, China. Data were collected on demographics, behaviors, perceptions about HIV/AIDS and HIV vaccines, and concerns about participation in HIV vaccine clinical trials. Of study participants, 35.8% were definitely willing to participate, 35.1% were probably willing, 16.4% were probably not willing, and 12.7% were definitely not willing. Analyses suggest that perceived family support, perceived protection against HIV infection and fear that participation would result in social distancing were associated with WTP. MSM in China may be good candidates for HIV vaccine trials. Further studies are needed to evaluate actual enrollment.
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A sex-role-preference model for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men in China.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2009
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Men who have sex with men (MSM) are much more likely to be infected with HIV than the general population. China has a sizable population of MSM, including gay, bisexual men, money boys and some rural workers. So reducing HIV infection in this population is an important component of the national HIV/AIDS prevention and control program.
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Risk factors for syphilis and prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China: implications for HIV prevention.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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To examine the correlates for syphilis and the prevalence for HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) in Beijing, China. A total of 541 MSM was recruited using peer-referral, community outreach, and Internet. Questionnaire-based interviews provided information including, demographics, sexual and other risk behaviors. HIV prevalence was 4.8%, syphilis 19.8%, HCV 0.4% and HBsAg 6.5%. The median number of lifetime male sex partners was ten. In the past 3 months, 20.7% drank alcohol > or =1 times per week. In the past month, 21.3 and 14.6% had unprotected anal intercourse with regular and casual male sex partners, respectively. Syphilis infection was associated with less education, alcohol use, finding male sex partners through bathhouses/public washrooms/parks, and diagnoses of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs). Syphilis is now epidemic among Beijings MSM. Prevention efforts are urgent as HIV prevalence is already near 5%. Education, condom promotion, STD control, and alcohol-related intervention are needed urgently.
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Incidence of HIV-1, syphilis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C virus infections and predictors associated with retention in a 12-month follow-up study among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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To investigate the incidence of HIV-1, syphilis, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and predictors associated with retention in a 12-month follow-up study among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China.
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CD8+ cell noncytotoxic antiviral response in long-term HIV-1 infected former blood donors in China.
Curr. HIV Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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Most of the HIV-infected long term survivors show strong CD8+ cell noncytotoxic antiviral response (CNAR) that plays as an important factor for maintaining the relative healthy state of infected individuals. HIV infected former blood donors (FBDs) in Anhui, China are the unique population that considered infected by the same or a related HIV strain by the same exposure route, and is better to be studied for viral and host immunological factors associated with disease progression, such as CNAR. We examined CNAR in 63 asymptomatic untreated HIV infected FBDs with different CD4+ cell counts and plasma viral loads. The average CD8+ : CD4+ cell ratio to reach 90% suppression of HIV replication in the groups with CD4+ cell counts of >500, 300-500 and <300 cells/microl were 0.85 : 1, 1.47 : 1 and 1.88 : 1 respectively (P<0.0001). The average CD8+ : CD4+ cell ratio to reach 90% suppression of HIV replication was 1.07 : 1 and 1.66 : 1 in the group with plasma viral load of <30,000 and >30,000 RNA copy/ml respectively (P=0.0002). The results indicated that CNAR activity in long-term HIV-1 infected FBDs correlates directly with CD4+ cell counts, and correlates reversely with plasma viral loads. Our findings in long term infected FBDs confirm the clinical relevancy of CNAR and suggest that CNAR could be an additional marker to help determine the optimal time for starting therapy in HIV infected person.
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Willingness to be circumcised for preventing HIV among Chinese men who have sex with men.
AIDS Patient Care STDS
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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Male circumcision can reduce the risk of HIV acquisition among heterosexual men, but its effectiveness is uncertain in men who have sex with men (MSM). Additionally, its acceptability among Chinese men is unknown given a lack of history and cultural norms endorsing neonatal and adult circumcision. This study evaluated the willingness to participate in a clinical trial of circumcision among 328 Chinese MSM. Some 11.6% respondents reported having been circumcised, most of them due to a tight foreskin. Of 284 uncircumcised MSM, 16.9% said they were absolutely willing to participate, 26.4% were probably, 28.9% were probably not, and 27.8% were absolutely not; 81% said male circumcision would help maintain genital hygiene. The major motivators for willingness to participate included contribution to AIDS scientific research and getting free medical service. Men also had concerns about ineffectiveness of circumcision in reducing HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risks and side effects of the surgery. Those who did not have a Beijing resident card (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-3.38), did not find sexual partners through the Internet (AOR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.21-3.75), and were not concerned about the effectiveness of circumcision (AOR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.34-4.19) were more likely to be willing to participate in a trial. The study suggests that circumcision is uncommon among Chinese MSM. Considerable community education will be needed in circumcision advocacy among MSM in China. A clinical trial for efficacy among MSM should be considered.
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Tuberculosis co-morbidity and perceptions about health care among HIV-infected plasma donors in rural China.
Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2009
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Limited community-based data exist about pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) comorbidity among HIV-infected individuals in China and no data exists about the TB burden in key high risk groups. We recruited 195 known HIV-infected plasma donors in one central China county and identified 9 (4.6%) active TB cases based on clinical assessment, including chest radiography. The low percentage of TB may be explained by improved immunity due to antiretroviral therapy.
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The emergence of HIV-1 primary drug resistance genotypes among treatment-naïve men who have sex with men in high-prevalence areas in China.
Arch. Virol.
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The prevalence of HIV-1 infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) in China has drastically increased, and circulating strains may have acquired transmitted drug resistance (TDR). We determined TDR genotypes among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve MSM in 19 provinces/cities where HIV-1 prevalence among MSM is high, and found an overall 4.9 % TDR rate. Although protease inhibitors (PI) were not in the first-line antiretroviral drug list provided through the National ART Program, 70.4 % of the detected TDR belongs to this category. Our findings confirm the urgent need for TDR surveillance in order to optimize treatment effects of the National ART Program.
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Antiretroviral therapy to prevent HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples in China (2003-11): a national observational cohort study.
Lancet
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On the basis of the results of the randomised clinical trial HPTN 052 and observational studies, WHO has recommended that antiretroviral therapy be offered to all HIV-infected individuals with uninfected partners of the opposite sex (serodiscordant couples) to reduce the risk of transmission. Whether or not such a public health approach is feasible and the outcomes are sustainable at a large scale and in a developing country setting has not previously been assessed.
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HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in Beijing: a prospective cohort study.
BMJ Open
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(1) To assess the HIV incidence rate among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a large cohort study in Beijing, China and (2) to identify sociodemographic and behavioural risk factors of HIV seroconversion among MSM in Beijing, China.
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Anal sex role, circumcision status, and HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Chongqing, China.
Arch Sex Behav
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Men who have sex with men (MSM) in China face a rapidly expanding HIV epidemic. Anal sex role plays a significant role in HIV infection. Research has already begun in China investigating the potential for circumcision-based interventions to slow the rise of HIV among Chinese MSM. Using peer referral recruitment, we sampled 491 men who reported anal sex role preference. We analyzed preferred anal sex role, enacted sex role during recent sexual behavior, and circumcision status and HIV infection among MSM in one Chinese city. Men reported on their anal sex role preference and reported on up to three male sexual partners. Men were asked to report on whether they were "top" or "bottom" with each of the partners. Those that preferred being bottom and versatile were significantly younger than those who preferred being top. Men who preferred bottoming and those that preferred the versatile role were significantly more likely to be HIV-infected than those who preferred to be tops. There was no significant association between circumcision and HIV infection among men who maintained their preferred top role. In terms of anal sex role behavior, prevalence was not statistically different across anal sex roles. Circumcision conferred no additional protection to men who preferred and who engaged the top role during anal sex. HIV interventions will need to address anal sex roles in more sophisticated ways than perhaps originally thought. Simplistic assumptions that anal sex role is a fixed behavior undermines interventions such as circumcision among MSM.
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A comprehensive mapping of HIV-1 genotypes in various risk groups and regions across China based on a nationwide molecular epidemiologic survey.
PLoS ONE
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China is experiencing a dynamic HIV/AIDS epidemic. While serology based surveillance systems have reported the spread of HIV/AIDS, detailed tracking of its transmission in populations and regions is not possible without mapping it at the molecular level. We therefore conducted a nationwide molecular epidemiology survey across the country.
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High prevalence of HIV, syphilis and HCV, and low methadone maintenance treatment in a migrant population in Beijing.
J Addict Med
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To provide evidence for policy makers for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control, we investigated HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the availability of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) among migrant drug users in Beijing.
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Participation of HIV prevention programs among men who have sex with men in two cities of China--a mixed method study.
BMC Public Health
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Although various HIV prevention programs targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) are operating in China, whether and how these programs are being utilized is unclear. This study explores participation of HIV prevention programs and influencing factors among MSM in two cities in China.
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Short communication: emerging transmitted HIV type 1 drug resistance mutations among patients prior to start of first-line antiretroviral therapy in middle and low prevalence sites in China.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
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It is known that transmitted drug resistance (TDR) will most likely emerge in regions where antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been widely available for years. However, after a decade of rapid scale-up of ART in China, there are few data regarding TDR among HIV-infected patients prior to initiating first-line ART in China. A prospective, observational cohort study was performed at sentinel sites in five provinces or municipalities. Study participants were recruited at the county- or city-level centers for disease control (CDCs), during routine monitoring visits following referral from diagnosing parties (e.g., hospitals). Each province or municipality recruited 140 patients through sequential sampling throughout the 2011 calendar year. A total of 627 eligible subjects were included in the analysis. the median CD4(+) cell count was 206 cells/ml at the baseline survey. The majority of patients (93.5%) had plasma HIV viral load ?1,000 copies/ml. Of the 627 patients, 17 (2.7%) had drug resistance mutations for any type of HIV drugs. The prevalence of drug resistance mutations to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs (8/627, 1.3%) was higher than to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drugs (5/627, 0.8%) and protease inhibitor (PI) drugs (4/627, 0.6%). A logistic regression model showed that the only predictive factor was the route of infection through homosexual intercourse, i.e., men who have sex with men (MSM) status. As HIV prevalence is rising rapidly among Chinese MSM, it is essential to continue surveying this risk group and related high-risk populations with low awareness of HIV, and to develop new public health interventions that help to reduce the spread of drug-resistant HIV.
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Profiles of neutralizing antibody response in chronically human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade B-infected former plasma donors from China naive to antiretroviral therapy.
J. Gen. Virol.
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Broadly neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) such as those generated in chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are considered a key component for an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Here, we measured NAb responses using a panel of 25 Env-pseudotyped viruses, including clade B, C, A, CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE strains, against plasma samples from 103 subjects in a former plasma donor cohort in central China, who were infected with HIV-1 clade B for at least 10 years and naïve to antiretroviral therapy at the time of sampling. We found that 64?% of samples (n?=?66) neutralized at least half of the viruses tested and 2?% (n?=?2) neutralized all of the viruses, while 5?% (n?=?5) neutralized none of the viruses tested. Strikingly, 29?% of plasma samples (n?=?30) neutralized >80?% of the viral strains tested, indicating the presence of broadly reactive NAbs in these patients. When the magnitude (geometric mean ID(50) titres, GMTs) or breadth of neutralization was assessed for correlation with CD4 count or plasma viral load, the only significant positive correlations were observed between viral load and neutralization magnitude (r?=?0.2189, P?=?0.0263) and between viral load and neutralization breadth (r?=?0.1970, P?=?0.0461). A moderate difference between progressors and long-term non-progressors was observed in both the breadth (P?=?0.0316) and the potency (P?=?0.0300). A significant difference was found in the GMTs between intra-clade and inter-clade strains (P<0.001). Heat-map analysis based on k-means clustering of plasma determined a statistically stable cluster of plasma with cross-reactive and potent neutralizing reactivity. These samples could provide physical biomaterials for further virological and serological studies from which useful insights into rational HIV-1 vaccine development and therapeutic design might be derived.
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HIV risk perception among men who have sex with men in two municipalities of China--implications for education and intervention.
AIDS Care
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Men who have sex with men (MSM) are recognized as being at high risk for HIV infection. While studies have found that the prevalence of risky behaviors routinely remained high among MSM, few have focused on reasons why MSM may perceive they were or were not at risk for HIV infection. The objective of this study was to examine HIV risk perception among MSM in Beijing and Chongqing, China. A qualitative study consisting of eight focus group discussions and 65 in-depth interviews were conducted with MSM in the two cities. Participants felt that most MSM were aware of the high prevalence of HIV infection among MSM. Yet despite this awareness, most participants thought it was unlikely they would become infected with HIV. The reasons raised by participants included: AIDS was a foreign disease, cleaning after sex prevented transmission, being the insertive partner during sex was not risky, their partner(s) could be trusted, and feeling lucky made HIV/AIDS acquisition unlikely. The findings of this study suggest that a multi-pronged and tailored approach is needed to increase risk perception and safe sex behaviors among MSM in China. This may be achieved through HIV/AIDS interventions that use MSM-friendly media targeting misconceptions of HIV risk, stigma, and discrimination rather than simply distributing condoms.
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Predictors of HIV and syphilis among men who have sex with men in a Chinese metropolitan city: comparison of risks among students and non-students.
PLoS ONE
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Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at a substantial risk of HIV, given rising HIV prevalence in urban China. Adolescent and adult students often take HIV-related risk as part of sexual exploration. We compared the risks of HIV and syphilis infections and risky sexual behaviors between student and non-student among urban MSM.
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Surveys of transmitted HIV drug resistance in 7 geographic Regions in China, 2008-2009.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
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In 2003, antiretroviral therapy became available free of charge in Chinas public health sector. During 2008 and 2009, 10 surveys to classify transmitted human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) were conducted in 7 regions in 5 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) according to World Health Organization guidance. In 2008, transmitted HIVDR was classified as low (<5%) to nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors in 6 surveys performed in 6 regions. In 2009, 3 of 4 surveys showed low rates of transmitted HIVDR to all drug classes, and 1 survey showed moderate (5%-15%) rates of transmitted protease inhibitor resistance. In China, routine surveillance of transmitted HIVDR should continue and be expanded to other regions of the country.
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A new pattern-based method for identifying recent HIV-1 infections from the viral env sequence.
Sci China Life Sci
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The long asymptomatic stage of HIV infection poses a great challenge in identifying recent HIV infections. This is a bottleneck for monitoring HIV epidemic trends and evaluating the effectiveness of national AIDS control programs. Several serological methods were used to address this issue with some success. Because of high false-positive rates in patients with advanced infection or in ART treatment, UNAIDS still hesitates to recommend their use in routine surveillance. We developed a new pattern-based method for measuring intra-patient viral genetic diversity for determination of recent infections and estimation of population incidence. This method is verified by using several datasets (424 subtype B and 77 CRF07_BC samples) with clearly identified HIV-1 infection times. Pattern-based diversities of recent infections are significantly lower than that of chronic ones. With larger window periods varying from 200 to 350 days, a higher accuracy (90%-95%) not affected by advanced disease nor ART treatment could be obtained. The pattern-based genetic method is supplementary to the existing serology-based assays, both of which could be suitable for use in low and high epidemic regions, respectively.
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Mutual HIV disclosure among HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Beijing, China, 2010.
Arch Sex Behav
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HIV is rising rapidly among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). Discussion of HIV status between sexual partners is potentially a key prevention behavior. It is unclear if HIV-negative Chinese MSM talk about HIV and disclose their HIV status with sexual partners. Understanding the correlates of disclosure among this population could provide insight into developing disclosure-based interventions. We conducted a respondent driven sampling based study of 500 MSM in Beijing. A total of 332 men had a previous HIV-negative test result and thus considered themselves to be HIV-negative and were included in our analysis of disclosure. Equal numbers of these men reported talking about HIV and disclosing their HIV status to at least one sexual partner. MSM who disclosed were more likely to be living with a main partner. No other demographic characteristics were associated with disclosure in bivariate analysis. We also used data on up to three sexual partners per participant to examine disclosure on the partnership level. Main partnerships, meeting partners at bars/clubs, sometimes using alcohol before sex in a partnership, and usually having sex at home compared to other venues were associated with disclosure. Using generalized estimating equation analysis to characterize individuals from their partnership data, we found only having at least one main partnership and knowing people who were infected with HIV to be associated with a participant being a discloser. Interventions that wish to harness discussion of HIV and HIV status among Chinese MSM will need to focus on moving these discussions towards having them with casual partners.
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Association of human papillomavirus infection and abnormal anal cytology among HIV-infected MSM in Beijing, China.
PLoS ONE
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In the recent years, dramatic increases in HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been observed in China. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection related anal cancer is more common among HIV-infected MSM as compared to the general population. However, HPV infection and anal cytology has been rarely studied in HIV-infected MSM in China.
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Willingness to accept HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among Chinese men who have sex with men.
PLoS ONE
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We investigated the awareness and acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and potential predicting factors.
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HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes and recent HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Beijing.
AIDS Behav
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This study assessed the correlates of recent HIV testing and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. A cross-sectional study probed demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, HIV testing, and prevention services. Of 500 participants, 39.3% recently received a test for HIV. Recent testing was independently associated with expressing lower levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes, more male sex partners, no female sexual partners and knowing HIV status of their last male partner. Expressing lower levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes was independently associated with recent testing, younger age, and knowing HIV status of their last male partner. This study revealed that HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes were common and inversely associated with recent HIV testing. Low levels of testing highlighted the urgent needs to reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination and expand HIV testing among MSM in Beijing.
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Preferential CTL targeting of Gag is associated with relative viral control in long-term surviving HIV-1 infected former plasma donors from China.
Cell Res.
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It is generally believed that CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in limiting the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and in determining the outcome of the infection, and this effect may partly depend on which HIV product is preferentially targeted. To address the correlation between HIV-1-specific CTL responses and virus replication in a cohort of former plasma donors (FPDs), 143 antiretroviral therapy naive FPDs infected with HIV-1 clade B strains were assessed for HIV-1-specific CTL responses with an IFN-? Elispot assay at single peptide level by using overlapping peptides (OLPs) covering the whole consensus clade B proteome. By using a Spearmans rank correlation analysis, we found that the proportion of Gag-specific CTL responses among the total virus-specific CTL activity was inversely correlated with viral loads while being positively correlated to CD4 counts, as opposed to Pol- and Env-specific responses that were associated with increased viral loads and decreased CD4 counts. In addition, Vpr-specifc CTL responses showed a similar protective effect with Gag responses, but with a much lower frequency of recognition. Significantly, we also observed an association between HLA-A*30/B*13/Cw*06 haplotype and lower viral loads that was probably due to restricted Gag-specific CTL responses. Thus, our data demonstrate the prominent role of Gag-specific CTL responses in disease control. The advantage of HLA-A*30/B*13/Cw*06 haplotype in viral control may be associated with the contribution of Gag-specific CTL responses in the studied individuals.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.