Age-related damage accumulates and a variety of biological activities and functions deteriorate in senescent cells. However, little is known about when cellular aging behaviors begin and what cellular aging processes change. Previous research demonstrated age-related mRNA changes in budding yeast by the 18th to 20th generation, which is the average replicative lifespan of yeast (i.e. about half of the population is dead by this time point). Here, we performed transcriptional and metabolic profiling for yeast at early stages of senescence (4th, 7th, and 11th generation), that is, for populations in which most cells are still alive. Transcriptional profiles showed up- and down-regulation for ?20% of the genes profiled after the first four generations, few further changes by the 7th generation, and an additional 12% of the genes were up- and down-regulated after 11 generations. Pathway analysis revealed that these 11th generation cells had accumulated transcripts coding for enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, the TCA cycle, and amino acid degradation and showed decreased levels of mRNAs coding for enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthetic pathways. These observations were consistent with the metabolomic profiles of aging cells: an accumulation of pyruvic acid and TCA cycle intermediates and depletion of most amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids. Stationary phase-induced genes were highly expressed after 11 generations even though the growth medium contained adequate levels of nutrients, indicating deterioration of the nutrient sensing and/or signaling pathways by the 11th generation. These changes are presumably early indications of replicative senescence.
Rtg1 and Rtg3 are two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors found in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are involved in the regulation of the mitochondrial retrograde (RTG) pathway. Under RTG response, anaplerotic synthesis of citrate is activated, consequently maintaining the supply of important precursors necessary for amino acid and nucleotide synthesis. Although the roles of Rtg1 and Rtg3 in TCA and glyoxylate cycles have been extensively reported, the investigation of other metabolic pathways has been lacking. Characteristic dimer formation in bHLH proteins, which allows for combinatorial gene expression, and the link between RTG and other regulatory pathways suggest more complex metabolic signaling involved in Rtg1/Rtg3 regulation. In this study, using a metabolomics approach, we examined metabolic alteration following RTG1 and RTG3 deletion. We found that apart from TCA and glyoxylate cycles, which have been previously reported, polyamine biosynthesis and other amino acid metabolism were significantly altered in RTG-deficient strains. We revealed that metabolic alterations occurred at various metabolic sites and that these changes relate to different growth phases, but the difference can be detected even at the mid-exponential phase, when mitochondrial function is repressed. Moreover, the effect of metabolic rearrangements can be seen through the chronological lifespan (CLS) measurement, where we confirmed the role of the RTG pathway in extending the yeast lifespan. Through a comprehensive metabolic profiling, we were able to explore metabolic phenotypes previously unidentified by other means and illustrate the possible correlations of Rtg1 and Rtg3 in different pathways.
Many of the genes involved in aging have been identified in organisms ranging from yeast to human. Our previous study showed that deletion of the UGA3 gene-which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor necessary for ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-dependent induction of the UGA1 (GABA aminotransferase), UGA2 (succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase), and UGA4 (GABA permease) genes-extends replicative lifespan in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we found that deletion of UGA1 lengthened the lifespan, as did deletion of UGA3; in contrast, strains with UGA2 or UGA4 deletions exhibited no lifespan extension. The ?uga1 strain cannot deaminate GABA to succinate semialdehyde. Deletion of GAD1, which encodes the glutamate decarboxylase that converts glutamate into GABA, also increased lifespan. Therefore, two genes in the GABA metabolism pathway, UGA1 and GAD1, were identified as aging genes. Unexpectedly, intracellular GABA levels in mutant cells (except for ?uga2 cells) did not differ from those in wild-type cells. Addition of GABA to culture media, which induces transcription of the UGA structural genes, had no effect on replicative lifespan of wild-type cells. Multivariate analysis of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra for the whole-cell metabolite levels demonstrated a separation between long-lived and normal-lived strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of identified metabolites showed that levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlated with lifespan extension. These results strongly suggest reduced activity of the GABA-metabolizing enzymes extends lifespan by shifting carbon metabolism toward respiration, as calorie restriction does.
There are several human genes that may encode proteins whose functions remain unknown. To find clues to their functions, we used the mutant yeast defective in Mad2, a component of the spindle checkpoint complex. Phenotypes that were provoked by the expression of a human C18orf26 protein in the mutant yeast encouraged further characterization of this protein in human cells. This protein was designated dynAP (dynactin-associated protein) because of its interaction with dynactin subunits that comprised a microtubule-based motor protein complex. The dynAP is a transmembrane protein localizing to Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane in a microtubule-dependent manner. This protein was expressed in half of human cancer cell lines but barely in normal human fibroblasts tested. The SV40-transformed fibroblasts expressed dynAP. Importantly, the expression of dynAP activated Akt (also known as protein kinase B) by promoting Ser??³ phosphorylation required for the full activation, whereas knockdown of dynAP abolished this activation. The ergosterol-related compounds identified by the yeast cell-based high-throughput screen abrogated activation of Akt and induced apoptosis in a dynAP-dependent manner. We propose a possible advantage of dynAP expression in cancer cells; the survival of cancer cells that express dynAP is supported by dynAP-induced activation of Akt, sustaining high rates of proliferation. The inactivation of dynAP by the selected compounds nullifies this advantage, and thereby, the apoptotic machinery is allowed to operate. Taken together, dynAP can be a new target for cancer therapy, and the selected chemicals are useful for developing a new class of anticancer drugs.
Metabolomics - the comprehensive analysis of metabolites - was recently used to classify yeast mutants with no overt phenotype using raw data as metabolic fingerprints or footprints. In this study, we demonstrate the estimation of a complicated phenotype, longevity, and semi-rational screening for relevant mutants using metabolic profiles as strain-specific fingerprints. The fingerprints used in our experiments are profiled data consisting of individually identified and quantified metabolites rather than raw spectrum data. We chose yeast replicative lifespan as a model phenotype. Several yeast mutants that affect lifespan were selected for analysis, and they were subjected to metabolic profiling using mass spectrometry. Fingerprinting based on the profiles revealed a correlation between lifespan and metabolic profile. Amino acids and nucleotide derivatives were the main contributors to this correlation. Furthermore, we established a multivariate model to predict lifespan from a metabolic profile. The model facilitated the identification of putative longevity mutants. This work represents a novel approach to evaluate and screen complicated and quantitative phenotype by means of metabolomics.
To evaluate yeast as a high-throughput cell-based system for screening chemicals that may lead to drug development, 10,302 full-length human cDNAs (~50% of the total cDNAs) were introduced into yeast. Approximately 5.6% (583 clones) of the cDNAs repressed the growth of yeast. Notably, ~25% of the repressive cDNAs encoded uncharacterized proteins. Small chemicals can be readily surveyed by monitoring their restorative effects on the growth of yeast. The authors focused on protein kinases because protein kinases are involved in various diseases. Among 263 protein kinase cDNAs (~50% of the total) expressed in yeast, 60 cDNAs (~23%), including c-Yes, a member of the Src tyrosine kinase family, inhibited the growth of yeast. Known inhibitors for protein kinases were examined for whether they reversed the c-Yes-induced inhibition of the yeast growth. Among 85 inhibitors tested, 6 compounds (PP2, PP1, SU6656, purvalanol, radicicol, and geldanamycin) reversed the inhibition, indicating a high specificity sufficient for validating this screening system. Human c-Yes was found to interact with Hsc82, one of the yeast chaperones. Radicicol and geldanamycin probably exerted their actions through interactions with Hsc82. These results indicate that when human proteins requiring molecular chaperones for their activities are subjected to the yeast screening system, 2 groups of chemicals may be found. The actions of one group are exerted through direct interactions with the human proteins, whereas those of the other group are mediated through interactions with chaperones.
Eucommia ulmoides Oliver is one of a few woody plants capable of producing abundant quantities of trans-polyisoprene rubber in their leaves, barks, and seed coats. One cDNA library each was constructed from its outer stem tissue and inner stem tissue. They comprised a total of 27,752 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) representing 10,520 unigenes made up of 4,302 contigs and 6,218 singletons. Homologues of genes coding for rubber particle membrane proteins that participate in the synthesis of high-molecular poly-isoprene in latex were isolated, as well as those encoding known major latex proteins (MLPs). MLPs extensively shared ESTs, indicating their abundant expression during trans-polyisoprene rubber biosynthesis. The six mevalonate pathway genes which are implicated in the synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), a starting material of poly-isoprene biosynthesis, were isolated, and their role in IPP biosynthesis was confirmed by functional complementation of suitable yeast mutants. Genes encoding five full-length trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases were also isolated, and two among those synthesized farnesyl diphosphate from IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate, an assumed intermediate of rubber biosynthesis. This study should provide a valuable resource for further studies of rubber synthesis in E. ulmoides.
The yeast Cyc8p-Tup1p protein complex is a general transcriptional corepressor of genes involved in many different physiological processes. Herein, we present the crystal structure of the Tup1p N-terminal domain (residues 1-92), essential for Tup1p self-assembly and interaction with Cyc8p. This domain tetramerizes to form a novel antiparallel four-helix bundle. Coiled coil interactions near the helical ends hold each dimer together, whereas interdimeric association involves only two sets of two residues located toward the chain centers. A mutagenesis study confirmed that the nonpolar residues responsible for the association of the protomers as dimers are also required for transcriptional repression. An additional structural study demonstrated that the domain containing an Leu(62) ? Arg mutation that had been shown not to bind Cyc8p exhibits an altered structure, distinct from the wild type. This altered structure explains why the mutant cannot bind Cyc8p. The data presented herein highlight the importance of the architecture of the Tup1p N-terminal domain for self-association.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.