JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels ameliorates an imbalance in cardiac autonomic nerve activity and prevents lethal arrhythmias in mice with heart failure.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dysregulation of autonomic nervous system activity can trigger ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in patients with heart failure. N-type Ca(2+) channels (NCCs) play an important role in sympathetic nervous system activation by regulating the calcium entry that triggers release of neurotransmitters from peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals. We have investigated the ability of NCC blockade to prevent lethal arrhythmias associated with heart failure.
Related JoVE Video
The detection of macular analysis by SD-OCT for optic chiasmal compression neuropathy and nasotemporal overlap.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the diagnostic performance of the macular parameters detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in band atrophy (BA) eyes.
Related JoVE Video
Difference in correspondence between visual field defect and inner macular layer thickness measured using three types of spectral-domain OCT instruments.
Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the relationship between visual field sensitivity (VFS) and macular parameters measured using three spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) instruments and to determine a base level (=floor effect) for macular parameters.
Related JoVE Video
Clinicopathological analysis of thymic malignancies with a consistent retrospective database in a single institution: from Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer Center.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs), which comprise thymoma and thymic carcinoma, are rare cancers with specific morphological and clinical features. Their clinical characteristics and outcomes have gradually been clarified by assessing large-scale, retrospective data obtained with international cooperation.
Related JoVE Video
Crucial role of treatment with palliative intent for a patient with advanced thymic carcinoma.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Thymic carcinoma is a rare cancer that is more aggressive and shows a poorer prognosis compared with thymoma. Molecular analysis has demonstrated that this entity is clearly distinct from thymoma. However, no definitive clinical management has been reported, and the roles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for advanced thymic carcinoma remain unclear given the rarity of this clinicopathology. The current study reports the case of a 65-year-old male who presented with advanced thymic carcinoma with solitary brain and pulmonary metastases, but demonstrated long-term survival following multiple lines of chemotherapy and radiotherapy with palliative intent. Although the solitary brain metastasis was well controlled for several years using whole-brain irradiation, cognitive function gradually declined with cerebral atrophy. Thymic carcinoma is known to show a poor prognosis and aggressive clinical progress, however, it occasionally demonstrates a clinically indolent course. Modalities of treatment should thus be selected prudently to avoid toxicity, in consideration of the possibility of long-term survival. Stereotactic radiation therapy for brain metastases, including cyberknife or ?-knife surgery, appears to represent the optimal local treatment for such patients with unexpectedly longer survival due to indolent thymic carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of axial length reduction after trabeculectomy on the development of hypotony maculopathy.
Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To measure changes in axial length before and after trabeculectomy with noncontact, partial coherence laser interferometry and identify patient factors that lead to the development of hypotony maculopathy and axial length shortening in 25 eyes with intraocular pressure (IOP) ? 6 mmHg at 4 weeks after mitomycin C-augmented trabeculectomy.
Related JoVE Video
tRNADB-CE: tRNA gene database well-timed in the era of big sequence data.
Front Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The tRNA gene data base curated by experts "tRNADB-CE" (http://trna.ie.niigata-u.ac.jp) was constructed by analyzing 1,966 complete and 5,272 draft genomes of prokaryotes, 171 viruses', 121 chloroplasts', and 12 eukaryotes' genomes plus fragment sequences obtained by metagenome studies of environmental samples. 595,115 tRNA genes in total, and thus two times of genes compiled previously, have been registered, for which sequence, clover-leaf structure, and results of sequence-similarity and oligonucleotide-pattern searches can be browsed. To provide collective knowledge with help from experts in tRNA researches, we added a column for enregistering comments to each tRNA. By grouping bacterial tRNAs with an identical sequence, we have found high phylogenetic preservation of tRNA sequences, especially at the phylum level. Since many species-unknown tRNAs from metagenomic sequences have sequences identical to those found in species-known prokaryotes, the identical sequence group (ISG) can provide phylogenetic markers to investigate the microbial community in an environmental ecosystem. This strategy can be applied to a huge amount of short sequences obtained from next-generation sequencers, as showing that tRNADB-CE is a well-timed database in the era of big sequence data. It is also discussed that batch-learning self-organizing-map with oligonucleotide composition is useful for efficient knowledge discovery from big sequence data.
Related JoVE Video
The pharmacological effects of novokinin; a designed peptide agonist of the angiotensin AT2 receptor.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Novokinin (RPLKPW) was designed based on ovokinin (FRADHPFL), a vasorelaxing peptide derived from ovalbumin. Novokinin relaxed a mesenteric artery isolated from the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) at 10(-5) M, and reduced SHR blood pressure at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg (po.) emulsified in 30% egg yolk. Novokinin exhibited an affinity for the AT2 receptor Ki=7x10(-6) M, and its antihypertensive and vasorelaxing activities were blocked by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist. The hypotensive effect of novokinin in normotensive mice was not observed in the AT2 receptor-knockout mice. Its antihypertensive and vasorelaxing activities in SHR were also blocked by CAY-10441, an antagonist of the IP receptor for prostaglandin I2 PGI2 suggesting that these activities are mediated by the AT2 receptor, followed by the prostaglandin I2-IP receptor pathway. Novokinin suppressed food intake after icv. or po. administration in mice. The anorexigenic activity was not observed in the AT2 receptor- knockout mice, but was observed in the AT 1 receptor-knockout mice. The anorexigenic activities of novokinin and angiotensin II were blocked by PD123319, and ONO-AE3-208, an antagonist of the EP4 receptor suggesting that the anorexigenic activities of the AT2 agonists are mediated by the PGE 2-EP4 receptor pathway downstream of the AT2 receptor. Novokinin given icv. in mice antagonized the antinociceptive effect of morphine. The antiopiod activites of novokinin and angiotensin II were are blocked by PD123319, and by ONO-AE3-240, an antagonist of the EP3 receptor, suggesting that the antiopioid activities of AT2 agonists is mediated by the PGE2-EP3 receptor downstream of the AT2 receptor.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical outcomes after first-line EGFR inhibitor treatment for patients with NSCLC, EGFR mutation, and poor performance status.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The phase II NEJ001 trial suggested that gefitinib was active against advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) even in patients with poor performance status (PS). Clinical response among the patients harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation with poor PS is fair; however, gefitinib does not have as much continued efficacy as in patients with good PS. This study has retrospectively investigated the clinical outcomes of gefitinib treated patients with advanced NSCLC, EGFR mutations, and poor PS.
Related JoVE Video
Electrocardiographic predictors of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with intraventricular conduction delay.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background:?Little is known about predictors of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with intraventricular conduction delay (IVCD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of CRT and significant variables on surface electrocardiogram (ECG) to predict response to CRT in those patients. Methods and Results:?Among the cohort of 152 CRT patients, 40 patients with IVCD were evaluated. Sixteen patients (40%) were responders. At baseline, responders had a wider QRS duration (158±18 vs. 144±18ms, P=0.02) and a higher frequency of left axis deviation (LADEV; 75% vs. 29%, P=0.004) compared with non-responders. After CRT, greater shortening of QRS duration (?QRS; 26±24 vs. 7±24ms, P=0.02), axis shift from LADEV to right axis deviation (RADEV; 69% vs. 13%, P<0.001), and both rightward forces in lead I and anterior forces in V1 (56% vs. 13%, P=0.003) were found more frequently in responders. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that LADEV at baseline, or ?QRS and axis shift from LADEV to RADEV after CRT were independent predictors of response to CRT. Conclusions:?Patients with IVCD may not respond to CRT, but LADEV at baseline and reversal of ventricular activation after CRT on surface ECG could be important to predict response to CRT.??(Circ J?2014; 78: 71-77).
Related JoVE Video
Cluster analyses of grid-pattern display in macular parameters using optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), we assessed the ability of cluster analyses, based on the grid-pattern of macular parameters, to detect glaucoma.
Related JoVE Video
The ability of macular parameters and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer by three SD-OCT instruments to diagnose highly myopic glaucoma.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the ability of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness and macular parameters obtained by three spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) instruments to detect highly myopic glaucoma.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative assessment for the ability of Cirrus, RTVue, and 3D-OCT to diagnose glaucoma.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We compared the ability of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness and macular parameters obtained by three spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) instruments to detect glaucoma.
Related JoVE Video
Increased expression of HCN channels in the ventricular myocardium contributes to enhanced arrhythmicity in mouse failing hearts.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The efficacy of pharmacological interventions to prevent sudden arrhythmic death in patients with chronic heart failure remains limited. Evidence now suggests increased ventricular expression of hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) channels in hypertrophied and failing hearts contributes to their arrythmicity. Still, the role of induced HCN channel expression in the enhanced arrhythmicity associated with heart failure and the capacity of HCN channel blockade to prevent lethal arrhythmias remains undetermined.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of Ile-His-Arg-Phe, a novel rice-derived vasorelaxing peptide with hypotensive and anorexigenic activities.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recently, we found that dipeptide Arg-Phe (RF) had cholecystokinin (CCK)-dependent vasorelaxing activity. The RF sequence is often observed in the primary structure of natural food proteins. In the current study, we investigated enzymatic conditions for the release of RF-related peptides from rice glutelin, a major storage protein, using gastrointestinal proteases. RF-related peptides were then characterized.
Related JoVE Video
Significance of non-type 1 anterior early repolarization in patients with inferolateral early repolarization syndrome.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of non-type 1 anterior early repolarization (NT1-AER) combined with inferolateral early repolarization syndrome (ERS).
Related JoVE Video
Structure-function relationship among three types of spectral-domain optical coherent tomography instruments in measuring parapapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness.
Acta Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the relationships of parapapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness among three spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) instruments with visual field sensitivity (VFS).
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of IcareONE rebound tonometer for self-measuring intraocular pressure.
Acta Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Purpose:? To evaluate the precision of the IcareONE rebound tonometer, which was developed for self-measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) and to compare IcareONE measurement with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). Methods:? Twenty-four healthy eyes and 81 glaucomatous eyes were enrolled. IOP measurements (three times per session) with IcareONE were made in a random order by an ophthalmologist (Icare(O)) and by the subject (Icare(S)). Intraclass correlation coefficients (CCs), kappa values and mean values of IOP were compared among the two types of Icare recordings and GAT. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess agreement between methods. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the subject factors that influenced the discordant measurements between IcareONE and GAT. Results:? The mean value of Icare(O) and Icare(S) measurements was 13.5?±?5.2 and 13.5?±?5.4?mmHg, respectively, neither of which was significantly different from GAT (13.8?±?4.4). The intrarater CC of Icare(O) and Icare(S) was 0.968 and 0.885, respectively. The intermethod CC and weighted kappa between Icare(O) and Icare(S) were 0.907 and 0.684, respectively. All pairwise correlations between the two types of IOP measurement showed coefficients of determination >0.8. Bland-Altman analysis did not show any proportional biases. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the differences between GAT and Icare(O) or Icare(S) were positively correlated with central corneal thickness (CCT) and negatively correlated with age. Conclusions:? Intraocular pressure measurements with IcareONE by a physician and by the subject showed excellent agreement with GAT measurements; IcareONE measurements between a physician and the subject had high intrarater reliability, and good agreement thicker CCT led IcareONE measurement to overestimate IOP, while higher age caused it to underestimate IOP compared with GAT.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic significance of early repolarization in inferolateral leads in Brugada patients with documented ventricular fibrillation: a novel risk factor for Brugada syndrome with ventricular fibrillation.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about the clinical and prognostic impact of early repolarization (ER) on patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS), especially those with documented ventricular fibrillation (VF).
Related JoVE Video
Usefulness of scintigraphy to predict electrical storms in severe idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.
Ann Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although several predictors of an electrical storm (ES) are indicated in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM), whether the severity of the myocardial tissue damage (SMTD) evaluated by myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) has an association with an ES remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinical significance of SMTD for the prediction of ES in IDCM patients with an ICD.
Related JoVE Video
Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB): an integrative and interactive database for rice genomics.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB, http://rapdb.dna.affrc.go.jp/) has been providing a comprehensive set of gene annotations for the genome sequence of rice, Oryza sativa (japonica group) cv. Nipponbare. Since the first release in 2005, RAP-DB has been updated several times along with the genome assembly updates. Here, we present our newest RAP-DB based on the latest genome assembly, Os-Nipponbare-Reference-IRGSP-1.0 (IRGSP-1.0), which was released in 2011. We detected 37,869 loci by mapping transcript and protein sequences of 150 monocot species. To provide plant researchers with highly reliable and up to date rice gene annotations, we have been incorporating literature-based manually curated data, and 1,626 loci currently incorporate literature-based annotation data, including commonly used gene names or gene symbols. Transcriptional activities are shown at the nucleotide level by mapping RNA-Seq reads derived from 27 samples. We also mapped the Illumina reads of a Japanese leading japonica cultivar, Koshihikari, and a Chinese indica cultivar, Guangluai-4, to the genome and show alignments together with the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene functional annotations through a newly developed browser, Short-Read Assembly Browser (S-RAB). We have developed two satellite databases, Plant Gene Family Database (PGFD) and Integrative Database of Cereal Gene Phylogeny (IDCGP), which display gene family and homologous gene relationships among diverse plant species. RAP-DB and the satellite databases offer simple and user-friendly web interfaces, enabling plant and genome researchers to access the data easily and facilitating a broad range of plant research topics.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of additional radiofrequency applications for spontaneous dissociated pulmonary vein activity after pulmonary vein isolation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim is to evaluate the efficacy of additional radiofrequency ablation (RFCA) for spontaneous dissociated pulmonary vein activity (DPV-spike) after PV isolation (PVI) in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF).
Related JoVE Video
Soymorphin-5, a soy-derived ?-opioid peptide, decreases glucose and triglyceride levels through activating adiponectin and PPAR? systems in diabetic KKAy mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soymorphin-5 (YPFVV) derived from soybean ?-conglycinin ?-subunit is a ?-opioid agonist peptide having anxiolytic-like activity. Here, we show that soymorphin-5 improves glucose and lipid metabolism after long-term oral administration to KKAy mice, a type 2 diabetes model animal. Soymorphin-5 inhibited hyperglycemia without an increase in plasma insulin levels in KKAy mice. Soymorphin-5 also decreased plasma and liver triglyceride (TG) levels and liver weight, suggesting that soymorphin-5 improved lipid metabolism. Soymorphin-5 increased plasma adiponectin concentration and liver mRNA expression of AdipoR2, a subtype of adiponectin receptor that is involved in stimulating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? pathway and fatty acid ?-oxidation. The expressions of the mRNA of PPAR? and its target genes acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 A, and uncoupling protein-2, in the liver were also increased after oral administration of soymorphin-5. Furthermore, des-Tyr-soymorphin-5 (PFVV) without ?-opioid and anxiolytic-like activities did not decrease blood glucose levels in KKAy mice. These results suggest that ?-opioid peptide soymorphin-5 improves glucose and lipid metabolism via activation of the adiponectin and PPAR? system and subsequent increases of ?-oxidation and energy expenditure in KKAy mice.
Related JoVE Video
Incessant monomorphic ventricular tachycardia induced by the proarrhythmic effect of amiodarone.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This case report describes incessant monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT), not torsade de pointes, induced by intravenous amiodarone in a 48-year-old woman with dilated cardiomyopathy. VT was reproducibly triggered by short coupled premature ventricular complex (PVC) with different morphology from VT. After amiodarone infusion, the coupling interval of initiating PVC was prolonged, and moreover, the morphology of initiating PVC became the same as that of VT. Though amiodarone has become the first line drug to treat ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with cardiac dysfunction, it is important to be aware of its proarrhythmic effect, which may lead to an electrical storm of monomorphic VT.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin on antigen-presenting cells in mice.
Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) is removed from the circulation and degraded in the reticuloendothelial system, including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Therefore, LEH at a large dose may overload the system, cause a competitive inhibition in antigen-presenting activity, and impair the immune response of the host. Changes in cellularity of immunocompetent cells were monitored serially up to 4 weeks by flow cytometry in wild-type mice receiving 20 mL/kg of LEH, syngeneic red blood cells (RBCs), or saline. DCs were collected from the host spleen 1, 7, and 28 days after receiving the solution and were cocultured with naïve cluster of differentiation 4 T cells from T-cell receptor transgenic mice in the absence or presence of third-party antigens. After LEH administration, the cellularity of DCs and macrophages in the recipient spleen remained unchanged from control mice receiving RBCs or saline. While subset populations and costimulatory molecule expressions were different, DCs from LEH-administered mice expressed high levels of interleukin-2 production and helper T-cell activation in response to a third-party antigen and superantigens, as did the DCs from control mice receiving RBCs or saline. The results suggest that 20 mL/kg of LEH does not greatly alter antigen-presenting activity to third-party antigens.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Schoenoplectus juncoides (Cyperaceae)1.
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We developed microsatellite markers for Schoenoplectus juncoides, a weed found in rice paddy fields in eastern Asia.
Related JoVE Video
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR? activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR? activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR? agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and production of CO(2) and acid soluble metabolites in enterocytes. Moreover, bezafibrate treatment suppressed postprandial lipidemia after oral administration of olive oil to the mice. These findings indicate that PPAR? activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia through enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes, suggesting that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR? activity is a novel target of PPAR? agonist for decreasing circulating levels of lipids under postprandial conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of sodium-channel blockade on early repolarization in inferior/lateral leads in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation and Brugada syndrome.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A high incidence of early repolarization (ER) pattern in the inferolateral leads has been reported in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF). Brugada syndrome (BS) is characterized by J-point or ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads and ventricular fibrillation, and some patients with BS also have ER in the inferolateral leads.
Related JoVE Video
Specific substance of Maruyama (SSM) suppresses immune responses in atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in DS-Nh mice by modulating dendritic cell functions.
J. Dermatol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Specific substance of Maruyama (SSM) is a carcinostatic immunotherapeutic agent extracted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The efficacy of SSM induced interleukin(IL)-12 and IFN-? production, and inhibition of IL-4, resulting in a shift from Th2 to Th1 in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Zinc-finger protein 90 negatively regulates neuron-restrictive silencer factor-mediated transcriptional repression of fetal cardiac genes.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that binds to specific DNA sequences (NRSE) to repress transcription. By down-regulating the transcription of its target genes, NRSF contributes to the regulation of various biological processes, including neuronal differentiation, carcinogenesis and cardiovascular homeostasis. We previously reported that NRSF regulates expression of the cardiac fetal gene program, and that attenuation of NRSF-mediated repression contributes to genetic remodeling in hearts under pathological conditions. The precise molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways via which NRSF activity is regulated in pathological conditions of the heart remain unclear, however. In this study, to search for regulators of NRSF, we carried out yeast two-hybrid screening using NRSF as bait and identified zinc-finger protein (Zfp) 90 as a novel NRSF-binding protein. NRSF and Zfp90 colocalized in the nucleus, with the zinc-finger DNA-binding domain of the former specifically interacting with the latter. Zfp90 inhibited the repressor activity of NRSF by inhibiting its binding to DNA, thereby derepressing transcription of NRSF-target genes. Knockdown of Zfp90 by siRNA led to reduced expression of NRSF-target fetal cardiac genes, atrial and brain natriuretic peptide genes, and conversely, overexpression of Zfp90 in ventricular myocardium resulted in significant increases in the expression of these genes. Notably, expression of Zfp90 mRNA was significantly upregulated in mouse and human hearts with chronic heart failure. Collectively, these results suggest that Zfp90 functions as a negative regulator of NRSF and contributes to genetic remodeling during the development of cardiac dysfunction.
Related JoVE Video
Antihypertensive activity of transgenic rice seed containing an 18-repeat novokinin peptide localized in the nucleolus of endosperm cells.
Plant Biotechnol. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Novokinin (Arg-Pro-Leu-Lys-Pro-Trp, RPLKPW) is a new potent antihypertensive peptide based on the sequence of ovokinin (2-7) derived from ovalbumin. We previously generated transgenic rice seeds in which eight novokinin were fused to storage protein glutelins (GluA2 and GluC) for expression. Oral administration of these seeds to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) reduced systolic blood pressures at a dose of 1 g seed/kg of SHR. Here, 10- or 18-tandem repeats of novokinin with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu, KDEL) at the C terminus were directly expressed in rice under the control of the glutelin promoter containing its signal peptide. Only small amounts of the 18-repeat novokinin accumulated, and it was unexpectedly deposited in the nucleolus. This abnormal intracellular localization was explained by an endogenous signal for nuclear localization. The GFP reporter protein fused to this sequence targeted to nuclei by a transient assay using onion epidermal cells. Transgenic seed expressing the 18-repeat novokinin exhibited significantly higher antihypertensive activity after a single oral dose to SHR even at one-quarter the amount (0.25 g/kg) of the transgenic rice seed expressing the fusion construct; though, its novokinin content was much lower (1/5). Furthermore, in a long-term administration for 5 weeks, even a smaller dose (0.0625 g/kg) of transgenic seeds could confer antihypertensive activity. This high antihypertensive activity may be attributed to differences in digestibility of expressed products by gastrointestinal enzymes and the unique intracellular localization. These results indicate that accumulation of novokinin as a tandemly repeated structure in transgenic rice is more effective than as a fusion-type structure.
Related JoVE Video
tRNADB-CE 2011: tRNA gene database curated manually by experts.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We updated the tRNADB-CE by analyzing 939 complete and 1301 draft genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, 171 complete virus genomes, 121 complete chloroplast genomes and approximately 230 million sequences obtained by metagenome analyses of 210 environmental samples. The 287?102 tRNA genes in total, and thus two times of the tRNA genes compiled previously, are compiled, in which sequence information, clover-leaf structure and results of sequence similarity and oligonucleotide-pattern search can be browsed. In order to pool collective knowledge with help from any experts in the tRNA research field, we included a column to which comments can be added on each tRNA gene. By compiling tRNAs of known prokaryotes with identical sequences, we found high phylogenetic preservation of tRNA sequences, especially at a phylum level. Furthermore, a large number of tRNAs obtained by metagenome analyses of environmental samples had sequences identical to those found in known prokaryotes. The identical sequence group, therefore, can be used as phylogenetic markers to clarify the microbial community structure of an ecosystem. The updated tRNADB-CE provided functions, with which users can obtain the phylotype-specific markers (e.g. genus-specific markers) by themselves and clarify microbial community structures of ecosystems in detail. tRNADB-CE can be accessed freely at http://trna.nagahama-i-bio.ac.jp.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical effect of implantable cardioverter defibrillator replacements: when should you resume driving after an implantable cardioverter defibrillator replacement?
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The intervals of the driving restrictions after an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) replacement vary across the different countries around the world. However, little is known regarding the appropriate duration for driving restrictions after an ICD replacement. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effect of ICD replacements and to elucidate when to resume driving an automobile after an ICD replacement.
Related JoVE Video
Abrupt heart rate fallings in a patient with biventricular pacing: latent risk for exacerbation of heart failure.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This case report describes abrupt heart rate fallings below the lower pacing rate limit in a patient with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Interrogated information including stored episodes or data regarding the lead did not show any device problems and only simultaneous intracardiac electrogram revealed the cause, T-wave oversensing during biventricular pacing. At this moment, CRT has become an established modality for patients with severe heart failure. However, bradycardia below the lower rate limit during biventricular pacing due to T-wave oversensing would exacerbate heart failure in patients with CRT. We should notice this latent risk and correct the malfunction immediately.
Related JoVE Video
Rapakinin, Arg-Ile-Tyr, derived from rapeseed napin, shows anti-opioid activity via the prostaglandin IP receptor followed by the cholecystokinin CCK(2) receptor in mice.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rapakinin, Arg-Ile-Tyr, is a vasorelaxing, anti-hypertensive and anorexigenic peptide derived from rapeseed napin. In this study, we found that rapakinin intracerebroventricularly administered to mice inhibited the analgesic effect of morphine, evaluated by the tail-pinch test. The anti-opioid activity of rapakinin was blocked by LY225910, an antagonist of the cholecystokinin (CCK) CCK(2) receptor, but not by lorglumide, an antagonist of the CCK(1) receptor. The anti-opioid activity of rapakinin was also blocked by CAY10441, an antagonist of the prostaglandin (PG) IP receptor. These results suggest that the anti-opioid activity of rapakinin is mediated by the CCK(2) and IP receptors. The anti-opioid activity induced by ciprostene, an IP receptor agonist, was blocked by LY225910, while that of CCK-8 was not blocked by CAY10441. Thus, it is demonstrated that the CCK-CCK(2) system was activated downstream of the PGI(2)-IP receptor system. Taken together, rapakinin shows anti-opioid activity via the activation of the PGI(2)-IP receptor system followed by the CCK-CCK(2) receptor system.
Related JoVE Video
Predictors of electrical storm in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy--how to stratify the risk of electrical storm.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Electrical storm (ES) is a serious problem in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). However, insufficient reports have indicated the predictors of ES in ICD patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The purpose of this study was to clarify the predictors of ES for risk stratification in DCM patients with an ICD.
Related JoVE Video
Myocardin-related transcription factor A is a common mediator of mechanical stress- and neurohumoral stimulation-induced cardiac hypertrophic signaling leading to activation of brain natriuretic peptide gene expression.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Subjecting cardiomyocytes to mechanical stress or neurohumoral stimulation causes cardiac hypertrophy characterized in part by reactivation of the fetal cardiac gene program. Here we demonstrate a new common mechanism by which these stimuli are transduced to a signal activating the hypertrophic gene program. Mechanically stretching cardiomyocytes induced nuclear accumulation of myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A), a coactivator of serum response factor (SRF), in a Rho- and actin dynamics-dependent manner. Expression of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and other SRF-dependent fetal cardiac genes in response to acute mechanical stress was blunted in mice lacking MRTF-A. Hypertrophic responses to chronic pressure overload were also significantly attenuated in mice lacking MRTF-A. Mutation of a newly identified, conserved and functional SRF-binding site within the BNP promoter, or knockdown of MRTF-A, reduced the responsiveness of the BNP promoter to mechanical stretch. Nuclear translocation of MRTF-A was also involved in endothelin-1- and angiotensin-II-induced activation of the BNP promoter. Moreover, mice lacking MRTF-A showed significantly weaker hypertrophic responses to chronic angiotensin II infusion than wild-type mice. Collectively, these findings point to nuclear translocation of MRTF-A as a novel signaling mechanism mediating both mechanical stretch- and neurohumoral stimulation-induced BNP gene expression and hypertrophic responses in cardiac myocytes.
Related JoVE Video
Optimal conditions for multifocal VEP recording for normal Japanese population established by receiver operating characteristic analysis.
Doc Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to establish optimal conditions for recording multifocal visual evoked potentials (mVEPs) in Japanese individuals, whose skull frame presumably differs from Caucasians. The scalp point that was extended from the calcarine fissure was identified using magnetic resonance imaging scans of 200 subjects. MVEPs were recorded from 56 individuals using three single channels and combinations of vertical and horizontal channels. Five electrodes were placed at the inion, 4 cm above the inion, 2.5 cm below the inion, 4 cm to the left or 4 cm to the right of the inion. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was obtained by measuring the root-mean-square (RMS) amplitude of a signal window (45-150 ms) from each of 60-local responses that was divided by the average of the 60 RMS amplitudes of the noise window (325-430 ms). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed based on the proportion of mVEP responses that exceeded a specific SNR criterion, calculated for both the signal window and the noise window. The position of the calcarine fissure relative to the inion was significantly lower than the value reported for Caucasians. The ROC analyses disclosed that bi-channel combinations (one vertical and one horizontal) had significantly better performance to discriminate signal from noise in 60-local mVEP responses compared to any single channel and performed similarly to the tri-channel combination. Two sets of perpendicular channels should be simultaneously used in recording mVEP responses from Japanese people, among whom skull frame characteristics differ from those observed in Caucasians.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced exposure of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 primary isolate neutralization epitopes through binding of CD4 mimetic compounds.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
N-(4-Chlorophenyl)-N-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidin-4-yl)-oxalamide (NBD-556) is a low-molecular-weight compound that reportedly blocks the interaction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 and its receptor CD4. We investigated whether the enhancement of binding of anti-gp120 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) toward envelope (Env) protein with NBD-556 are similar to those of soluble CD4 (sCD4) by comparing the binding profiles of the individual MAbs to Env-expressing cell surfaces. In flow cytometric analyses, the binding profiles of anti-CD4-induced epitope (CD4i) MAbs toward NBD-556-pretreated Env-expressing cell surfaces were similar to the binding profiles toward sCD4-pretreated cell surfaces. To investigate the binding position of NBD-556 on gp120, we induced HIV-1 variants that were resistant to NBD-556 and sCD4 in vitro. At passage 21 in the presence of 50 microM NBD-556, two amino acid substitutions (S375N in C3 and A433T in C4) were identified. On the other hand, in the selection with sCD4, seven mutations (E211G, P212L, V255E, N280K, S375N, G380R, and G431E) appeared during the passages. The profiles of the mutations after the selections with NBD-556 and sCD4 were very similar in their three-dimensional positions. Moreover, combinations of NBD-556 with anti-gp120 MAbs showed highly synergistic interactions against HIV-1. We further found that after enhancing the neutralizing activity by adding NBD-556, the contemporaneous virus became highly sensitive to antibodies in the patients plasma. These findings suggest that small compounds such as NBDs may enhance the neutralizing activities of CD4i and anti-V3 antibodies in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Relationship between oral amiodarone and inappropriate therapy from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study evaluated the efficacy of amiodarone for avoiding inappropriate therapies by implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs).
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of TRPC6 channel activity contributes to the antihypertrophic effects of natriuretic peptides-guanylyl cyclase-A signaling in the heart.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP, respectively) exert antihypertrophic effects in the heart via their common receptor, guanylyl cyclase (GC)-A, which catalyzes the synthesis of cGMP, leading to activation of protein kinase (PK)G. Still, much of the network of molecular mediators via which ANP/BNP-GC-A signaling inhibit cardiac hypertrophy remains to be characterized.
Related JoVE Video
Augmented ST-segment elevation during recovery from exercise predicts cardiac events in patients with Brugada syndrome.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical significance of ST-segment elevation during recovery from exercise testing.
Related JoVE Video
Combined analysis of cell growth and apoptosis-regulating proteins in HPVs associated anogenital tumors.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The clinical course of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated with Bowenoid papulosis and condyloma acuminatum of anogenital tumors are still unknown. Here we evaluated molecules that are relevant to cellular proliferation and regulation of apoptosis in HPV associated anogenital tumors.
Related JoVE Video
The positional relationship between the coronary sinus musculature and the atrioventricular septal junction.
Europace
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The atrioventricular (AV) septal junction includes the coronary sinus (CS) and the compact part of the AV node and its posterior extensions. It has been recognized as the target site for ablation therapy of the AV nodal reentrant tachycardia and its variant forms. Despite the clinical significance of this region, the arrangement of the musculature in the AV septal junction, including the CS, has not fully been elucidated. We tried to explore the histological muscular diversity within the AV septal junction.
Related JoVE Video
Rapakinin, an anti-hypertensive peptide derived from rapeseed protein, dilates mesenteric artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats via the prostaglandin IP receptor followed by CCK(1) receptor.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The anti-hypertensive peptide Arg-Ile-Tyr, which was isolated based on its inhibitory activity (IC(50)=28microM) for angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) from the subtilisin digest of rapeseed protein, exhibited vasorelaxing activity (EC(50)=5.1microM) in an endothelium-dependent manner in the mesenteric artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). We named the peptide rapakinin. ACE inhibitors are reported to induce nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasorelaxation by elevating the endogenous bradykinin level; however, the vasorelaxation induced by 10microM of rapakinin was blocked only insignificantly by HOE140 or N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), antagonists of bradykinin B(2) receptor and an inhibitor of NO synthase, respectively. On the other hand, the vasorelaxation induced by 10microM rapakinin was significantly blocked by indomethacin and CAY10441, a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor and an antagonist of the IP receptor, respectively. The vasorelaxing activity of rapakinin was also blocked by lorglumide, an antagonist of the cholecystokinin (CCK) CCK(1) receptor, although rapakinin has no affinity for the IP and CCK(1) receptors. The vasorelaxation induced by 10microM iloprost, an IP receptor agonist, was also blocked by lorglumide, suggesting that CCK-CCK(1) receptor system is activated downstream of the PGI(2)-IP receptor system. The anti-hypertensive activity of rapakinin after oral administration in SHRs was also blocked by CAY10441 and lorglumide. These results suggest that the anti-hypertensive activity of rapakinin might be mediated mainly by the PGI(2)-IP receptor, followed by CCK-CCK(1) receptor-dependent vasorelaxation.
Related JoVE Video
CD4 mimics targeting the mechanism of HIV entry.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A structure-activity relationship study was conducted of several CD4 mimicking small molecules which block the interaction between HIV-1 gp120 and CD4. These CD4 mimics induce a conformational change in gp120, exposing its co-receptor-binding site. This induces a highly synergistic interaction in the use in combination with a co-receptor CXCR4 antagonist and reveals a pronounced effect on the dynamic supramolecular mechanism of HIV-1 entry.
Related JoVE Video
Angiotensin AT(2) receptor agonists act as anti-opioids via EP(3) receptor in mice.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Novokinin (Arg-Pro-Leu-Lys-Pro-Trp) is a vasorelaxing and hypotensive peptide acting through the angiotensin AT(2) receptor. Centrally administrated novokinin (30nmol/mouse) inhibited the antinociceptive effect of micro agonist morphine in mice, as evaluated by the tail-pinch test. The anti-opioid effect of novokinin was blocked by PD123319, an antagonist of the AT(2) receptor. Angiotensin II (0.01nmol/mouse, i.c.v.) and [p-aminophenylalanine(6)]-angiotensin II [p-NH(2)Phe(6)]-Ang II (0.1nmol/mouse, i.c.v.), a highly selective AT(2) receptor agonist, also inhibited the antinociceptive effect of morphine, and the effects were also blocked by PD123319. Angiotensin II did not suppress the antinociceptive effect induced by kappa or delta agonists. Novokinin, angiotensin II and [p-NH(2)Phe(6)]-Ang did not have affinity for the micro receptor. The anti-opioid effects induced by these peptides were blocked by ONO-AE3-240, an antagonist of the EP(3) receptor. These results suggest that the anti-opioid effects of AT(2) agonists are mediated by the PGE(2)-EP(3) receptor system downstream of the AT(2) receptor.
Related JoVE Video
Electrical and chemical stimulation of the nucleus raphe magnus inhibits induction of retching by afferent vagal fibers.
Auton Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Like pain sensation, vomiting is induced by C afferent fibers of the vagus nerve. Therefore, it can be assumed to be suppressed by the descending inhibitory system (DIS) of pain. In this study we examined this possibility in immobilized decerebrated dogs. Fictive retching was induced by the stimulation of abdominal afferent vagal fibers (stim-abdVAs) and identified by activity patterns of efferent discharges of the phrenic and abdominal muscle nerves. The induction of retching was suppressed by weak stimulation (20microA, 20Hz, 0.5ms duration) of the pontine area corresponding to the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM). Stronger suppressions were produced by stimulation of the rostral part of the NRM at the pontine level where the abducen nucleus exists. Pontamine sky blue, an excitatory neurotoxin, which was microinjected into the NRM area in 5 dogs, completely suppressed the induction of retching during the injection period. The NRM area at the level of the abducen nucleus was commonly stained by the dye in the 5 dogs. These results suggest that the DIS of pain suppresses the induction of retching by afferent vagal fibers.
Related JoVE Video
The nucleus raphe magnus suppresses vomiting, and the solitary nucleus and 5-HT are not involved in this suppression.
Auton Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In previous paper, we reported that stimulation of the nucleus raphe magnus (stim-NRM) inhibits the induction of retching by afferent vagal fibers (VAs). We performed the present study to identity the transmitter of inhibition and then the site. The following results were obtained in decerebrated and paralyzed dogs. 1) The induction of fictive retching was suppressed by i.v. injection of 5-HT, and by 4th ventricular administration of 5-HT or a 5-HT3-receptor (R) agonist, 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanade hydrochloride (m-CPBG). 2) Both forms of suppression were antagonized by i.v. injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3-R antagonist. 3) Administration of the antagonist into the 4th ventricle did not affect the induction or its suppression by stim-NRM. These results suggest that the transmission from VAs to neurons in the nucleus solitarius (NTS) is suppressed by 5-HT via 5-HT3-R. However, these results also suggest that both the transmitter and receptor are not involved in the induction of retching by VAs or in its suppression by the NRM. Next, we examined the site of suppression. Unitary firings of NTS neurons in response to pulse-train stimulation of VAs were not inhibited by NRM stimulation. Moreover, the firing of NTS neurons during the induction of retching by vagal stimulation did not significantly decrease with the superimposition of stim-NRM, although the induction of retching was completely suppressed. These results suggest that suppression of the induction of retching by the descending inhibitory system of pain did not occur in the synapse between afferent vagal fibers and NTS neurons. The site of suppression is discussed.
Related JoVE Video
tRNADB-CE: tRNA gene database curated manually by experts.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We constructed a new large-scale database of tRNA genes by analyzing 534 complete genomes of prokaryotes and 394 draft genomes in WGS (Whole Genome Shotgun) division in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank and approximately 6.2 million DNA fragment sequences obtained from metagenomic analyses. This exhaustive search for tRNA genes was performed by running three computer programs to enhance completeness and accuracy of the prediction. Discordances of assignment among three programs were found for approximately 4% of the total of tRNA gene candidates obtained from these prokaryote genomes analyzed. The discordant cases were manually checked by experts in the tRNA experimental field. In total, 144,061 tRNA genes were registered in the database tRNADB-CE, and the number of the genes was more than four times of that of the genes previously reported by the database from analyses of complete genomes with tRNAscan-SE program. The tRNADB-CE allows for browsing sequence information, cloverleaf structures and results of similarity searches among all tRNA genes. For each of the complete genomes, the number of tRNA genes for individual anticodons and the codon usage frequency in all protein genes and the positioning of individual tRNA genes in each genome can be browsed. tRNADB-CE can be accessed freely at http://trna.nagahama-i-bio.ac.jp.
Related JoVE Video
Safety and efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator during pregnancy and after delivery.
Circ. J.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are few studies of pregnancy and delivery in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). The purpose of this study was to investigate maternal and fetal outcome in these patients.
Related JoVE Video
Soil-related variations in the population dynamics of six dipterocarp tree species with strong habitat preferences.
Oecologia
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Differences in the density of conspecific tree individuals in response to environmental gradients are well documented for many tree species, but how such density differences are generated and maintained is poorly understood. We examined the segregation of six dipterocarp species among three soil types in the Pasoh tropical forest, Malaysia. We examined how individual performance and population dynamics changed across the soil types using 10-year demographic data to compare tree performance across soil types, and constructed population matrix models to analyze the population dynamics. Species showed only minor changes in mortality and juvenile growth across soil types, although recruitment differed greatly. Clear, interspecific demographic trade-offs between growth and mortality were found in all soil types. The relative trade-offs by a species did not differ substantially among the soil types. Population sizes were projected to remain stable in all soil types for all species with one exception. Our life-table response experiment demonstrated that the population dynamics of a species differed only subtly among soil types. Therefore, species with strong density differences across soil types do not necessarily differ greatly in their population dynamics across the soil types. In contrast, interspecific differences in population dynamics were large. The trade-off between mortality and growth led to a negative correlation between the contributions of mortality and growth to variations in the population growth rate (?) and thus reduced their net contributions. Recruitment had little impact on the variation in ?. The combination of these factors resulted in little variation in ? among species.
Related JoVE Video
Reciprocal expression of MRTF-A and myocardin is crucial for pathological vascular remodelling in mice.
EMBO J.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)-A is a Rho signalling-responsive co-activator of serum response factor (SRF). Here, we show that induction of MRTF-A expression is key to pathological vascular remodelling. MRTF-A expression was significantly higher in the wire-injured femoral arteries of wild-type mice and in the atherosclerotic aortic tissues of ApoE(-/-) mice than in healthy control tissues, whereas myocardin expression was significantly lower. Both neointima formation in wire-injured femoral arteries in MRTF-A knockout (Mkl1(-/-)) mice and atherosclerotic lesions in Mkl1(-/-); ApoE(-/-) mice were significantly attenuated. Expression of vinculin, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and integrin ?1, three SRF targets and key regulators of cell migration, in injured arteries was significantly weaker in Mkl1(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), knocking down MRTF-A reduced expression of these genes and significantly impaired cell migration. Underlying the increased MRTF-A expression in dedifferentiated VSMCs was the downregulation of microRNA-1. Moreover, the MRTF-A inhibitor CCG1423 significantly reduced neointima formation following wire injury in mice. MRTF-A could thus be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of vascular diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Novel CCK-dependent vasorelaxing dipeptide, Arg-Phe, decreases blood pressure and food intake in rodents.
Mol Nutr Food Res
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We found that a dipeptide, Arg-Phe (RF), had vasorelaxing activity in mesenteric artery isolated from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) (EC(50) = 580 nM). We then investigated its mechanism of action, and elucidated its physiological functions.
Related JoVE Video
Double expression of CD34 and CD117 on bone marrow progenitors is a hallmark of the development of functional mast cell of Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset).
Int. Immunol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mast cells (MCs) are developed from hematopoietic progenitor cells and play an important role in inflammation. Study of the kinetics of development and accumulation of primate MC in vivo is crucial for the control of human inflammatory diseases, as evolution of the immune system is quite rapid and inflammation including MC response is considered to be different between mouse and human. In the present study, we examined the development of MC from hematopoietic progenitors of Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset), an experimental animal of nonhuman primates. Bone marrow cells were fractionated for the expression of CD34 and CD117 by cell sorting. MCs were developed in vitro or by transplanting the cells to NOD/SCID/IL-2?c knockout (NOG) mice. In vitro culture of CD34(+)CD117(+) (double positive, DP) cells with stem cell factor could generate high-affinity Fc epsilon receptor (Fc?R)-expressing CD117(+) cells with typical granules. The developed MC released ?-hexosaminidase and produced leukotriene C(4) after the stimulation of Fc?RI. Transplantation of DP cells gave rise to a marked expansion of CD34(-)CD45(+)CD117(+)Fc?R(+) cells in NOG mice. They expressed transcripts encoding chymase 1 and tryptase ?. Differentiation of CD34(-)CD117(+) cells to MCs was relatively limited compared with the DP cells, similarly to human MCs. These results suggest that this marmoset system provides a good model for human MC development.
Related JoVE Video
Seasonal and circadian distributions of cardiac events in genotyped patients with congenital long QT syndrome.
Circ. J.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although the incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias associated with structural heart disease is highest in winter and during the daytime, seasonal and circadian variations among cardiac events in patients with congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) remain unknown. The present study aims to determine seasonal and circadian cardiac events in patients with a congenital LQTS genotype.
Related JoVE Video
[A 5-year study of patients with neck lymphadenopathy].
Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate neck lymphadenopathy patients in our hospital, and to investigate items requiring attention on the occasion of examination of these patients. In this study, 134 patients with neck lymphadenopathy in the five years from April 2005 to March 2010 were included. The kind of diseases, the period of suffering (the period from onset to consultation), relationship with pain, radiological examination, fine needle aspiration cytology and lymph node biopsy findings were examined. Of 134 patients, the disease was inflammatory in 109 patients (81.3%) and malignant in 25 patients (18.7%). The suffering period was longer in the malignant group than in the inflammatory group. Furthermore, the inflammatory group had more patients with neck lymph node pain than the malignant group, and the group with the short suffering period had more patients with neck lymph node pain than that with the long suffering period. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed in 36 patients (26.9%), and finally, all of the seven patients with class III were diagnosed as having malignant disease. A neck lymph node biopsy was performed in 38 patients (28.4%), and four of 38 patients were diagnosed as having metastatic carcinoma. Two patients in the inflammatory group and two patients in the malignant group took more than 90 days to reach a definite diagnosis. Many kind of diseases cause neck lymphadenopathy, and, therefore, it is important to perform a neck lymph node biopsy immediately, if it is difficult to establish a diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of ocular rotation on parapapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness analysis measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the effects of ocular rotation on parapapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).
Related JoVE Video
Filtering bleb structure associated with long-term intraocular pressure control after amniotic membrane-assisted trabeculectomy.
Curr. Eye Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine whether amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) at trabeculectomy affects intrableb structures and which intrableb parameters are significantly correlated with the long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) control.
Related JoVE Video
Agreement among three types of spectral-domain optical coherent tomography instruments in measuring parapapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness.
Br J Ophthalmol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the agreement of parapapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness among three spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) instruments.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.