Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic form of cell death induced by small molecules in specific tumour types, and in engineered cells overexpressing oncogenic RAS. Yet, its relevance in non-transformed cells and tissues is unexplored and remains enigmatic. Here, we provide direct genetic evidence that the knockout of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) causes cell death in a pathologically relevant form of ferroptosis. Using inducible Gpx4(-/-) mice, we elucidate an essential role for the glutathione/Gpx4 axis in preventing lipid-oxidation-induced acute renal failure and associated death. We furthermore systematically evaluated a library of small molecules for possible ferroptosis inhibitors, leading to the discovery of a potent spiroquinoxalinamine derivative called Liproxstatin-1, which is able to suppress ferroptosis in cells, in Gpx4(-/-) mice, and in a pre-clinical model of ischaemia/reperfusion-induced hepatic damage. In sum, we demonstrate that ferroptosis is a pervasive and dynamic form of cell death, which, when impeded, promises substantial cytoprotection.
It is believed that biosynthesis of lipid mediators in the central nervous system after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion starts with phospholipid hydrolysis by calcium-dependent phospholipases and is followed by oxygenation of released fatty acids (FAs). Here, we report an alternative pathway whereby cereberal ischemia-reperfusion triggered oxygenation of a mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin (CL), is followed by its hydrolysis to yield monolyso-CLs and oxygenated derivatives of fatty (linoleic) acids. We used a model of global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion characterized by 9?minutes of asphyxia leading to asystole followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation in postnatal day 17 rats. Global ischemia and cardiopulmonary resuscitation resulted in: (1) selective oxidation and hydrolysis of CLs, (2) accumulation of lyso-CLs and oxygenated free FAs, (3) activation of caspase 3/7 in the brain, and (4) motor and cognitive dysfunction. On the basis of these findings, we used a mitochondria targeted nitroxide electron scavenger, which prevented CL oxidation and subsequent hydrolysis, attenuated caspase activation, and improved neurocognitive outcome when administered after cardiac arrest. These data show that calcium-independent CL oxidation and subsequent hydrolysis represent a previously unidentified pathogenic mechanism of brain injury incurred by ischemia-reperfusion and a clinically relevant therapeutic target.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.204.
The central role of mitochondria in metabolic pathways and in cell-death mechanisms requires sophisticated signalling systems. Essential in this signalling process is an array of lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the molecular machinery for the production of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids is localized in the cytosol and their biosynthesis has not been identified in mitochondria. Here we report that a range of diversified polyunsaturated molecular species derived from a mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin (CL), is oxidized by the intermembrane-space haemoprotein, cytochrome c. We show that a number of oxygenated CL species undergo phospholipase A2-catalysed hydrolysis and thus generate multiple oxygenated fatty acids, including well-known lipid mediators. This represents a new biosynthetic pathway for lipid mediators. We demonstrate that this pathway, which includes the oxidation of polyunsaturated CLs and accumulation of their hydrolysis products (oxygenated linoleic, arachidonic acids and monolysocardiolipins), is activated in vivo after acute tissue injury.
Membrane phospholipids are gaining increasing attention as important mediators in a variety of signal transduction processes. Oxidation and changes in membrane topography of lipids are likely important elements in the regulation of phospholipid-dependent signaling. Phosphatidylserine (PS), in particular, is implicated in the regulation of macrophage-dependent clearance of apoptotic cell "corpses" in a pathway likely mediated by selective oxidation and translocation of PS in the plasma membrane. Here we describe our highly sensitive and specific assay to measure differential lipid peroxidation in individual phospholipid classes in live cells using metabolic integration of the fluorescent oxidation-sensitive fatty acid analog, cis- parinaric acid and resolution of specific phospholipids by high-pressure liquid chromatography. These experimental approaches can provide insight into the roles and mechanisms of PS oxidation in the identification and clearance of apoptotic cells.
Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) is a mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzyme whose expression in humans is low or absent in organs known to utilize fatty acids for energy such as heart, muscle, and liver. This study demonstrates localization of LCAD to human alveolar type II pneumocytes, which synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant. The physiological role of LCAD and the fatty acid oxidation pathway in lung was subsequently studied using LCAD knock-out mice. Lung fatty acid oxidation was reduced in LCAD(-/-) mice. LCAD(-/-) mice demonstrated reduced pulmonary compliance, but histological examination of lung tissue revealed no obvious signs of inflammation or pathology. The changes in lung mechanics were found to be due to pulmonary surfactant dysfunction. Large aggregate surfactant isolated from LCAD(-/-) mouse lavage fluid had significantly reduced phospholipid content as well as alterations in the acyl chain composition of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. LCAD(-/-) surfactant demonstrated functional abnormalities when subjected to dynamic compression-expansion cycling on a constrained drop surfactometer. Serum albumin, which has been shown to degrade and inactivate pulmonary surfactant, was significantly increased in LCAD(-/-) lavage fluid, suggesting increased epithelial permeability. Finally, we identified two cases of sudden unexplained infant death where no lung LCAD antigen was detectable. Both infants were homozygous for an amino acid changing polymorphism (K333Q). These findings for the first time identify the fatty acid oxidation pathway and LCAD in particular as factors contributing to the pathophysiology of pulmonary disease.
Acute lung injury (ALI) is linked to mitochondrial injury, resulting in impaired cellular oxygen utilization; however, it is unknown how these events are linked on the molecular level. Cardiolipin, a mitochondrial-specific lipid, is generated by cardiolipin synthase (CLS1). Here, we show that S. aureus activates a ubiquitin E3 ligase component, Fbxo15, that is sufficient to mediate proteasomal degradation of CLS1 in epithelia, resulting in decreased cardiolipin availability and disrupted mitochondrial function. CLS1 is destabilized by the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which binds CLS1 to phosphorylate and regulates CLS1 disposal. Like Fbxo15, PINK1 interacts with and regulates levels of CLS1 through a mechanism dependent upon Thr219. S. aureus infection upregulates this Fbxo15-PINK1 pathway to impair mitochondrial integrity, and Pink1 knockout mice are less prone to S. aureus-induced ALI. Thus, ALI-associated disruption of cellular bioenergetics involves bioeffectors that utilize a phosphodegron to elicit ubiquitin-mediated disposal of a key mitochondrial enzyme.
Cardiolipins, a class of mitochondria-specific lipid molecules, is one of the most unusual and ancient phospholipids found in essentially all living species. Typical of mammalian cells is the presence of vulnerable to oxidation polyunsaturated fatty acid resides in CL molecules. The overall role and involvement of cardiolipin oxidation (CLox) products in major intracellular signaling as well as extracellular inflammatory and immune responses have been established. However, identification of individual peroxidized molecular species in the context of their ability to induce specific biological responses has not been yet achieved. This is due, at least in part, to technological difficulties in detection, identification, structural characterization and quantitation of CLox associated with their very low abundance and exquisite diversification. This dictates the need for the development of new methodologies for reliable, sensitive and selective analysis of both CLox. LC-MS-based oxidative lipidomics with high mass accuracy instrumentation as well as new software packages are promising in achieving the goals of expedited and reliable analysis of cardiolipin oxygenated species in biosamples.
Cardiolipins (CLs) are ancient and unusual dimeric phospholipids localized in the plasma membrane of bacteria and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes. In mitochondria, two types of asymmetries - trans-membrane and molecular - are essential determinants of CL functions. In this review, we describe CL-based signaling mitochondrial pathways realized via modulation of trans-membrane asymmetry and leading to externalization and peroxidation of CLs in mitophagy and apoptosis, respectively. We discuss possible mechanisms of CL translocations from the inner leaflet of the inner to the outer leaflet of the outer mitochondrial membranes. We present redox reaction mechanisms of cytochrome c-catalyzed CL peroxidation as a required stage in the execution of apoptosis. We also emphasize the significance of CL-related metabolic pathways as new targets for drug discovery. Finally, a remarkable diversity of polyunsaturated CL species and their oxidation products have evolved in eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes. This diversity - associated with CL molecular asymmetry - is presented as the basis for mitochondrial communications language.
Recognition of injured mitochondria for degradation by macroautophagy is essential for cellular health, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Cardiolipin is an inner mitochondrial membrane phospholipid. We found that rotenone, staurosporine, 6-hydroxydopamine and other pro-mitophagy stimuli caused externalization of cardiolipin to the mitochondrial surface in primary cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. RNAi knockdown of cardiolipin synthase or of phospholipid scramblase-3, which transports cardiolipin to the outer mitochondrial membrane, decreased the delivery of mitochondria to autophagosomes. Furthermore, we found that the autophagy protein microtubule-associated-protein-1 light chain 3 (LC3), which mediates both autophagosome formation and cargo recognition, contains cardiolipin-binding sites important for the engulfment of mitochondria by the autophagic system. Mutation of LC3 residues predicted as cardiolipin-interaction sites by computational modelling inhibited its participation in mitophagy. These data indicate that redistribution of cardiolipin serves as an eat-me signal for the elimination of damaged mitochondria from neuronal cells.
Mechanical injury of neurites accompanied by rupture of mitochondrial membranes may lead to immediate nonspecific release and spreading of pro-apoptotic factors and activation of proteases, that is, execution of apoptotic program. In the current work, we studied the time course of the major biomarkers of apoptosis as they are induced by exposure of rat cortical neurons to mechanical stretch. By using transmission electron microscopy, we found that mitochondria in the neurites were damaged early (1?h) after mechanical stretch injury whereas somal mitochondria were significantly more resistant and demonstrated structural damage and degenerative mitochondrial changes at a later time point after stretch (12?h). We also report that the stretch injury caused immediate activation of reactive oxygen species production followed by selective oxidation of a mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin, whose individual peroxidized molecular species have been identified and quantified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis. Most abundant neuronal phospholipids - phosphatidylcholine, phophatidylethanolamine - did not undergo oxidative modification. Simultaneously, a small-scale release of cytochrome c was observed. Notably, caspase activation and phosphatidylserine externalization - two irreversible apoptotic events designating a point of no return - are substantially delayed and do not occur until 6-12?h after the initial impact. The early onset of reactive oxygen species production and cytochrome c release may be relevant to direct stretch-induced damage to mitochondria. The delayed emergence of apoptotic neuronal death after the immediate mechanical damage to mitochondria suggests a possible window of opportunity for targeted therapies.
Peroxidation of cardiolipin in mitochondria is essential for the execution of apoptosis. We suggested that integration of oleic acid into cardiolipin generates non-oxidizable cardiolipin species hence protects cells against apoptosis. We synthesized mitochondria-targeted triphenylphosphonium oleic acid ester. Using lipidomics analysis we found that pretreatment of mouse embryonic cells with triphenylphosphonium oleic acid ester resulted in decreased contents of polyunsaturated cardiolipins and elevation of its species containing oleic acid residues. This caused suppression of apoptosis induced by actinomycin D. Triacsin C, an inhibitor of acyl-CoA synthase, blocked integration of oleic acid into cardiolipin and restored cell sensitivity to apoptosis.
Dendritic cells are the most potent antigen presenting cells responsible for the development of immune responses in cancer. However, it is known that the function of dendritic cells in tumor-bearing hosts is severely compromised. Our previous studies demonstrated that the defects in dendritic cell function are due, to a large extent, to the accumulation of high amounts of lipids--predominantly triglycerides--in a substantial proportion of dendritic cells in tumor-bearing mice and patients with cancer. The dendritic cells accumulation of lipids is likely associated with their up-regulation of a scavenger receptor A. This receptor is primarily responsible for uptake of modified lipids. Here, by using different versions of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified several molecular species of oxygenated lipids in plasma of tumor-bearing animals that may be responsible for their uptake and accumulation by dendritic cells via scavenger receptor A-dependent pathway--the effect that may be associated with the loss of dendritic cells immune surveillance function in cancer.
It is commonly believed that nanomaterials cause nonspecific oxidative damage. Our mass spectrometry-based oxidative lipidomics analysis of all major phospholipid classes revealed highly selective patterns of pulmonary peroxidation after inhalation exposure of mice to single-walled carbon nanotubes. No oxidized molecular species were found in the two most abundant phospholipid classes: phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Peroxidation products were identified in three relatively minor classes of anionic phospholipids, cardiolipin, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol, whereby oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acid residues also showed unusual substrate specificity. This nonrandom peroxidation coincided with the accumulation of apoptotic cells in the lung. A similar selective phospholipid peroxidation profile was detected upon incubation of a mixture of total lung lipids with H(2)O(2)/cytochrome c known to catalyze cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine peroxidation in apoptotic cells. The characterized specific phospholipid peroxidation signaling pathways indicate new approaches to the development of mitochondria-targeted regulators of cardiolipin peroxidation to protect against deleterious effects of pro-apoptotic effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes in the lung.
The risk of radionuclide release in terrorist acts or exposure of healthy tissue during radiotherapy demand potent radioprotectants/radiomitigators. Ionizing radiation induces cell death by initiating the selective peroxidation of cardiolipin in mitochondria by the peroxidase activity of its complex with cytochrome c leading to release of haemoprotein into the cytosol and commitment to the apoptotic program. Here we design and synthesize mitochondria-targeted triphenylphosphonium-conjugated imidazole-substituted oleic and stearic acids that blocked peroxidase activity of cytochrome c/cardiolipin complex by specifically binding to its haem-iron. We show that both compounds inhibit pro-apoptotic oxidative events, suppress cyt c release, prevent cell death, and protect mice against lethal doses of irradiation. Significant radioprotective/radiomitigative effects of imidazole-substituted oleic acid are observed after pretreatment of mice from 1?h before through 24?h after the irradiation.
Ascorbate is a vital reductant/free radical scavenger in the CNS, whose content defines - to a large extent - the redox status and the antioxidant reserves. Quick, reliable and specific methods for its measurement in brain samples are highly desirable. We have developed a new high-throughput screening assay for measurements of ascorbate using a fluorescence plate-reader. This assay is based on a direct reaction of ascorbate with a nitroxide radical conjugated with a fluorogenic acridine moiety, 4-((9-acridinecarbonyl)-amino)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (AC-TEMPO), yielding fluorescent hydroxylamine product (AC-TEMPO-H). The reaction was monitored over time using fluorescence and electron spin resonance techniques. The appearance of fluorescent AC-TEMPO-H was linear within the range of 3.75-75?M AscH(-) in the sample (0.5-10?M AscH(-) in the well). Assay was validated with high performance liquid chromatography method. The concentration of ascorbate in murine tissue samples, including brain samples after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock, was measured.
Probucol inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo, and the drug reduces intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis in animals via induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Because the succinyl ester of probucol, succinobucol, recently failed as an antiatherogenic drug in humans, we investigated its effects on smooth muscle cell proliferation. Succinobucol and probucol induced HO-1 and decreased cell proliferation in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. However, whereas inhibition of HO-1 reversed the antiproliferative effects of probucol, this was not observed with succinobucol. Instead, succinobucol but not probucol induced caspase activity and apoptosis, and it increased mitochondrial oxidation of hydroethidine to ethidium, suggestive of the participation of H(2)O(2) and cytochrome c. Also, succinobucol but not probucol converted cytochrome c into a peroxidase in the presence of H(2)O(2), and succinobucol-induced apoptosis was decreased in cells that lacked cytochrome c or a functional mitochondrial complex II. In addition, succinobucol increased apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo after balloon angioplasty-mediated vascular injury. Our results suggest that succinobucol induces apoptosis via a pathway involving mitochondrial complex II, H(2)O(2), and cytochrome c. These unexpected results are discussed in light of the failure of succinobucol as an antiatherogenic drug in humans.
Formation of cytochrome c (cyt c)/cardiolipin (CL) peroxidase complex selective toward peroxidation of polyunsaturated CLs is a pre-requisite for mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Tyrosine residues - via the generation of tyrosyl radicals (Tyr) - are likely reactive intermediates of the peroxidase cycle leading to CL peroxidation. We used mutants of horse heart cyt c in which each of the four Tyr residues was substituted for Phe and assessed their contribution to the peroxidase catalysis. Tyr67Phe mutation was associated with a partial loss of the oxygenase function of the cyt c/CL complex and the lowest concentration of H(2)O(2)-induced Tyr radicals in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra. Our MS experiments directly demonstrated decreased production of CL-hydroperoxides (CL-OOH) by Tyr67Phe mutant. Similarly, oxidation of a phenolic substrate, Amplex Red, was affected to a greater extent in Tyr67Phe than in three other mutants. Tyr67Phe mutant exerted high resistance to H(2)O(2)-induced oligomerization. Measurements of Tyr fluorescence, hetero-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and computer simulations position Tyr67 in close proximity to the porphyrin ring heme iron and one of the two axial heme-iron ligand residues, Met80. Thus, the highly conserved Tyr67 is a likely electron-donor (radical acceptor) in the oxygenase half-reaction of the cyt c/CL peroxidase complex.
Two-dimensional graphitic carbon is a new material with many emerging applications, and studying its chemical properties is an important goal. Here, we reported a new phenomenon--the enzymatic oxidation of a single layer of graphitic carbon by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (?40 ?M), HRP catalyzed the oxidation of graphene oxide, which resulted in the formation of holes on its basal plane. During the same period of analysis, HRP failed to oxidize chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The enzymatic oxidation was characterized by Raman, ultraviolet-visible, electron paramagnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Computational docking studies indicated that HRP was preferentially bound to the basal plane rather than the edge for both graphene oxide and RGO. Owing to the more dynamic nature of HRP on graphene oxide, the heme active site of HRP was in closer proximity to graphene oxide compared to RGO, thereby facilitating the oxidation of the basal plane of graphene oxide. We also studied the electronic properties of the reduced intermediate product, holey reduced graphene oxide (hRGO), using field-effect transistor (FET) measurements. While RGO exhibited a V-shaped transfer characteristic similar to a single layer of graphene that was attributed to its zero band gap, hRGO demonstrated a p-type semiconducting behavior with a positive shift in the Dirac points. This p-type behavior rendered hRGO, which can be conceptualized as interconnected graphene nanoribbons, as a potentially attractive material for FET sensors.
Oxidative damage plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of ?-radiation-induced lung injury. Endothelium is a preferred target for early radiation-induced damage and apoptosis. Given the newly discovered role of oxidized phospholipids in apoptotic signaling, we performed oxidative lipidomics analysis of phospholipids in irradiated mouse lungs and cultured mouse lung endothelial cells. C57BL/6NHsd female mice were subjected to total-body irradiation (10 Gy, 15 Gy) and euthanized 24 h thereafter. Mouse lung endothelial cells were analyzed 48 h after ? irradiation (15 Gy). We found that radiation-induced apoptosis in vivo and in vitro was accompanied by non-random oxidation of phospholipids. Cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine were the major oxidized phospholipids, while more abundant phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine) remained non-oxidized. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed the formation of cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine oxygenated molecular species in the irradiated lung and cells. Analysis of fatty acids after hydrolysis of cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine by phospholipase A(2) revealed the presence of mono-hydroperoxy and/or mono-hydroxy/mono-epoxy, mono-hydroperoxy/mono-oxo molecular species of linoleic acid. We speculate that cyt c-driven oxidations of cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine associated with the execution of apoptosis in pulmonary endothelial cells are important contributors to endothelium dysfunction in ?-radiation-induced lung injury.
S-nitrosoalbumin (SNO-Alb) has been shown to be an efficacious cytoprotective molecule in acute lung injury, as well as ischemia-reperfusion injury in heart and skeletal muscle. Nonetheless, limited information is available on the cellular mechanism of such protection. Accordingly, we investigated the protective effects of SNO-Alb [ and its denitrosated congener, reduced albumin (SH-Alb) ] on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH)-mediated cytotoxicity in cultured rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (RPMEC), as well as hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S)-mediated cytotoxicity in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (RPASMC). We noted that tBH caused a concentration-dependent necrosis in RPMEC, and pretreatment of RPMEC with SNO-Alb dose-dependently decreased the sensitivity of these cells to tBH. A component of SNO-Alb cytoprotection was sensitive to N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and was associated with activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phenomena that could be reproduced with pretreatment with SH-Alb. Exogenous H(2)S caused concentration-dependent apoptosis in RPASMC due to activation of ERK1/2 and p38, as well as downregulation of Bcl-2. Pretreatment with SNO-Alb reduced H(2)S-mediated apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner that was associated with SNO-Alb-mediated inhibition of activation of ERK1/2 and p38. Pretreatment with SNO-Alb reduced toxicity of 1 mM sodium hydrosulfide in an N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-sensitive fashion in RPASMC that expressed gp60 and neuronal NOS and was capable of transporting fluorescently labeled SH-Alb. Therefore, SNO-Alb is cytoprotective against models of oxidant-induced necrosis (tBH) and inhibitors of cellular respiration and apoptosis (H(2)S) in both pulmonary endothelium and smooth muscle, respectively, and a component of such protection can be attributed to a SH-Alb-mediated activation of constitutive NOS.
The essentiality of polyunsaturated lipids makes membranes susceptible to peroxidative modifications. One of the most contemporary examples includes selective peroxidation of cardiolipin in mitochondria of cells undergoing apoptosis. Cardiolipin peroxidation products are required for the mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, release of pro-apoptotic factors and completion of the cell death program. Therefore, search for effective inhibitors of cardiolipin peroxidation is critical to discovery and development of anti-apoptotic antioxidants. Mitochondria contain significant amounts of ?-tocopherol, a well known scavenger of reactive free radicals. In the present study, we used an oxidative lipidomics approach to evaluate the effect of ?-tocopherol and its homologues with different lengths of the side-chain such as 2,5,7,8,-tetramethyl-2(4-methylpentyl)-6-chromanol and 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-chromanol, on oxidation of tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin induced by cytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Our data indicate that vitamin E homologues inhibit not only accumulation of tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin hydroperoxides but also hydroxy-derivatives of tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin formed in the enzymatic peroxidase half-reaction catalyzed by cytochrome c. This suggests that protective effects of vitamin E homologues against tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c/hydrogen peroxide are realized largely due to their effects on the peroxidase activity of cytochrome c towards tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin rather than via their scavenging activity.
Mammalian cytochrome c (Cytc) transfers electrons from the bc(1) complex to cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) as part of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and it also participates in type II apoptosis. Our recent discovery of two tyrosine phosphorylation sites in Cytc, Tyr97 in bovine heart and Tyr48 in bovine liver, indicates that Cytc functions are regulated through cell signaling. To characterize the role of Cytc tyrosine phosphorylation in detail using an independent approach, we here overexpressed and purified a Tyr48Glu mutant Cytc, mimicking the in vivo Tyr48 phosphorylation found in cow liver, along with wild-type and Tyr48Phe variants as controls. The midpoint redox potential of the phosphomimetic mutant was decreased by 45 mV compared to control (192 vs 237 mV). Similar to Tyr48 in vivo phosphorylated Cytc, direct kinetic analysis of the Cytc reaction with isolated CcO revealed decreased V(max) for the Tyr48Glu mutant by 30% compared to wild type or the Tyr48Phe variants. Moreover, the phosphomimetic substitution resulted in major changes of Cytc functions related to apoptosis. The binding affinity of Tyr48Glu Cytc to cardiolipin was decreased by about 30% compared to wild type or the Tyr48Phe variants, and Cytc peroxidase activity of the Tyr48Glu mutant was cardiolipin-inducible only at high cardiolipin concentration, unlike controls. Importantly, the Tyr48Glu Cytc failed to induce any detectable downstream activation of caspase-3. Our data suggest that in vivo Tyr48 phosphorylation might serve as an antiapoptotic switch and highlight the strategic position and role of the conserved Cytc residue Tyr48 in regulating multiple functions of Cytc.
Pneumonia remains the leading cause of death from infection in the US, yet fundamentally new conceptual models underlying its pathogenesis have not emerged. We show that humans and mice with bacterial pneumonia have markedly elevated amounts of cardiolipin, a rare, mitochondrial-specific phospholipid, in lung fluid and find that it potently disrupts surfactant function. Intratracheal cardiolipin administration in mice recapitulates the clinical phenotype of pneumonia, including impaired lung mechanics, modulation of cell survival and cytokine networks and lung consolidation. We have identified and characterized the activity of a unique cardiolipin transporter, the P-type ATPase transmembrane lipid pump Atp8b1, a mutant version of which is associated with severe pneumonia in humans and mice. Atp8b1 bound and internalized cardiolipin from extracellular fluid via a basic residue-enriched motif. Administration of a peptide encompassing the cardiolipin binding motif or Atp8b1 gene transfer in mice lessened bacteria-induced lung injury and improved survival. The results unveil a new paradigm whereby Atp8b1 is a cardiolipin importer whose capacity to remove cardiolipin from lung fluid is exceeded during inflammation or when Atp8b1 is defective. This discovery opens the door for new therapeutic strategies directed at modulating the abundance or molecular interactions of cardiolipin in pneumonia.
Reactive oxygen species have been shown to play a significant role in hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury, in part, by inducing apoptosis of pulmonary endothelium. However, the signaling roles of phospholipid oxidation products in pulmonary endothelial apoptosis have not been studied. Using an oxidative lipidomics approach, we identified individual molecular species of phospholipids involved in the apoptosis-associated peroxidation process in a hyperoxic lung. C57BL/6 mice were killed 72 h after exposure to hyperoxia (100% oxygen). We found that hyperoxia-induced apoptosis (documented by activation of caspase-3 and -7 and histochemical terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-mediated nick-end labeling staining of pulmonary endothelium) was accompanied by nonrandom oxidation of pulmonary lipids. Two anionic phospholipids, mitochondria-specific cardiolipin (CL) and extramitochondrial phosphatidylserine (PS), were the two major oxidized phospholipids in hyperoxic lung. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we identified several oxygenation products in CL and PS. Quantitative assessments revealed a significant decrease of CL and PS molecular species containing C(18:2), C(20:4), C(22:5), and C(22:6) fatty acids. Similarly, exposure of mouse pulmonary endothelial cells (MLEC) to hyperoxia (95% oxygen; 72 h) resulted in activation of caspase-3 and -7 and significantly decreased the content of CL molecular species containing C(18:2) and C(20:4) as well as PS molecular species containing C(22:5) and C(22:6). Oxygenated molecular species were found in the same two anionic phospholipids, CL and PS, in MLEC exposed to hyperoxia. Treatment of MLEC with a mitochondria-targeted radical scavenger, a conjugate of hemi-gramicidin S with nitroxide, XJB-5-131, resulted in significantly lower oxidation of both CL and PS and a decrease in hyperoxia-induced changes in caspase-3 and -7 activation. We speculate that cytochrome c driven oxidation of CL and PS is associated with the signaling role of these oxygenated species participating in the execution of apoptosis and clearance of pulmonary endothelial cells, thus contributing to hyperoxic lung injury.
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic injury, but the exact mechanisms responsible for its toxicity remain unclear. Infection of primary neurons with an adenovirus expressing wild type (WT) COX-2 increased the susceptibility of neurons to hypoxia. Infection with an adenoviral vector expressing COX-2 with a mutation at the cyclooxygenase site did not increase susceptibility to hypoxia, whereas over-expression of COX-2 with a mutation in the peroxidase site produced similar susceptibility to hypoxia as WT COX-2. Primary neuronal cultures obtained from transgenic mice bearing a mutation in the COX-2 cylooxygenase site were protected from hypoxia. Mice with a mutation in the cyclooxygenase site had smaller infarctions 24 h after 70 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion than WT control mice. COX-2 activity had no effect on the formation of protein carbonyls. Ascorbate radicals were detected by electron paramagnetic resonance as a product of recombinant COX-2 activity and were blocked by COX-2 inhibitors. Similarly, formation of ascorbate radicals was inhibited in the presence of COX-2 inhibitors and in homogenates obtained from COX-2 null mice. Taken together, these results indicate that the cyclooxygenase activity of COX-2 is necessary to exacerbate neuronal hypoxia/ischemia injury rather than the peroxidase activity of the enzyme.
Glutathione (GSH) acts as a free radical scavenger that may be helpful in preventing reperfusion injury. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) replenishes GSH stores. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of NAC in improving liver graft performance and reducing the incidence of post-operative acute kidney injury (AKI).
We have shown previously that single-walled carbon nanotubes can be catalytically biodegraded over several weeks by the plant-derived enzyme, horseradish peroxidase. However, whether peroxidase intermediates generated inside human cells or biofluids are involved in the biodegradation of carbon nanotubes has not been explored. Here, we show that hypochlorite and reactive radical intermediates of the human neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase catalyse the biodegradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes in vitro, in neutrophils and to a lesser degree in macrophages. Molecular modelling suggests that interactions of basic amino acids of the enzyme with the carboxyls on the carbon nanotubes position the nanotubes near the catalytic site. Importantly, the biodegraded nanotubes do not generate an inflammatory response when aspirated into the lungs of mice. Our findings suggest that the extent to which carbon nanotubes are biodegraded may be a major determinant of the scale and severity of the associated inflammatory responses in exposed individuals.
Removal of excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species by electron scavengers and antioxidants is a promising therapeutic strategy to reduce the detrimental effects of radiation exposure. Here we exploited triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation as a means to target nitroxide radicals to mitochondria. We synthesized a library of TPP-conjugated nitroxides and tested their radioprotective effects in gamma-irradiated mouse embryo cells and human epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Cells were incubated with conjugates either before or after irradiation. We found that [2-(1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidin-4-ylimino)-ethyl]-triphenyl-phosphonium (TPEY-Tempo) significantly blocked radiation-induced apoptosis as revealed by externalization of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface and inhibition of cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Using electron paramagnetic resonance, we showed that TPEY-Tempo was integrated into cells and mitochondria, where it underwent one-electron reduction to hydroxylamine. TPEY-Tempo acted as an electron scavenger that prevented superoxide generation and cardiolipin oxidation in mitochondria. Finally, TPEY-Tempo increased the clonogenic survival rate of irradiated cells. The cellular integration efficiencies of nonradioprotective TPP conjugates, including Mito-Tempo (Alexis, San Diego, CA), were markedly lower, although these homologues were integrated into isolated succinate-energized mitochondria to a similar extent as TPEY-Tempo. We conclude that mitochondrial targeting of TPP-conjugated nitroxides represents a promising approach for the development of novel radioprotectors.
Combination of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and 2D-high-performance thin-layer chromatography (2D-HPTLC) is a powerful approach to identify and quantitatively analyze oxidized phospholipids in vivo. We describe application of this methodology in assessments of phospholipid hydroperoxides using as an example their characterization and quantitative determinations in different tissues of mice exposed to total body irradiation (TBI, 10 and 15 Gy). Using ESI-MS, we identified individual molecular species - with particular emphasis on polyunsaturated molecules as preferred peroxidation substrates - in major classes of phospholipids: cardiolipin (CL), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) isolated from mouse brain, lung, muscles, small intestine, and bone marrow. We show that the pattern of phospholipid oxidation 24 h after TBI is nonrandom and does not follow the phospholipid abundance in tissues. The anionic phospholipids - CL, PS, and PI - are the preferred peroxidation substrates. We identified and structurally characterized individual hydroperoxides in these three classes of phospholipids. The protocols described may be utilized in studies of signaling functions of oxidized phospholipids in cell physiology and pathology.
Cytochrome c (cyt c), a mitochondrial intermembrane electron shuttle between complexes III and IV, can, upon binding with an anionic phospholipid, cardiolipin (CL), act as a peroxidase that catalyzes cardiolipin oxidation. H(2)O(2) was considered as a source of oxidative equivalents for this reaction, which is essential for programmed cell death. Here we report that peroxidase cyt c/CL complexes can utilize free fatty acid hydroperoxides (FFA-OOH) at exceptionally high rates that are approximately 3 orders of magnitude higher than for H(2)O(2). Similarly, peroxidase activity of murine liver mitochondria was high with FFA-OOH. Using EPR spin trapping and LC-MS techniques, we have demonstrated that cyt c/CL complexes split FFA-OOH predominantly via a heterolytic mechanism, yielding hydroxy-fatty acids, whereas H(2)O(2) (and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, t-BuOOH) undergo homolytic cleavage. Computer simulations have revealed that Arg(38) and His(33) are important for the heterolytic mechanism at potential FFA-OOH binding sites of cyt c (but not for H(2)O(2) or t-BuOOH). Regulation of FFA-OOH metabolism may be an important function of cyt c that is associated with elimination of toxic FFA-OOH and synthesis of physiologically active hydroxy-fatty acids in mitochondria.
Resolution of inflammation requires clearance of activated neutrophils by macrophages in a manner that prevents injury to adjacent tissues. Surface changes, including phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, may target neutrophils for phagocytosis. In this study, we show that externalization of PS is defective in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-activated neutrophils obtained from chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients with mutations in components of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Moreover, activated neutrophils from CGD patients failed to undergo clearance upon cocultivation with macrophages from normal donors. In line with these results, treatment of donor neutrophils with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, blocked PMA-induced PS oxidation and externalization and prevented their engulfment by macrophages. Furthermore, primary macrophages from CGD patients or human gp91(phox)-deficient PLB-985 cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells were defective for engulfment of apoptotic target cells. Pretreatment of normal macrophages with DPI also suppressed the subsequent ingestion of PS-positive target cells. Together, these data demonstrate that NADPH oxidase plays an important role in the process of macrophage disposal of target cells (programmed cell clearance). Thus we speculate that the lack of a functional NADPH oxidase results in impaired neutrophil clearance and the exaggerated inflammation that is characteristic for CGD.
Effective regulation of highly compartmentalized production of reactive oxygen species and peroxidation reactions in mitochondria requires targeting of small molecule antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes into the organelles. This review describes recently developed approaches to mitochondrial targeting of small biologically active molecules based on: (i) preferential accumulation in mitochondria because of their hydrophobicity and positive charge (hydrophobic cations), (ii) binding with high affinity to an intra-mitochondrial constituent, and (iii) metabolic conversions by specific mitochondrial enzymes to reveal an active entity. In addition, targeted delivery of antioxidant enzymes via expression of leader sequences directing the proteins into mitochondria is considered. Examples of successful antioxidant and anti-apoptotic protection based on the ability of targeted cargoes to inhibit cytochrome c-catalyzed peroxidation of a mitochondria-specific phospholipid cardiolipin, in vitro and in vivo are presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the employment of triphenylphosphonium- and hemi-gramicidin S-moieties as two effective vehicles for mitochondrial delivery of antioxidants.
The critical role of mitochondria in programmed cell death leads to the design of mitochondriotropic agents as a strategy in regulating apoptosis. For anticancer therapy, stimulation of proapoptotic mitochondrial events in tumor cells and their suppression in surrounding normal cells represents a promising paradigm for new therapies. Different approaches targeting regulation of components of mitochondrial antioxidant system such as Mn-SOD demonstrated significant antitumor efficiency, particularly in combination therapy. This review is focused on a newly discovered early stage of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis - oxidative lipid signaling involving a mitochondria-specific phospholipid cardiolipin (CL). Cytochrome c (cyt c) acts as a CL-specific peroxidase very early in apoptosis. At this stage, the hostile events are still secluded within the mitochondria and do not reach the cytosolic targets. CL oxidation process is required for the release of pro-apoptotic factors into the cytosol. Manipulation of cyt c interactions with CL, inhibition of peroxidase activity, and prevention of CL peroxidation are prime targets for the discovery of anti-apoptotic drugs acting before the "point-of-no-return" in the fulfillment of the cell death program. Therefore, mitochondria-targeted disruptors and inhibitors of cyt c/CL peroxidase complexes and suppression of CL peroxidation represent new strategies in anti-apoptotic drug discovery.
Damage of presynaptic mitochondria could result in release of proapoptotic factors that threaten the integrity of the entire neuron. We discovered that alpha-synuclein (Syn) forms a triple complex with anionic lipids (such as cardiolipin) and cytochrome c, which exerts a peroxidase activity. The latter catalyzes covalent hetero-oligomerization of Syn with cytochrome c into high molecular weight aggregates. Syn is a preferred substrate of this reaction and is oxidized more readily than cardiolipin, dopamine, and other phenolic substrates. Co-localization of Syn with cytochrome c was detected in aggregates formed upon proapoptotic stimulation of SH-SY5Y and HeLa cells and in dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons of rotenone-treated rats. Syn-cardiolipin exerted protection against cytochrome c-induced caspase-3 activation in a cell-free system, particularly in the presence of H(2)O(2). Direct delivery of Syn into mouse embryonic cells conferred resistance to proapoptotic caspase-3 activation. Conversely, small interfering RNA depletion of Syn in HeLa cells made them more sensitive to dopamine-induced apoptosis. In human Parkinson disease substantia nigra neurons, two-thirds of co-localized Syn-cytochrome c complexes occurred in Lewy neurites. Taken together, these results indicate that Syn may prevent execution of apoptosis in neurons through covalent hetero-oligomerization of cytochrome c. This immediate protective function of Syn is associated with the formation of the peroxidase complex representing a source of oxidative stress and postponed damage.
Dendritic cells (DC) loaded with tumor antigens from apoptotic/necrotic tumor cells are commonly used as vaccines for cancer therapy. However, the use of dead tumor cells may cause both tolerance and immunity, making the effect of vaccination unpredictable. To deliver live tumor "cargoes" into DC, we developed a new approach based on the "labeling" of tumors with a phospholipid "eat-me" signal, phosphatidylserine. Expression of phosphatidylserine on live tumor cells mediated their recognition and endocytosis by DC resulting in the presentation of tumor antigens to antigen-specific T cells. In mice, topical application of phosphatidylserine-containing ointment over melanoma induced tumor-specific CTL, local and systemic antitumor immunity, and inhibited tumor growth. Thus, labeling of tumors with phosphatidylserine is a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy.
Broad applications of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) dictate the necessity to better understand their health effects. Poor recognition of non-functionalized SWCNT by phagocytes is prohibitive towards controlling their biological action. We report that SWCNT coating with a phospholipid "eat-me" signal, phosphatidylserine (PS), makes them recognizable in vitro by different phagocytic cells - murine RAW264.7 macrophages, primary monocyte-derived human macrophages, dendritic cells, and rat brain microglia. Macrophage uptake of PS-coated nanotubes was suppressed by the PS-binding protein, Annexin V, and endocytosis inhibitors, and changed the pattern of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Loading of PS-coated SWCNT with pro-apoptotic cargo (cytochrome c) allowed for the targeted killing of RAW264.7 macrophages. In vivo aspiration of PS-coated SWCNT stimulated their uptake by lung alveolar macrophages in mice. Thus, PS-coating can be utilized for targeted delivery of SWCNT with specified cargoes into professional phagocytes, hence for therapeutic regulation of specific populations of immune-competent cells.
Oxidation of two anionic phospholipids--cardiolipin (CL) in mitochondria and phosphatidylserine (PS) in extramitochondrial compartments--is important signaling event, particularly during the execution of programmed cell death and clearance of apoptotic cells. Quantitative analysis of CL and PS oxidation products is central to understanding their molecular mechanisms of action. We combined the identification of diverse phospholipid molecular species by ESI-MS with quantitative assessments of lipid hydroperoxides using a fluorescence HPLC-based protocol. We characterized CL and PS oxidation products formed in a model system (cyt c/H(2)O(2)), in apoptotic cells (neurons, pulmonary artery endothelial cells) and mouse lung under inflammatory/oxidative stress conditions (hyperoxia, inhalation of single walled carbon nanotubes). Our results demonstrate the usefulness of this approach for quantitative assessments, identification of individual molecular species and structural characterization of anionic phospholipids that are involved in oxidative modification in cells and tissues.
Recently, phospholipid peroxidation products gained a reputation as key regulatory molecules and participants in oxidative signaling pathways. During apoptosis, a mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin (CL), interacts with cytochrome c (cyt c) to form a peroxidase complex that catalyzes CL oxidation; this process plays a pivotal role in the mitochondrial stage of the execution of the cell death program. This review is focused on redox mechanisms and essential structural features of cyt cs conversion into a CL-specific peroxidase that represent an interesting and maybe still unique example of a functionally significant ligand change in hemoproteins. Furthermore, specific characteristics of CL in mitochondria--its asymmetric transmembrane distribution and mechanisms of collapse, the regulation of its synthesis, remodeling, and fatty acid composition--are given significant consideration. Finally, new concepts in drug discovery based on the design of mitochondria-targeted inhibitors of cyt c/CL peroxidase and CL peroxidation with antiapoptotic effects are presented.
The nucleoside diphosphate kinase Nm23-H4/NDPK-D forms symmetrical hexameric complexes in the mitochondrial intermembrane space with phosphotransfer activity using mitochondrial ATP to regenerate nucleoside triphosphates. We demonstrate the complex formation between Nm23-H4 and mitochondrial GTPase OPA1 in rat liver, suggesting its involvement in local and direct GTP delivery. Similar to OPA1, Nm23-H4 is further known to strongly bind in vitro to anionic phospholipids, mainly cardiolipin, and in vivo to the inner mitochondrial membrane. We show here that such protein-lipid complexes inhibit nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity but are necessary for another function of Nm23-H4, selective intermembrane lipid transfer. Mitochondrial lipid distribution was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using HeLa cells expressing either wild-type Nm23-H4 or a membrane binding-deficient mutant at a site predicted based on molecular modeling to be crucial for cardiolipin binding and transfer mechanism. We found that wild type, but not the mutant enzyme, selectively increased the content of cardiolipin in the outer mitochondrial membrane, but the distribution of other more abundant phospholipids (e.g. phosphatidylcholine) remained unchanged. HeLa cells expressing the wild-type enzyme showed increased accumulation of Bax in mitochondria and were sensitized to rotenone-induced apoptosis as revealed by stimulated release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, elevated caspase 3/7 activity, and increased annexin V binding. Based on these data and molecular modeling, we propose that Nm23-H4 acts as a lipid-dependent mitochondrial switch with dual function in phosphotransfer serving local GTP supply and cardiolipin transfer for apoptotic signaling and putative other functions.
Ca(2+)-independent lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) is a member of the phospholipase A(2) superfamily with a distinguishing characteristic of high specificity for oxidatively modified sn-2 fatty acid residues in phospholipids that has been especially well characterized for peroxidized species of phosphatidylcholines (PC). The ability of Lp-PLA(2) to hydrolyze peroxidized species of phosphatidylserine (PS), acting as a recognition signal for clearance of apoptotic cells by professional phagocytes, as well as the products of the reaction has not been investigated. We performed liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry-based structural characterization of oxygenated, hydrolyzed molecular species of PS-containing linoleic acid in either the sn-2 position (C(18:0)/C(18:2)) or in both sn-1 and sn-2 positions (C(18:2)/C(18:2)), formed in the cytochrome c- and H(2)O(2)-driven enzymatic oxidation reaction. Cytochrome c has been chosen as a catalyst of peroxidation reactions because of its likely involvement in PS oxidation in apoptotic cells. We found that Lp-PLA(2) catalyzed the hydrolysis of both nontruncated and truncated (oxidatively fragmented) species of oxidized PS species, albeit with different efficiencies, and performed detailed characterization of the major reaction products: oxygenated derivatives of linoleic acid as well as nonoxygenated and oxygenated species of lyso-PS. Among linoleic acid products, derivatives oxygenated at the C(9) position, including 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE), a potent ligand of G protein-coupled receptor G2A, were the most abundant. Computer modeling of interactions of Lp-PLA(2) with different PS-oxidized species indicated that they are able to bind in the proximity (<5 Å) of Ser273 and His351 of the catalytic triad. For 9-hydroxy and 9-hydroperoxy derivatives of oxidized PS, the sn-2 ester bond was positioned very close (<3 Å) to the Ser273 residue, a nucleophile directly attacking the sn-2 bond, thus favoring the hydrolysis reaction. We suggest that oxidatively modified free fatty acids and lyso-PS species generated by Lp-PLA(2) may represent important signals facilitating and regulating the execution of apoptotic and phagocytosis programs essential for the control of inflammation.
The brain contains a highly diversified complement of molecular species of a mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin, which, because of its polyunsaturation, can readily undergo oxygenation. Using global lipidomics analysis in experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), we found that TBI was accompanied by oxidative consumption of polyunsaturated cardiolipin and the accumulation of more than 150 new oxygenated molecular species of cardiolipin. RNAi-based manipulations of cardiolipin synthase and cardiolipin levels conferred resistance to mechanical stretch, an in vitro model of traumatic neuronal injury, in primary rat cortical neurons. By applying a brain-permeable mitochondria-targeted electron scavenger, we prevented cardiolipin oxidation in the brain, achieved a substantial reduction in neuronal death both in vitro and in vivo, and markedly reduced behavioral deficits and cortical lesion volume. We conclude that cardiolipin oxygenation generates neuronal death signals and that prevention of it by mitochondria-targeted small molecule inhibitors represents a new target for neuro-drug discovery.
Oxidized phospholipid species are important, biologically relevant, lipid signaling molecules that usually exist in low abundance in biological tissues. Along with their inherent stability issues, these oxidized lipids present themselves as a challenge in their detection and identification. Often times, oxidized lipid species can co-chromatograph with non-oxidized species making the detection of the former extremely difficult, even with the use of mass spectrometry. In this study, a normal-phase and reverse-phase two dimensional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometric system was applied to separate oxidized phospholipids from their non-oxidized counterparts, allowing unambiguous detection in a total lipid extract. We have utilized bovine heart cardiolipin as well as commercially available tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin oxidized with cytochrome c (cyt c) and hydrogen peroxide as well as with lipoxygenase to test the separation power of the system. Our findings indicate that oxidized species of not only cardiolipin, but other phospholipid species, can be effectively separated from their non-oxidized counterparts in this two dimensional system. We utilized three types of biological tissues and oxidative insults, namely rotenone treatment of lymphocytes to induce mitochondrial damage and cell death, pulmonary inhalation exposure to single walled carbon nanotubes, as well as total body irradiation, in order to identify cardiolipin oxidation products, critical to the cell damage/cell death pathways in these tissues following cellular stress/injury. Our results indicate that selective cardiolipin (CL) oxidation is a result of a non-random free radical process. In addition, we assessed the ability of the system to identify CL oxidation products in the brain, a tissue known for its extreme complexity and diversity of CL species. The ability of the two dimensional HPLC-mass spectrometric system to detect and characterize oxidized lipid products will allow new studies to be formulated to probe the answers to biologically important questions with regard to oxidative lipidomics and cellular insult. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxidized phospholipids - their properties and interactions with proteins.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.