Syntaxin-1A is a t-SNARE that is involved in vesicle docking and vesicle fusion; it is important in presynaptic exocytosis in neurons because it interacts with many regulatory proteins. Previously, we found the following: 1) that autophosphorylated Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), an important modulator of neural plasticity, interacts with syntaxin-1A to regulate exocytosis, and 2) that a syntaxin missense mutation (R151G) attenuated this interaction. To determine more precisely the physiological importance of this interaction between CaMKII and syntaxin, we generated mice with a knock-in (KI) syntaxin-1A (R151G) mutation. Complexin is a molecular clamp involved in exocytosis, and in the KI mice, recruitment of complexin to the SNARE complex was reduced because of an abnormal CaMKII/syntaxin interaction. Nevertheless, SNARE complex formation was not inhibited, and consequently, basal neurotransmission was normal. However, the KI mice did exhibit more enhanced presynaptic plasticity than wild-type littermates; this enhanced plasticity could be associated with synaptic response than did wild-type littermates; this pronounced response included several behavioral abnormalities. Notably, the R151G phenotypes were generally similar to previously reported CaMKII mutant phenotypes. Additionally, synaptic recycling in these KI mice was delayed, and the density of synaptic vesicles was reduced. Taken together, our results indicated that this single point mutation in syntaxin-1A causes abnormal regulation of neuronal plasticity and vesicle recycling and that the affected syntaxin-1A/CaMKII interaction is essential for normal brain and synaptic functions in vivo.
Extracellular factors that inhibit axon growth and intrinsic factors that promote it affect neural regeneration. Therapies targeting any single gene have not yet simultaneously optimized both types of factors. Chondroitin sulphate (CS), a glycosaminoglycan, is the most abundant extracellular inhibitor of axon growth. Here we show that mice carrying a gene knockout for CS N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1 (T1), a key enzyme in CS biosynthesis, recover more completely from spinal cord injury than wild-type mice and even chondroitinase ABC-treated mice. Notably, synthesis of heparan sulphate (HS), a glycosaminoglycan promoting axonal growth, is also upregulated in TI knockout mice because HS-synthesis enzymes are induced in the mutant neurons. Moreover, chondroitinase ABC treatment never induces HS upregulation. Taken together, our results indicate that regulation of a single gene, T1, mediates excellent recovery from spinal cord injury by optimizing counteracting effectors of axon regeneration--an extracellular inhibitor of CS and intrinsic promoters, namely, HS-synthesis enzymes.
We investigated the effect of taltirelin hydrate ((?)-N-[(S)-hexahydro-1-methyl- 2,6-dioxo-4-pyrimidinyl-carbonyl]-L-histidyl-L-prolinamide tetrahydrate; taltirelin), a metabolically stable thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analog, on circulatory function, respiratory function, and viable time after bleeding in urethane-anesthetized rats. Massive volume-controlled bleeding caused marked reductions in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and respiratory rate (RR). The vital signs of control rats were lost within an average of 23 min after bleeding. Intravenous administration of taltirelin (0.03?0.3 mg/kg) and TRH (1 and 3 mg/kg) immediately after bleeding accelerated recovery of MAP and RR, and prolonged viable time in a dose-dependent manner. The potency of taltirelin in accelerating MAP and RR recovery and prolonging viable time was higher when compared with that of TRH. In addition, recovery of MAP and RR and the extension of viable time by taltirelin were inhibited by preintraperitoneal administration of atropine sulfate, which is a centrally acting muscarinic antagonist, but not by that of atropine methylbromide, which is a peripherally acting muscarinic antagonist. Taltirelin also recovered decreased arterial pH, bicarbonate ions, and base excess, and prevented a decrease in arterial oxygen saturation. In conclusion, the anti-shock effect of taltirelin was more potent than that of TRH. Taltirelin activity was mediated by the central muscarinic cholinergic system. In addition, taltirelin also corrected metabolic acidosis. These results suggest that taltirelin could be useful in the treatment of hypovolemic shock.
Kitasatospora setae NBRC 14216(T) (=KM-6054(T)) is known to produce setamycin (bafilomycin B1) possessing antitrichomonal activity. The genus Kitasatospora is morphologically similar to the genus Streptomyces, although they are distinguishable from each other on the basis of cell wall composition and the 16S rDNA sequence. We have determined the complete genome sequence of K. setae NBRC 14216(T) as the first Streptomycetaceae genome other than Streptomyces. The genome is a single linear chromosome of 8,783,278 bp with terminal inverted repeats of 127,148 bp, predicted to encode 7569 protein-coding genes, 9 rRNA operons, 1 tmRNA and 74 tRNA genes. Although these features resemble those of Streptomyces, genome-wide comparison of orthologous genes between K. setae and Streptomyces revealed smaller extent of synteny. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences unequivocally placed K. setae outside the Streptomyces genus. Although many of the genes related to morphological differentiation identified in Streptomyces were highly conserved in K. setae, there were some differences such as the apparent absence of the AmfS (SapB) class of surfactant protein and differences in the copy number and variation of paralogous components involved in cell wall synthesis.
CS (chondroitin sulfate) is a glycosaminoglycan species that is widely distributed in the extracellular matrix. To understand the physiological roles of enzymes involved in CS synthesis, we produced CSGalNAcT1 (CS N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1)-null mice. CS production was reduced by approximately half in CSGalNAcT1-null mice, and the amount of short-chain CS was also reduced. Moreover, the cartilage of the null mice was significantly smaller than that of wild-type mice. Additionally, type-II collagen fibres in developing cartilage were abnormally aggregated and disarranged in the homozygous mutant mice. These results suggest that CSGalNAcT1 is required for normal CS production in developing cartilage.
Laboratory-adapted and vaccine strains of measles virus (MV) induce type I interferon (IFN) in infected cells to a far greater extent than wild-type strains. We investigated the mechanisms for this differential type I IFN production in cells infected with representative MV strains. The overexpression of the wild-type V protein suppressed melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-induced IFN-? promoter activity, while this was not seen in A549 cells expressing CD150 transfected with the V protein of the vaccine strain. The V proteins of the wild-type also suppressed poly I:C-induced IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) dimerization. The V proteins of the wild-type and vaccine strain did not affect retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)- or toll-IL-1R homology domain-containing adaptor molecule 1 (TICAM-1)-induced IFN-? promoter activation. We identified an amino acid substitution of the cysteine residue at position 272 (which is conserved among paramyxoviruses) to an arginine residue in the V protein of the vaccine strain. Only the V protein possessing the 272C residue binds to MDA5. The mutation introduced into the wild-type V protein (C272R) was unable to suppress MDA5-induced IRF-3 nuclear translocation and IFN-? promoter activation as seen in the V proteins of the vaccine strain, whereas the mutation introduced in the vaccine strain V protein (R272C) was able to inhibit MDA5-induced IRF-3 and IFN-? promoter activation. The other 6 residues of the vaccine strain V sequence inconsistent with the authentic sequence of the wild-type V protein barely affected the IRF-3 nuclear translocation. These data suggested that the structural difference of laboratory-adapted [corrected] MV V protein hampers MDA5 blockade and acts as a nidus for the spread/amplification of type I IFN induction. Ultimately, measles vaccine strains have two modes of IFN-?-induction for their attenuation: V protein mutation and production of defective interference (DI) RNA.
The biochemical properties, neuroanatomical location, and function of aromatase (ARO), the enzyme that converts testosterone to 17beta-estradiol, have been studied extensively in the adult quail brain. Conversely, very little is known about ARO in quail embryos. This study investigated the distribution of ARO in quail prosencephalon at embryonic days (E) 9, 11, and 15 by immunocytochemistry. ARO-immunoreactive cells were observed within the walls of the cerebral ventricles, the ventral striatum, medial preoptic nucleus (POM), medial part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTM), lateral part of the BST, and in the tuberal region. The BSTM and to a lesser extent the POM showed transient, female-biased sex-differences. In the BSTM, the number of the ARO-immunoreactive cells, the fractional area covered by ARO-immunoreactive structures, and the overall extension of ARO-immunoreactivity were greater in females at E9 and E11, but these differences largely disappeared at E15 and post-hatch day 1. The sex differences were confirmed at the transcriptional level by in situ hybridization. In the lateral part of the POM, females showed slightly more ARO-immunoreactivity than males at E11. Treatment of E9 male embryos with estradiol completely feminized ARO-immunoreactivity at E11. The origins and the functional significance of these sex differences remain unknown.
Choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cells (CPECs) produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to provide the CNS with a specialized microenvironment. Our previous study showed that the conditioned medium of cultured CPECs enhanced the survival and neurite extension of hippocampal neurons. The present study examined the ability of cultured CPECs to protect against ischemic brain injury when transplanted into the CSF. Rats were subjected to a transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, followed by an injection of cultured CPECs into the fourth ventricle. The injection markedly reduced neurological deficits and infarction volume within 24h. Other beneficial effects were (1) a reduction in number of apoptotic and inflammatory cells, (2) an up-regulation of the mRNA expression of an anti-apoptotic effecter, cAMP-response element binding protein, and (3) a down-regulation of the production of pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin-1 beta and inducible nitric oxide synthase. The injected CPECs were located within the ventricles and on the brains surface, not in the ischemic foci, suggesting that they exert their effects by releasing diffusible neuroprotective factors into the CSF. The transplantation of CPECs via CSF is a potential new strategy for protecting against ischemic brain injury.
The rapidity of coagulation testing is important for use as appropriate substitution therapy in patients with, or at risk of critical bleeding requiring massive transfusion. Whereas the ordinary method of coagulation testing is known to be slow, in a critically haemorrhaging patient, a rapid turnaround time of coagulation testing becomes indispensable. To find out if coagulation test results will be affected by a shortened centrifugation time, we measured PT (prothrombin time), APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time), FIB (fibrinogen) and PLT (platelet) in plasma, using different centrifugation times (10 min, 5 min, 3 min), and analyzed the measurements. We found that, whereas centrifugation time significantly affected the PLT count in plasma (10 min; 5.17 +/- 3.71 x 10(3)/microl, 5min; 28. +/- 26.9 x 10(3)/microl, 3min; 63.7 x 10(3)/microl), PT(10min; 14.6 +/- 5.76 sec, 5min; 14.7 +/- 5.84 sec, 3min; 14.9 +/- 6.40 sec), APTT (10min; 36.4 +/- 15.9 sec, 5min; 36.8 +/- 16.5 sec, 3min; 34.7 +/- 11.4 sec) and FIB(10min; 361 +/- 134 mg/dl, 5min; 356 +/- 132 mg/dl, 3min; 356 +/- 125 mg/dl) were not affected. These data suggest that shortening centrifugation time will have no significant effect on the value of PT, APTT and FIB, in an emergency situation.
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