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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Association between Polymorphisms of Interleukin-17A and Interleukin-17F Genes and Silicosis Susceptibility in Chinese Han People.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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To explore the relationship between polymorphisms of interleukin17 (IL-17) gene(A-832G 7488A/G) and the susceptibility to silicosis, a risk factor for lung cancer.
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[Helicobacter pylori infection and associated risk factors in Chengdu].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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OBJECTIVE : To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in Chengdu and its risk factors.
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Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index Predicts Prognosis of Patients after Curative Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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We developed a novel systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) based on lymphocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts and explored its prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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[Mechanism of osteoclast in bone resorption].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Osteoclast, a huge coenocytes,originates from mononuclear macrophages or monocytic series hematopoietic precursor cell, plays an important role in the progree of bone resorption. Formation and abnormal activity of osteoclast may cause osteoprosis, rheumatoid arthritis and aseptic loosening after arthroplasty. Therefore, osteoclast is the target for treating these disease. At present, a lot of study on formation of osteoclast were reported, but the study on how to identify and degradation of bone tissue is not yet reported. Bone mineral are seen as important component of identifing osteoclast, and the research suggested that bone matrix is not the essential ingredients of activiting osteoclast, petri dish covered by vitronectin also can make osteoclast occure certain form of bone resorption, vitronectin plays an significant role in activiting osteoclast. Otherwise, the research found that swallowing and secretion of bone matrix degradation products is benefit for differentiation of osteoclast and maintain of function, and this may be therapeutic target for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.
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Hepatitis B flares in chronic hepatitis B: Pathogenesis, natural course, and management.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Hepatitis B flare, defined as an event with abrupt rise of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels to >5times the upper limit of normal during chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, is considered to be the result of a human leukocyte antigen-I restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte mediated immune response against HBV and its downstream mechanisms. It may occur spontaneously, during or after antiviral therapy and in the setting of immunosuppression and/or chemotherapy. The clinical spectrum of hepatitis B flares varies from asymptomatic to symptomatic and typical overt acute hepatitis, even with hepatic decompensation or failure. Flares may also occur in viraemic patients with cirrhosis with higher incidence of decompensation/mortality, hence requiring immediate antiviral therapy. An upsurge of serum HBV DNA and hepatitis B surface antigen levels usually precedes the abrupt rise of ALT levels. Rising or stable and high HBV DNA during flares represent ineffective immune clearance and further hepatocytolysis, even hepatic decompensation, may occur. Such patients require immediate antiviral therapy. In contrast, bridging hepatic necrosis and/or alpha-fetoprotein levels >100ng/ml or decreasing HBV DNA during flares represent a more effective immune clearance and frequently leads to seroclearance of HBV DNA and/or hepatitis B e antigen with remission. If patients are non-cirrhotic and there is no concern of developing decompensation, patients may be observed for 3-6months before deciding on the need of antiviral therapy. Severe and repeated flares are prone to develop into decompensation or lead to the development of cirrhosis, thus a timely treatment to prevent the hepatitis B flare is better than to cope with the flare. Screening, monitoring and prophylactic or pre-emptive antiviral therapy is mandatory for patients who are going to receive immunosuppressants or chemotherapy.
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Using a thermoluminescent dosimeter to evaluate the location reliability of the highest-skin dose area detected by treatment planning in radiotherapy for breast cancer.
Med Dosim
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Acute skin reaction during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer is an inevitable process, and its severity is related to the skin dose. A high-skin dose area can be speculated based on the isodose distribution shown on a treatment planning. To determine whether treatment planning can reflect high-skin dose location, 80 patients were collected and their skin doses in different areas were measured using a thermoluminescent dosimeter to locate the highest-skin dose area in each patient. We determined whether the skin dose is consistent with the highest-dose area estimated by the treatment planning of the same patient. The ?(2) and Fisher exact tests revealed that these 2 methods yielded more consistent results when the highest-dose spots were located in the axillary and breast areas but not in the inframammary area. We suggest that skin doses shown on the treatment planning might be a reliable and simple alternative method for estimating the highest skin doses in some areas.
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Meta-analysis of drug-eluting versus bare metal stents in patients with indications for oral anticoagulation undergoing coronary stenting.
Acta Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Current expert consensus recommends the use of bare metal stent (BMS) for patients with an indication for oral anticoagulation (OAC) undergoing coronary stenting. The use of drug-eluting stents (DES) should be limited. However, there is a lack of evidence to support these recommendations. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of DES to BMS in these patients.
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Acute Effects of Kinesio Taping on Knee Extensor Peak Torque and Electromyographic Activity After Exhaustive Isometric Knee Extension in Healthy Young Adults.
Clin J Sport Med
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To evaluate the effect of Kinesio Tex tape and its method of application, Kinesio Taping (KT) on knee extensor performance before and after an exhaustive isometric knee extension exercise.
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Clinical significance of EpCAM mRNA-positive circulating tumor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma by an optimized negative enrichment and qRT-PCR-based platform.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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This study aimed to construct a novel platform for the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to investigate the clinical significance of epithelial cell adhesion molecule mRNA-positive (EpCAM(mRNA+)) CTCs using this platform.
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Hyperthermia inhibited the migration of tongue squamous cell carcinoma through TWIST2.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Hyperthermia has been shown promising in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); however, the mechanism underlying hyperthermia reducing tumor metastasis is poorly elucidated. TWIST2, an important transcription factor of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), plays a critical role in the tumor progression and metastasis. The role of TWIST2 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and its association with hyperthermia still have not been reported.
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[Monosomal karyotype among adult acute myeloid leukemia: clinical characteristic and prognostic analysis].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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To explore the clinical characteristics and prognostic value of monosomal karyotype (MK) patients in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
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Podocyte autophagic activity plays a protective role in renal injury and delays the progression of podocytopathies.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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The progression of podocytopathies is quite variable among patients and the underlying reason for this remains unclear. Here, we report that autophagic activity in podocytes plays a critical role in controlling the progression of podocytopathies. Morphological and biochemical studies on renal biopsies from patients with minimal change disease (MCD) or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) showed that glomeruli, and in particular podocytes, from MCD patients had higher levels of Beclin1-mediated autophagic activity than glomeruli from FSGS patients. Repeat renal biopsies of MCD patients enabled tracking of podocyte autophagic activity and confirmed that patients maintaining high podocyte autophagic activity retained MCD status, whereas patients with decreased podocyte autophagic activity progressed to FSGS. Inhibition of autophagic activity, by knocking down Beclin1 or by treating with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine, enhanced puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced apoptosis of podocytes. In contrast, rapamycin-mediated promotion of autophagic activity decreased this apoptosis. In PAN-treated rats, inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA or chloroquine resulted in earlier onset and greater proteinuria, more extensive foot-process effacement, and reduction in podocyte markers, whereas rapamycin-mediated stimulation of autophagy led to decreased proteinuria and less severe foot-process effacement, but higher expression of podocyte markers. This study demonstrates that podocyte autophagic activity plays a critical protective role in renal injury and that maintaining podocyte autophagic activity represents a potential therapeutic strategy for controlling the progression of podocytopathies.
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Autophagy promotes resistance to photodynamic therapy-induced apoptosis selectively in colorectal cancer stem-like cells.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Recent studies have indicated that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) exhibit a high resistance to current therapeutic strategies, including photodynamic therapy (PDT), leading to the recurrence and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). In cancer, autophagy acts as both a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter. However, the role of autophagy in the resistance of CSCs to PDT has not been reported. In this study, CSCs were isolated from colorectal cancer cells using PROM1/CD133 (prominin 1) expression, which is a surface marker commonly found on stem cells of various tissues. We demonstrated that PpIX-mediated PDT induced the formation of autophagosomes in PROM1/CD133(+) cells, accompanied by the upregulation of autophagy-related proteins ATG3, ATG5, ATG7, and ATG12. The inhibition of PDT-induced autophagy by pharmacological inhibitors and silencing of the ATG5 gene substantially triggered apoptosis of PROM1/CD133(+) cells and decreased the ability of colonosphere formation in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. In conclusion, our results revealed a protective role played by autophagy against PDT in CSCs and indicated that targeting autophagy could be used to elevate the PDT sensitivity of CSCs. These findings would aid in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for CSC treatment.
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C-kit induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and contributes to salivary adenoid cystic cancer progression.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with salivary adenoid cystic cancer (ACC) progression and metastasis. Here, we report that ectopic overexpression of c-kit in ACC cell lines is sufficient for acquisition of mesenchymal traits, enhanced cell invasion, along with stem cell properties defined by the presence of a CD133+/CD44+ cell subpopulation. c-kit positively regulated expression of known EMT inducers, also activating TGF-? to contribute to EMT. c-kit itself was induced by TGF-? in ACC cell lines and required for TGF-?-induced EMT. Xenograft experiments showed that c-kit cooperated with oncogenic Ras to promote tumorigenesis in vivo. Finally, in human specimens of ACC, we found that c-kit was abnormally overexpressed and correlated with the prognosis of ACC. Our findings define an important function for c-kit in ACC progression by orchestrating EMT, and they implicate this gene product as a marker of poor prognosis in this disease.
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Expression of arginyl-tRNA synthetase in rats with focal cerebral ischemia.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Aminoacyl-tRNA syntheses (AARS) can catalyze the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent acylation of their cognate tRNA(s) with a specific amino acid. They can be seen as an index to reflect the energy metabolic rate of ischemic brain cells in ischemic penumbra. This study examined the relationship between arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS), one of the AARS, and cerebral ischemia in rats. The model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established in rats. The expression levels of ArgRS protein and mRNA were detected in rat brain tissues at different time points following MCAO by Western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. The results showed that the MCAO model was successfully established. Western blotting and RT-PCR analysis revealed that the ArgRS protein and mRNA were expressed in brain cells in both ischemic and normal penumbra tissues. The expression levels of ArgRS protein and mRNA peaked at 6 h after MCAO and decreased gradually. At 24 h, the expression levels of ArgRs protein and mRNA in ischemic penumbral tissues were lower than those in normal tissues. The expression levels of ArgRS mRNA and protein in ischemic penumbra varied with ischemic time, suggesting that the energy metabolism of brain cells in penumbra changed dynamically after ischemia to ensure the endogenous self-protection of the body. The brain oxygen supply should be improved as soon as possible, especially within 6-12 h after ischemia, so as to meet the demand for energy metabolism in ischemic penumbra and make sure the cell structure remains stable.
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Incubation of alcohol craving during abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence.
Addict Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Time-dependent increases in cue-induced nicotine and methamphetamine craving during abstinence were recently reported in human drug-dependent individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this 'incubation of craving' phenomenon also occurs in alcoholics. Four groups of 80 inpatient adult male alcoholics were assessed in a single session (between-group design) for cue-induced alcohol craving at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days of abstinence. Another group that included 19 patients was repeatedly tested for cue-induced alcohol craving at the same abstinence days as above. Other psychological and physiological measures were assessed at the four abstinence timepoints. Cue-induced alcohol craving measured with visual analogue scales was the highest at 60 days of abstinence both between and within groups. However, heart rate, blood pressure and skin conductance responses did not differ between abstinent groups. These results provide evidence of the incubation of alcohol craving in humans, extending previous reports with smokers and methamphetamine addicts.
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Reversed expression of GRIM-1 and GRP78 in human non-small cell lung cancer.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Gene associated with retinoid and interferon-induced mortality 1 (GRIM-1) acts as a tumor growth suppressor via apoptosis induction. However, GRIM-1 expression in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its potential interaction with another apoptosis-associated protein-glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78)-are as yet unknown. Using 40 surgical specimens, we showed significantly lower expression of GRIM-1 in NSCLC at both protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels compared with that in normal tissues (P < .01 and P < .001, respectively). Interestingly, these tumors tended to express higher basal amounts of GRP78 protein and mRNA (P < .05 and P < .001, respectively). Similarly, in the NSCLC tissues, weaker staining for GRIM-1 (main intensity + to ++) but stronger staining for GRP78 (main intensity +++ to ++++) was observed. Correlation analysis showed that protein and mRNA expression or the percentage of cells immunoreactive for GRIM-1 was negatively correlated with that of GRP78 (r = -0.279, r = -0.326, or r = -0.571, respectively). Coimmunoprecipitation and transient transfection revealed that GRIM-1 interacted with GRP78 and suppressed GRP78 protein expression. In addition, there was no correlation between GRIM-1 expression and clinical characteristics, whereas GRP78 expression was significantly correlated with tumor-nodes-metastasis (TNM) stage (stage 3 + 4 versus stage 1 + 2). In conclusion, the expression of GRIM-1 and GRP78 was negatively correlated in human NSCLC tissues, and the down-regulation of GRP78 by GRIM-1 provides a possible mechanism for their interaction. This study suggests a novel potential molecular pathway inactivated during the development of NSCLC.
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Comparison of restrictive and liberal transfusion strategy on postoperative delirium in aged patients following total hip replacement: a preliminary study.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Few studies have examined the association between perioperative blood transfusion and postoperative delirium (POD) in aged patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery. In this prospective study, 186 patients older than 65 years undergoing elective unilateral total hip replacement surgery were enrolled. Of those, 94 patients were randomly assigned to the restrictive strategy transfusion strategy group, in which red blood cells were transfused in order to maintain 10.0 g/dL>hemoglobin?8.0 g/dL. Ninety-two patients were randomly assigned to the liberal transfusion strategy group, in which red blood cells were transfused in order to maintain hemoglobin?10.0 g/dL. POD was diagnosed by confusion assessment method. The baseline characteristics of patients, the length of hospital stay, the incidence of POD, myocardial infarction, stroke, wound infection, pulmonary embolism, and the transfusion volume were recorded. No difference was observed in the baseline characteristics, the length of hospital stay, and the incidence of POD, myocardial infarction, stroke, wound infection, and pulmonary embolism between the two groups (P>0.05). The proportion of patients transfused with red blood cell and frozen plasma was decreased in the restrictive transfusion group compared with the liberal transfusion group (P<0.05). In conclusion, restrictive transfusion does not influence the incidence of POD but reduces blood transfusion. Thus, restrictive transfusion may serve as an effective and safe strategy for aged patients following total hip replacement.
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Cat favus caused by Microsporum incurvatum comb. nov.: the clinical and histopathological features and molecular phylogeny.
Med. Mycol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Favus is a distinctive form of infection that is caused by exclusively dermatophytes. Its clinical presentation is characterized by scutula, which are concave, thick fungal crusts. The best-known examples of human scalp favus are caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii and those of mouse favus are caused by T. quinckeanum. However, other dermatophytes, such as T. violaceum, T. verrucosum, Microsporum audouinii, M. gallinae, M. gypseum, and M. canis, have been reported sporadically to cause favic lesions. Favus on cats has rarely been mentioned in the literature, and the pathogens with which it has been associated are, for the most part, unknown. Here, we examine four cat favus cases, focusing on clinical presentations and histopathological features. In all cases the etiologic agent was identified as M. incurvatum based on its morphological characteristics and sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method, which is based on ITS, showed that these four isolates belonged to two strains of M. incurvatum; one strain was a new combination from the basionym Nannizzia incurvata.
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Hepatitis C virus core antigen, an earlier and stronger predictor on sustained virological response in patients with genotype 1 HCV infection.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Earlier kinetics of serum HCV core antigen (HCVcAg) and its predictive value on sustained virological response (SVR) were investigated in patients with genotype 1 HCV infection during antiviral treatment.
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Multiple mechanisms modulate distinct cellular susceptibilities toward apoptosis in the developing Drosophila eye.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Although apoptosis is mechanistically well understood, a comprehensive understanding of how cells modulate their susceptibility toward apoptosis in a developing tissue is lacking. Here, we reveal striking dynamics in the apoptotic susceptibilities of different cell types in the Drosophila retina over a period of only 24 hr. Mitotic cells are extremely susceptible to apoptotic signals, while postmitotic cells have developed several strategies to promote survival. For example, photoreceptor neurons accumulate the inhibitor of apoptosis, Diap1. In unspecified cells, Cullin-3-mediated degradation keeps Diap1 levels low. These cells depend on EGFR signaling for survival. As development proceeds, developmentally older photoreceptors degrade Diap1, resulting in increased apoptosis susceptibility. Finally, R8 photoreceptors have very efficient survival mechanisms independent of EGFR or Diap1. These examples illustrate how complex cellular susceptibility toward apoptosis is regulated in a developing organ. Similar complexities may regulate apoptosis susceptibilities in mammalian development, and tumor cells may take advantage of it.
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Studies of the microbial metabolism of flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Diospyros kaki by intestinal bacteria.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Flavonoid glycosides are metabolized by intestinal bacteria, giving rise to a wide range of phenolic acids that may exert systemic effects in the body. The microbial metabolism of flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Diospyros kaki (FLDK) by intestinal bacteria was investigated in vitro. High-performance liquid chromatography/linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry was performed to analyze the metabolites of flavonoids in vivo using Xcalibur2.1 software. The results showed that the levels of flavonoid glycosides and flavonoid aglycones decreased rapidly in the process of microbial metabolism by intestinal bacteria in vitro, and the metabolic rate may be related to the concentration of intestinal bacteria in the culture solution. In vivo metabolites of FLDK were detected in rat plasma and urine after oral administration of FLDK. Eight flavonoids were identified in the urine, and three were identified in the plasma; however, flavonoid aglycones were not found in the plasma.
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Prolonged small vessel vasculitis with colon mucosal inflammation as first manifestations of Behçet's disease.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Behçet's disease is a chronic, relapsing, systemic vasculitis of unknown aetiology. Patients present manifestations of gastrointestinal complications, including mouth lesions, small and large intestinal lesions, and vascular lesions in the abdomen. In some cases, the intestinal ulcers of patients with Behçet's disease are indistinguishable from those of Crohn's disease, tuberculosis, vasculitis and other diseases. In this article, we present a case of atypical Behçet's disease with a complicated medical history and multisystem damage, for the purpose of better management of this disease.
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Purinergic responses of calcium-dependent signaling pathways in cultured adult human astrocytes.
BMC Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The properties of Ca2+ signaling mediated by purinergic receptors are intrinsically linked with functional activity of astrocytes. At present little is known concerning Ca2+-dependent purinergic responses in adult human astrocytes. This work has examined effects of purinergic stimulation to alter levels of intracellular Ca2+ in adult human astrocytes. Ca2+-sensitive spectrofluorometry was carried out to determine mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ following adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or 3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP (Bz-ATP) stimulation of adult human astrocytes. In some experiments pharmacological modulation of Ca2+ pathways was applied to help elucidate mechanisms of Ca2+ signaling. RT-PCR was also performed to confirm human astrocyte expression of specific purinoceptors which were indicated from imaging studies.
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Combotherapy and current concepts as well as future strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has been estimated that 35.6 million people globally had dementia in 2010 and the prevalence of dementia has been predicted to double every 20 years. Thus, 115.4 million people may be living with dementia in 2050. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia and is present in 60%-70% of people with dementia. Unfortunately, there are few approved drugs that can alleviate the cognitive or behavioral symptoms of AD dementia. Recent studies have revealed that pathophysiological changes related to AD occur decades before the appearance of clinical symptoms of dementia. This extended preclinical phase of AD provides a critical chance for disease-modifying agents to halt or delay the relentless process of AD. Although several trials targeting various pathological processes are ongoing, the examination of the combined use of different approaches to combat AD seems warranted. In this article, we will review current therapies, future strategies, and ongoing clinical trials for the treatment of AD with a special focus on combination therapies. Furthermore, preventive strategies for cognitively normal subjects in the presymptomatic stages of AD will also be addressed. In this review, we discuss current hypotheses of the disease process. In the decades since the approval of cholinesterase inhibitors, no new drug has ultimately demonstrated clear success in clinical trials. Given the difficulties that have been encountered in attempts to identify a single drug that can treat AD, we must pursue effective multi-target strategies, ie, combination therapies. The combination of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine is considered well tolerated and safe, and this combination benefits patients with moderate-to-severe AD. In contrast, with the exception of adjuvant therapies of conventional drugs, combinations of different disease-modifying agents with different mechanisms may have promising synergic effects and benefit cognition, behavior, and daily living function.
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Genetic models of apoptosis-induced proliferation decipher activation of JNK and identify a requirement of EGFR signaling for tissue regenerative responses in Drosophila.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent work in several model organisms has revealed that apoptotic cells are able to stimulate neighboring surviving cells to undergo additional proliferation, a phenomenon termed apoptosis-induced proliferation. This process depends critically on apoptotic caspases such as Dronc, the Caspase-9 ortholog in Drosophila, and may have important implications for tumorigenesis. While it is known that Dronc can induce the activity of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) for apoptosis-induced proliferation, the mechanistic details of this activation are largely unknown. It is also controversial if JNK activity occurs in dying or in surviving cells. Signaling molecules of the Wnt and BMP families have been implicated in apoptosis-induced proliferation, but it is unclear if they are the only ones. To address these questions, we have developed an efficient assay for screening and identification of genes that regulate or mediate apoptosis-induced proliferation. We have identified a subset of genes acting upstream of JNK activity including Rho1. We also demonstrate that JNK activation occurs both in apoptotic cells as well as in neighboring surviving cells. In a genetic screen, we identified signaling by the EGFR pathway as important for apoptosis-induced proliferation acting downstream of JNK signaling. These data underscore the importance of genetic screening and promise an improved understanding of the mechanisms of apoptosis-induced proliferation.
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[The relationship between polymorphisms of epidermal growth factor gene and silicosis].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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To investigate the relationship between epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene polymorphisms at G-61A, R431K, and D784V and susceptibility to silicosis.
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Stress-induced early flowering is mediated by miR169 in Arabidopsis thaliana.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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Plants interact with their environment and they often flower earlier under stress conditions, but how such stress-induced flowering is regulated remains poorly understood. Here evidence is presented that the miR169 family plays a key role in stress-induced flowering in plants. The microRNA (miRNA) miR169 family members are up-regulated in Arabidopsis, maize, and soybean under abiotic stresses. Overexpression of miR169d in Arabidopsis results in early flowering, and overexpression of the miR169d target gene, AtNF-YA2, especially a miR169d-resistant version of AtNF-YA2, results in late flowering. The results suggest that the miR169 family regulates stress-induced flowering by repressing the AtNF-YA transcription factor, which in turn reduces the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), allowing for the expression of FLC target genes such as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and LEAFY (LFY) to promote flowering. It was shown that the expression of genes or miRNAs involved in the other flowering pathways, namely the photoperiod (CO), ambient temperature (SVP), ageing (miR156), and gibberelin (SOC1) pathways, was not affected in miR169d-overexpressing plants, suggesting that stress-induced early flowering is a novel signalling pathway mediated by miR169.
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Molecular analysis of an alternative N-glycosylation machinery by functional transfer from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to Escherichia coli.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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N-linked protein glycosylation is a frequent post-translational modification that can be found in all three domains of life. In a canonical, highly conserved pathway, an oligosaccharide is transferred by a membrane-bound oligosaccharyltransferase from a lipid donor to asparagines in the sequon N-X-S/T of secreted polypeptides. The ?-proteobacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae encodes an unusual pathway for N-linked protein glycosylation. This pathway takes place in the cytoplasm and is mediated by a soluble N-glycosyltransferase (NGT) that uses nucleotide-activated monosaccharides to glycosylate asparagine residues. To characterize the process of cytoplasmic N-glycosylation in more detail, we studied the glycosylation in A. pleuropneumoniae and functionally transferred the glycosylation system to Escherichia coli. N-linked glucose specific human sera were used for the analysis of the glycosylation process. We identified autotransporter adhesins as the preferred protein substrate of NGT in vivo and in-depth analysis of the modified sites in E. coli revealed a surprisingly relaxed peptide substrate specificity. While N-X-S/T is the preferred acceptor sequon, we detected glycosylation of alternative sequons, including modification of glutamine and serine residues. We also demonstrate the use of NGT to glycosylate heterologous proteins. Therefore, our study could provide the basis for a novel route for the engineering of N-glycoproteins in bacteria.
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[Application value of computed tomography dacryocystography in children lacrimal diseases].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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To explore the application value of computed tomography (CT) dacryocystography in children lacrimal diseases.
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[Visual function of seven children with malignant osteopetrosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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To detect long-term ocular alteration of children with malignant osteopetrosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
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[Autophagy in lung tissue of rats exposed to silica dust].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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To investigate the autophagy of effector cells in lung tissue at different time points when rats were exposed to free SiO2 dust.
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Downregulation of MicroRNA-30 Facilitates Podocyte Injury and Is Prevented by Glucocorticoids.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential for podocyte homeostasis, and the miR-30 family may be responsible for this action. However, the exact roles and clinical relevance of miR-30s remain unknown. In this study, we examined the expression of the miR-30 family in the podocytes of patients with FSGS and found that all members are downregulated. Treating cultured human podocytes with TGF-?, LPS, or puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) also downregulated the miR-30 family. Podocyte cytoskeletal damage and apoptosis caused by treatment with TGF-? or PAN were ameliorated by exogenous miR-30 expression and aggravated by miR-30 knockdown. Moreover, we found that miR-30s exert their protective roles by direct inhibition of Notch1 and p53, which mediate podocyte injury. In rats, treatment with PAN substantially downregulated podocyte miR-30s and induced proteinuria and podocyte injury; however, transfer of exogenous miR-30a to podocytes of PAN-treated rats ameliorated proteinuria and podocyte injury and reduced Notch1 activation. Finally, we demonstrated that glucocorticoid treatment maintains miR-30 expression in cultured podocytes treated with TGF-?, LPS, or PAN and in the podocytes of PAN-treated rats. Glucocorticoid-sustained miR-30 expression associated with reduced Notch1 activation and alleviated podocyte damage. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that miR-30s protect podocytes by targeting Notch1 and p53 and that the loss of miR-30s facilitates podocyte injury. In addition, sustained miR-30 expression may be a novel mechanism underlying the therapeutic effectiveness of glucocorticoids in treating podocytopathy.
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Field-in-field plan does not improve the dosimetric outcome compared with the wedged beams plan for breast cancer radiotherapy.
Med Dosim
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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To evaluate and compare the dosimetry of field-in-field (FIF) and wedged beams (WB) techniques for patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after conservative surgery. A total of 89 patients with breast cancer participated in this study. Each patient received a computed tomography-based treatment plan with opposed tangential fields. Two planning techniques (FIF and WB) were generated for each patient by using the Pinnacle treatment-planning system. Three indices, the homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), and uniformity index (UI), as well as maximum dose (Dmax), median dose (D50), number of portals, monitor unit (MU), and lung volume at 20Gy (lung20) were used for comparison. The mean values tested using a t-test indicated that the WB technique had a significantly lower HI (p < 0.0001), a significantly higher CI (p < 0.0001), and a significantly higher D50 (p = 0.0002) than did the FIF technique. The FIF technique had a significantly higher Dmax compared with the WB technique, but lung20 did not exhibit a significant difference. By contrast, the FIF technique had a significantly higher UI and a significantly lower MU compared with the WB technique, but a significantly higher number of portals were found in the FIF technique. The FIF technique did not demonstrate superior dosimetric results. The WB technique had a significantly lower HI, higher CI, lower Dmax, and lower number of portals; but the FIF technique had a significantly higher UI and lower MU.
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[Hyperspectral characteristics of Carthamus tinctorius in Xinjiang region].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Investigation of traditional Chinese medicine resources is the most important issue of the protection and use of traditional Chinese medicine resources. Real-time monitoring of medicinal plant species and coverage of an area are of great significance to the sustainable development of the medicinal plant species diversity and ecological environment. Flower has unique spectral characteristics. Comparing the vegetative stage through the flowering stage it is easier to identify species. The flowering stage is a critical period for identifying species with remote sensing. Carthamus tinctorius as a traditional Chinese medicine resources in XinJiang region, attracted widespread attention in recent years. In this paper, the hyperspectral data of canopy and other vegetation canopy was measured in 2011. The spectral curve was analyzed, the result indicated that C. tinctorius canopy and the canopy after picking showed absorption peak near 770 nm, the first derivative of red edge spectra and invert-Gaussian model were analyzed, the result indicated that there was significant difference between C. tinctorius canopy and other vegetation canopy. The proposed method is designed to provide initial theoretical foundation for growth condition and physiological parameters of C. tinctorius, and make theoretical groundwork for the distribution and elaborate monitoring of C. tinctorius in future.
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Rhein protects pancreatic ?-cells from dynamin-related protein-1-mediated mitochondrial fission and cell apoptosis under hyperglycemia.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Rhein, an anthraquinone compound isolated from rhubarb, has been shown to improve glucose metabolism disorders in diabetic mice. The mechanism underlying the protective effect of rhein, however, remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that rhein can protect the pancreatic ?-cells against hyperglycemia-induced cell apoptosis through stabilizing mitochondrial morphology. Oral administration of rhein for 8 or 16 weeks in db/db mice significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG) level and improved glucose tolerance. Cell apoptosis assay using both pancreatic sections and cultured pancreatic ?-cells indicated that rhein strongly inhibited ?-cell apoptosis. Morphological study showed that rhein was mainly localized at ?-cell mitochondria and rhein could preserve mitochondrial ultrastructure by abolishing hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) expression. Western blot and functional analysis confirmed that rhein protected the pancreatic ?-cells against hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis via suppressing mitochondrial Drp1 level. Finally, mechanistic study further suggested that decreased Drp1 level by rhein might be due to its effect on reducing cellular reactive oxygen species. Taken together, our study demonstrates for the first time that rhein can serve as a novel therapeutic agent for hyperglycemia treatment and rhein protects pancreatic ?-cells from apoptosis by blocking the hyperglycemia-induced Drp1 expression.
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[Observation on therapeutic effect of round-sharp needle of new nine-needle and elongated needle for piriformis syndrome with triple puncture method].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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To compare the efficacy differences between round-sharp needle of new nine-needle and elongated needle for piriformis syndrome, and explore its action mechanism.
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[Congenital dacryocystocele: presentation and treatment].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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To report the presentation, complications, and treatment strategies for infants with congenital dacryocystocele.
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Synthesis and electroluminescence property of new hexaphenylbenzene derivatives including amine group for blue emitters.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Three new blue-emitting compounds of 5P-VA, 5P-VTPA, and 5P-DVTPA for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) based on hexaphenylbenzene moiety were demonstrated. Physical properties by the change of the substitution groups of the synthesized materials were systematically examined. Photoluminescence spectrum of the synthesized materials showed maximum emitting wavelengths of about 400 to 447 nm in solution state and 451 to 461 nm in film state, indicating deep blue emission color. OLED devices were fabricated by the synthesized compounds using vacuum deposit process as an emitting layer. The device structure was ITO/2-TNATA 60 nm/ NPB 15 nm/ EML 35 nm/ TPBi 20 nm/ LiF 1 nm/ Al 200 nm. External quantum efficiencies and CIE values of 5P-VA, 5P-VTPA, and 5P-DVTPA were 1.89%, 3.59%, 3.34%, and (0.154, 0.196), (0.150, 0.076), (0.148, 0.120), respectively. 5P-VTPA and 5P-DVTPA exhibited superior highly blue quality and thermal property such as high Td of 448[degree sign]C and 449[degree sign]C.
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Valproic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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Valproic acid (VPA) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in a range of diseases including septic shock. However, the effects of VPA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains not well understood. We found that VPA pretreatment attenuated the LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and wet-to-dry weight ratio in the lung tissues. This was accompanied by the downregulated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) p65, nitric oxide, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the lung tissues and the decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1? in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Furthermore, VPA reduced the nuclear histone deacetylase (HDAC)3 expression whereas increased the cytoplasmic HDAC3 expression. Our results suggested that VPA attenuates the LPS-induced ALI via inhibiting the NF-?B activation probably through a mechanism depending on HDAC3 redistribution.
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Unexpected reactivity and mechanism of carboxamide activation in bacterial N-linked protein glycosylation.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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The initial glycan transfer in asparagine-linked protein glycosylation is catalysed by the integral membrane enzyme oligosaccharyltransferase (OST). Here we study the mechanism of the bacterial PglB protein, a single-subunit OST, using chemically synthesized acceptor peptide analogues. We find that PglB can glycosylate not only asparagine but also glutamine, homoserine and the hydroxamate Asp(NHOH), although at much lower rates. In contrast, N-methylated asparagine or 2,4-diaminobutanoic acid (Dab) are not glycosylated. We find that of the various peptide analogues, only asparagine- or Dab-containing peptides bind tightly to PglB. Glycopeptide products are unable to bind, providing the driving force of product release. We find no suitably positioned residues near the active site of PglB that can activate the acceptor asparagine by deprotonation, making a general base mechanism unlikely and leaving carboxamide twisting as the most likely mechanistic proposal for asparagine activation.
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Serum HBV DNA level at week 12 is superior to viral response at week 24 in predicting long-term treatment outcome of telbivudine for chronic hepatitis B patients.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Telbivudine, one of the five nucleos(t)ide antiviral drugs, was reported to be superior to lamivudine in a better biochemical, virological, and histological response for treatment-naive patients in the GLOBE trial. The aim of this study was to determine the antiviral potency, viral resistance, and the signifcance of early response for long-term telbivudine treatment.
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Impact of therapy on the long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B.
Clin Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a dynamic state of interactions between HBV, the hepatocytes, and the patients immune system. HBV replication is the key driving force for the HBV-related immune clearance events that determine the outcomes. The extended immune clearance phase is associated with liver disease progression, including development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thus, the primary aim of therapy is to eliminate or permanently suppress HBV to reduce hepatitis activity and thereby reduce the risk or slow the progression of liver disease.
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Current incidence of duplicate publication in otolaryngology.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Duplicate publication-deemed highly unethical-is the reproduction of substantial content in another article by the same authors. In 1999, Rosenthal et al. identified an 8.5% incidence of duplicate articles in two otolaryngology journals. We explored the current incidence in three otolaryngology journals in North America and Europe.
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Molecular structural transformation regulated dynamic disordering of supramolecular vesicles as pH-responsive drug release systems.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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The spontaneous release of drug payloads in the whole body always results in the compromised drug bioavailability and ultimate therapeutic efficacy. To achieve enhanced therapeutic efficacy and reduced side effects, pH-responsive targeted drug delivery systems have been studied due to their enhanced tumor accumulation and controllable maximum drug release feature. The present study described a co-assembly constructed by a pH responsive molecule (i.e., malachite green carbinol base (MG)) and liposome for highly efficient doxorubicin (DOX) release in tumor cells (MG-DOX?L). The structural transformation of MG effectively regulates the drug release profile in acidic environment. The pH-responsive sensitivity of co-assembly can be fine-tuned by altering the mixing ratios of building blocks with pH responders (i.e., MG molecules). MG-DOX?L was beneficial for the DOX release at pH5.0 and showed a higher cytotoxicity in KB cells owing to the pH-responsive drug release in acidic organelles following endocytosis pathway. In vivo tumor targetability and growth inhibition were evaluated in KB cell-xenografted nude mice. We have demonstrated that effective tumor growth inhibition in vivo is attributed to the synergistic contributions from highly efficient cellular entry and responsive intracellular release of DOX from MG-DOX?L.
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Telbivudine improves renal function in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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There is a close relationship between chronic hepatitis B virus infection and chronic renal disease. We analyzed changes in renal function using different markers of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in multiple studies of telbivudine treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
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[Investigation of infections of soil-transmitted nematodes in Fusheng Village of Poyang Lake area in Jiangxi Province].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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To understand the status of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Poyang Lake area in Jiangxi Province.
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Primary infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the axillary breast with metastasis to the contralateral chest wall.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Primary infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the axillary breast is rare and has a high frequency of lymph node (LN) involvement. We report a woman with primary infiltrating ductal carcinoma arising from the right axillary breast with metastasis to the contralateral chest wall. Excisional biopsy of the left chest wall nodule and the right axillary mass was carried out and both showed invasive ductal carcinomas histologically. The lesion of the right axillary mass arose from the breast tissue, rather than the LN. Further surgery proved the right axillary LN metastasis. After further review, a primary infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right axillary breast with metastasis to axillary LNs and contralateral chest wall was diagnosed. The patient also received chemotherapy and radiation and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence after treatment. The present report demonstrated a rare case with uncommon manifestation. Lesions of uncertain origin around the periphery of the breast should be suspected for breast carcinoma.
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Notch3 overexpression associates with poor prognosis in human non-small-cell lung cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Notch3 receptor is one of the mammalian Notch family receptors (Notch1-4) which plays an important role in the regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Overexpression of Notch3 is associated with tumorigenesis. In order to assess the expression of Notch3 in Chinese non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and determine its association with prognosis, we designed a prospective study with five years of follow-up to evaluate Notch3 expression in NSCLC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous normal lung tissues from 131 patients undergoing surgical treatment by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Notch3 had high expression in 67 of 131 cases of NSCLC (51.1 %), which was significantly higher than in adjacent noncancerous lung tissues. Moreover, Notch3 overexpression was significantly correlated with TNM stage (P = 5.41e-07 in squamous cell carcinoma, P = 5.338e-07 in adenocarcinoma) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.00764 in squamous cell carcinoma, P = 0.01491 in adenocarcinoma). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the overall survival times in patients expressing Notch3 in NSCLC were shorter. Multivariate analysis further demonstrated that Notch3 was an independent prognostic factor for patients with NSCLC. Therefore, Notch3 might be a useful biomarker to predict the prognosis of patients with NSCLC.
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Bevacizumab treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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The safety of Avastin in lung cancer (SAiL) study is a multi-center, open-source, stand-alone study. Patients with untreated, locally advanced, metastatic or recurrent non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were administered up to six cycles of chemotherapy combined with bevacizumab-humanized monoclonal antibodies, followed by maintenance therapy with bevacizumab until further progression of the disease. From August, 2006 to July, 2008 there were a total of 2,172 patients enrolled in the study, with a median progression-free survival time of 7.8 months and an overall survival time of 14.6 months. The present study describes the case of a 54-year-old male with lung cancer and T3N0M1 subcutaneous metastasis, which was initially treated with bevacizumab-combined carboplatin/paclitaxel (C/P) therapy and then maintained solely with bevacizumab for five years. Following six cycles of C/P bevacizumab treatment, the therapeutic evaluation revealed a stable disease (SD). The patient was kept on bevacizumab maintenance therapy for 50 months without disease progression until a persistent 3+ proteinuria was diagnosed in a follow-up review, which led to bevacizumab withdrawal and concomitant tumor growth. The present study concluded that the long-term application of bevacizumab monoclonal antibodies (mABs) was safe in a late-stage non-small cell lung cancer patient. The major adverse reaction that was exhibited was proteinuria, which was associated with the cumulative dose of bevacizumab and was able to be reversed by withdrawal. Patients with a prolonged SD may benefit from bevacizumab maintenance therapy.
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Reasons for exclusion of 6820 umbilical cord blood donations in a public cord blood bank.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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BACKGROUND: To provide information for umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks to adopt optimal collection strategies and to make UCB banks operate efficiently, we investigated the reasons for exclusion of UCB units in a 3-year recruitment period. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed records of the reasons for exclusion of the potential UCB donation from 2004 to 2006 in the Tzu-Chi Cord Blood Bank and compared the results over 3 years. We grouped these reasons for exclusion into five phases, before collection, during delivery, before processing, during processing, and after freezing according to the time sequence and analyzed the reasons at each phase. RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2006, there were 10,685 deliveries with the intention of UCB donation. In total, 41.2% of the UCB units were considered eligible for transplantation. The exclusion rates were 93.1, 48.4, and 54.1% in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. We excluded 612 donations from women before their child birth, 133 UCB units during delivery, 80 units before processing, 5010 units during processing, and 421 units after freezing. There were 24 UCB units with unknown reasons of ineligibility. Low UCB weight and low cell count were the first two leading causes of exclusion (48.6 and 30.9%). The prevalence of artificial errors, holiday or transportation problem, low weight, and infant problems decreased year after year. CONCLUSION: The exclusion rate was high at the beginning of our study as in previous studies. Understanding the reasons for UCB exclusion may help to improve the efficiency of UCB banking programs in the future.
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HPV vaccination in Hong Kong: uptake and reasons for non-vaccination amongst Chinese adolescent girls.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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The study aims to determine HPV vaccine uptake (? 1 dose) amongst adolescent girls in Hong Kong and to explore the reasons for non-acceptance of the vaccine.
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Response-guided peginterferon therapy in hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B using serum hepatitis B surface antigen levels.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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On-treatment levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) may predict response to peginterferon (PEG-IFN) therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB), but previously proposed prediction rules have shown limited external validity. We analyzed 803 HBeAg-positive patients treated with PEG-IFN in three global studies with available HBsAg measurements. A stopping-rule based on absence of a decline from baseline was compared to a prediction-rule that uses HBsAg levels of <1,500 IU/mL and >20,000 IU/mL to identify patients with high and low probabilities of response. Patients with an HBsAg level <1,500 IU/mL at week 12 achieved response (HBeAg loss with HBV DNA <2,000 IU/mL at 6 months posttreatment) in 45%. At week 12, patients without a decline in HBsAg achieved a response in 14%, compared to only 6% of patients with HBsAg >20,000 IU/mL, but performance varied across HBV genotype. In patients treated with PEG-IFN monotherapy (n?=?465), response rates were low in patients with genotypes A or D if there was no decline of HBsAg by week 12 (negative predictive value [NPV]: 97%-100%), and in patients with genotypes B or C if HBsAg at week 12 was >20,000 IU/mL (NPV: 92%-98%). At week 24, nearly all patients with HBsAg >20,000 IU/mL failed to achieve a response, irrespective of HBV genotype (NPV for response and HBsAg loss 99% and 100%). Conclusion: HBsAg is a strong predictor of response to PEG-IFN in HBeAg-positive CHB. HBV genotype-specific stopping-rules may be considered at week 12, but treatment discontinuation is indicated in all patients with HBsAg >20,000 IU/mL at week 24, irrespective of HBV genotype.
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Host-guest supramolecular nanosystems for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Extensive efforts have been devoted to the construction of functional supramolecular nanosystems for applications in catalysis, energy conversion, sensing and biomedicine. The applications of supramolecular nanosystems such as liposomes, micelles, inorganic nanoparticles, carbon materials for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics have been reviewed by other groups. Here, we will focus on the recent momentous advances in the implementation of typical supramolecular hosts (i.e., cyclodextrins, calixarenes, cucurbiturils and metallo-hosts) and their nanosystems in cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. We discuss the evolutive process of supramolecular nanosystems from the structural control and characterization to their diagnostic and therapeutic function exploitation and even the future potentials for clinical translation.
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Circulating stem cell-like epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive tumor cells indicate poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive (EpCAM+) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells may constitute a tumor-initiating subpopulation in tumorigenic cell lines and HCC specimens. In the present study, EpCAM+ circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were identified prospectively in HCC patients undergoing curative resection, and the prognostic significance and their stem cell-like characteristics were investigated further. Blood samples from 123 HCC patients were tested prior to resection and 1 month thereafter. CTCs were present in 66.67% of patients, and the cell count measured in 7.5 mL of blood (CTC(7.5) ) ranged between 1 and 34. Fifty-one patients had CTC(7.5) of ?2 preoperatively, and these patients developed tumor recurrence earlier than those with CTC(7.5) of <2 CTCs (P < 0.001). A preoperative CTC(7.5) of ?2 was an independent prognostic factor for tumor recurrence (P < 0.001). Its prognostic significance also applied to patients with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels of ?400 ng/mL or subgroups with low recurrence risk (all P < 0.05). A significant decrease of CTC-positive rates (66.67% to 28.15%, P < 0.05) and CTC(7.5) values (2.60 ± 0.43 to 1.00 ± 0.36, P < 0.05) was observed 1 month after resection. Patients with consistent CTC(7.5) <2 had lower recurrence rates than those with values consistently ?2 (15.5% versus 87.50%, P < 0.001). EpCAM+ CTCs displayed cancer stem cell biomarkers (CD133 and ABCG2), epithelial-mesenchymal transition, Wnt pathway activation, high tumorigenic potential, and low apoptotic propensity.
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Evaluation the consistency of location of moist desquamation and skin high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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To evaluate whether the location of moist desquamation matches high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservative surgery.
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Hypoxia inducible factor 2 alpha inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth through the transcription factor dimerization partner 3/ E2F transcription factor 1-dependent apoptotic pathway.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are activated in many tumors and show either promoter or suppressor activity, depending on tumor cell biology and background. However, the role of HIF member HIF-2? remains unclear in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, HIF-2? expression was measured in HCC and paired peritumoral tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunofluorescence assays, and the clinical significance was explored in 246 HCC patients. In cell culture, HIF-2? levels were up-regulated or down-regulated by use of expression or short hairpin RNA recombinant plasmid, respectively. Cells were analyzed by immunoblotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with microarray, coimmunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemical staining. In vivo tumor growth was analyzed in nude mice. We found that the average expression of HIF-2? was relatively low in HCC tissues, and the decreased level was associated with lower overall survival (P=0.006). High HIF-2? expression in HCC cells induced higher levels of apoptosis and expression of proapoptotic proteins and inhibited cell and tumor growth. Furthermore, HIF-2? inhibited expression of the novel target gene, transcription factor dimerization partner 3 (TFDP3). TFDP3 protein was found to bind with E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) and inhibit its transcriptional activity through both p53-dependent and -independent pathways. Reintroduction of TFDP3 expression reversed HIF-2?-induced apoptosis.
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A new perspective of vasculogenic mimicry: EMT and cancer stem cells (Review).
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a new pattern of tumor microcirculation, is important for the growth and progression of tumors. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is pivotal in malignant tumor progression and VM formation. With increasing knowledge of cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotypes and functions, increasing evidence suggests that CSCs are involved in VM formation. Recent studies have indicated that EMT is relevant to the acquisition and maintenance of stem cell-like characteristics. Thus, in this review we discuss the correlation between CSCs, EMT and VM formation.
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Off-therapy durability of response to entecavir therapy in hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B patients.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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The optimal duration of nucelos(t)ide analog (Nuc) treatment in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is unknown. The Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) guidelines recommend that treatment can be discontinued if undetectable HBV-DNA has been documented on three occasions ?6 months apart. This study aimed to test this stopping rule in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with entecavir (ETV). Ninety-five patients (39 cirrhosis) were treated with ETV for a median of 721 (395-1,762) days before stopping therapy and were then monitored with serum HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at least every 3 months. Within 1 year after stopping ETV therapy, "clinical relapse" (an episode of ALT elevation >2 × upper limit of normal plus HBV-DNA >2,000 IU/mL) occurred in 43 (45.3%) of the 95 patients. Of the 39 cirrhosis patients, 17 (43.6%) relapsed and one (2.6%) developed decompensation. The median duration until relapse was 230 days (74.4% >6 months). Logistic regression analysis showed that baseline HBV-DNA ?2 × 10(5) IU/mL was the only significant independent factor for sustained response. The 1-year relapse rate was 29% in patients with a baseline HBV DNA ?2 × 10(5) IU/mL versus 53% in those with HBV DNA >2 × 10(5) IU/mL (P = 0.027). For the latter, consolidation therapy >64 weeks reduced the relapse rate to 33.3% in patients without cirrhosis. Conclusion: With an overall 1-year relapse rate of 45% and 29% in those with a baseline serum HBV DNA ?2 × 10(5) IU/mL, the APASL stopping rule for HBeAg-negative CHB patients with proper off-therapy monitoring is adequate even in patients with cirrhosis. Consolidation therapy >64 weeks seems more appropriate for those with higher baseline HBV DNA. (Hepatology 2013; 58:1888-1896).
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Impact of therapy on the outcome of chronic hepatitis B.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a dynamic state in which HBV replication is the key driving force of disease progression, resulting in the development of hepatic decompensation, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The primary aim of therapy is to eliminate or suppress HBV to reduce the activity of hepatitis thus reducing the risk of or slowing the progression of liver disease. Treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (Nuc) may result in rapid suppression of HBV replication with normalization of serum transaminases and restore liver function thus increasing survival in patients with hepatic decompensation. The long-term benefits of a finite course of interferon ? (IFN) therapy include a sustained and cumulative response, as well as a reduction in the progression of fibrosis and in the development of cirrhosis and/or HCC. Long-term Nuc therapy may also result in histological improvement or reversal of advanced fibrosis and reduction in disease progression including the development of HCC. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance, a status close to a "cure", may also occur in patients with a sustained or maintained viral response, especially in those with IFN-based therapy. Pegylated IFN (PEG-IFN) and newer Nucs may have even better long-term outcomes because of improved efficacy and/or a low risk of drug resistance. However, treatment outcomes are still far from satisfactory. The development of more effective and safe but affordable anti-HBV agents/strategies is needed to further improve outcomes.
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The relationships among nurses job characteristics and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning.
Nurse Educ Today
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between job characteristics (job demands, job control and social support) and nurses attitudes toward web-based continuing learning. A total of 221 in-service nurses from hospitals in Taiwan were surveyed. The Attitudes toward Web-based Continuing Learning Survey (AWCL) was employed as the outcome variables, and the Chinese version Job Characteristic Questionnaire (C-JCQ) was administered to assess the predictors for explaining the nurses attitudes toward web-based continuing learning. To examine the relationships among these variables, hierarchical regression was conducted. The results of the regression analysis revealed that job control and social support positively associated with nurses attitudes toward web-based continuing learning. However, the relationship of job demands to such learning was not significant. Moreover, a significant demands×job control interaction was found, but the job demands×social support interaction had no significant relationships with attitudes toward web-based continuing learning.
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Chemotherapy and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors for treatment of brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer: survival analysis in 210 patients.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Chemotherapy and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors are controversial in the treatment of patients with brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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[Balloon dacryocystoplasty in the treatment of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction after previous unsuccessful surgery].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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To introduce the procedure of balloon dacryocystoplasty and to evaluate its effectiveness and complications as the treatment of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction after a previous unsuccessful surgery.
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[Preparation conditions optimization of Epimedium polysaccharide liposome].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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To optimize the preparation conditions of Epimedium polysaccharide liposome (EPSL).
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[Relationship between polymorphism of interleukin-8 and silicosis susceptibility].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2011
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To explore the relationship between the polymorphisms of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and the silicosis susceptibility.
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[Case-control study of relationship between polymorphisms of interleukin-4 gene and susceptibility of silicosis].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2011
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To explore the relationship between polymorphisms of interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene (-33, +45, VNTR, +429, +448) and the susceptibility of silicosis.
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Prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis B viremia after spontaneous hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance in hepatitis B carriers.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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In 118 previous hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers, low-level hepatitis B (HBV) viremia persisted at a rate of 15%-20% for >10 years after HBsAg seroclearance. The frequency of HBV viremia was significantly (P = .002) lower in patients with anti-HBsAg seroconversion (6 of 69 [8.7%]) than in those without seroconversion (15 of 49 [30.6%]).
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Full Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Surgery for Pituitary Adenoma-emphasized on Surgical Skill of Otolaryngologist.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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The purpose is to summarize the experience in full endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenoma in 28 patients by rhinologist, and introduce the surgical skill of otolaryngologist, especially skills and cautions when operating inside nose. We removed pituitary adenoma in 28 patients via entirely endoscopic transsphenoidal approach with the help of special-designed instruments; we performed the procedure bloodlessly within limited time. The skill emphasized bilateral nostrils and four hands technique which was as delicate as possible not to scratch nasal mucosa or injure nasal frame. The special instruments included curette with suction, monopolar electrotome and bipolar coagulation forceps with suction, powered surgical equipments (Diamond Bur, Irrigation Tubing for Blades and Burs for nasal endoscopic surgery). Among 28 patients, there were 16 total resections, 8 subtotal resections, 3 partial resections, and 1 only biopsy due to excessive bleeding and hard nature. Of 19 patients with preoperative visual impairment, 12 patients had postoperative improvement in visual acuity and visual field. All the procedures were finished within 60 to 90 min. Complications seldom occurred except transient diabetes insipidus, especially no nasal-related signs or complications but 1 had epistaxis. The full endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery is a promising approach for pituitary adenoma resection. Multidisciplinary collaboration will lead to optimal cure for the patients. New technique and special-designed instruments can facilitate greatly this procedure.
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[Observation for CH4 and N2O emissions under different rates of nitrogen and phosphate fertilization in double rice fields].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Two non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions (methane and nitrous oxide) and related environmental factors were measured within rice growing season under five treatments including non-fertilization (CK), balanced fertilization (BF), decreased nitrogen and phosphate 1 (DNP1), decreased nitrogen and phosphate 2 (DNP2) and increased nitrogen and phosphate 1 (INP) in double rice fields of red clay soil in 2009, using the method of static chamber-gas chromatograph techniques. The results showed that the average CH4 emission fluxes for treatments of BF, DNP1, DNP2 and INP were 4.57, 5.42, 4.70 and 4.65 mg x (m2 x h)(-1) during early rice growing period, which increased by 39%, 49%, 41% and 40% compared with non-fertilizer treatment, respectively. The average CH4 emission fluxes in late rice growing season was higher than preseasons. Compared to CK, CH4 emission increased by 11%, 1%, 26% and - 4% in treatments of BF, DNP1, DNP2 and INP within late rice growing season. Applying nitrogen and phosphate enhanced CH4 emission in turning green period for early and late rice. No significant difference was observed between the CH4 emissions of five treatments during early and late rice growing season (p > 0.05). N2O emission was very little during mid-seasonal drainage period. In contrast, N2O emission peaks were observed in period of alternation of wetting and drying after mid-seasonal drainage in this experiment. N2O emission was, on average, equivalent to 0.18% of the nitrogen applied in double rice growing season. Statistically, air temperature, soil Eh and soil moisture (water-filled pore space, WFPS) at 0-10cm depth significantly affected the fluctuations of the seasonal CH4 flux, but no significant correlationship has been found between N2O flux and related environmental factors. CH4 was the dominated greenhouse gas in double rice fields which contributed approximately 90% for the integrated global warming potential of CH4 and N2O released during the rice growing season. Therefore, the mitigation options should focus on how to reduce CH4 emission in local area. The result indicates that BF is a recommended fertilization method for early rice production, and a optimum fertilization for late season can increase rates of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on the basis of BF treatment slightly by considering total global warming potential and grain yield. The rates of BF treatment were 150-90-90 kg x hm(-2) N-P2O5-K2O for early rice, and 180-90-135 kg x hm(-2) N-P2O5-K2O for late rice, respectively.
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