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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Hot spot mutation screening of RYR1 gene in diagnosis of congenital myopathies].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To detect hot spot mutation of RYR1 gene in 15 cases of congenital myopathy with different subtypes, and to discuss the value of RYR1 gene hot spot mutation detection in the diagnosis of the disease.
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Lamivudine/telbivudine-associated neuromyopathy: neurogenic damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial DNA depletion.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Myopathy or neuropathy has been associated with lamivudine/telbivudine therapy in hepatitis B patients. We aim to describe the pathological changes of lamivudine/telbivudine-associated neuromyopathy.
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[Leucine-rich glioma inactivated-1 protein antibody associated limbic encephalitis: one case report].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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To report a case of leucine-rich glioma inactivated-1 protein antibody (LGI1-Ab) associated limbic encephalitis.
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Combustion smoke-induced inflammation in the olfactory bulb of adult rats.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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BackgroundThe damaging effect of combustion smoke inhalation on the lung is widely reported but information on its effects on the olfactory bulb is lacking. This study sought to determine the effects of smoke inhalation on the olfactory bulb, whose afferent input neurons in the nasal mucosa are directly exposed to external stimuli, such as smoke.MethodsAdult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to combustion smoke inhalation and sacrificed at different time points. Changes in olfactory bulb proteins including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), Na+-K+-Cl¿ cotransporter 1 (NKCC1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) were evaluated by Western blot analysis. In addition, ELISA was conducted for cytokine and chemokine levels, and double immunofluorescence labeling was carried out for GFAP/VEGF, GFAP/AQP4, NeuN/nNOS, GFAP/NKCC1, NeuN/NKCC1, GFAP/Rhodamine isothiocyanate (RITC), and transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Aminoguanidine was administered to determine the effects of iNOS inhibition on the targets probed after smoke inhalation.ResultsThe results showed a significant increase in VEGF, iNOS, eNOS, nNOS, NKCC1, and GFAP expression in the bulb tissues, with corresponding increases in inflammatory cytokines and chemokines after smoke inhalation. Concurrent to this was a drastic increase in AQP4 expression and RITC permeability. Aminoguanidine administration decreased the expression of iNOS and RITC extravasation after smoke inhalation. This was coupled with a significant reduction in incidence of TUNEL¿+¿cells that was not altered with administration of L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME).ConclusionsThese findings suggest that the upregulation of iNOS in response to smoke inhalation plays a major role in the olfactory bulb inflammatory pathophysiology, along with a concomitant increase in pro-inflammatory molecules, vascular permeability, and edema. Overall, these findings indicate that the olfactory bulb is vulnerable to smoke inhalation.
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Detection of human norovirus GIV.1 in China: a case report.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Noroviruses (NoVs) are a common cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) around the world; however, reports of genogroup IV (GIV) NoVs are rare. Here we report a human GIV genotype 1 (GIV.1) NoV strain (named CHNNGIV2011) identified by 454 high-throughput sequencing from stool samples of children with diarrhea. This is the first documented human GIV.1 NoVs infection in China. The complete genome of the virus is 7525 nucleotides in length. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses showed that CHNNGIV2011 shared high sequence similarity to other GIV.1 NoVs from all over the world, especially to the recently reported NoV GIV.1 strain Lake Macquarie genome (99.0%). By seminested PCR and real-time PCR, a total of 2 out of 466 samples were positive for GIV.1 CHNNGIV2011 in Lulong County, Hebei Province, China, which supported a low prevalence of GIV.1 NoVs. The positive samples contained 7.2×10(7) and 2.6×10(8)copies/g in feces. In addition, one positive sample was found coinfection with strains NoV GII and salivirus. These findings suggest more study is needed to address the worldwide prevalence and role of GIV NoVs in AGE.
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Pyrone derivatives from the endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima SP-07 of Chinese herbal medicine Salvia przewalskii.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Three new pyrones, solanapyrones P-R (1-3), were afforded by the extracts of the endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima SP-07 isolated from the fresh root of Chinese herbal medicine Salvia przewalskii, along with the known solanapyrones (4-6) and benzopyrones (7-9). Solanapyrones P (1) and Q (2) possess an unprecedented nor-solanapyrone skeleton as natural products. Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis. The plausible biosynthetic pathways to those unknown compounds were discussed. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against six bacteria.
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Complete genome sequence of a novel human papillomavirus identified by metagenomic analysis from a child with diarrhea in China.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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A highly divergent human papillomavirus, named HPV-CH2, was identified in fecal samples from children with diarrhea in China by 454 high-throughput sequencing. Here, we report the complete genome sequence and genetic organization of the virus. The full-length nucleotide sequence of HPV-CH2 shares the highest sequence similarity with HPV-156, with 72 % nucleotide sequence identity. The L1 gene of the HPV-CH2 shared <70 % nucleotide identity with previously reported HPVs, suggesting HPV-CH2 as a new type of papillomavirus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the HPV-CH2 belongs to the genus Gammapapillomavirus. No HPV-CH2 was detected by PCR in samples from children with both gastroenteritis and respiratory infection.
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Regulatory role of miR-142-3p on the functional hepatic cancer stem cell marker CD133.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Tumor relapse after therapy typifies hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is believed to be attributable to residual cancer stem cells (CSCs) that survive treatment. We have previously identified a CSC population derived from HCC that is characterized by CD133. Despite our growing knowledge of the importance of this subset of cells in driving HCC, the regulatory mechanism of CD133 is not known. Epigenetic changes are believed to be essential in the control of cancer and stem cells. Here, we report the epigenetic regulation of CD133 by miR-142-3p. The interaction between CD133 and miR-142-3p was identified by in silico prediction and substantiated by luciferase reporter analysis. Expression of CD133 was found to be inversely correlated with miR-142-3p in HCC clinical samples as well as in cell lines. Importantly, lower miR-142-3p expression in HCC was significantly associated with worst survival. Functional studies with miR-142-3p stably transduced in HCC cells demonstrated a diminished ability to self-renew, initiate tumor growth, invade, migrate, induce angiogenesis and resist chemotherapy. Rescue experiments whereby CD133 and miR-142-3p is simultaneously overexpressed compensated the deregulated ability of the cells to confer these features. Thus, miR-142-3p directly targets CD133 to regulate its ability to confer cancer and stem cell-like features in HCC.
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Differential Protein Expression in Phalaenopsis Under Low Temperature.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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A comparative proteomic analysis was carried out to explore the molecular mechanisms of responses to cold stress in Phalaenopsis after treated by low temperature (13/8 °C day/night) for 15 days. Differentially expressed proteins were examined using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS). Among 85 differentially expressed proteins, 73 distinct proteins were identified. Comparative analysis revealed that the identified proteins mainly participate in photosynthesis, protein synthesis, folding and degradation, respiration, defense response, amino acid metabolism, energy pathway, cytoskeleton, transcription regulation, signal transduction, and seed storage protein, while the functional classification of the remaining four proteins was not determined. These data suggested that the proteins might work cooperatively to establish a new homeostasis under cold stress; 37 % of the identified cold-responsive proteins were associated with various aspects of chloroplast physiology, and 56 % of them were predicted to be located in the chloroplasts, implying that the cold stress tolerance of Phalaenopsis was achieved, at least partly, by regulation of chloroplast function. Moreover, the protein destination control, which was mediated by chaperones and proteases, plays an important role in tolerance to cold stress.
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Muscle mri in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy carrying mutation c.187+1G>A.
Muscle Nerve
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Introduction: We describe the clinical and thigh MRI changes in 2 siblings with neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) carrying the mutation c.187+1G>A. Methods: Peripheral blood smears, genetic tests, and muscle biopsies were performed. Thigh MRI was performed to observe fatty replacement, muscle edema, and muscle bulk from axial sections. Results: The siblings showed similarity in fatty infiltration and edema. T1-weighted images of the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus revealed marked and diffuse fatty infiltration. There was asymmetric involvement in biceps femoris and quadriceps. There was extensive fatty infiltration in the quadriceps, except for the rectus femoris. Gracilis and sartorius were relatively spared. Thigh muscle volume was decreased, while the gracilis and sartorius appeared to show compensatory hypertrophy. Conclusions: Compared with previously reported NLSDM, MRI changes in this myopathy tended to be more severe. Asymmetry and relatively selective fatty infiltration were characteristics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Audiological evaluation in Chinese patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Hearing impairment has been reported to be common in patients with mitochondrial disorders, a group of diseases characterized by pleiomorphic clinical manifestations due to defects in oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria. This study aimed to investigate the audiological characteristics in a large cohort of patients with mitochondrial disease.
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Novel collagen VI mutations identified in Chinese patients with Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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We determined the clinical and molecular genetic characteristics of 8 Chinese patients with Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD).
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Screening frequency and atypical cells and the prediction of cervical cancer risk.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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To evaluate the screening efficacy and importance of atypical squamous cells and atypical glandular cells in predicting subsequent cervical cancer risk.
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Composition effect on intrinsic plasticity or brittleness in metallic glasses.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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The high plasticity of metallic glasses is highly desirable for a wide range of novel engineering applications. However, the physical origin of the ductile/brittle behaviour of metallic glasses with various compositions and thermal histories has not been fully clarified. Here we have found that metallic glasses with compositions at or near intermetallic compounds, in contrast to the ones at or near eutectics, are extremely ductile and also insensitive to annealing-induced embrittlement. We have also proposed a close correlation between the element distribution features and the plasticity of metallic glasses by tracing the evolutions of the element distribution rearrangement and the corresponding potential energy change within the sliding shear band. These novel results provide useful and universal guidelines to search for new ductile metallic glasses at or near the intermetallic compound compositions in a number of glass-forming alloy systems.
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[Comparison of clinical characteristics of patients with riboflavin responsive lipid storage myopathy versus polymyositis].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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To compare the clinical characteristics of riboflavin responsive lipid storage myopathy (RR-LSM) versus polymyositis (PM).
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Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy: phenotypic and genotypic studies in a chinese population.
Neuromolecular Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an autosomal dominant late-onset neuromuscular degenerative disease characterized by ptosis, dysphagia, and proximal muscle weakness. The genetic basis has been identified as an abnormal (GCN) expansion encoding the polyalanine tract in exon 1 of the polyadenylate-binding protein nuclear 1 gene (PABPN1). OPMD is worldwide distributed, but has rarely been reported in East Asians. In this study, we summarized the clinical and genetic characteristics of 34 individuals from 13 unrelated families in Chinese population. In our cohort, the mean age at onset was 47.2 years. Dysphagia, rather than ptosis, was the most common initial symptom. Genetically, we identified seven genotypes in our patients, including one compound heterozygote of (GCN)11/(GCN)12. The genetic heterogeneity implies that there is no single founder effect in Chinese population, and our data also support that the (GCN)11 polymorphism may have a disease-modifying effect. Additionally, the clinical features showed homogeneity within families, which suggests that other genetic factors apart from the already known genotype also play a role in modifying the phenotype.
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Expression and prognostic roles of TRPV5 and TRPV6 in non-small cell lung cancer after curative resection.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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We investigated the expression of epithelial Ca2+ channel transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 5 and 6 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and assessed their prognostic role in patients after surgical resection.
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The mitochondrial DNA 10197 G?>?A mutation causes MELAS/Leigh overlap syndrome presenting with acute auditory agnosia.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Abstract Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes/Leigh (MELAS/LS) overlap syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder subtype with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that are characteristic of both MELAS and Leigh syndrome (LS). Here, we report an MELAS/LS case presenting with cortical deafness and seizures. Cranial MRI revealed multiple lesions involving bilateral temporal lobes, the basal ganglia and the brainstem, which conformed to neuroimaging features of both MELAS and LS. Whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing and PCR-RFLP revealed a de novo heteroplasmic m.10197 G?>?A mutation in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 gene (ND3), which was predicted to cause an alanine to threonine substitution at amino acid 47. Although the mtDNA m.10197 G?>?A mutation has been reported in association with LS, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and dystonia, it has never been linked with MELAS/LS overlap syndrome. Our patient therefore expands the phenotypic spectrum of the mtDNA m.10197 G?>?A mutation.
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High density lipoprotein from patients with valvular heart disease uncouples endothelial nitric oxide synthase.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Normal high density lipoprotein (HDL) protects vascular function; however these protective effects of HDL may absent in valvular heart disease (VHD). Because vascular function plays an important role in maintaining the circulation post-cardiac surgery and some patients are difficult to stabilize, we hypothesized that a deleterious vascular effect of HDL may contribute to vascular dysfunction in VHD patients following surgery. HDL was isolated from age-match 28 healthy subjects and 84 patients with VHD and during cardiac surgery. HDL pro-inflammation index was measured and the effects of HDL on vasodilation, protein interaction, generation of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide were determined. Patients with VHD received either simvastatin (20mg/d) or routine medications, and endothelial effects of HDL were characterized. HDL inflammation index significantly increased in VHD patients and post-cardiac surgery. HDL from VHD patients and post-cardiac surgery significantly impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, inhibited both Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation at S1177, eNOS associated with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), NO production and increased eNOS phosphorylation at T495 and superoxide generation. Simvastatin therapy partially reduced HDL inflammation index, improved the capacity of HDL to stimulate eNOS and Akt phosphorylation at S1177, eNOS associated with HSP90, NO production, reduced eNOS phosphorylation at T495 and superoxide generation, and improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Our data demonstrated that HDL from VHD patients and cardiac surgery contributed to endothelial dysfunction through uncoupling of eNOS. This deleterious effect can be reversed by simvastatin, which improves the vasoprotective effects of HDL. Targeting HDL may be a therapeutic strategy for maintaining vascular function and improving the outcomes post-cardiac surgery.
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[Early monitoring drug-resistance of patients with BCR/ABL(+) ALL by DCDF-FISH].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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This study was aimed to investigate the application value of the dual color dual fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (DCDF-FISH) in BCR/ABL (+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with complex chromosomal translocation. The clinical presentations of a patient with ALL were monitored regularly by bone marrow cell morphology test, chromosome analysis, flow cytometry and DCDF-FISH technique, and the reaction of patients to treatment and disease progression were dynamically observed by DCDF-FISH. The results indicated that the patient showed the typical presentation of B lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) with expression of CD10, CD19 and CD34; the chromosome analysis showed 46,XY, i(8), ider(9)t (9; 22) [23]/47, idem, +der(22) t (9;22) [7] karyotype in the bone marrow cells, FISH showed that 83% cells contained BCR/ABL fusion gene in the patient's bone marrow, among which 5% cells showed 1R1G2F signalling model, 14% cells showed 1R1G3F, and 64% cells showed 1R1G4F. The patient got complete remission when the imatinib chemotherapy combined with VTLP was carried out, and the tumor cells decreased to 19%, but the cells with 1R1G2F signal model increased to 18%. The 1R1G2F cell signal model increased up to 38% when patient relapsed. The patient died of the drug-resistance. It is concluded that the BCR/ABL (+) leukemia patient with complex translocation has multiple tumor cell subsets, and the responses of different cell subsets to the treatment are different, therefore the response to therapy and drug resistance of patient can be monitored early by the signal model of DCDF-FISH and the observation of dynamical changes of different cell subset.
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Two natural products, trans-phytol and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3?,5?,8?-triol, inhibit the biosynthesis of estrogen in human ovarian granulosa cells by aromatase (CYP19).
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Aromatase is the only enzyme in vertebrates to catalyze the biosynthesis of estrogens. Although inhibitors of aromatase have been developed for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer, the whole-body inhibition of aromatase causes severe adverse effects. Thus, tissue-selective aromatase inhibitors are important for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. In this study, 63 natural products with diverse structures were examined for their effects on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa-like KGN cells. Two compounds-trans-phytol (SA-20) and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3?,5?,8?-triol (SA-48)-were found to potently inhibit estrogen biosynthesis (IC50: 1?M and 0.5?M, respectively). Both compounds decreased aromatase mRNA and protein expression levels in KGN cells, but had no effect on the aromatase catalytic activity in aromatase-overexpressing HEK293A cells and recombinant expressed aromatase. The two compounds decreased the expression of aromatase promoter I.3/II. Neither compound affected intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, but they inhibited the phosphorylation or protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The effects of these two compounds on extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and AKT/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway were examined. Inhibition of p38 MAPK could be the mechanism underpinning the actions of these compounds. Our results suggests that natural products structurally similar to SA-20 and SA-48 may be a new source of tissue-selective aromatase modulators, and that p38 MAPK is important in the basal control of aromatase in ovarian granulosa cells. SA-20 and SA-48 warrant further investigation as new pharmaceutical tools for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers.
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Evaluation of internal control for gene expression in Phalaenopsis by quantitative real-time PCR.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The selection of appropriate reference genes is one of the most important steps to obtain reliable results for normalizing quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of MADS-box gene in Phalaenopsis. In this study, we cloned 12 candidate reference genes including 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1?), cytoskeletal structural protein actin (ACT1, ACT2, ACT3, ACT4, ACT5), ubiquitin protein (UBQ1 and UBQ2), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and the cytoskeletal structural proteins ?-tubulin (TUA) and ?-tubulin (TUB) in Phalaenopsis and evaluated their expression reliability. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed using geNorm and normFinder software packages; the results showed that ACT2 and ACT4 were the highest stability reference genes for all experiment sets based on normFinder, followed by ACT1 or ACT3, while ACT3 and ACT4 were the highest stability reference genes for most experiment sets based on geNorm, then TUB or others. Taken together, Actin genes were the higher stability reference genes for all tissues at total developmental stages, and similar results came from analysis by normFinder. According to geNorm analysis, ACT3 and ACT4 were the most stable reference genes for all tissues tested and tissues at reproductive stages; TUB and ACT5 or ACT4 were the most stable reference genes for vegetative tissues or roots. The most stable reference genes for all vegetative tissues and only leaves were ACT4 and ACT5, ACT2 and ACT3, respectively; ACT1 and ACT3 were the most stable genes and sufficient for reliable normalization of flower tissues. While EF1?, UBQ1, UBQ2, and GAPDH were found to be unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis for flower tissues, total tissues, and reproductive stages; UBQ2 and 18S were identified as the least stable reference genes for vegetative tissues at different stages, different tissues at vegetative stages; TUA and 18S were the least reliable reference genes for the samples from roots at all developmental stages. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in Phalaenopsis, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in orchid.
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Humic acids-based hierarchical porous carbons as high-rate performance electrodes for symmetric supercapacitors.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Two kinds of hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs) with specific surface areas of 2000 m(2)g(-1) were synthesized using leonardite humic acids (LHA) or biotechnology humic acids (BHA) precursors via a KOH activation process. Humic acids have a high content of oxygen-containing groups which enabled them to dissolve in aqueous KOH and facilitated the homogeneous KOH activation. The LHA-based HPC is made up of abundant micro-, meso-, and macropores and in 6M KOH it has a specific capacitance of 178 F g(-1) at 100 Ag(-1) and its capacitance retention on going from 0.05 to 100 A g(-1) is 64%. In contrast, the BHA-based HPC exhibits a lower capacitance retention of 54% and a specific capacitance of 157 F g(-1) at 100 A g(-1) which is due to the excessive micropores in the BHA-HPC. Moreover, LHA-HPC is produced in a higher yield than BHA-HPC (51 vs. 17 wt%).
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Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional study of Co(n)C2(-) (n = 1-5) clusters.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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ConC2(-) (n = 1-5) cluster anions were investigated using anion photoelectron spectroscopy. The adiabatic detachment energies (ADEs) and the vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of the ConC2(-) (n = 1-5) cluster anions were determined from their photoelectron spectra. Density functional calculations were performed for the ConC2 (n = 1-5) cluster anions and neutrals. Our studies show that the structures of ConC2(-) (n = 1-5) can be described as attaching C2 to the top sites, bridge sites, or hollow sites of the Con clusters. The C2 retains an integral structure unit in the ConC2 (n = 1-5) cluster anions and neutrals, rather than being separated by the Con clusters. The C2 unit in the ConC2 (n = 1-5) cluster anions and neutrals has the characteristics of a double-bond.
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Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined the impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21.
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Liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite material for dental application.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Novel liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposites, which exhibit reduced polymerization shrinkage and effectively bond to tooth structures, can be applied in esthetic dentistry, including core and post systems, direct and indirect restorations, and dental brackets. The purposes of this study were to investigate the properties of liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposites including biocompatibility, microhardness, and frictional forces of bracket-like blocks with different filler contents for further clinical applications.
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Checkpoint kinase 1 is negatively regulated by miR-497 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHEK1) is an evolutionarily conserved Ser/Thr kinase, which mediates cell-cycle arrest after DNA damage, and we previously reported that CHEK1 was overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), indicating it was oncogenic gene. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism of CHEK1 overexpression in HCC. We first verified the upregulated CHEK1 by qRT-PCR and western blot in 30 HCC samples compared with corresponding non-tumor liver tissues. In silico analysis showed that CHEK1 was a candidate target of miR-497, which was previously found to be downregulated in HCC by us. To test whether miR-497 could bind to 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of CHEK1, luciferase reporter assay was conducted. The result revealed that miR-497 could bind to the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of CHEK1 mRNA. Western blot showed that ectopic expression of miR-497 suppressed the CHEK1 expression and inhibition of miR-497 led to significant upregulation of CHEK1. Finally, miR-497 expression was measured in the same 30 HCC samples, and the correlation between miR-497 and CHEK1 was analyzed. The results indicated that miR-497 was downregulated in HCC and had a significant negative correlation with CHEK1. Taken together, these results demonstrated that CHEK1 was negatively regulated by miR-497, and the overexpressed CHEK1 was resulted from the downregulated miR-497 in HCC, which provided a potential molecular target for HCC therapy.
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Allele-specific imbalance of oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1 associates with progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Although there are a few highly penetrant mutations that are linked directly to cancer initiation, more less-penetrant susceptibility alleles have been associated with cancer risk and progression. We used RNA sequence analysis to search for genetic variations associated with pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Novel RYR1 missense mutations in six Chinese patients with central core disease.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Central core disease (CCD) is a genetically heterogeneous congenital myopathy, and ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1, gene ID6261) is the only pathogenicity gene until now. Data on mutation characteristics of RYR1 in the Chinese CCD population are scarce. This study searched for mutations in the C-terminal-encoding domain of RYR1 in six Chinese patients with CCD, and identified five missense mutations (N4807F, R4861H, R4893P, G4897D, and I4898T). Among them, N4807F, G4897D were novel while R4861H, R4893P, and I4898T were previously reported. All missense mutations were highly conserved across the species of human, mouse, rabbit, fish, and pig. This study found that mutations could be identified in about 85% CCD patients, even if only the C-terminal-encoding region of RYR1 was screened. Many mutations clustered in exons 100-102.
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Myopathy with anti-signal recognition particle antibodies: clinical and histopathological features in Chinese patients.
Neuromuscul. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Myopathy with anti-signal recognition particle antibodies (SRP) is generally thought to be immune-mediated necrotic myopathy in previous studies. We report the clinical and histopathological features of myopathy with anti-SRP antibodies in Chinese patients. Muscle biopsy and immunoblots for myositis antibodies were carried out in 123 patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Among them, 16 (13.0%) patients had anti-SRP antibodies. Age of onset ranged from 24 to 77 years, and the disease began insidiously. Fourteen of 16 patients presented with chronic progression of proximal limb weakness, with 6 having myalgia. Serum creatine kinase levels ranged from 400 to 9082 IU/L. Muscle biopsies showed necrotic and/or regenerative muscle fibers in all 16, infiltrates of lymphocytes in 11 and morphological features of muscular dystrophy in 7. Eleven patients showed focal or diffuse major histocompatibility complex class 1 expression in sarcolemma or cytoplasm of muscle fibers, with 9 showing deposition of membrane attack complex in necrotic muscle fibers and 2 around capillaries. These findings indicate that anti-SRP antibodies are most likely to be related to IMNM. Myopathy with anti-SRP antibodies is not infrequent in Chinese patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy.
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Comparison of the therapeutic effect of teriparatide with that of combined vertebroplasty with antiresorptive agents for the treatment of new-onset adjacent vertebral compression fracture after percutaneous vertebroplasty.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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Comparing a prospective group of 32 patients, who underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and who were treated with teriparatide for at least 18 months after a new-onset adjacent vertebral compression fracture (VCF), and compared it with a retrospective group of 33 patients, who received antiresorptive agents combined with repeated PVPs for post-PVP new-onset adjacent VCFs.
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[Clinical features and acid alpha-glucosidase gene mutation in 7 Chinese patients with glycogen storage disease type II].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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To explore the clinical features and acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) gene mutations of Chinese patients with glycogen storage disease typeII(GSDII).
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Identification of a novel strain of human papillomavirus from children with diarrhea in china.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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A highly divergent human papillomavirus (HPV) strain, HPV-L55, was identified in fecal samples from children hospitalized with diarrhea in China. The L1 gene of HPV-L55 shares <75% identity with previously reported HPVs, indicating that this virus represents a novel type of HPV. Phylogenetic analysis classified this virus as a member of the gammapapillomaviruses.
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[Effect of curcumin combined with ATRA on differentiation of ATRA-resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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In order to investigate the effect of curcumin combined with all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA) on differentiation of ATRA-resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells and its molecular mechanism, the NB4-R1, an ATRA-resistant APL cells, was used as a model, counting of NB4-R1 and cell morphologic observation were performed, the effect of curcumin alone or combined with ATRA on proliferation, differentiation of NB4-R1 cells was detected by flow cytometry (FCM), the change of AKT phophorylation in cell differentiation was detected by Western blot. The results showed that ATRA had no influence on NB4-R1 cell proliferation, but enhanced the inhibitory effect of curcumin on NB4-R1 cell growth; the curcumin or ATRA alone did not affect NB4-R1 differentiation; curcumin combined with ATRA could obviously induce CD11b expression; the cell morphology showed obvious differentiation characteristics. ATRA could promote phosphorylation of AKT in NB4 cells at short time, but not had effect on phosphorylation of AKT in NB4-R1 cells; the curcumin could enhance the phosphorylation of AKT in NB4-1R cells, the curcumin combined with ATRA could further enhance the phosphorylation of AKT. It is concluded that PI3K/AKT pathway inactivation may be one of the factors of drug resistance in APL and curcumin promotes differentiation of NB4-R1 through activating PI3K/AKT pathway.
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Genome-wide mutational signatures of aristolochic acid and its application as a screening tool.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Aristolochic acid (AA), a natural product of Aristolochia plants found in herbal remedies and health supplements, is a group 1 carcinogen that can cause nephrotoxicity and upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma (UTUC). Whole-genome and exome analysis of nine AA-associated UTUCs revealed a strikingly high somatic mutation rate (150 mutations/Mb), exceeding smoking-associated lung cancer (8 mutations/Mb) and ultraviolet radiation-associated melanoma (111 mutations/Mb). The AA-UTUC mutational signature was characterized by A:T to T:A transversions at the sequence motif A[C|T]AGG, located primarily on nontranscribed strands. AA-induced mutations were also significantly enriched at splice sites, suggesting a role for splice-site mutations in UTUC pathogenesis. RNA sequencing of AA-UTUC confirmed a general up-regulation of nonsense-mediated decay machinery components and aberrant splicing events associated with splice-site mutations. We observed a high frequency of somatic mutations in chromatin modifiers, particularly KDM6A, in AA-UTUC, demonstrated the sufficiency of AA to induce renal dysplasia in mice, and reproduced the AA mutational signature in experimentally treated human renal tubular cells. Finally, exploring other malignancies that were not known to be associated with AA, we screened 93 hepatocellular carcinoma genomes/exomes and identified AA-like mutational signatures in 11. Our study highlights an unusual genome-wide AA mutational signature and the potential use of mutation signatures as "molecular fingerprints" for interrogating high-throughput cancer genome data to infer previous carcinogen exposures.
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Disseminated Encephalomyelitis-Like Central Nervous System Neoplasm in Childhood.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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A malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system with diffuse white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rare in children. It could be misdiagnosed as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. This report presents our experience based on 4 patients (3 male, 1 female; aged 7-13 years) whose MRI showed diffuse lesions in white matter and who were initially diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. All of the patients received corticosteroid therapy. After brain biopsy, the patients were diagnosed with gliomatosis cerebri, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central nervous system lymphoma. We also provide literature reviews and discuss the differentiation of central nervous system neoplasm from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.
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Biodegradable drug-eluting poly[lactic-co-glycol acid] nanofibers for the sustainable delivery of vancomycin to brain tissue: in vitro and in vivo studies.
ACS Chem Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Successful treatment of a brain infection requires aspiration of the pus or excision of the abscess, followed by long-term (usually 4-8 weeks) parenteral antibiotic treatment. Local antibiotic delivery using biodegradable drug-impregnated carriers is effective in treating postoperative infections, thereby reducing the toxicity associated with parenteral antibiotic treatment and the expense involved with long-term hospitalization. We have developed vancomycin-loaded, biodegradable poly[lactic-co-glycol acid] nanofibrous membranes for the sustainable delivery of vancomycin to the brain tissue of rats by using the electrospinning technique. A high-performance liquid chromatography assay was employed to characterize the in vitro and in vivo release behaviors of pharmaceuticals from the membranes. The experimental results suggested that the biodegradable nanofibers can release high concentrations of vancomycin for more than 8 weeks in the cerebral cavity of rats. Furthermore, the membranes can cover the wall of the cavity after the removal of abscess more completely and achieve better drug delivery without inducing adverse mass effects in the brain. Histological examination also showed no inflammation reaction of the brain tissues. By adopting the biodegradable, nanofibrous drug-eluting membranes, we will be able to achieve long-term deliveries of various antibiotics in the cerebral cavity to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of cerebral infections.
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Clinical significance and prognostic value of microRNA expression signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the development and progression of cancer. The aim of this study is to identify miRNA expression signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma and delineate their clinical significance for hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Biodegradable poly([D,L]-lactide-co-glycolide) nanofibers for the sustainable delivery of lidocaine into the epidural space after laminectomy.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Aim: We developed biodegradable, lidocaine-embedded poly([D,L]-lactide-co-glycolide) nanofibers for epidural analgesia to reduce the severe pain in rats after laminectomies. Materials & methods: Nanofibers were prepared by an electrospinning process and were introduced into the epidural space of rats after laminectomy. The lidocaine concentration, postoperative bodyweight change and amount of food/water intake were monitored to evaluate the analgesic effectiveness of the drug-eluting nanofibers. Results: It was demonstrated that the nanofibers provided a sustained release of lidocaine for more than 2 weeks, and the local pharmaceutical concentration was much higher than the concentration in plasma. Rats that received laminectomies without nanofibers exhibited the greatest bodyweight reduction. The food/water intake and activity performance were significantly higher in rats receiving laminectomies with nanofibers than in rats without nanofibers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the lidocaine-loaded nanofibers can provide an easy, practical and safe means of achieving effective postlaminectomy analgesia. Original submitted 23 April 2012; Revised submitted 25 October 2012; Published online 26 June 2013.
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A disrupted RNA editing balance mediated by ADARs (Adenosine DeAminases that act on RNA) in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous tumour displaying a complex variety of genetic and epigenetic changes. In human cancers, aberrant post-transcriptional modifications, such as alternative splicing and RNA editing, may lead to tumour specific transcriptome diversity. DESIGN: By utilising large scale transcriptome sequencing of three paired HCC clinical specimens and their adjacent non-tumour (NT) tissue counterparts at depth, we discovered an average of 20 007 inferred A to I (adenosine to inosine) RNA editing events in transcripts. The roles of the double stranded RNA specific ADAR (Adenosine DeAminase that act on RNA) family members (ADARs) and the altered gene specific editing patterns were investigated in clinical specimens, cell models and mice. RESULTS: HCC displays a severely disrupted A to I RNA editing balance. ADAR1 and ADAR2 manipulate the A to I imbalance of HCC via their differential expression in HCC compared with NT liver tissues. Patients with ADAR1 overexpression and ADAR2 downregulation in tumours demonstrated an increased risk of liver cirrhosis and postoperative recurrence and had poor prognoses. Due to the differentially expressed ADAR1 and ADAR2 in tumours, the altered gene specific editing activities, which was reflected by the hyper-editing of FLNB (filamin B, ?) and the hypo-editing of COPA (coatomer protein complex, subunit ?), are closely associated with HCC pathogenesis. In vitro and in vivo functional assays prove that ADAR1 functions as an oncogene while ADAR2 has tumour suppressive ability in HCC. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the fact that the differentially expressed ADARs in tumours, which are responsible for an A to I editing imbalance, has great prognostic value and diagnostic potential for HCC.
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Characterization of the oncogenic function of centromere protein F in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Centromere protein F (CENPF) is an essential nuclear protein associated with the centromere-kinetochore complex and plays a critical role in chromosome segregation during mitosis. Up-regulation of CENPF expression has previously been detected in several solid tumors. In this study, we aim to study the expression and functional role of CENPF in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We found CENPF was frequently overexpressed in HCC as compared with non-tumor tissue. Up-regulated CENPF expression in HCC was positively correlated with serum AFP, venous invasion, advanced differentiation stage and a shorter overall survival. Cox regression analysis found that overexpression of CENPF was an independent prognosis factor in HCC. Functional studies found that silencing CENPF could decrease the ability of the cells to proliferate, form colonies and induce tumor formation in nude mice. Silencing CENPF also resulted in the cell cycle arrest at G2/M checkpoint by down-regulating cell cycle proteins cdc2 and cyclin B1. Our data suggest that CENPF is frequently overexpressed in HCC and plays a critical role in driving HCC tumorigenesis.
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Dietary lysine affects chickens from local Chinese pure lines and their reciprocal crosses.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine concentration on meat quality and carcass traits in 2 chicken lines, SD02 and SD03, and their crosses, both originating from a Chinese native breed, the Erlang Mountainous chicken. The lines were selected for 4 generations by Sichuan Agricultural University (Yaan, China); for the present study, chickens from the 2 lines and their crosses were randomly assigned at hatch to 1 of 2 dietary groups. One group was offered diets containing 1, 0.85, and 0.70% total lysine, whereas the other was offered diets with 1.15, 1, and 0.85% total lysine from d 1 to 28, d 29 to 49, and d 50 to 70, respectively. In total, 252 chickens were commercially processed at 70 d old. Traits measured included live BW, subcutaneous fat thickness, weight of carcass, eviscerated carcass, semi-eviscerated carcass, breast muscle (left pectoralis major and minor), leg muscle (boneless left drum plus thigh), heart, gizzard, proventriculus, spleen, liver, comb, and abdominal fat, color parameters lightness, redness, or yellowness (L*, a*, and b*), pH, and breast muscle intramuscular fat content. The results indicated that, although dietary lysine concentration did not affect subcutaneous fat thickness, color parameters, pH, intramuscular fat content, and organ weights, there were effects on feed conversion and muscle and BW (P < 0.05). Males and females displayed major differences in feed conversion, BW, muscle growth, and organ weight. The Line SD02 chickens grew faster and displayed less fat deposition and superior feed conversion compared with Line SD03 and the reciprocal crosses. In conclusion, performance of the chicken stocks evaluated in this study differs substantially in muscle weight and carcass weight.
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Identification of Sirtuin 3, a mitochondrial protein deacetylase, as a new contributor to tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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The current study reports a previously unappreciated role of Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial protein deacetylase, in altering sensitivity of breast cancer cells to tamoxifen (Tam), a commonly used anti-estrogen agent. We showed that SIRT3 was significantly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels in the Tam-resistance human breast cancer cell line MTR-3, which was derived from MCF-7 line by continuous selective culture in the presence of 1?M of Tam for two years. We further demonstrated that SIRT3 was rapidly up-regulated in the sensitive MCF-7 cells following exposure to Tam. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with a SIRT3 expression plasmid decreased cellular sensitivity to Tam and blocked the Tam-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, silencing of SIRT3 expression in MTR-3 cells sensitized the resistant cells to Tam and enhanced apoptotic cell death. MTR-3 cells with silencing of SIRT3 expression showed increases in the mitochondrial content of ER?, ROS level and apoptosis. These results not only uncovered a new role for SIRT3 in cancer but also identified this mitochondrial protein deacetylase as a previously unrecognized factor that participates in regulation of Tam sensitivity in breast cancer cells. Thus, SIRT3 might be considered as a potential target for overcoming Tam resistance in treatment of breast cancer.
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[Correlation of muscular impairment rating scale with myopathological changes in myotonic dystrophy type 1].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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To explore the relationship between muscular impairment rating scale (MIRS) and myopathological changes of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1).
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(1)H nuclear magnetic resonance based-metabolomic characterization of Peucedani Radix and simultaneous determination of praeruptorin A and praeruptorin B.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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As a widely used traditional herbal medicine, it is crucial to characterize the holistic metabolic profile of Peucedani Radix (Chinese name: Qian-hu). However, it is quite arduous to obtain the whole picture of chemical constituents appropriately with the existing analytical techniques that were based on HPLC-UV or LC-MS/MS system. In present investigation, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with principal components analysis (PCA) was introduced to metabolomic characterization of Qian-hu crude extracts without any chromatographic separation. In addition, the contents of praeruptorin A (PA) and proaeruptorin B (PB) in Qian-hu were simultaneously determined using quantitative (1)H NMR (q(1)H NMR) spectroscopy. Eighteen reference compounds (1-18), which were purified from this herbal drug extract previously, were recruited for the assignment of the protonic signals in the (1)H NMR spectra. Following PCA, 15 batches of Peucedani Radix were divided into two groups (I and II), and angular-type pyranocoumarins, in particular PA and PB, as well as 5-methoxycoumarin were demonstrated as the predominant markers being responsible for the distinguishment of Qian-hu from different districts. The contents of the two analytes (PA & PB) were calculated by the relative ratio of the integral values of the target peak for each compound to the known amount of the internal standard, formononetin (IS). The lower limits of quantitation were determined as 19.5?g/mL for both PA and PB. The quantitative results indicated that the contents of PA and PB showed quite variable qualities among different extract samples. Above all, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, that could not only provide comprehensive profiles of the metabolites but also achieve convenient determination of praeruptorin A and praeruptorin B, is a promising means for evaluating the medicinal samples of Peucedani Radix.
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Expression of angiotensin II and its receptors in activated microglia in experimentally induced cerebral ischemia in the adult rats.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) and its receptors (AT1/AT2) is undetected in the mature microglia in normal brain. We report here that the immunoexpression of Ang II and AT1/AT2 was altered in activated microglia notably at 1 week in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Immunolabeled activated microglia were widely distributed in the infarcted cerebral tissue after MCAO. By enzyme immunoassay, Ang II protein expression levels of the ischemic tissues were decreased drastically at 12 h after ischemia, then rose rapidly at 3 days and 1 week after MCAO when compared with the control. On the other hand, AT1 and AT2 receptor mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated after MCAO, peaking at 12 h, but declined thereafter. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) mRNA and protein levels was concomitantly increased. Edaravone significantly suppressed Ang II and AT1/AT2 receptor expression as well as that of TNF-? and IL-1? suggesting that microglia-derived Ang II can act through an autocrine manner via its receptor that may be linked partly to the production of proinflammatory cytokines. We conclude that neuroinflammation in MCAO may be attenuated by Edaravone which acts through suppression of expression of Ang II and its receptors and proinflammatory cytokines in activated microglia.
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Maelstrom promotes hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition by way of Akt/GSK-3?/Snail signaling.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Amplification of 1q is one of the most frequent chromosomal alterations in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study we identified and characterized a novel oncogene, Maelstrom (MAEL), at 1q24. Amplification and overexpression of MAEL was frequently detected in HCCs and significantly associated with HCC recurrence (P = 0.031) and poor outcome (P = 0.001). Functional study demonstrated that MAEL promoted cell growth, cell migration, and tumor formation in nude mice, all of which were effectively inhibited when MAEL was silenced with short hairpin RNA (shRNAs). Further study found that MAEL enhanced AKT activity with subsequent GSK-3? phosphorylation and Snail stabilization, finally inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promoting tumor invasion and metastasis. In addition, MAEL up-regulated various stemness-related genes, multidrug resistance genes, and cancer stem cell (CSC) surface markers at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level. Functional study demonstrated that overexpression of MAEL increased self-renewal, chemoresistance, and tumor metastasis. Conclusion: MAEL is an oncogene that plays an important role in the development and progression of HCC by inducing EMT and enhancing the stemness of HCC. (Hepatology 2013;).
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A modified radiofrequency ablation approach for treating distant lymph node metastasis in two patients with late-stage cancer.
Chin J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Patients with late-stage cancer commonly have distant lymph node metastasis; however, poor health often contraindicates surgical treatment. Although the quality of life and overall survival for these patients are low, there is neither a consensus nor a guide for treatment. Ablation technique and surrounding tissue damage are two possible reasons for limited study of radiofrequency ablation in patients with superficial distant lymph node metastasis. Here, we report two patients treated successfully with ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation for superficial distant lymph node metastasis. In these patients, deionized water was injected to the surrounding tissues of the lymph node to decrease heat injury. Results from these patients suggest that radiofrequency ablation may play an important role in the treatment of patients with distant lymph node metastasis.
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T-2 toxin exposure induces apoptosis in rat ovarian granulosa cells through oxidative stress.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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To investigate the reproductive toxicity and cytotoxicity of T-2 toxin, which is a mycotoxin, and to explore its potential apoptotic induction mechanism.
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Metabolic differentiations of Pueraria lobata and Pueraria thomsonii using (1)H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Puerariae Radix was a widely used herbal medicine. Pueraria lobata (PL) and Pueraria thomsonii (PT) were the two authorized sources of Puerariae Radix (gegen) in China. In this study, metabolic differentiations between these two species were investigated using NMR spectroscopy followed by principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The content of puerarin in PL and PT was also determined using quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Thirteen isoflavones were tentatively identified based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data in two species. The (1)H NMR spectra of PL and PT were obviously different. PL and PT could also be markedly discriminated from (1)H NMR spectroscopic data by PCA and PLS-DA. For the crude drug resources, isoflavones, in which puerarin is the most important one, were regarded as the reasonable markers for the discrimination of the two species. The contents of puerarin and total isoflavones in PL were quantitated much higher than those in PT. Above all, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, which can provide comprehensive profiles of the metabolites and achieve convenient determinations of puerarin and total isoflavones in a single run, is an efficient means for evaluating the medicinal samples and achieving a better quality control of Puerariae Radix.
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A simple modification results in greater success in the model of coronary artery ligation and myocardial ischemia in mice.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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Mouse models of myocardial ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and ischemic postconditioning (IPD) have proven to be very useful models of cardiovascular diseases. In 2010, Gao described a novel procedure without the aid of mechanical ventilation. However, the technique of heart externalization could not be applied to mouse models of IPC or IPD due to the limited time frame of the technique. We proposed a modified simple and safe method using lung recruitment and short-term ventilation to perform the procedure in mice with IPC or IPD. The mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: the modified groups, M-IPC and M-IPD, and the conventional groups, C-IPC and C-IPD. In the 2 modified groups, the mice were removed from the ventilator and allowed to resume breathing spontaneously upon completion of the lung recruitment and the rapid closure of the thorax. Our study demonstrated that the postoperative recovery time was significantly reduced for the modified groups compared with the 2 conventional groups. Moreover, the inflammatory damages were attenuated by the modified method compared with the conventional method. In addition, the modified method significantly increased the survival rates of mice with IPC or IPD. The modified method improved the survival rates of mouse models of myocardial ischemia.
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Endothelial microparticles increase in mitral valve disease and impair mitral valve endothelial function.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Mitral valve endothelial cells are important for maintaining lifelong mitral valve integrity and function. Plasma endothelial microparticles (EMPs) increased in various pathological conditions related to activation of endothelial cells. However, whether EMPs will increase in mitral valve disease and their relationship remains unclear. Here, 81 patients with mitral valve disease and 45 healthy subjects were analyzed for the generation of EMPs by flow cytometry. Human mitral valve endothelial cells (HMVECs) were treated with EMPs. The phosphorylation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the association of eNOS and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), and the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (O(2)(?-)) were measured. EMPs were increased significantly in patients with mitral valve disease compared with those in healthy subjects. EMPs were negatively correlated with mitral valve area in patients with isolated mitral stenosis. EMPs were significantly higher in the group with severe mitral regurgitation than those in the group with mild and moderate mitral regurgitation. Furthermore, EMPs were decreased dramatically in both Akt and eNOS phosphorylation and the association of HSP90 with eNOS in HMVECs. EMPs decreased NO production but increased O(2)(?-) generation in HMVECs. Our data demonstrated that EMPs were significantly increased in patients with mitral valve disease. The increase of EMPs can in turn impair HMVEC function by inhibiting the Akt/eNOS-HSP90 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that EMPs may be a therapeutic target for mitral valve disease.
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Detection of novel viruses in porcine fecal samples from China.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Pigs are well known source of human infectious disease. To better understand the spectrum of viruses present in pigs, we utilized the 454 Life Sciences GS-FLX high-throughput sequencing platform to sequence stool samples from healthy pigs.
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Early predictors of hematoma resorption rate in medically treated patients with spontaneous supratentorial hemorrhage.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages are associated with a relatively high mortality rate, and there is no effective treatment so far. Hematoma resorption speed after intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is believed to correlate with clinical outcome. However, little is known about hematoma resorption rates following spontaneous ICH. The aim of this study is to identify factors that can influence the rate of hematoma resorption in patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH. We studied 80 patients admitted at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xian JiaoTong University from November 2008 to April 2012. The rate of hematoma resorption was calculated for each patient by measuring the variation in the volume of the hematoma (mL) from two computerized tomography brain scans divided by the time factor (days) separating the respective scans. Non-parametric and standard multiple linear regression methods were used for statistical analysis. The size of the hematoma was identified as a predictor of the rate of hematoma resorption. For supratentorial hematomas with a maximum volume of 45 mL, the larger the volume, the greater the rate of resorption. Non-hypertensive patients had a more favorable rate of hematoma resorption than those who were hypertensive. A low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level (<0.83 mmol/L) was associated with a slower hematoma resorption rate. Therefore, a spontaneous ICH hematoma of less than 45 mL, a history of chronic hypertension, and a lower level of HDL were found to be the predictors of the hematoma resorption rate in the first 7-day period following ICH onset.
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Mitofusin 2 gene mutation causing early-onset CMT2A with different progressive courses.
Clin. Neuropathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 2A2 (CMT2A2), caused by mitofusin 2 (MFN2) genes, has been clinically classified into two types: severe early-onset and mild benign. Here we reported 3 early onset patients with different progressive courses. The 3 patients had mutations R94W, R364W and a novel W740R in the MFN2 gene. Two patients presented with progressive distal limb muscle weakness and wasting from the ages of 5 and 6 years, respectively. The disease developed slowly, with loss of ambulation after 35 years of age. The third patient presented with similar symptoms after birth, and has never been able to walk independently. Sural nerve biopsies revealed severe axonal neuropathy with mitochondrial aggregation in axons. Our data confirmed that early-onset CMT2A2 can present with different courses in Chinese patients. The novel mutation in MFN2 found in this study broadens the genotypic spectrum associated with MFN2 related CMT.
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Sustainable release of carmustine from biodegradable poly[((D,L))-lactide-co-glycolide] nanofibrous membranes in the cerebral cavity: in vitro and in vivo studies.
Expert Opin Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans. The only interstitial chemotherapy pharmaceutical approved to date for GBM treatment is the Gliadel® wafer. Despite the safety and efficacy of this approach that have been demonstrated in patients undergoing resection of both newly diagnosed and recurrent malignant gliomas, the wafer provides an effective release of the anticancer 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) for only 5 days.
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Recoding RNA editing of AZIN1 predisposes to hepatocellular carcinoma.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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A better understanding of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis at the molecular level will facilitate the discovery of tumor-initiating events. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that adenosine-to-inosine (A?I) RNA editing of AZIN1 (encoding antizyme inhibitor 1) is increased in HCC specimens. A?I editing of AZIN1 transcripts, specifically regulated by ADAR1 (encoding adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1), results in a serine-to-glycine substitution at residue 367 of AZIN1, located in ?-strand 15 (?15) and predicted to cause a conformational change, induced a cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation and conferred gain-of-function phenotypes that were manifested by augmented tumor-initiating potential and more aggressive behavior. Compared with wild-type AZIN1 protein, the edited form has a stronger affinity to antizyme, and the resultant higher AZIN1 protein stability promotes cell proliferation through the neutralization of antizyme-mediated degradation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and cyclin D1 (CCND1). Collectively, A?I RNA editing of AZIN1 may be a potential driver in the pathogenesis of human cancers, particularly HCC.
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Fusion protein vaccines targeting two tumor antigens generate synergistic anti-tumor effects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been consistently implicated in causing several kinds of malignancies, and two HPV oncogenes, E6 and E7, represent two potential target antigens for cancer vaccines. We developed two fusion protein vaccines, PE(?III)/E6 and PE(?III)/E7 by targeting these two tumor antigens to test whether a combination of two fusion proteins can generate more potent anti-tumor effects than a single fusion protein.
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Identification of a novel picornavirus in healthy piglets and seroepidemiological evidence of its presence in humans.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In this study, we describe a novel porcine parechovirus-like virus (tentatively named PLV-CHN) from healthy piglets in China using 454 high-throughput sequencing. The complete genome of the virus comprises 6832 bp, encoding a predicted polyprotein of 2132 amino acids that is most similar to Ljungan virus (32% identity). A similar virus that belongs to a novel Picornaviridae genus, named swine pasivirus 1 (SPaV-1), was reported during the preparation of this paper. Sequence analysis revealed that PLV-CHN and SPaV1 shared 82% nucleotide identity and 89% amino acid identity. Further genomic and phylogenetic analyses suggested that both SPaV1 and PLV-CHN shared similar genomic characteristics and belong to the same novel Picornaviridae genus. A total of 36 (20.0%) fecal samples from 180 healthy piglets were positive for PLV-CHN by RT-PCR, while no fecal samples from 100 healthy children and 100 children with diarrhea, and no cerebrospinal fluid samples from 196 children with suspected viral encephalitis, was positive for the virus. However, Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using recombinant PLV-CHN VP1 polypeptide as an antigen showed a high seroprevalence of 63.5% in the healthy population. When grouped by age, the antibody-positivity rates showed that the majority of children under 12 years of age have been infected by the virus. It was suggested that PLV-CHN, SPaV1, or an as-yet-uncharacterized virus can infect humans early in life. Thus, investigation of the role of this novel virus is vital.
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[The pharmacological mechanism of gastrodin on calcitonin gene-related peptide of cultured rat trigeminal ganglion].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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The Chinese herbal medicine Tianma (Gastrodia elata) has been used for treating and preventing primary headache over thousands of years, but the exact pharmacological mechanism of the main bioactive ingredient gastrodin remains unclear. In present study, the effects of gastrodin on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (pERK1/2) expression were observed in rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) after in vitro organ culture to explore the underlying intracellular mechanism of gastrodin on primary vascular-associated headache. CGRP-immunoreactivity (CGRP-ir) positive neurons count, positive area, mean optical density and integrated optical density by means of immunohistochemistry stain were compared at different concentrations of gastrodin, which was separately co-incubated with DMEM in SD rat TG for 24 hours. Only at 5 or 10 mmol L(-1) concentration, gastrodin demonstrated significantly concentration-dependent reduction of CGRP-ir (+) expression and its action closed to 1.2 mmol L(-1) sumatriptan succinate. While at 2.5, 20, and 40 mmol L(-1) concentration, gastrodin did not show remarkable effects on CGRP-ir (+) expression. The optimal concentration of gastrodin (5 and 10 mmol L(-1)) similarly inhibited CGRP-mRNA expression level separately compared with 1.2 mmol L(-1) sumatriptan succinate and 10 micromol L(-1) flunarizine hydrochloride, which was quantitatively analyzed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). pERK1/2 level was examined by Western blotting after co-cultured with optimal concentration of gastrodin and effective specific ERK1/2 pathway inhibitors PD98059, U0126. The result indicated that gastrodin significantly reduced pERK1/2 protein actions similarly to ERK1/2 pathway specific blockade. It suggests ERK1/2 signaling transduction pathway may be involved in gastrodin intracellular mechanism. This study indicates gastrodin (5 and 10 mmol L(-1)) can remarkably reduce CGRP-ir (+) neuron, CGRP-mRNA and pERK1/2 expression level in cultured rat TG, with its actions similar to the effective concentration of sumatriptan succinate, flunarizine hydrochloride and specific ERK1/2 pathway blocker. The intracellular signaling transduction ERK1/2 pathway may be involved in the gastrodin reducing CGRP up-regulation in rat TG after organ culture.
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Projection-aided videometric method for shape measurement of large-scale bulk material stockpile.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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Large-scale stockpiles are a common means for the storage of bulk material and their shape measurement is a prerequisite for effective transportation and logistics management. This paper proposes a projection-aided videometric method that is based on stereo vision and makes use of projections and epipolar geometry constraints to solve the correspondence problem. A prototype measuring system was developed that can work in real time and achieve measuring accuracy of 0.71?mm in terms of the flatness deviation and 0.54?mm in terms of the depth error, as proven by the experimental results.
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Mutations in mitochondrially encoded complex I enzyme as the second common cause in a cohort of Chinese patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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The mutation pattern of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in mainland Chinese patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) has been rarely reported, though previous data suggested that the mutation pattern of MELAS could be different among geographically localized populations. We presented the results of comprehensive mtDNA mutation analysis in 92 unrelated Chinese patients with MELAS (85 with classic MELAS and 7 with MELAS/Leigh syndrome (LS) overlap syndrome). The mtDNA A3243G mutation was the most common causal genotype in this patient group (79/92 and 85.9%). The second common gene mutation was G13513A (7/92 and 7.6%). Additionally, we identified T10191C (p.S45P) in ND3, A11470C (p. K237N) in ND4, T13046C (p.M237T) in ND5 and a large-scale deletion (13025-13033:14417-14425) involving partial ND5 and ND6 subunits of complex I in one patient each. Among them, A11470C, T13046C and the single deletion were novel mutations. In summary, patients with mutations affecting mitochondrially encoded complex I (MTND) reached 12.0% (11/92) in this group. It is noteworthy that all seven patients with MELAS/LS overlap syndrome were associated with MTND mutations. Our data emphasize the important role of MTND mutations in the pathogenicity of MELAS, especially MELAS/LS overlap syndrome.
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Characterization of the propanil biodegradation pathway in Sphingomonas sp. Y57 and cloning of the propanil hydrolase gene prpH.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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In our previous study, the isoproturon-degrading strain Sphingomonas sp. Y57 was isolated from the wastewater treatment system of an herbicide factory. Interestingly, this strain also showed the ability to degrade propanil (3,4-dichloropropionamilide). The present work reveals that Y57 degrades propanil via the following pathway: propanil was initially hydrolyzed to 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and then converted to 4,5-dichlorocatechol, which was then subjected to aromatic ring cleavage and further processing. N-acylation and N-deacylation of 3,4-DCA also occurred, and among N-acylation products, 3,4-dichloropropionanilide was found for the first time. The gene encoding the propanil hydrolase responsible for transforming propanil into 3,4-DCA was cloned from Y57 and was designated as prpH. PrpH was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified using Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. PrpH displayed the highest activity against propanil at 40°C and at pH 7.0. The effect of metal ions on the propanil-degrading activity of PrpH was also determined. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a strain that can degrade both propanil and 3,4-DCA and the first identification of a gene encoding a propanil hydrolase in bacteria.
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NADPH oxidase DUOX1 and DUOX2 but not NOX4 are independent predictors in hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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NADPH oxidase DUOX1, DUOX2, and NOX4 have recently been gained considerable concerns, owing to the fact that they involve in reactive oxygen species-induced genetic and epigenetic alternations of human carcinogenesis and serve as biomarkers in several cancers. Whether they predict survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still uncertain. Here, we detected the expressions of DUOX1, DUOX2, and NOX4 in one normal liver cell line, seven HCC cell lines, 30 non-cirrhotic normal liver tissues, and 107 paired HCC tissues using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The correlations of genes expression with prognoses were analyzed. DUOX1 was expressed at high levels in MHCC-97H and MHCC-97L, but at low levels in Bel-7402. In contrast to low expression level at SMMC-7721, DUOX2 was expressed at considerably high levels in MHCC-97H and MHCC-97L. The transcript of NOX4 was only detected in SMMC-7721. All the 30 normal liver tissues failed to express the three candidate markers. Compared with adjacent non-neoplastic tissues, DUOX1, DUOX2, and NOX4 were expressed at higher frequencies in tumor specimens. Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that elevated expression of DUOX1 or DUOX2 predicted poorer recurrence-free survival and overall survival. No such significance trend regarding NOX4 predictive value in survival, however, was seen in univariate analysis. These results suggested DUOX1 and DUOX2, but not NOX4, could predict HCC prognoses after hepatectomy.
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[Differences of apoptotic-regulating gene expression in the hippocampus in rats with different ages after status convulsion].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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To explore the molecular mechanism of brain protection against convulsive brain damage in premature brains by observing the changes of apoptotic-regulating genes of bcl-2 and c-Jun expression in the hippocampus in Wistar rats with different ages after status convulsion (SC).
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Electronic structure and reactivity of a biradical cluster: Sc3O6(-).
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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The Sc(3)O(6)(-) cluster anions were produced by laser ablation and studied by reaction with n-butane in a fast flow reactor and by photoelectron spectroscopy. The reactivity experiments indicated that one Sc(3)O(6)(-) cluster can activate two n-butane molecules consecutively with rate constants on the order of 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) under near room-temperature conditions, suggesting that the even-electron system Sc(3)O(6)(-) has a highly reactive electronic structure. The photoelectron spectroscopy determined a high vertical detachment energy (VDE) of 5.63 ± 0.08 eV for the Sc(3)O(6)(-) cluster. Density functional computations indicated that the lowest energy isomer of Sc(3)O(6)(-) is an oxygen-centered biradical with a high VDE and is highly reactive toward n-butane, which is in good agreement with the experiments. The Sc(3)O(6)(-) cluster may serve as an ideal model system to provide insight into the real-life chemistry involved with the coupled O(-)?···O(-)? dimers over the surfaces of metal oxide catalysts.
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Leaf Extracts of Calocedrus formosana (Florin) Induce G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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Calocedrus formosana (Florin) bark acetone/ethylacetate extracts are known to exert an antitumor effect on some human cancer cell lines, but the mechanism is yet to be defined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Florin leaf methanol extracts on the growth and apoptosis of human bladder cancer cell lines. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay showed that the growth of these bladder cancer cells was potently inhibited by the Florin leaf extracts. The cell cycle of these extract-treated cells (TCCSUP cells) was arrested at the G2/M phase as determined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis revealed the increases of cyclin B1 and Cdc2 kinase levels, alone with the decrease of phosphorylated Cdc2 kinase, after treating these cells with the extracts. An immunofluorescence assessment of ?-tubulin showed decreased levels of polymerized tubulin in treated cells. However, the proteolytic cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase and the activation of caspase-3/-8/-9 were all increased upon treatments of extracts. The concurrent increase of Bax and decrease of Bcl-2 levels indicated that the extracts could induce apoptosis in these treated cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the Florin leaf extracts may be an effective antibladder cancer agent.
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Asian patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I).
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I) is caused by defects in the fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene. In most Caucasian patients with LGMD2I, the condition is associated with a missense mutation - c.826C>A (p.Leu276Ile). We describe two Chinese brothers with progressive shoulder and pelvic muscle weakness. They had muscle stiffness and myalgia after exercise, but lacked obvious hypertrophy of the calves. Muscle biopsy showed dystrophic features with many rimmed vacuoles in the fibers. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses revealed reductions of alpha-(?)-dystroglycan (VIA4-1) and laminin-?2 (80-kDa C-terminal and 300-kDaN-terminal). Two novel heterozygous mutations (c.208T>A and c.1030G>T) in the FKRP gene were identified in these patients. In addition, we summarise the clinical features of patients with LGMD2I in the Asian region. Our findings might indicate that the pathogenic FKRP mutations in Asian patients with LGMD2I are sporadic compound heterozygous mutations rather than the hot-spot c.826C>A mutation seen in Caucasian populations.
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Novel therapeutic potential in targeting microtubules by nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) shows low response to most conventional chemotherapies. To facilitate target identification for novel therapeutic development, we deployed gene expression profiling on 43 paired HCC tumors and adjacent non-tumoral liver, which is also considered as the pre-malignant liver lesion. In conjunction with ontology analysis, a major functional process found to play a role in the malignant transformation of HCC was microtubule-related cellular assembly. We further examined the potential use of microtubule targeting taxane drugs, including paclitaxel and docetaxel, and compared with findings to results from doxorubicin, a common chemotherapeutic agent used in HCC. Recent studies showed that drug delivery by nanoparticles have enhanced efficacy with reduced side effects. In this regard, the nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel was also examined. In a panel of HCC cell lines studied, a high sensitivity towards taxane drugs was generally found, although the effect from nab-paclitaxel was most profound. The nab-paclitaxel showed an effective IC50 dose at 15-fold lower than paclitaxel alone or the derivative analogue docetaxel, and ~450-fold less compared to doxorubicin. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed a cell cycle blockade at the G2/M phase and increased apoptosis following nab-paclitaxel treatment. In vivo animal studies also showed that nab-paclitaxel readily inhibited xenograft growth with less toxicity to host cells compared to other anti-microtubule drugs and doxorubicin. Gene silencing of the microtubule regulatory gene STMN1 by RNAi suggested a distinct synergistic effect in the combined treatment with nab-paclitaxel. Our findings in this study highly suggest that the microtubule assembly represents a promising therapeutic target development in HCC.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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