The aim of the study was to examine how seat surface inclination affects Boccia ball throwing movement and postural stability among children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twelve children with bilateral spastic CP (3 with gross motor function classification system Level I, 5 with Level II, and 4 with Level III) participated in this study. All participants underwent pediatric reach tests and ball throwing performance analyses while seated on 15° anterior- or posterior-inclined, and horizontal surfaces. An electromagnetic motion analysis system was synchronized with a force plate to assess throwing motion and postural stability. The results of the pediatric reach test (p=0.026), the amplitude of elbow movement (p=0.036), peak vertical ground reaction force (PVGRF) (p<0.001), and movement range of the center of pressure (COP) (p<0.020) were significantly affected by seat inclination during throwing. Post hoc comparisons showed that anterior inclination allowed greater amplitude of elbow movement and PVGRF, and less COP movement range compared with the other inclines. Posterior inclination yielded less reaching distance and PVGRF, and greater COP movement range compared with the other inclines. The anterior-inclined seat yielded superior postural stability for throwing Boccia balls among children with bilateral spastic CP, whereas the posterior-inclined seat caused difficulty.
The treatment efficacy of peginterferon plus ribavirin for patients with HCV genotype 1 is inferior to that in patients with HCV genotype 2, but the efficacy among patients with mixed HCV genotype 1 + 2 is less clear. We compared the treatment outcome of peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin among naïve chronic hepatitis C patients in Taiwan with HCV genotype 1 and 2, and mixed genotype 1 + 2.
It is generally thought that topical cooling can interfere with blood perfusion and may have positive effects on recovery from a traumatic challenge. This study examined the influence of topical cooling on muscle damage markers and hemodynamic changes during recovery from eccentric exercise. Eleven male subjects (age 20.2 ± 0.3 years) performed 6 sets of elbow extension at 85% maximum voluntary load and randomly assigned to topical cooling or sham groups during recovery in a randomized crossover fashion. Cold packs were applied to exercised muscle for 15 minutes at 0, 3, 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. The exercise significantly elevated circulating creatine kinase-MB isoform (CK-MB) and myoglobin levels. Unexpectedly, greater elevations in circulating CK-MB and myoglobin above the control level were noted in the cooling trial during 48-72 hours of the post-exercise recovery period. Subjective fatigue feeling was greater at 72 hours after topical cooling compared with controls. Removal of the cold pack also led to a protracted rebound in muscle hemoglobin concentration compared with controls. Measures of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, IL-1?, and muscle strength during recovery were not influenced by cooling. A peak shift in IL-12p70 was noted during recovery with topical cooling. These data suggest that topical cooling, a commonly used clinical intervention, seems to not improve but rather delay recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.
Boccia is a sport suitable for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Throwing Boccia balls requires upper extremity and torso coordination. This study investigated the differences between children with CP and normally developed children regarding throwing patterns of Boccia balls. Thirteen children with bilateral spastic CP and 20 normally developed children participated in this study. The tests in this study were a pediatric reach test and throwing of Boccia balls. A 3D electromagnetic motion tracking system and a force plate were synchronized to record and analyze biomechanical parameters of throwing Boccia balls. The results of the pediatric reach test for participants with CP were significantly worse than those for normally developed participants. The 2 groups of participants did not significantly differ regarding the distance between a thrown Boccia ball and a target ball (jack). Participants with CP demonstrated significantly longer movement duration, smaller amplitude of elbow movement, greater amplitudes of shoulder abduction and flexion, slower maximal velocity of torso flexion and the linear velocity of moving the wrist joint forward, faster maximal velocity of head flexion, and smaller sway ratio compared with normally developed participants when throwing Boccia balls. Participants with CP seemed to mainly use head and shoulder movements to bring the Boccia balls forward with limited torso movement. Normally developed participants brought the Boccia ball forward with faster torso and greater elbow movement while stabilizing head and shoulder movements. Nevertheless, participants with CP did not demonstrate significantly worse performance in the throwing accuracy of Boccia balls.
Deep oceans have been suggested as a possible site where the origin of life occurred. Along with this theoretical lineage, experiments using components from deep ocean water to recreate life is underway. Here, we propose that if terrestrial organisms indeed evolved from deep oceans, supply of deep ocean mineral water (DOM) to humans, as a land creature, may replenish loss of molecular complexity associated with evolutionary sea-to-land migration.
MicroRNA (miRNA) plays essential roles in regulating gene expression, but miRNA delivery remains a hurdle, thus entailing a vector system for efficient transfer. Baculovirus emerges as a promising gene delivery vector but its inherent transient expression restricts its applications in some scenarios. Therefore, this study primarily aimed to develop baculovirus as a miRNA expression vector for prolonged gene suppression. We constructed recombinant baculoviruses carrying artificial egfp-targeting miRNA sequences within the miR155 backbone, which after expression by the cytomegalovirus promoter could knockdown the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. By swapping the mature miRNA sequences, the baculovirus miRNA shuttle effectively repressed the overexpression of endogenous TNF-? in arthritic synoviocytes without inducing apoptosis. To prolong the baculovirus-mediated expression, we further developed a hybrid baculovirus vector that exploited the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon for gene integration and sustained miRNA expression. The hybrid baculovirus vector that combined the miR155 scaffold and SB transposon effectively repressed the transgene expression for a prolonged period of time, hence diversifying the applications of baculovirus to indications necessitating prolonged gene regulation such as arthritis.
Risk factors in throwing factors associated to little league elbow have not been adequately explored. Whether these factors also affect the players performance is also important to elucidate while modifying throwing pattern to reduce injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with or without a history of medial elbow pain (MEP) and to determine the relationship between their throwing kinematics and ball speed. Fifteen players with previous MEP were matched with 15 healthy players by age, height and weight. Throwing kinematics was recorded by an electromagnetic motion analysis system. A foot switch was used for determining foot off and foot contact. Ball speed was recorded with a sports radar gun. The group with a history of MEP demonstrated less elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation and had more lateral trunk tilt at ball release compared to the healthy group. The group with a history of MEP also had faster maximum upper torso rotation velocities, maximum pelvis rotation velocities and ball speeds. Maximum shoulder external rotation angle (r = 0.458, P = 0.011), elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = -0.637, P = 0.0003), and maximum upper torso rotation velocity (r = 0.562, P = 0.002) had significant correlation with ball speed. Findings of this study can be treated as elbow injury-related factors that clinicians and coaches can attend to when taking care of youth
This study describes the brightness field distributions of microlens arrays fabricated by micro injection molding (?IM) and micro injection-compression molding (?ICM). The process for fabricating microlens arrays used room-temperature imprint lithography, photoresist reflow, electroforming, ?IM, ?ICM, and optical properties measurement. Analytical results indicate that the brightness field distribution of the molded microlens arrays generated by ?ICM is better than those made using ?IM. Our results further demonstrate that mold temperature is the most important processing parameter for brightness field distribution of molded microlens arrays made by ?IM or ?ICM.
Baculovirus is an enveloped virus that infects insects in nature and has emerged as a novel vaccine vector. We previously constructed a recombinant baculovirus displaying the hemagglutinin protein (HA) of avian influenza virus (AIV) on the viral envelope (Bac-HA64), and demonstrated the induction of humoral responses in immunized mice. To improve the vector design and explore how the vector forms influence the vaccine efficacy, we constructed two more baculoviruses Bac-CHA and Bac-CHA/HA64. Bac-CHA expressed HA after transducing the host cells while Bac-CHA/HA64 not only expressed HA but also displayed HA on the envelope. After administration into BALB/c mice, all three vectors elicited HA-specific humoral (IgG1, IgG2a and hemagglutination inhibition titers), mucosal (IgA titers) and cellular (interferon (IFN)-? and IL-4 producing T cells and IFN-?(+)/CD8(+) T cells) immune responses. Intriguingly, the magnitudes and types of responses hinged on the vaccine form and administration route. Via intranasal (i.n.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculation, the HA-displaying vectors Bac-HA64 and Bac-CHA/HA64 triggered stronger humoral and mucosal responses than Bac-CHA, but upon intramuscular (i.m.) injection the HA-expressing vectors (Bac-CHA and Bac-CHA/2HA64) elicited more robust humoral and cellular responses than Bac-HA64. Via either administration route, the dual form vaccine Bac-CHA/HA64 gave rise to superior or at least comparable HA-specific immune responses than the other two vaccine forms, implicating the potential of Bac-CHA/HA64 as a vaccine candidate against AIV infection.
The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of immunotherapy for patients with metastatic melanoma with autologous melanoma apoptotic bodies (MAB)-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs). Accessible tumors from eligible patients with refractory metastatic melanoma were surgically removed and processed for primary culture. The autologous tumor cells were treated with dactinomycin to obtain MAB. To generate DCs, adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in complete medium containing granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin-4. MAB-pulsed DCs were given either intradermally (i.d.) or intravenously. Patients were immunized at monthly intervals and boosted with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and MAB 2 weeks post-vaccination, with a maximum of four cycles. Of the 10 patients enrolled in this trial, nine were treated with MAB-pulsed DCs; two were given intravenous vaccinations and the other seven were i.d. injected. Mild tenderness in the draining lymph nodes lasting for less than 48 h and enlargement of the draining lymph nodes were noted in all seven i.d. cases. Treatment-related grade 3-4 toxicity, neutropenia, skin ulceration, tumor growth at the injection site, and sepsis were not observed in any of the patients. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to KLH was observed in all patients, whereas no delayed-type hypersensitivity to autologous tumor antigens was observed. One patient achieved partial response with reduction in lung metastatic tumor mass, and a presence of vesicles in the post-vaccination KLH response. Two patients had stable disease for more than 24 months; one was still alive at the time of submission of this report, the other eventually developed multiple metastases. MAB-pulsed DC immunotherapy is well tolerated in patients with malignant melanoma; however, its efficacy is only modest. Combination with other modalities is required to enhance DC-based immunotherapy.
Patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) bearing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations are good responders to gefitinib (Iressa), an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), yet these patients may eventually develop acquired resistance to all available EGFR-TKIs. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) are inhibitors of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase as well as chelators of divalent cations. This study was undertaken to examine if the N-BP zoledronic acid (zoledronate) possessing antitumor activity could enhance the antitumor effect of gefitinib on the HCC827 NSCLC cell line expressing mutated EGFR. Both gefitinib and zoledronate were cytotoxic to HCC827 cells when treated alone. Combined treatment with gefitinib (0.025 microM) that induced G0/G1 arrest and zoledronate (50 microM) that caused S/G2/M accumulation generated an additive induction in cell cytotoxicity, sub-G1 cell population, and apoptosis. Gefitinib suppressed EGF-activated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt, while zoledronate seemed to impose its pharmacological effect independent of ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. The volumes of xenografted tumors in nude mice co-administered with gefitinib (1 mg/kg/day, five days a week, p.o.) and zoledronate (10 microg/kg, twice weekly, i.p.) were significantly smaller than those of tumors in mice treated with gefitinib alone at the last stage of a 6-week in vivo study. Severe peri-tumoral fat loss frequently observed in gefitinib-treated mice disappeared in mice receiving the combined treatment. Hence, combined treatment of gefitinib with zoledronate may form a basis to develop a more effective and less toxic therapy for NSCLC with EGFR gene mutations.
Osteosarcoma is characterized by a high malignant and metastatic potential. CCL5 (previously called RANTES) was originally recognized as a product of activated T cells, and plays a crucial role in the migration and metastasis of human cancer cells. It has been reported that the effect of CCL5 is mediated via CCR receptors. However, the effect of CCL5 on migration activity and integrin expression in human osteosarcoma cells is mostly unknown.
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