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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in integrated plasmonics with radiative and subradiant resonators.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We propose the use of radiative and subradiant resonators coupled to a metal-insulator-metal waveguide to represent the three-level energy diagram in conventional atomic systems and demonstrate a new realization of on-chip plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) in integrated plasmonics. The radiative resonator is achieved with the help of aperture-coupling while evanescent coupling is relied for the subradiant resonator. Numerical simulation results demonstrate well-pronounced intermediate transmission peak through the bus waveguide and also show that the EIT effect can be easily controlled by the relative position of the two Fabry-Perot resonators.
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Secondary damage in left-sided frontal white matter detected by diffusion tensor imaging is correlated with executive dysfunction in patients with acute infarction at the ipsilateral posterior corona radiata.
Eur. J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Executive dysfunction has been observed in patients with left-sided anterior corona radiata infarction. However, whether left-sided posterior corona radiata infarction could cause executive dysfunction is unclear. Also, whether secondary damage in the left frontal white matter following ipsilateral posterior corona radiata infarct is causal or not and contributes to the occurrence and development of executive dysfunction, is still uncertain.
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Protein-bearing cubosomes prepared by liquid precursor dilution: inner ear delivery and pharmacokinetic study following intratympanic administration.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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This study aims to design self-assembled cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubosomes) to enhance inner ear bioavailability of earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme (EFE). The cubosomes were prepared using a liquid precursor mixture containing glyceryl monooleate, hydrotrope propylene glycol, and F127 as stabilizer. Submicron-size particles (100 nm to 200 nm) with slight negative charge formed spontaneouly upon dilution of the liquid precursors. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) results demonstrated that the formation of cubsomses largely depended on the hydration level of liquid precursor and the encapsulation of highly hydrophilic EFE induced the phase transition of the cubosome. The encapsulatoin efficiency of EFE in cubosomes was 79.6% and their cubic ultrastructure were confirmed by TEM. In vitro cell toxicity results showed that the viability of L929 cells decreased by increasing the concentration of nanoparticles. Octadecyl rhodamine B chloride (R18) labeled cubosomes were identified in the basal turn of the scala tympani and middle portion of the cochlea after 30 min post intratympanic administration, indicating that cubosomes could permeate through the RWM. The AUC(0 h-24 h) of EFE administrated as EFE cubosomes was 2.6-fold in cochlear fluid compared to those applied by free drug via the intratympanic route. In conclusion, self-assembled liquid crystalline nanoparticles provide a promising protein vehicle for effective inner ear drug delivery.
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Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid-? deposits, apoptosis and autophagy in the thalamus and improves functional recovery after cortical infarction.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Focal cerebral infarction causes amyloid-? (A?) deposits and secondary thalamic neuronal degeneration. The present study aimed to determine the protective effects of Cerebrolysin on A? deposits and secondary neuronal damage in thalamus after cerebral infarction. At 24h after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), Cerebrolysin (5ml/kg) or saline as control was once daily administered for consecutive 13days by intraperitoneal injection. Sensory function and secondary thalamic damage were assessed with adhesive-removal test, Nissl staining and immunofluorescence at 14days after MCAO. A? deposits, activity of ?-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), apoptosis and autophagy were determined by TUNEL staining, immunofluorescence and immunoblot. The results showed that Cerebrolysin significantly improved sensory deficit compared to controls (p<0.05). A? deposits and BACE1 were obviously reduced by Cerebrolysin, which was accompanied by decreases in neuronal loss and astroglial activation compared to controls (all p<0.05). Coincidently, Cerebrolysin markedly inhibited cleaved caspase-3, conversion of LC3-II, downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax in the ipsilateral thalamus compared to controls (all p<0.05). These findings suggest that Cerebrolysin reduces A? deposits, apoptosis and autophagy in the ipsilateral thalamus, which may be associated with amelioration of secondary thalamic damage and functional recovery after cerebral infarction.
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Autophagosomes accumulation is associated with ?-amyloid deposits and secondary damage in the thalamus after focal cortical infarction in hypertensive rats.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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Focal cerebral cortical infarction after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion causes ?-amyloid deposition and secondary neuronal degeneration in the ipsilateral ventroposterior nucleus of the thalamus. Several studies suggest that autophagy is an active pathway for ?-amyloid peptide generation. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in thalamic ?-amyloid deposition and neuronal degeneration after cerebral cortical infarction in hypertensive rats. At 7 and 14days after middle cerebral artery occlusion, neuronal death and ?-amyloid deposits were evident in the ipsilateral ventroposterior nucleus, and the activity of ?-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1, required for ?-amyloid peptide generation, was elevated in the thalamus. In correlation, both the number of cells showing punctate microtubule-associated protein 1A light chain 3 fluorescence and levels of light chain 3-II protein, an autophagosome marker, were markedly increased. Notably, most of the cells that over-expressed ?-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 displayed punctate light chain 3 staining. Furthermore, the inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine significantly reduced the thalamic neuronal damage, ?-amyloid deposits, and ?-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 activity. These results suggest that autophagosomes accumulate within thalamic cells after cerebral cortical infarction, which is associated with thalamic ?-amyloid deposition and secondary neuronal degeneration via elevation of ?-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 level.
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Early detection of secondary damage in ipsilateral thalamus after acute infarction at unilateral corona radiata by diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Traditional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can identify abnormal changes in ipsilateral thalamus in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarcts. However, it is difficult to demonstrate these early changes quantitatively. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are potentially sensitive and quantitative methods of detection in examining changes of tissue microstructure and metabolism. In this study, We used both DTI and MRS to examine possible secondary damage of thalamus in patients with corona radiata infarction.
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Reduction of ?-amyloid deposits by ?-secretase inhibitor is associated with the attenuation of secondary damage in the ipsilateral thalamus and sensory functional improvement after focal cortical infarction in hypertensive rats.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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Abnormal ?-amyloid (A?) deposits in the thalamus have been reported after cerebral cortical infarction. In this study, we investigated the association of A? deposits, with the secondary thalamic damage after focal cortical infarction in rats. Thirty-six stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats were subjected to distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and then randomly divided into MCAO, vehicle, and N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) groups and 12 sham-operated rats as control. The DAPT was administered orally at 72?hours after MCAO. Seven days after MCAO, sensory function, neuron loss, and glial activation and proliferation were evaluated using adhesive removal test, Nissl staining, and immunostaining, respectively. Thalamic A? accumulation was evaluated using immunostaining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with vehicle group, the ipsilateral thalamic A?, neuronal loss, glial activation and proliferation, and the mean time to remove the stimulus from right forepaw significantly decreased in DAPT group. The mean time to remove the stimulus from the right forepaw and thalamic A? burden were both negatively correlated with the number of thalamic neurons. These findings suggest that A? deposits are associated with the secondary thalamic damage. Reduction of thalamic A? by ?-secretase inhibitor may attenuate the secondary damage and improve sensory function after cerebral cortical infarction.
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XIAP-associated factor 1 interacts with and attenuates the trans-activity of four and a Half LIM protein 2.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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XIAP-associated factor 1(XAF1) is a tumor suppressor with its functional mechanisms not fully understood. The zinc-finger cluster located at the N-terminus is the only domain structure. Four and a half LIM domain protein 2 (FHL2) also contains a tandem zinc finger structure, and its protein functions as an important adaptor and modifier in protein-protein interactions. Both of their structures are relatively simple, while the association between them is still unclear. In this study, we detected the interaction between XAF1 and FHL2 by using the yeast two-hybrid system. We identified FHL2 as a XAF1 binding protein. Furthermore, both XAF1 and FHL2 localized to the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and nucleus of gastric cancer cells. Over-expression of XAF1 excluded FHL2 from the nucleus and suppressed the trans-activity of FHL2 in stimulating the transcriptional activities of ?-catenin and AP-1. In conclusion, our findings unraveled an antagonistic mechanism between a tumor suppressor and an oncoprotein in cancer cells.
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Identification of a functional p53 responsive element within the promoter of XAF1 gene in gastrointestinal cancer cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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It has been reported that XAF1 expression in gastric cancer is negatively correlated with p53. Our purpose was to clarify the regulatory mechanism of p53 on XAF1 expression. The effects of overexpressed wild-type and mutant p53 on XAF1 expression were evaluated. Binding capacity of core XAF1 promoter sequence to the recombinant p53 protein was examined. Site-directed mutation of putative p53 binding sequence and p53 knockdown by siRNA were performed. The protein expression and promoter activities of XAF1 in cells with null p53 were higher than that with wild-type and mutant p53. Ectopic overexpression of wild-type p53 suppressed XAF1 expression. A half-site (-95 to -86 nt) and a quarter-site (-4 to +1 nt) of p53 responsive element were found within XAF1 promoter. Both sequences bound to recombinant p53 effectively and specifically. Site-mutation of p53 responsive sequences abrogated the binding capacity. However, only the mutation of half-site increased XAF1 promoter activities. Suppression of p53 not only decreased the binding capacity of p53 responsive halfsite but also increased XAF1 transcription. In conclusion, we demonstrated that p53 could suppress the transcription of XAF1 through interaction with a high affinity responsive element (-95 to -86 nt) within XAF1 promoter, indicating a novel exclusive mechanism between these two tumor suppressors.
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A preliminary investigation of the efficacy of riparian fencing schemes for reducing contributions from eroding channel banks to the siltation of salmonid spawning gravels across the south west UK.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2010
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The low productivity of salmonids in many river systems across the UK is testament to their intolerance of water quality perturbations including those associated with excessive sedimentation. Catchment and fishery managers concerned with combating such issues require reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem to target management and on the efficacy of the mitigation options being implemented. In recognition of the latter requirement, a pre- and post-remediation sediment sourcing survey was used to examine the potential for using sediment tracing to assemble preliminary information on the efficacy of riparian fencing schemes for reducing sediment contributions from eroding channel banks to salmonid spawning gravels in the Rivers Camel, Fal, Lynher, Plym, Tamar and Tavy in the south west of the UK. Respective estimates of the overall mean proportion (+/-95% confidence limits) of the interstitial sediment input to salmonid spawning gravels originating from eroding channel banks during the pre- (1999-2000) and post-remediation (2008-2009) study periods were computed at 97+/-1% vs. 69+/-1%, 94+/-1% vs. 91+/-1%, 12+/-1% vs. 10+/-1%, 92+/-1% vs. 34+/-1%, 31+/-1% vs. 16+/-1% and 90+/-1% vs. 66+/-1%. Whilst the study demonstrates the potential utility of the fingerprinting approach for helping to assemble important information on the efficacy of bank fencing as a sediment source control measure at catchment scale, a number of limitations of the work and some suggestions for improving experimental design are discussed. Equivalent data are urgently required for many sediment mitigation options to help inform the development of water quality policy packages designed to protect aquatic ecosystems.
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Oncogene functions of FHL2 are independent from NF-kappaBIalpha in gastrointestinal cancer.
Pathol. Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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Four and a half of LIM-only protein 2 (FHL2) is an adaptor protein that can interact with many transcription factors and thus plays a variety of biological functions. Previous studies by our group have demonstrated that suppression of FHL2 was capable of inducing tumor cell differentiation, and inhibiting the growth of experimental gastric and colon cancers. Therefore, FHL2 appears to function as an oncogene. In order to further explore the mechanisms of how FHL2 is involved in tumorigenesis, we attempted to test whether FHL2 has any direct association with nuclear factor (NF-kappaB), the most important transcription factor involved in apoptosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Using an Yeast Two Hybrid (Y2H) screening system, we have shown that FHL2 may have an interaction with NF-kappaBIalpha, the coding gene for IkappaBalpha which is the most potent endogenous inhibitor for NF-kappaB activation. However, subsequent studies using co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization failed to confirm the Y2H finding. Down-regulation of FHL2 by FHL2-siRNA down-regulated the expression of NF-kappaB p65. We therefore concluded that under the physiological condition, FHL2 may activate NF-kappaB pathway, even though such an activation may not be mediated by a direct binding of FHL2 to NF-kappaB inhibitor protein IkappaB.
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c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1) upregulates XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1) through interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) in gastrointestinal cancer.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein-associated factor 1 (XAF1) is a tumor suppressor that can sensitize cancer cell to apoptosis. Intrinsic expression of XAF1 in cancer cell is low. Our purpose is to determine the effect of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) on XAF1 expression and the putative mechanism.
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Abnormalities of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging are correlated with executive dysfunction in patients with ischemic leukoaraiosis.
J Clin Neurosci
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Abnormal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) results have been observed in the periventricular white matter in patients with ischemic leukoaraiosis (ILA). However, the underlying pathological changes and their relationship to cognitive impairments are obscure. In addition, damage in the thalamus, an important structure in the executive function network, has been suggested in ILA, but is poorly understood. Twenty patients with ILA and 20 healthy volunteers with similar ages and educational histories underwent DTI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and a neuropsychological assessment. In patients with ILA, we observed an increased mean diffusivity (MD) and decreased levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) in the anterior and posterior periventricular region and the thalamus, as well as decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the anterior and posterior periventricular regions. MD and NAA/Cr levels in the anterior and posterior periventricular white matter and NAA/Cr levels in the thalamus were correlated with executive function. DTI and MRS abnormalities were consistent with axonal and/or neuronal loss and dysfunction in the anterior and posterior periventricular white matter and the thalamus. This study demonstrates that DTI and MRS techniques can be used to investigate pathological changes in the anterior and posterior periventricular white matter and the thalamus; these changes may be correlated with executive functional changes in patients with ILA.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.