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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cardiac and renal distribution of ACE and ACE-2 in rats with heart failure.
Acta Histochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Congestive heart failure is often associated with impaired kidney function. Over-activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributes to avid salt and water retention in heart failure. While the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), a key enzyme in the synthesis of angiotensin II (Ang II), is well established, the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2), an enzyme responsible for angiotensin 1-7 generation, is largely unknown. This issue is of a special interest since angiotensin 1-7 counteracts many of the proliferative and hypertensive effects of angiotensin II. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the expression of both enzymes in the kidney and heart of rats with heart failure. Heart failure (CHF) was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats (n=9) by the creation of a surgical aorto-caval fistula. Sham-operated rats served as controls (n=8). Two weeks after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and their hearts and kidneys were harvested for assessment of cardiac remodeling and ACE and ACE-2 immunoreactivity by immunohistochemical staining. ACE immunostaining was significantly increased in the kidneys (4.34±0.39% vs. 2.96±0.40%, P<0.05) and hearts (4.57±0.54% vs. 2.19±0.37%, P<0.01) of CHF rats as compared with their sham controls. In a similar manner, ACE-2 immunoreactivity was also elevated in the kidneys (4.65±1.17% vs. 1.75±0.29%, P<0.05) and hearts (5.48±1.11% vs. 1.13±0.26%, P<0.01) of CHF rats as compared with their healthy controls. This study showed that both ACE and ACE-2 are overexpressed in the cardiac and renal tissues of animals with heart failure as compared with their sham controls. The increased expression of the beneficial ACE-2 in heart failure may serve as a compensatory response to the over-activity of the deleterious isoform, namely, angiotensin converting enzyme 1(ACE-1).
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Sensor arrays based on nanoparticles for early detection of kidney injury by breath samples.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) could be severe and even lethal, if not diagnosed in its early stages and treated appropriately. Blood and urine biomarkers, currently in use as indicators for kidney function, are either inaccurate in various cases or not timely. We report on dramatic changes in exhaled breath composition, associated with kidney dysfunction after ischemic insult in rat models. Gas chromatography linked mass spectrometry examination of breath samples indicated significant elevations in the concentration of three exhaled volatile organic compounds, two to six hours after AKI was surgically induced. Relying on these findings, we introduce an array of sensors, based on organic-layer capped gold nanoparticles, sensitive to odor changes. The ability of the array to detect AKI via breath testing was examined and scored a sensitivity of 96%, only one hour after disease induction.
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Nephroprotective effects of TVP1022, a non-MAO inhibitor S-isomer of rasagiline, in an experimental model of diabetic renal ischemic injury.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Ischemic acute kidney injury (iAKI) in diabetes mellitus is associated with a rapid deterioration of kidney function, more than in nondiabetic subjects. TVP1022, a non-MAO inhibitor S-isomer of rasagiline, possesses antioxidative and antiapoptotic activities. The current study examines the effects of TVP1022 and tempol on iAKI in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. iAKI was induced by clamping the left renal artery for 30 min in both diabetic and nondiabetic rats. The right intact kidney served as a control. Forty-eight hours following ischemia, urinary flow (V), sodium excretion (UNaV), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in both ischemic and nonischemic kidneys were determined. The nephroprotective effects of tempol and TVP1022 were examined in these rats. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) immunofluorescence, and nitrotyrosine immunohistochemistry were performed on renal tissues of the various experimental groups. Compared with normoglycemic rats, iAKI in diabetic animals caused more profound reductions in V, UNaV, and GFR. Tempol and TVP1022 treatment increased GFR two- and four-fold in diabetic ischemic kidney, respectively. Besides hemodynamic perturbations, iAKI markedly increased renal immunoreactive 4-HNE and nitrotyrosine staining in both diabetic and nondiabetic rats. Moreover, iAKI increased medullary necrosis, congestion, and casts. Noteworthy, these increases were to a larger extent in ischemic diabetic kidneys. TVP1022, and to a lesser extent tempol, decreased nitrotyrosine and 4-HNE immunoreactivities and necrosis and cast formation in the renal medulla. TVP1022 treatment improves renal dysfunction and histological changes in an iAKI diabetic model and suggests a role for TVP1022 therapy in kidney injury.
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Corin: a new player in the regulation of salt-water balance and blood pressure.
Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Natriuretic peptides play a key role in regulation of blood pressure and volume homeostasis due to their natriuretic/diuretic and vasodilatory actions. The natriuretic and diuretic responses to natriuretic peptides are markedly attenuated in edematous disease states. Our goal is to review the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, with special emphasis on the role of corin in salt retention and edema formation in heart failure and nephrotic syndrome, and pathogenesis of hypertension.
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Impact of hemodialysis on exhaled volatile organic compounds in end-stage renal disease: a pilot study.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Aim: To demonstrate the feasibility of nanomaterial-based sensors for identifying patterns of exhaled volatile organic compound of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and study the impact of hemodialysis (HD) on these patterns. Patients & methods: Exhaled breath samples were collected from a group of 37 volunteers (26 ESRD HD patients; 11 healthy controls); a third of the samples were randomly blinded for determining the sensitivity/specificity of the method. Discriminant function analysis was used to build a model for discriminating ESRD patients and healthy controls (classification accuracy for blind samples: 80%), based on the signals of the nanomaterial sensors. Results & conclusion: The breath pattern of the ESRD patients approached the healthy pattern during the HD treatment, without reaching it completely. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry identified four volatile organic compounds as potential ESRD biomarkers. Although this pilot study has yielded encouraging results, additional large-scale clinical studies are required to develop a fast, noninvasive breath test for monitoring HD adequacy in real time. Original submitted 23 September 2012; Revised submitted 26 February 2013.
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Restoration of renal responsiveness to atrial natriuretic peptide in experimental nephrotic syndrome by albumin infusion.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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The natriuretic/diuretic response to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), an important regulator of water and Na(+) balance, is markedly attenuated in nephrotic syndrome (NS). It has been suggested that the diminished renal responsiveness to ANP may contribute to the pathogenesis of salt retention and edema formation in NS. However, the mechanisms underlying the renal hyporesponsiveness to ANP remain largely unknown.
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Hyponatraemia predicts the acute (type 1) cardio-renal syndrome.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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The acute (type 1) cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) refers to an acute worsening of heart function leading to worsening renal function (WRF), and frequently complicates acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to investigate whether hyponatraemia, a surrogate marker of congestion and haemodilution and of neurohormonal activation, could identify patients at risk for WRF.
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Fluid loss, venous congestion, and worsening renal function in acute decompensated heart failure.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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To investigate the relationship between decongestion, central venous pressure, and risk of worsening renal function (WRF) in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF).
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Urinary NGAL and KIM-1: potential association with histopathologic features in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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NGAL and KIM-1 are suggested to play a key role in the carcinogenesis and progression of renal cell carcinoma. Attention is currently focused on the potential use of the urinary level of NGAL and KIM-1(uNGAL and uKIM-1, respectively) in making an early diagnosis, establishing a prognosis and determination of the histologic characteristics.
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Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition attenuates early renal ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury: assessment by quantitative measurement of urinary NGAL and KIM-1.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical problem that still lacks effective treatment. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors possess anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant properties, making it a promising therapy for ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of various organs. The present study evaluated the early nephroprotective effects of Tadalafil, a PDE5 inhibitor, in an experimental model of renal I/R. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: vehicle-treated I/R (n = 10), and Tadalafil (10 mg/kg po)-treated I/R group (n = 11). After removal of the right kidney and collection of two baseline urine samples, the left renal artery was clamped for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 60, 120, 180, and 240 min. Functional and histological parameters of the kidneys from the various groups were determined. In the vehicle-treated I/R group, glomerular filtration rate was significantly reduced compared with that in normal kidneys. In addition, the ischemic kidney showed remarkable cast formation, necrosis, and congestion, a consistent pattern of acute tubular necrosis. Furthermore, urinary excretion of NGAL and KIM-1, two novel biomarkers of kidney injury, substantially increased following I/R insult. In contrast, Tadalafil treatment resulted in a significant improvement in kidney function and amelioration of the adverse histological alterations of the ischemic kidney. Noteworthy, the urinary excretion of NGAL and KIM-1 markedly decreased in the Tadalafil-treated I/R group. These findings demonstrate that Tadalafil possesses early nephroprotective effects in rat kidneys subjected to I/R insult. This approach may suggest a prophylactic therapy for patients with ischemic AKI.
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Acute obstructive jaundice and chronic cirrhosis protect against the adverse renal effects of pneumoperitoneum: role of nitric oxide.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Obstructive jaundice and cirrhosis are associated with impaired renal function. Previously we demonstrated that increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP, pneumoperitoneum) in normal rats induced renal dysfunction. This study investigated the renal effects of pneumoperitoneum in rats with acute jaundice and cirrhotic rats.
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Potential early predictors for outcomes of experimental hemorrhagic shock induced by uncontrolled internal bleeding in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Uncontrolled hemorrhage, resulting from traumatic injuries, continues to be the leading cause of death in civilian and military environments. Hemorrhagic deaths usually occur within the first 6 hours of admission to hospital; therefore, early prehospital identification of patients who are at risk for developing shock may improve survival. The aims of the current study were: 1. To establish and characterize a unique model of uncontrolled internal hemorrhage induced by massive renal injury (MRI), of different degrees (20-35% unilateral nephrectomy) in rats, 2. To identify early biomarkers those best predict the outcome of severe internal hemorrhage. For this purpose, male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized and cannulas were inserted into the trachea and carotid artery. After abdominal laparotomy, the lower pole of the kidney was excised. During 120 minutes, hematocrit, pO2, pCO2, base excess, potassium, lactate and glucose were measured from blood samples, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured through arterial tracing. After 120 minutes, blood loss was determined. Statistical prediction models of mortality and amount of blood loss were performed. In this model, the lowest blood loss and mortality rate were observed in the group with 20% nephrectomy. Escalation of the extent of nephrectomy to 25% and 30% significantly increased blood loss and mortality rate. Two phases of hemodynamic and biochemical response to MRI were noticed: the primary phase, occurring during the first 15 minutes after injury, and the secondary phase, beginning 30 minutes after the induction of bleeding. A Significant correlation between early blood loss and mean arterial pressure (MAP) decrements and survival were noted. Our data also indicate that prediction of outcome was attainable in the very early stages of blood loss, over the first 15 minutes after the injury, and that blood loss and MAP were the strongest predictors of mortality.
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Popeye domain containing 1 (Popdc1/Bves) is a caveolae-associated protein involved in ischemia tolerance.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Popeye domain containing1 (Popdc1), also named Bves, is an evolutionary conserved membrane protein. Despite its high expression level in the heart little is known about its membrane localization and cardiac functions. The study examined the hypothesis that Popdc1 might be associated with the caveolae and play a role in myocardial ischemia tolerance. To address these issues, we analyzed hearts and cardiomyocytes of wild type and Popdc1-null mice. Immunoconfocal microscopy revealed co-localization of Popdc1 with caveolin3 in the sarcolemma, intercalated discs and T-tubules and with costameric vinculin. Popdc1 was co-immunoprecipitated with caveolin3 from cardiomyocytes and from transfected COS7 cells and was co-sedimented with caveolin3 in equilibrium density gradients. Caveolae disruption by methyl-?-cyclodextrin or by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) abolished the cellular co-localization of Popdc1 with caveolin3 and modified their density co-sedimentation. The caveolin3-rich fractions of Popdc1-null hearts redistributed to fractions of lower buoyant density. Electron microscopy showed a statistically significant 70% reduction in caveolae number and a 12% increase in the average diameter of the remaining caveolae in the mutant hearts. In accordance with these changes, Popdc1-null cardiomyocytes displayed impaired [Ca(+2)]i transients, increased vulnerability to oxidative stress and no pharmacologic preconditioning. In addition, induction of I/R injury to Langendorff-perfused hearts indicated a significantly lower functional recovery in the mutant compared with wild type hearts while their infarct size was larger. No improvement in functional recovery was observed in Popdc1-null hearts following ischemic preconditioning. The results indicate that Popdc1 is a caveolae-associated protein important for the preservation of caveolae structural and functional integrity and for heart protection.
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[Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NAGL): a novel biomarker for acute kidney injury].
Harefuah
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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The incidence of both acute and chronic kidney diseases is persistently increasing and is reaching epidemic proportions. Early therapeutic intervention may significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality rates among these patients. However, the lack of early non-invasive biomarkers has hampered our ability to diagnose kidney diseases as early as possible, and subsequently, to initiate timely, effective, and appropriate treatment. Until recently, no biomarker for kidney disease, except for creatinine was available to clinicians in general and nephrologists in particular. Unfortunately, creatinine is an unreliable indicator during acute and chronic changes in kidney function, since serum creatinine concentrations can vary widely with age, gender, muscle mass, muscle metabolism, medications and hydration status. Secondly, serum creatinine concentrations may not change until a significant amount of kidney function (50-60%) has already been lost. In the last few years various specific biomarkers for kidney diseases were discovered and the most reliable representative is neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), which is the focus of this review. Several studies have demonstrated that plasma and urinary NGAL levels increase two hours after the induction of acute kidney injury (AKI) in several clinical situations such as cardiac surgery, radiocontrast nephropathy, kidney transplantation, hemolytic uremic syndrome and critically ill patients in intensive care unit. Serum and urine concentrations of NGAL increase before those of creatinine, making this biomarker a powerful tool for early detection of renal disease, thus hopefully to reduce the high mortality rate among patients with AKI.
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Early treatment with everolimus exerts nephroprotective effect in rats with adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2011
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Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a clinical state characterized by massive proteinuria and excessive fluid retention. The effects of early versus late treatment with low or high doses of oral everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, on proteinuria in NS have not been previously described.
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Renal and systemic effects of endothelin-1 in diabetic-hypertensive rats.
Clin. Exp. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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The Cohen-Rosenthal Diabetic Hypertensive rat (CRDH) is a unique animal model in which genetic hypertension and diabetes developed after crossbreeding of Cohen diabetic rats sensitive substrain (CDR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The present study examined: 1) The acute effects of ET-1 on the systemic and renal hemodynamics in CRDH rats, CDR, and SHR; 2) The expression of ET-1 and its receptors in the renal tissue of CRDH rats. Intravenous injection of ET-1 (1.0 nmol/kg) into anesthetized SHR rats resulted in a significant immediate depressor response (mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased from 165 ± 3 to 124 ± 12 mmHg, p < 0.0001) followed by a minor hypertensive phase (MAP increased to 170 ± 2 mmHg). Simultaneously, the administration of ET-1 caused a significant decrease in renal blood flow (RBF) from 5.8 ± 0.9 ml/min to 3.2 ± 0.5 ml/min (p = 0.026). These responses were blunted in CRDH rats and CDR. Analysis of intra-renal blood flow by laser-Doppler in CRDH rats revealed that ET-1 injection caused a decrease in cortical blood flow (? = -12 ± 2.9%). However, in contrast to its well-known renal medullary vasodilatory effect, ET-1 produced a significant decline in the medulla blood flow (? = -17.5 ± 3.4%) (p = 0.0125). These findings suggest that CDR and CRDH rats have reduced sensitivity to vascular and renal action of ET-1. Furthermore, in the CRDH rats, the expected ET-1-induced medullary vasodilatation was abolished and even reversed into prolonged vasoconstriction.
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Pneumoperitoneum aggravates renal function in cases of decompensated but not compensated experimental congestive heart failure: role of nitric oxide.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Congestive heart failure is associated with impaired renal function. Previously we noted that increased intra-abdominal pressure (pneumoperitoneum) in normal rats induced renal dysfunction. In this study we investigated the renal effects of pneumoperitoneum in rats with compensated (urinary Na(+) excretion greater than 1,200 ?Eq per 24 hours) and decompensated (urinary Na(+) excretion less than 200 ?Eq per 24 hours) congestive heart failure, and the possible involvement of nitric oxide in these effects.
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Early fluid resuscitation in patients with rhabdomyolysis.
Nat Rev Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Extensive rhabdomyolysis is often lethal unless treated immediately. Early mortality arises from hypovolemic shock, hyperkalemia, acidosis and myoglobinuric acute kidney injury (AKI). Many individuals with rhabdomyolysis could be saved, and myoglobinuric AKI prevented, by early vigorous fluid resuscitation with ?12 l daily intravenous infusion of alkaline solution started at the scene of injury. This regimen stabilizes the circulation and mobilizes edema fluids sequestered in the injured muscles into the circulation, corrects hyperkalemia and acidosis, and protects against the nephrotoxic effects of myoglobinemia and hyperuricosuria. This regime results in a large positive fluid balance, which is well tolerated in young, carefully monitored individuals. In patients with rhabdomyolysis caused by muscle crush syndrome, mortality has been reduced from nearly 100% to <20% over the past 70 years through utilization of this intervention. This Perspectives discusses the lifesaving and limb-saving potential of early vigorous fluid resuscitation in patients with extensive traumatic and nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis.
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TVP1022 attenuates cardiac remodeling and kidney dysfunction in experimental volume overload-induced congestive heart failure.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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Despite the availability of many pharmacological and mechanical therapies, the mortality rate among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) remains high. We tested the hypothesis that TVP1022 (the S-isomer of rasagiline; Azilect), a neuroprotective and cytoprotective molecule, is also cardioprotective in the settings of experimental CHF in rats.
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Effects of chronic rosiglitazone treatment on renal handling of salt and water in rats with volume-overload congestive heart failure.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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The side effects of fluid retention and edema of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonists limit their use in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). The present study aims to explore whether chronic treatment with the TZD compound rosiglitazone (RGZ) is associated with worsening of salt and water retention in male Sprague-Dawley rats with aorto-caval fistula, an experimental model of volume-overload CHF.
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Aortocaval fistula in rat: a unique model of volume-overload congestive heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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Despite continuous progress in our understanding of the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF) and its management, mortality remains high. Therefore, development of reliable experimental models of CHF and cardiac hypertrophy is essential to better understand disease progression and allow new therapy development. The aortocaval fistula (ACF) model, first described in dogs almost a century ago, has been adopted in rodents by several groups including ours. Although considered to be a model of high-output heart failure, its long-term renal and cardiac manifestations are similar to those seen in patients with low-output CHF. These include Na+-retention, cardiac hypertrophy and increased activity of both vasoconstrictor/antinatriureticneurohormonal systems and compensatory vasodilating/natriuretic systems. Previous data from our group and others suggest that progression of cardiorenal pathophysiology in this model is largely determined by balance between opposing hormonal forces, as reflected in states of CHF decompensation that are characterized by overactivation of vasoconstrictive/Na+-retaining systems. Thus, ACF serves as a simple, cheap, and reproducible platform to investigate the pathogenesis of CHF and to examine efficacy of new therapeutic approaches. Hereby, we will focus on the neurohormonal, renal, and cardiac manifestations of the ACF model in rats, with special emphasis on our own experience.
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Angiotensin II signaling up-regulates the immediate early transcription factor ATF3 in the left but not the right atrium.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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The atria respond to various pathological stimuli including pressure and volume overload with remodeling and dilatation. Dilatation of the left atrium is associated with atrial fibrillation. The mechanisms involved in chamber-specific hypertrophy are largely unknown. Angiotensin II is hypothesized to take part in mediating this response. ATF3 is an immediate early gene found at the receiving end of multiple stress and growth stimuli. Here we characterize ATF3 as a direct target gene for angiotensin II. ATF3 expression is regulated by angiotensin receptor-mediated signaling in vivo and in vitro at the transcriptional level. ATF3 induction is mediated by cooperation between both the AT(1A) and AT? receptor subtypes. While AT?R blocker (PD123319) efficiently blocks ATF3 induction in response to angiotensin II injection, it results in an increase in blood pressure indicating that the effect of angiotensin II on ATF3 is independent of its effect on blood pressure. In contrast to adrenergic stimulation that induces ATF3 in all heart chambers, ATF3 induction in response to angiotensin II occurs primarily in the left chambers. We hypothesize that the activation of differential signaling pathways accounts for the chamber-specific induction of ATF3 expression in response to angiotensin II stimulation. Angiotensin II injection rapidly activates the EGFR-dependent pathways including ERK and PI3K-AKT in the left but not the right atrium. EGF receptor inhibitor (Gefitinib/Iressa) as well as the AKT inhibitor (Triciribine) significantly abrogates ATF3 induction by angiotensin II in the left chambers. Collectively, our data strongly place ATF3 as a unique nuclear protein target in response to angiotensin II stimulation in the atria. The spatial expression of ATF3 may add to the understanding of the signaling pathways involved in cardiac response to neuro-hormonal stimulation, and in particular to the understanding of left atrial-generated pathology such as atrial fibrillation.
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Pharmacogenomic, physiological, and biochemical investigations on safety and efficacy biomarkers associated with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activator rosiglitazone in rodents: a translational medicine investigation.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma modulators, a class of antidiabetic drugs, have been associated with cardiovascular risks in type 2 diabetes in humans. The objective of this study was to explore possible cardiovascular risk biomarkers associated with PPAR-gamma in rodents that could provide an alert for risk to humans. Normal, myocardial infarction-induced heart failure (HF) or Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were used. Rats (n = 5-6) were treated with either vehicle or rosiglitazone (RGZ; 3 or 45 mg/kg/day p.o.) for 4 weeks. Biomarkers for potential cardiovascular risks were assessed, including 1) ultrasound for cardiac structure and function; 2) neuroendocrine and hormonal plasma biomarkers of cardiovascular risk; 3) pharmacogenomic profiling of cardiac and renal tissue by targeted tissue low-density gene array representing ion channels and transporters, and components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; and 4) immunohistochemistry for cardiac fibrosis, hypertrophy, and inflammation (macrophages and tumor necrosis factor-alpha). HF was confirmed by increase in cardiac brain natriuretic peptide expression (p < 0.01) and echocardiography. Adequate exposure of RGZ was confirmed by pharmacokinetics (plasma drug levels) and the pharmacodynamic biomarker adiponectin. In normal or HF rats, RGZ had no negative effects on any of the biomarkers investigated. Similarly, RGZ had no significant effects on gene expression except for the increase in interleukin-6 mRNA expression in the heart and decrease in epithelial sodium channel beta in the kidney. In contrast, echocardiography showed improved cardiac structure and function after RGZ in ZDF rats. Taken together, this study suggests a limited predictive power of these preclinical models in respect to observed clinical adverse effects associated with RGZ.
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and alpha/gamma agonists do not cause impairment in renal function in the rat.
Nephron Physiol
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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Patients treated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor analogs (PPAR) alpha or alpha/gamma may develop a transient and reversible increase in serum creatinine, the mechanism of which remains obscure. This study evaluates whether treatment with either PPAR-alpha or -alpha/gamma analogs, fenofibrate or tesaglitazar, may cause deterioration in renal hemodynamics or exert direct tubular or glomerular nephrotoxic effects in rats.
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Hyperglycemia and oxidized-LDL exert a deleterious effect on endothelial progenitor cell migration in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2010
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have elevated plasma oxidized-LDL (OxLDL) levels and impaired neovascularization. Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia impair endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) migration, and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and NO synthase (NOS) activity are essential for EPC migration. Stromal-derived factor-1alpha (SDF1alpha) contributes to EPC mobilization and homing by stimulating the CXC receptor-4 (CXCR4) on the EPC plasmalemma to activate the Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Therefore, we investigated the effect of high glucose (HG) and OxLDL on the migration and NO bioavailability of EPCs from healthy individuals, and then correlated the findings with those of EPCs from type 2 DM patients with and without CAD.
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limited potentiation of blood pressure in response to oral tyramine by the anti-Parkinson brain selective multifunctional monoamine oxidase-AB inhibitor, M30.
Neurotox Res
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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One of the limitations of non-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors as anti-depressant or anti-Parkinson drugs is their ability to potentiate the cardiovascular effect of oral tyramine, resulting from inhibition of systemic MAO-A and release of noradrenaline. We have investigated the cardiovascular effect of oral tyramine in response to the novel multifunctional, brain selective MAO-AB inhibitor, M30 [5-(N-methyl-N-propargylaminomethyl)-8-hydroxyquinoline], and compared it to the classical non-selective inhibitor tranylcypromine (TCP) in rats. We also measured MAO-A and B in the striatum, hippocampus, liver, and small intestine and determined brain levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin. At the doses employed, intraperitoneal (i.p.) M30 (5 and 10 mg/kg) selectively inhibited brain MAO-A and B by more than 85%, with little inhibition of liver and small intestine enzymes while raising striatal levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin. In contrast to TCP (10 mg/kg, i.p.), which fully inhibits both enzymes in the brain and systemic organs and significantly potentiates the tyramine pressor effect, M30 had a limited pressor effect as compared to it and controls. The limited potentiation of tyramine pressor effect by M30, its ability to raise brain levels of aminergic neurotransmitters together with its neuroprotective and neurorestorative activities make this drug potentially important as an anti-depressant and anti-Parkinsonian agent, for which it is being developed.
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Bilirubin impairs intestinal regrowth following massive small bowel resection in a rat model.
J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of exogenous bilirubin on structural intestinal adaptation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis in a rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS).
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Impact of pneumoperitoneum on renal perfusion and excretory function: beneficial effects of nitroglycerine.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) (pneumoperitoneum) during laparoscopic surgery may result in adverse effects on kidney function. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been fully determined.
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Sniffing chronic renal failure in rat model by an array of random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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In this study, we use an experimental model of bilateral nephrectomy in rats to identify an advanced, yet simple nanoscale-based approach to discriminate between exhaled breath of healthy states and of chronic renal failure (CRF) states. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) in conjugation with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of healthy and CRF breath, collected directly from the trachea of the rats, identified 15 common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in all samples of healthy and CRF states and 27 VOCs that appear in CRF but not in healthy states. Online breath analysis via an array of chemiresistive random network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) coated with organic materials showed excellent discrimination between the various breath states. Stepwise discriminate analysis showed that enhanced discrimination capacity could be achieved by decreasing the humidity prior to their analysis with the sensors array. Furthermore, the analysis showed the adequacy of using representative simulated VOCs to imitate the breath of healthy and CRF states and, therefore, to train the sensors array the pertinent breath signatures. The excellent discrimination between the various breath states obtained in this study provides expectations for future capabilities for diagnosis, detection, and screening various stages of kidney disease, especially in the early stages of the disease, where it is possible to control blood pressure and protein intake to slow the progression.
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Urinary excretion of endothelin receptors ET A and ET B in hypertensive patients and normotensive subjects.
Kidney Blood Press. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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Endothelin (ET)-1 is produced by most renal cell types. Renal tubular and vascular cells express both the ET receptors ET(A) and ET(B). Since significant amounts of ET-1 of renal origin were detected in human urine, urinary ET-1 has been used as an index for the capacity of renal ET-1 production. Here, we determine the existence of additional components of the intrarenal ET system, namely the ET(A) and ET(B) receptor subtypes, in the urine of normal and hypertensive subjects.
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Nitric oxide synthase inhibition aggravates the adverse renal effects of high but not low intraabdominal pressure.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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Previously, the authors demonstrated that an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) of 14 mmHg in normal rats reduced kidney function/hemodynamics. These adverse effects are related to interference with the nitric oxide (NO) system. This study was designed to compare the effects of NO synthase (NOS) inhibition on kidney function/hemodynamics during increases in IAP from 0 mmHg to 7, 10, and 14 mmHg.
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Role of protein kinase C in the expression of endothelin converting enzyme-1.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Increased expression of endothelin converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) is associated with diabetic nephropathy. The molecular mechanisms underlying this association, as yet unknown, possibly involve protein kinase C (PKC) pathways. In the present study, we examined the effects of high glucose and PKC activation on ECE-1 expression in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in HUVEC line (EA.hy926). Increasing glucose concentration, but not mannitol, from 5.5-22.2 mmol/liter for 3 d, enhanced prepro endothelin-1 (ET-1) mRNA expression, ET-1 levels, ECE-1 protein, and mRNA expressions by 7, 4, 20, and 2.6-fold, respectively. High glucose increased ECE-1 protein expression dose and time dependently. By Western blot analysis, PKC-beta1, -beta2, and -delta isoform levels were significantly increased relative to other isoforms when glucose level was increased. Treatment with Rottlerin, a PKC-delta isoform inhibitor, reduced significantly the glucose-induced ET-1 secretion, and ECE-1 protein expression, but (S)-13-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-10,11,14,15-tetrahydro-4,9:16,21-dimetheno 1H,1(3)H-dibenzo[e,k]pyrrolo[3,4-h] (1, 4, 3) oxadiaza-cyclohexadecene-1,3(2H)-dione or Gö6976, specific PKC-beta and -alpha inhibitors, respectively, did not. Overexpression of PKC-delta but not PKC-alpha or -beta1 isoforms by adenovirus vector containing the respective cDNA in HUVECs incubated with 5.5 mmol/liter glucose, increased in parallel PKC proteins, and glucose-induced endothein-1 and ECE-1 protein expression by 4- to 6-fold. These results show that enhanced ECE-1 expression induced by hyperglycemia is partly due to activation of the PKC-delta isoform. Thus, inhibition of this PKC isoform may prevent diabetes-related increase in ET-1.
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Hyperbaric oxygen treatment improves GFR in rats with ischaemia/reperfusion renal injury: a possible role for the antioxidant/oxidant balance in the ischaemic kidney.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2009
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Ischaemic kidney injury continues to play a dominant role in the pathogenesis of acute renal failure (ARF) in many surgical and medical settings. A major event in the induction of renal injury is related to the generation of oxygen-free radicals. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is indicated for treatment of many ischaemic events but not for ARF. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of HBO on kidney function and renal haemodynamics in rats with ischaemic ARF.
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The biochemical pharmacology of renin inhibitors: implications for translational medicine in hypertension, diabetic nephropathy and heart failure: expectations and reality.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a dominant role in the pathophysiology of hypertension, Diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). Therefore, drugs that block key components of the RAAS such as ACE inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have gained wide clinical use for these indications. Despite progress, the morbidity and mortality of patients treated with ACEi or ARBs remain high. Small molecules that directly inhibit renin (DRI) and are orally active have also been developed and one such drug, aliskiren, was introduced into clinical use for treatment of hypertension in 2007. Further clinical trials aimed to expand the therapeutic use of aliskiren are in progress for CKD-DM and CHF. In this review we analyze and review the translational medicine prospects of aliskiren in respect to the biochemical pharmacology of the RAAS, the marketed RAAS modulators and the new emerging science regarding the role of prorenin, renin and renin receptors in cardiovascular biology and disease. The information already gained with aliskiren, raises questions regarding the advantages of DRIs as monotherapy compared to marketed ACEis and ARBs, their potential added value in combination with other RAAS modulators and other unproven benefits in relation to prorenin and renin receptor biology. This review will also indicate basic and clinical research needs that are critical to determine whether DRIs can provide meaningful added medical benefits over contemporary medicines that regulate the RAAS, and the need to identify patients that are more likely to benefit from DRIs and any possible long term adverse effects.
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Urinary NGAL and KIM-1: biomarkers for assessment of acute ischemic kidney injury following nephron sparing surgery.
J. Urol.
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Nephron sparing surgery is considered the treatment of choice in most patients with confined renal cancer. Interrupting renal blood flow is often necessary during such surgery, which can induce significant renal injury. We explored the possibility of using urinary NGAL and KIM-1 excretion as novel biomarkers to assess the extent of acute kidney injury after nephron sparing surgery.
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Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition protects against increased intra-abdominal pressure-induced renal dysfunction in experimental congestive heart failure.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
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Congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with impaired renal function. Previously, we have demonstrated that rats with decompensated CHF exhibited exaggerated sensitivity to the adverse renal effects of increased increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) as compared with normal controls. This study tested whether phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibition protects against the adverse renal effects of increased IAP in rats with CHF.
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Vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist attenuates the ability of the lungs to clear edema in an experimental model.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
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In the last two decades, the role of the alveolar active sodium transport was extensively studied and was found to play a crucial role in regulating alveolar fluid clearance (AFC), and thus in keeping the airspaces free of edema. The recent development of highly selective nonpeptide vasopressin-receptor antagonists gives us a rare chance to explore the role of vasopressin in the pathogenesis of lung edema. Therefore, the present study examined the involvement of vasopressin in modulating the ability of the lung to clear edema. Vasopressin enhanced the rate of lung edema clearance by 30% as compared with untreated control rats (from 0.49 ± 0.02 to 0.64 ± 0.02 ml/h), whereas V(2) receptor antagonists significantly decreased the ability of the lung to clear water (from 0.64 ± 0.02 to 0.31 ± 0.06 ml/h; P < 0.0001). In contrast, V(1) receptor antagonist did not change the rate of AFC. The administration of ouabain (a Na,K-ATPase inhibitor) and amiloride (a Na(+) channel blocker) inhibited the stimulatory effects of vasopressin (from 0.64 ± 0.02 to 0.22 ± 0.02 ml/h [P < 0.0001] and from 0.64 ± 0.017 to 0.23 ± 0.02 ml/h [P < 0.0001], respectively). Vasopressin significantly increased Na,K-ATPase protein abundance in the basolateral membranes of the alveolar epithelial cells via V(2) receptor activation. We report a novel role of the vasopressin pathway in AFC. This observation indicates a beneficial role of vasopressin in AFC by up-regulating active sodium transport.
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Gold nanoparticle sensors for detecting chronic kidney disease and disease progression.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
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To study the feasibility of a novel nanomedical method that utilizes breath testing for identifying chronic kidney disease (CKD) and disease progression.
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Involvement of the endothelin and nitric oxide systems in the pathogenesis of renal ischemic damage in an experimental diabetic model.
Life Sci.
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Ischemic acute kidney injury (iAKI) in experimental diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with a rapid kidney dysfunction more than in non-diabetic rats. We hypothesize that this vulnerability is due to excessive endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression along with dysregulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of ischemia on renal function in diabetic rats as compared with non-diabetic rats, and to investigate the involvement of ET-1 and NO systems in the susceptibility of diabetic kidney to ischemic damage.
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Paraoxonase1 deficiency in mice is associated with hypotension and increased levels of 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid.
Atherosclerosis
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Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an HDL-associated lipolactonase and its association with hypertension is controversial. We studied the possible role of PON1 in blood pressure (BP) regulation, by using PON1 knockout (PON1KO) mice.
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