JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Promoter polymorphisms of miR-34b/c are associated with risk of gastric cancer in a Chinese population.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
More and more evidence reveals that noncoding RNA miR-34b/c and tumor suppressor gene TP-53 independently, and/or jointly, play crucial roles in carcinogenesis. The purpose of the present hospital-based case-control study was to investigate the association between the miR-34b/c rs4938723 and TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cancer. Two polymorphisms were genotyped in 419 gastric cancer patients and 402 age- and sex-matched cancer-free controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The CC genotype and C allele of the miR-34b/c rs4938723 were associated with a significantly decreased risk of gastric cancer compared with the TT genotype and T allele (CC vs. TT: P?=?0.006, adjusted odds ratio (OR)?=?0.53, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI)?=?0.34-0.83; C vs. T: P?=?0.005, adjusted OR?=?0.75, 95 % CI?=?0.61-0.92). Compared with individuals with the wild-type TT genotype, subjects with the variant genotypes (CT?+?CC) had a significantly decreased risk of gastric cancer (P?=?0.047, adjusted OR?=?0.75, 95 % CI?=?0.57-0.99). Stratified analysis showed that the association between the risk of gastric cancer and the variant genotypes of miR-34b/c was more profound among men. However, no overall association was found between the TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and gastric cancer risk. In the combined analysis, no effects of the interaction of miR-34b/c rs4938723 and TP53Arg72Pro on gastric cancer risk were observed. Our findings indicate that the miR-34b/c rs4938723 CT/CC genotypes may be associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer and the C allele may be a protective factor in gastric cancer.
Related JoVE Video
HERG1 functions as an oncogene in pancreatic cancer and is downregulated by miR-96.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with an extremely poor prognosis. The human ether-a-go-go-related potassium channel (HERG1) is a human rapid delayed rectifier, which is involved in many crucial cellular events. In this article, we find that HERG1 expression is dramatically increased both in pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines, and that increased HERG1 expression is significantly related to the development of pancreatic cancer. HERG1 silencing in pancreatic cancer-derived cell lines PANC-1 and CFPAC-1 strongly inhibits their malignant capacity in vitro as well as tumorigenicity and metastasis in nude mice. In addition, HERG1 is identified as a direct target of miR-96, which is downregulated in pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-96 represses the HERG1 expression in pancreatic cancer and significantly inhibits malignant behavior of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our findings suggest that miR-96 acts as a tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer and may therefore serve as a useful therapeutic target for the development of new anticancer therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Mouse myosin-19 is a plus-end-directed, high-duty ratio molecular motor.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Class XIX myosin (Myo19) is a vertebrate-specific unconventional myosin, responsible for the transport of mitochondria. To characterize biochemical properties of Myo19, we prepared recombinant mouse Myo19-truncated constructs containing the motor domain and the IQ motifs using the baculovirus/Sf9 expression system. We identified regulatory light chain (RLC) of smooth muscle/non-muscle myosin-2 as the light chain of Myo19. The actin-activated ATPase activity and the actin-gliding velocity of Myo19-truncated constructs were about one-third and one-sixth as those of myosin-5a, respectively. The apparent affinity of Myo19 to actin was about the same as that of myosin-5a. The RLCs bound to Myo19 could be phosphorylated by myosin light chain kinase, but this phosphorylation had little effect on the actin-activated ATPase activity and the actin-gliding activity of Myo19-truncated constructs. Using dual fluorescence-labeled actin filaments, we determined that Myo19 is a plus-end-directed molecular motor. We found that, similar to that of the high-duty ratio myosin, such as myosin-5a, ADP release rate was comparable with the maximal actin-activated ATPase activity of Myo19, indicating that ADP release is a rate-limiting step for the ATPase cycle of acto-Myo19. ADP strongly inhibited the actin-activated ATPase activity and actin-gliding activity of Myo19-truncated constructs. Based on the above results, we concluded that Myo19 is a high-duty ratio molecular motor moving to the plus-end of the actin filament.
Related JoVE Video
MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism is associated with colorectal cancer risk.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The human murine double minute 2 (MDM2) is known as an oncoprotein through inhibiting P53 transcriptional activity and mediating P53 ubiquitination. Therefore, the amplification of MDM2 may attenuate the P53 pathway and promote tumorigenesis. The SNP309 T>G polymorphism (rs2279744), which is located in the intronic promoter of MDM2 gene, was reported to contribute to the increased level of MDM2 protein. In this hospital-based case-control study, which consisted of 573 cases and 588 controls, we evaluated the association between MDM2 SNP309 and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in a Chinese population by using the TaqMan method to genotype the polymorphism. We found that the MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism was significantly associated with CRC risk. In addition, in our meta-analysis, we found a significant association between MDM2 SNP309 and CRC risk among Asians, which was consistent with our results. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism increased the susceptibility of CRC in Asian populations.
Related JoVE Video
[Down-regulated expression of PP2A catalytic subunit in pancreatic cancer cells promotes cell growth].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the expression of protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) in pancreatic cancer and the regulation of this gene on JNK/c-Jun/AP-1 pathway and cell growth.
Related JoVE Video
Upregulation of the splice variant MUC4/Y in the pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2 potentiates proliferation and suppresses apoptosis: new insight into the presence of the transcript variant of MUC4.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MUC4/Y, the transcript variant 4 of MUC4, lacks exon 2 as compared with the transcript variant 1 of MUC4. To date, direct evidence for the function of MU4/Y remains to be reported. Previous studies based their hypotheses regarding the function of MUC4/Y on the characteristic structure domains of this variant. The aim of the present study was to investigate the specific function of MUC4/Y. The pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2 with low MUC4/Y expression was used to establish a stable cell model of MUC4/Y upregulation using a lentivirus vector system. Results showed that MUC4/Y anchored on the cytomembrane and affected cell morphology and cell cycle. Functional analyses indicated that MUC4/Y upregulation slightly potentiated cell proliferation and significantly suppressed apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. Further studies revealed that the JNK and AKT signalling pathways were activated. Meanwhile, MUC4/Y upregulation elicited minimal effect on the phosphorylation level of HER2, a membrane partner of MUC4. These results suggest that MUC4/Y promotes tumour progression through its anti-apoptotic and weak mitogenic effect on MIA PaCa-2 cells.
Related JoVE Video
MiR-874 promotes intestinal barrier dysfunction through targeting AQP3 following intestinal ischemic injury.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intestinal ischemic injury is a significant clinical problem arising from diseases or as a complication of abdominal surgery. Our previous study showed aquaporin 3 is involved in intestinal barrier impairment. Here, we revealed that intestinal ischemia induced a time-dependent increase of miR-874 expression and a time-dependent decrease of AQP3 expression, and the level of miR-874 expression was inversely related to AQP3 protein expression. In addition, miR-874 promoted the paracellular permeability in vitro through targeting 3'UTR of AQP3. Two of the tight junction proteins, Occludin and Claudin-1, were found to be involved in miR-874-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction.
Related JoVE Video
CEP55 contributes to human gastric carcinoma by regulating cell proliferation.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Centrosomal protein 55 (CEP55) is the latest found member in the centrosomal relative protein family, which participates in cell-cycle regulation. CEP55 exists in many kinds of normal tissues and tumour cells such as hepatocellular carcinoma, and is important in carcinogenesis. However, the role of CEP55 in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. The mRNA levels of CEP55 in GC tissues and GC cell lines were examined by quantitative real-time PCR, and the protein expression of CEP55 in GC tissues was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The role of CEP55 in regulating the proliferation of GC cell lines was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. CEP55 was strongly upregulated in human GC, indicating that CEP55 contributed to carcinogenesis and progression of GC. Ectopic overexpression of CEP55 enhanced the cell proliferation, colony formation, and tumourigenicity of GC cells, whereas CEP55 knockdown inhibited these effects. We discovered that cell transformation induced by CEP55 was mediated by the AKT signalling pathway. Overexpression of CEP55 enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT and inhibited the activity of p21 WAF1/Cip1. In addition, cellular proliferation was suppressed as a result of cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in CEP55-knockdown cells. CEP55 expression was elevated in GC compared with normal control tissues. Credible evidence showed that CEP55 can be a potential therapeutic target in GC.
Related JoVE Video
Laparoscopic versus open total gastrectomy for gastric cancer: an updated meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To expand the current knowledge on the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) for gastric cancer in comparison with open total gastrectomy (OTG).
Related JoVE Video
MUC4-induced nuclear translocation of ?-catenin: A novel mechanism for growth, metastasis and angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The membrane mucin MUC4 is aberrantly expressed in multiple cancers and is of clinical significance to diagnosis and prognosis in pancreatic cancer. However, the role of MUC4 in angiogenesis and the potential association among these malignant capabilities have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the collective signaling mechanisms associated with MUC4-induced growth, metastasis and angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer. Knockdown of MUC4 in two pancreatic cancer cell lines led to downregulation of lysosomal degradation of E-cadherin by Src kinase through downregulation of pFAK and pSrc pathway. The downregulation of lysosomal degradation of E-cadherin in turn induced the formation of E-cadherin/?-catenin complex and membrane translocation of ?-catenin, resulting in the downregulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. Thus, the Wnt/?-catenin target genes c-Myc, Cyclin D1, CD44 and VEGF were down-regulated and their malignant functions proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis were reduced. Taken together, MUC4-induced nuclear translocation of ?-catenin is a novel mechanism for growth, metastasis and angiogenesis of pancreatic cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Cooperation between the Two Heads of Smooth Muscle Myosin Is Essential for Full Activation of the Motor Function by Phosphorylation.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The motor function of smooth muscle myosin (SmM) is regulated by phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) bound to the neck region of the SmM heavy chain. It is generally accepted that unphosphorylated RLC induces interactions between the two heads and between the head and the tail, thus inhibiting the motor activity of SmM, whereas phosphorylation of RLC interrupts those interactions, thus reversing the inhibition and restoring the motor activity to the maximal value. One assumption of this model is that single-headed SmM is fully active regardless of phosphorylation. To re-evaluate this model, we produced a number of SmM constructs with coiled coils of various lengths and examined their structure and regulation. With these constructs we identified the segment in the coiled-coil key for the formation of a stable double-headed structure. In agreement with the current model, we found that the actin-activated ATPase activity of unphosphorylated SmM increased with shortening of the coiled-coil. However, contrary to the current model, we found that the actin-activated ATPase activity of phosphorylated SmM decreased with shortening coiled-coil and only the stable double-headed SmM was fully activated by phosphorylation. These results indicate that single-headed SmM is neither fully active nor fully inhibited. Based on our findings, we propose that cooperation between the two heads is essential, not only for the inhibition of unphosphorylated SmM, but also for the activation of phosphorylated SmM.
Related JoVE Video
CEACAM6 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and mediates invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is a disease with an extremely poor prognosis. The acquisition of invasion properties in pancreatic cancer is accompanied by the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) is emerging as an important determinant of the malignant phenotype in a range of cancers, including pancreatic cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential involvement of CEACAM6 in the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells via EMT regulation. The results of our study showed a positive association between CEACAM6 expression and poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer, differentiation and lymph node metastasis. Elevated levels of CEACAM6 in pancreatic cancer cells promoted EMT, migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in animal models, whereas shRNA-mediated CEACAM6 knockdown had the opposite effect. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-29a/b/c specific for CEACAM6 could regulate its expression at the post-transcriptional level. Collectively, our findings identified CEACAM6, which is regulated by miR-29a/b/c, as an important positive regulator of EMT in pancreatic cancer offering an explanation for how elevated levels of CEACAM6 are likely to contribute to the highly metastatic phenotype of pancreatic cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Laparoscopic versus open total gastrectomy with D2 dissection for gastric cancer: a meta-analysis.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To elucidate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic total gastrectomy with D2 dissection (LTGD2) for gastric cancer in comparison with open total gastrectomy with D2 dissection (OTGD2).
Related JoVE Video
Upregulation of the eIF4E signaling pathway contributes to the progression of gastric cancer, and targeting eIF4E by perifosine inhibits cell growth.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The increase of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) expression is frequently observed in several types of cancer, making eIF4E an attractive anticancer drug target. However, the role of eIF4E in gastric cancer pathogenesis remains unclear. Perifosine is a bioavailable alkylphospholipid exhibiting antitumor activity in a series of cancer types. In this study, gastric cancer cell lines were selected to explore the role of eIF4E as a potential target for treating human gastric cancer. The expression of total eIF4E (T-eIF4E)and phosphorylated eIF4E (p-eIF4E) in gastric cancer samples was detected by immunohistochemical assay. RNA interference was used to silence eIF4E expression. Sulforhodamine B assay was performed to evaluate tumor cell viability. Colony formation assay was used to examine the effects of eIF4E small interfering RNA (siRNA) or perifosine on colony formation. The mRNA levels of eIF4E were analyzed by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis was carried out to evaluate the expression of Akt and eIF4E. The results showed that increased expression levels of T-eIF4E and p-eIF4E were found in gastric cancer tissues and cells. Reduced eIF4E expression blocked the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. Perifosine downregulated the T-eIF4E and p-eIF4E levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner; it also inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells. Moreover, this inhibitory effect was significantly enhanced by the combination of eIF4E siRNA and perifosine treatments. Our results indicate that eIF4E gene silencing can inhibit tumor cell growth, and eIF4E can be developed as a promising therapeutic target for gastric cancer.
Related JoVE Video
miR-874 Inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion through targeting aquaporin-3 in gastric cancer.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a water transporting protein which plays an oncogenic role in several malignant tumors. However, its regulatory mechanism remains elusive to date. In this study, we investigated the microRNA-mediated gene repression mechanism involved in AQP3s role.
Related JoVE Video
Gastric adenocarcinoma has a unique microRNA signature not present in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in tumor development and progression. The finding that a single miRNA can regulate hundreds of genes places miRNAs at critical hubs of signaling pathways. For the current study, the authors investigated the miRNA expression profile of gastric adenocarcinomas and compared it with esophageal adenocarcinomas to better identify a unique miRNA signature of gastric adenocarcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Practical role of mutation analysis for imatinib treatment in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Imatinib has become the standard first line treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in the advanced phase and adjuvant setting. We carried out an up-to-date meta-analysis to determine the practical role of mutation analysis for imatinib treatment in patients with advanced GIST.
Related JoVE Video
Aquaporin-3 positively regulates matrix metalloproteinases via PI3K/AKT signal pathway in human gastric carcinoma SGC7901 cells.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are produced by tumor cells, so they may be associated with tumor progression including invasion, migration, angiogenesis and metastasis. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) also plays a critical role in gastric cancer cell migration and proliferation.
Related JoVE Video
Galectin-1 secreted by activated stellate cells in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma stroma promotes proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells: an in vitro study on the microenvironment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to clarify that the activated pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs) are the origin of the highly expressed galectin-1 in the stroma of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissue and to evaluate the effect of the secreted galectin-1 on proliferation and invasion ability of pancreatic cancer cell line CFPAC-1 in vitro.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical utility of alpha fetoprotein and HCCR-1, alone or in combination, in patients with chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker in detecting patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it has been indicated that HCCR-1 (human cervical cancer oncogene 1) might be supplementary to AFP in the detection. We conducted a prospective study in 120 normal and 524 liver disease patients to evaluate the significance of simultaneous measurement of 2 tumor markers (AFP and HCCR-1) in the diagnosis of HCC through the cohort study in Korea and China. We also performed immunohistochemical studies using 25 normal subjects (N), 32 liver cirrhosis (LC) and 116 HCC tissues. The sensitivities of AFP (20 ng/mL) and HCCR-1 (10 ng/mL) in HCC were 55.8% (164/294) and 44.2% (130/294), respectively. When AFP was combined with HCCR-1, sensitivities increased to 4.2% (N), 12.7% (chronic hepatitis; CH), 50.0% (LC), and 77.2% (HCC), respectively. Although there was no significant difference in the diagnostic rate for HCC between AFP and HCCR-1, many cases for AFP-negative HCC were positive for HCCR-1 and vice versa. Moreover, the combined use of AFP and HCCR-1 improved the diagnostic rate to 70.8% in small HCC (< 2 cm) and 81.6% in large HCC (? 2 cm), respectively. AFP and HCCR-1 are independent markers. Our result suggests that the HCCR-1 could be an useful biomarker for HCC while the diagnostic rate could be significantly improved in the combined use of HCCR-1 and AFP.
Related JoVE Video
Knockdown of aquaporin 3 is involved in intestinal barrier integrity impairment.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
AQP3 is a water/glycerol transporter expressed at the basolateral membrane of colonic epithelial cells. Although AQPs are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, their effect on intestinal barrier has not been clear. Here, we showed that knockdown of AQP3 caused a dramatic, dose-dependent increase in E. coli C25 translocation, with the reduction of TEER and increasing LY permeability. Western blots revealed that expression of Claudin-1 and Occludin were significantly decreased in the AQP3 knockdown group, demonstrating that this treatment enhances paracellular permeability via an opening of the tight junction complex. These data not only describe the correlation between transcellular and paracellular pathways in human intestines, but also show that targeted knockdown of AQP3 might impair the intestinal barrier integrity.
Related JoVE Video
PP2A inhibitors induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 through persistent phosphorylation of IKK? and sustained activation of the NF-?B pathway.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is thought to be a cancer suppresser, as inhibition of PP2A can induce phosphorylation and activation of substrate kinases, most of which can accelerate growth. Interestingly, cantharidin potently inhibits PP2A but efficiently represses various cancer cells. In the present study, we found that PP2A inhibitors, cantharidin or Okadaic acid, inhibited cell viability and triggered apoptosis in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell line dependent on PP2A/IKK?/I?B?/p65 NF-?B pathway. The activation of NF-?B pathway up-regulated downstream pro-apoptotic genes, TNF-?, TRAILR1 and TRAILR2, and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway, indicating that PP2A is a potential target for pancreatic cancer treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Aspirin suppresses growth of human gastric carcinoma cell by inhibiting survivin expression.
J Biomed Res
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regular use of aspirin (ASA) could reduce the risk of gastric cancer although the precise mechanism remains unclear. Down-regulation of survivin may be one of the cyclooxygenase-independent mechanisms whereby ASA induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cell. In this study, we investigated the effect of ASA on the growth, apoptosis and survivin expression of gastric cancer cell line SGC7901. The survival of cells treated with 3.0 and 10.0 mmol/L ASA for 24 h was decreased by 44.6% and 88.5%, respectively. ASA at 3.0 mmol/L inhibited the viability of SGC7901 cells in a time-dependent manner. Apoptosis analysis showed similar results with MTT assay. ASA at 3.0 and 10.0 mmol/L decreased the mRNA transcript levels of survivin and reduced survivin protein levels in SGC7901 cells also in a time-dependent manner. Our findings indicated that ASA inhibited the proliferation of SGC7901 by suppressing survivin at both the transcriptional and translational level.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular cloning and characterization of novel cathelicidin-derived myeloid antimicrobial peptide from Phasianus colchicus.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cathelicidins were initially characterized as a family of antimicrobial peptides. Now it is clear that they fulfill several immune functions in addition to their antimicrobial activity. In the current work, three cDNA sequences encoding pheasant cathelicidins were cloned from a constructed bone marrow cDNA library of Phasianus colchicus, using a nested-PCR-based cloning strategy. The three deduced mature antimicrobial peptides, Pc-CATH1, 2 and 3 are composed of 26, 32, and 29 amino acid residues, respectively. Unlike the mammalian cathelicidins that are highly divergent even within the same genus, Pc-CATHs are remarkably conserved with chicken fowlicidins with only a few of residues mutated according to the phylogenetic analysis result. Synthetic Pc-CATH1 exerted strong antimicrobial activity against most of bacteria and fungi tested, including the clinically isolated (IS) drug-resistant strains. Most MIC values against Gram-positive bacteria were in the range of 0.09-2.95 ?M in the presence of 100mM NaCl. Pc-CATH1 displayed a negligible hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes, lysing 3.6% of erythrocytes at 3.15 ?M (10 ?g/ml), significantly higher than the corresponding MIC. Pc-CATH1 was stable in the human serum for up to 72 h, revealing its extraordinary serum stability. These specific features of Pc-CATH1 may make its applications much wider given the potency and breadth of the peptides bacteriocidal capacity and its resistance towards serum and high-salt environments.
Related JoVE Video
Novel cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides from Equus asinus.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present study, EA-CATH1 and EA-CATH2 were identified from a constructed lung cDNA library of donkey (Equus asinus) as members of cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides, using a nested PCR-based cloning strategy. Composed of 25 and 26 residues, respectively, EA-CATH1 and EA-CATH2 are smaller than most other cathelicidins and have no sequence homology to other cathelicidins identified to date. Chemically synthesized EA-CATH1 exerted potent antimicrobial activity against most of the 32 strains of bacteria and fungi tested, especially the clinically isolated drug-resistant strains, and minimal inhibitory concentration values against Gram-positive bacteria were mostly in the range of 0.3-2.4 microg mL(-1). EA-CATH1 showed an extraordinary serum stability and no haemolytic activity against human erythrocytes in a dose up to 20 microg mL(-1). CD spectra showed that EA-CATH1 mainly adopts an alpha-helical conformation in a 50% trifluoroethanol/water solution, but a random coil in aqueous solution. Scanning electron microscope observations of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC2592) treated with EA-CATH1 demonstrated that EA-CATH could cause rapid disruption of the bacterial membrane, and in turn lead to cell lysis. This might explain the much faster killing kinetics of EA-CATH1 than conventional antibiotics revealed by killing kinetics data. In the presence of CaCl(2), EA-CATH1 exerted haemagglutination activity, which might potentiate an inhibition against the bacterial polyprotein interaction with the host erythrocyte surface, thereby possibly restricting bacterial colonization and spread.
Related JoVE Video
Epidermal growth factor induces HCCR expression via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human cervical cancer oncoprotein 1 (HCCR-1), reported as a negative regulator of p53, is over-expressed in a variety of human cancers. However, it is yet unknown whether HCCR-1 plays any role in pancreatic cancer development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor on the expression of HCCR in pancreatic cancer cells, and to explore if PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway mediated this expression.
Related JoVE Video
Angiotensin II signaling through the AT1a and AT1b receptors does not have a role in the development of cerulein-induced chronic pancreatitis in the mouse.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The intraorgan renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases and has been implicated in fibrogenesis. The role of RAS in the development of chronic pancreatitis is not well established. The blockade of RAS in rat models with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor 1 (AT1) blockers (ARBs) mostly have reduced pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis with a few exceptions. At the same time, the use of ACEi and ARBs in humans is associated with a modest risk of acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of the AT1 signaling pathway in the development of pancreatitis using AT1a- and AT1b-deficient mice as well as the ARB losartan. Chronic pancreatitis was induced by repetitive cerulein administration in C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and AT1a- and AT1b-deficient mice (AT1a-/- and AT1b-/-), and pancreatic injury was assessed at day 10. Pancreatic weight of cerulein treated groups was significantly reduced. There was severe parenchymal atrophy and fibrosis assessed by histological examination. Fibrosis was accompanied by activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) evaluated by Western blot analysis for alpha-smooth muscle actin. No differences were seen between cerulein-treated WT, AT1a-/- , AT1b-/- mice, or losartan treated-WT mice with regards to morphological or molecular alterations induced by cerulein. Our results demonstrate that AT1a and AT1b receptor pathways do not seem to be essential for the development of pancreatitis in the mouse model of pancreatitis induced by repetitive cerulein injury.
Related JoVE Video
Cantharidin, a potent and selective PP2A inhibitor, induces an oxidative stress-independent growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer cells through G2/M cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cantharidin is an active constituent of mylabris, a traditional Chinese medicine. It is a potent and selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) that plays an important role in control of cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell-fate determination. Owing to its antitumor activity, cantharidin has been frequently used in clinical practice. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of cantharidin in pancreatic cancer. Cantharidin efficiently inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer cells, but presented a much lighter toxicity effect against normal pancreatic duct cells. It caused G2/M cell-cycle arrest that was accompanied by the down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and up-regulation of p21 expression. It induced apoptosis and elevated the expressions of pro-apoptotic factors tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), TNF-related apoptosis inducing receptor 1 (TRAILR1), TRAILR2, Bad, Bak, and Bid, and decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 suggested that both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways are involved in the induction of apoptosis. Interestingly, unlike previous studies on other cancer cells, we found that the inhibitory role of cantharidin is independent of oxidative stress in pancreatic cancer cells. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including ERK, JNK, and p38, were activated after treatment with cantharidin. Inhibition of JNK, but not ERK or p38, alleviated the cytotoxity effect of cantharidin, suggesting cantharidin exerted its anticancer effect through the JNK-dependent way. Hence, in addition to being an attractive candidate compound with therapeutic potential, cantharidin also highlighted the possibility of using PP2A as a therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Novel families of antimicrobial peptides with multiple functions from skin of Xizang plateau frog, Nanorana parkeri.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Xizang plateau frog (Nanorana parkeri) captured in Lhasa, Tibet, China, solely lives in the subtropical plateau, where there is strong ultraviolet radiation and long duration of sunshine. Considering its harsh living environment, the frogs innate defense against microbes and environmental stress was investigated. In current study, three antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were purified and characterized from the skin secretion of N. parkeri. The coding cDNA sequences were also cloned from the skin cDNA library of N. parkeri. By structural characterization, two peptides were identified belonging to Japonicin-1 family, and named as Japonicin-1Npa (FLLFPLMCKIQGKC) and Japonicin-1Npb (FVLPLVMCKILRKC). The third peptide isolated named Parkerin with a unique sequence of GWANTLKNVAGGLCKITGAA did not show similarity to any known amphibian AMPs. Multi-functions of three AMPs were examined (antioxidant, MCD, hemolytic etc). Their solution structures determined by CD and antimicrobial mechanisms investigated by SEM are very well consistent with their functional characters. Current result suggests that these novel multi-functional AMPs could play an important role in defending N. parkeri against environmental oxidative stress and pathogenic microorganisms, which may partially reveal the ecological adaptation of these plateau-living amphibians.
Related JoVE Video
Transcriptional regulation of human mucin gene MUC4 in pancreatic cancer cells.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The human mucin gene MUC4 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and cancer cell lines, while remaining undetectable in the normal pancreas, indicating its important role in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of MUC4 gene expression are not fully understood. In this report, we used pancreatic cancer cell line (Bxpc-3) to explore the potential transcription factors regulating MUC4 transcriptional activity. Through promoter screening, overexpressing methods and luciferase reporter studies, we found that transcription factors CREB, Ets-1, Elk-1 and STAT1 can positively regulate MUC4 expression at the promoter and mRNA level. Our findings will be helpful for better understanding the transcriptional regulation of MUC4 in pancreatic cancer cells and identifying key biologically relevant factors that may account for its aberrant expression in pancreatic cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of an HLA-A*0201-restrictive CTL epitope from MUC4 for applicable vaccine therapy.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent research has indicated that MUC4 plays an important role in the development of many tumors and may prove useful as a novel cancer immunotherapy target. We aimed to identify HLA-A*0201-restrictive cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes of the cancer-associated antigen MUC4. The MUC4 sequence was scanned for immunogenic peptides using HLA-binding prediction software. Dendritic cells (DCs) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were induced by cytokines. Five possible CTL epitopes were selected by software analysis, synthesized, and used to pulse mature DCs. The CD8(+) T cells from PBMCs from an HLA-A*0201 healthy donor were stimulated with autologous MUC4-peptide-loaded DCs and expanded in vitro. T cell activation was assessed by ELISPOT, and cytotoxicity was determined by (51)chromium ((51)Cr)-release assays. Our results show that CTLs induced by peptide P01204 could lyse T2 cells pulsed with peptide P01204 and HCT-116 cells (MUC4(+), HLA-A2(+)). Compared with a control peptide, P01204 increased the number of IFN-gamma producing T cells. Overall, these results suggest that P01204 is a novel HLA-A*0201-restrictive CTL epitope of the cancer-associated antigen MUC4. This will provide a foundation for the development of tumor-specific peptide vaccines.
Related JoVE Video
Protective role of angiotensin II type 2 receptor signaling in a mouse model of pancreatic fibrosis.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The renin-angiotensin system contributes to pathological processes in a variety of organs. In the pancreas, blocking the angiotensin II (AII) type 1 receptor (AT1) attenuates pancreatic fibrogenesis in animal models of pancreatitis. Because the role of the AII type 2 receptor (AT2) in modulating pancreatic injury is unknown we investigated the role of AT2 in pancreatic injury and fibrosis. Pancreatic fibrosis was induced by repetitive cerulein administration in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) or AT2-deficient (AT2-/-) mice and assessed by morphology and gene expression at 10 days. There was no difference between WT and AT2-/- mice in the degree of acute pancreatic injury as assessed by amylase release at 9 and 12 h and by histological examination of the pancreas at 12 h. In contrast, parenchymal atrophy and fibrosis were more pronounced in AT2-/- mice compared with WT mice at 10 days. Fibrosis was accompanied by activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) evaluated by Western blot analysis for alpha-smooth muscle actin and by immunocytochemistry; PSC activation was further increased in AT2-/- mice compared with WT mice. The level of pancreatic transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA and protein after repetitive cerulein treatment was higher in AT2-/- mice than in WT mice. Our results demonstrate that, in contrast to AT1 receptor signaling, AT2 receptor signaling modulates protective antifibrogenic effects in a mouse model of cerulein-induced pancreatic fibrogenesis. We propose that the effects of AII on injury-induced pancreatic fibrosis may be determined by the balance between AT1 and AT2 receptor signaling.
Related JoVE Video
A novel serine protease inhibitor from the venom of Vespa bicolor Fabricius.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hornets possess highly toxic venoms, which are rich in toxin, enzymes and biologically active peptides. Many bioactive substances have been identified from wasp venoms but only a few serine protease inhibitors have been identified from two kinds of wasp venoms. In this work, a serine protease inhibitor named bicolin was purified and characterized from the venom of the wasp, Vespa bicolor Fabricius. The precursor encoding bicolin was cloned from the cDNA library of the venomous glands. It is a cysteine-rich small protein containing 54 amino acid residues including 6 half-cysteines. The peptide is homologous to serine protease inhibitors isolated from venoms of Anoplius samariensis and Pimpla hypochondriaca. Bicolin showed inhibitory ability against trypsin and thrombin.
Related JoVE Video
Growth hormone receptor expression in human primary gastric adenocarcinoma.
J Biomed Res
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the expression of growth hormone receptor (GHR) in patients with primary gastric adenocarcinoma. We investigated 48 specimens of primary gastric adenocarcinoma and their corresponding normal gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of GHR. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that GHR was expressed in human primary gastric adenocarcinoma (36/48, 75.0%) and appeared to be upregulated, compared to the normal mucosa (28/48, 58.3%, P < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between GHR expression and tumor stage (P < 0.001) and tumor differentiation (P < 0.001). The average positive rate of ki-67 in GHR-positive tumors was 16.06%, while the positive rate in GHR-negative tumors was 6.17% (P < 0.01). The average apoptosis index (AI) of GHR-positive tumors was 3.36%, which was significantly lower than that (7.33%) of GHR-negative tumors. In addition, 27 of 48 cases of tumors had GHR mRNA expression, while only 17 of all 48 cases of normal mucosa did so. Our results indicate that the frequency of GHR was significantly higher in primary gastric adenocarcinoma than that in normal gastric mucosa. GHR expression was significantly correlated with tumor differentiation and tumor grade. This finding supported a possible role of growth hormone in primary gastric adenocarcinoma pathophysiology.
Related JoVE Video
Roles of the different components of magnesium chelatase in abscisic acid signal transduction.
Plant Mol. Biol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The H subunit of Mg-chelatase (CHLH) was shown to regulate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and the I subunit (CHLI) was also reported to modulate ABA signaling in guard cells. However, it remains essentially unknown whether and how the Mg-chelatase-catalyzed Mg-protoporphyrin IX-production differs from ABA signaling. Using a newly-developed surface plasmon resonance system, we showed that ABA binds to CHLH, but not to the other Mg-chelatase components/subunits CHLI, CHLD (D subunit) and GUN4. A new rtl1 mutant allele of the CHLH gene in Arabidopsis thaliana showed ABA-insensitive phenotypes in both stomatal movement and seed germination. Upregulation of CHLI1 resulted in ABA hypersensitivity in seed germination, while downregulation of CHLI conferred ABA insensitivity in stomatal response in Arabidopsis. We showed that CHLH and CHLI, but not CHLD, regulate stomatal sensitivity to ABA in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana). The overexpression lines of the CHLD gene showed wild-type ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis. Both the GUN4-RNA interference and overexpression lines of Arabidopsis showed wild-type phenotypes in the major ABA responses. These findings provide clear evidence that the Mg-chelatase-catalyzed Mg-ProtoIX production is distinct from ABA signaling, giving information to understand the mechanism by which the two cellular processes differs at the molecular level.
Related JoVE Video
Functional PstI/RsaI polymorphism in CYP2E1 is associated with the development, progression and poor outcome of gastric cancer.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), an ethanol-inducible enzyme, has been shown to metabolically activate various carcinogens, which is critical for the development and progression of cancers. It has demonstrated that CYP2E1 polymorphisms alter the transcriptional activity of the gene. However, studies on the association between CYP2E1 polymorphisms (PstI/RsaI or DraI) and gastric cancer have reported conflicting results. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether CYP2E1 polymorphisms is associated with the development and progression of gastric cancer and its prognosis in Chinese patients.
Related JoVE Video
Calmodulin bound to the first IQ motif is responsible for calcium-dependent regulation of myosin 5a.
J. Biol. Chem.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Myosin 5a is as yet the best-characterized unconventional myosin motor involved in transport of organelles along actin filaments. It is well-established that myosin 5a is regulated by its tail in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. The fact that the actin-activated ATPase activity of myosin 5a is stimulated by micromolar concentrations of Ca(2+) and that calmodulin (CaM) binds to IQ motifs of the myosin 5a heavy chain indicates that Ca(2+) regulates myosin 5a function via bound CaM. However, it is not known which IQ motif and bound CaM are responsible for the Ca(2+)-dependent regulation and how the head-tail interaction is affected by Ca(2+). Here, we found that the CaM in the first IQ motif (IQ1) is responsible for Ca(2+) regulation of myosin 5a. In addition, we demonstrate that the C-lobe fragment of CaM in IQ1 is necessary for mediating Ca(2+) regulation of myosin 5a, suggesting that the C-lobe fragment of CaM in IQ1 participates in the interaction between the head and the tail. We propose that Ca(2+) induces a conformational change of the C-lobe of CaM in IQ1 and prevents interaction between the head and the tail, thus activating motor function.
Related JoVE Video
Combined analysis of AFP and HCCR-1 as an useful serological marker for small hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective cohort study.
Dis. Markers
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent malignant tumors in the world. The only serological marker widely used for the diagnosis of HCC is alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Despite that AFP is widely used for the diagnosis of HCC, it has a limit as a serological marker due to its low sensitivity and specificity. The human cervical cancer proto-oncogene 1 (HCCR-1) was previously reported as a new biomarker for HCC. To further evaluate the HCCR-1 as a biomarker for HCC, we conducted the prospective cohort study. We evaluated the significance of simultaneous measurement of 2 tumor markers in the diagnosis of HCC in China, Japan and Korea. Two markers for HCC, AFP and HCCR-1, were measured in the sera obtained from 1,338 patients at the time of initial diagnosis of HCC. Of the 1338 HCC patients, 616 (46%) and 686 (51.3%) were sero-positive for AFP and HCCR-1, respectively. The positive rate for HCC was increased up to 74.1% in combined use of AFP and HCCR-1. Many cases (54%) for AFP-negative HCC were positive for HCCR-1 and vice versa. More importantly, the diagnostic rate for small HCC (< 2 cm) was significantly improved in the combined analysis of AFP and HCCR-1 to 56.9% although it was only 40.1% and 23.4% in the single analysis of HCCR-1 and AFP, respectively. Our result suggests that the HCCR-1 could be an useful biomarker for HCC while the diagnostic rate could be significantly improved in the combined use of HCCR-1 and AFP.
Related JoVE Video
A retrospective analysis of ultralow anterior resection vs. abdomino-perineal resection for lower rectal cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the oncological outcome of ultralow anterior resection (ULAR) and abdominoperineal resection (APR) for lower rectal cancer.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.