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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Loss of NHE8 expression impairs ocular surface function in mice.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 8 is expressed at the apical membrane of the epithelial cells and plays important roles in neutral sodium absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and the kidney. It also has an important role in epithelial mucosal protection in the gastric gland and the intestine. Although NHE8 has broad tissue distribution, the precise location and the physiological role of NHE8 in the eye remain unknown. In the current study, we successfully detected the expression of NHE8 in the ocular surface by PCR and western blot in human and mouse eyes. Immunohistochemistry staining located NHE8 protein at the plasma membrane of the epithelial cells in the conjunctiva, the cornea, and the lacrimal gland both in human and mouse. We also detected the expression of down-regulated-in-adenoma (DRA, a Cl-/HCO3- transporter) in the ocular surface epithelial cells. Using NHE8-/- mouse model, we found that loss of NHE8 function resulted in reduced tear production and increased corneal staining. These NHE8-/- mice also showed increased expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-?) and Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) genes. The expression of epithelial keratinization marker genes, small proline-rich protein 2h (Sprr2h) and transglutaminase 1 (Tgm1), were also increased in NHE8-/- eyes. Furthermore, DRA expression in NHE8-/- mice was reduced in the conjunctiva, the cornea, and the lacrimal glands in association with a reduction in conjunctival mucosal pH. Altered ocular surface function and reduced epithelial DRA expression in NHE8-/- mice suggest that the role of NHE8 in ocular surface tissue involve in tear production and ocular epithelial protection.
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Magnetic field sensor based on anti-resonant reflecting guidance in the magnetic gel-coated hollow core fiber.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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A compact all-fiber magnetic field sensor based on the magnetic gel coated hollow core fiber (HCF) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A double-layered Fabry-Perot resonator is formed by coating a magnetic gel layer on the surface of the HCF. Anti-resonant reflecting guidance of light can be achieved in the HCF, and leaky mode is induced at resonant wavelength of the double-layered Fabry-Perot resonator, which results in lossy dips in the transmission spectrum of the HCF. Due to the tunable magneto-elastic effect, the shape of the magnetic gel is deformed with the external magnetic field, which results in a change of the resonate condition for the double-layered Fabry-Perot resonator. The magnetic field can be measured by interrogating the wavelength of the lossy dip. The experimental results show that a magnetic field sensitivity of 245??pm/Oe is achieved.
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Airborne virus sampling: Efficiencies of samplers and their detection limits for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).
Ann Agric Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Introduction. The airborne transmission of infectious diseases in livestock production is increasingly receiving research attention. Reliable techniques of air sampling are crucial to underpin the findings of such studies. This study evaluated the physical and biological efficiencies and detection limits of four samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all-glass impinger "AGI-30", OMNI-3000 and MD8 with gelatin filter) for collecting aerosols of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Materials and Method. IBDV aerosols mixed with a physical tracer (uranine) were generated in an isolator, and then collected by the bioaerosol samplers. Samplers' physical and biological efficiencies were derived based on the tracer concentration and the virus/tracer ratio, respectively. Detection limits for the samplers were estimated with the obtained efficiency data. Results. Physical efficiencies of the AGI-30 (96%) and the MD8 (100%) were significantly higher than that of the OMNI-3000 (60%). Biological efficiency of the OMNI-3000 (23%) was significantly lower than 100% (P < 0.01), indicating inactivation of airborne virus during sampling. The AGI-30, the Andersen impactor and the MD8 did not significantly inactivate virus during sampling. The 2-min detection limits of the samplers on airborne IBDV were 4.1 log10 50% egg infective dose (EID50) m (-3) for the Andersen impactor, 3.3 log10 EID50 m (-3) for the AGI-30, 2.5 log10 EID50 m (-3) for the OMNI-3000, and 2.9 log10 EID50 m (-3) for the MD8. The mean half-life of IBDV aerosolized at 20 °C and 70% was 11.9 min. Conclusion. Efficiencies of different samplers vary. Despite its relatively low sampling efficiency, the OMNI-3000 is suitable for use in environments with low viral concentrations because its high flow rate gives a low detection limit. With the 4 samplers investigated, negative air samples cannot guarantee virus-free aerial environments, which means that transmission of infectious agents between farms may still occur even when no virus has been detected.
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Basic obstetric pharmacology.
Semin. Perinatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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Pregnancy is associated with a variety of physiological changes that can alter the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of several drugs. However, limited data exists on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the majority of the medications used in pregnancy. In this article, we first describe basic concepts (drug absorption, bioavailability, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and transport) in pharmacokinetics. Then, we discuss several physiological changes that occur during pregnancy that theoretically affect absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. Further, we provide a brief review of the literature on the clinical pharmacokinetic studies performed in pregnant women in recent years. In general, pregnancy increases the clearance of several drugs and correspondingly decreases drug exposure during pregnancy. Based on current drug exposure measurements during pregnancy, alterations in the dose or dosing regimen of certain drugs are essential during pregnancy. More pharmacological studies in pregnant women are needed to optimize drug therapy in pregnancy.
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Path induced coherent energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes in purple bacteria.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Features of path dependent energy transfer in a dual-ring light-harvesting (LH2) complexes (B850) system have been examined in detail systematically. The Frenkel-Dirac time dependent variational method with the Davydov D1 Ansatz is employed with detailed evolution of polaron dynamics in real space readily obtained. It is found that the phase of the transmission amplitude through the LH2 complexes plays an important role in constructing the coherent excitonic energy transfer. It is also found that the symmetry breaking caused by the dimerization of bacteriochlorophylls and coherence or correlation between two rings will be conducive in enhancing the exciton transfer efficiency.
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[Blink restoration by the functional electrical stimulation in unilateral facial nerve palsy rabbits].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Tocompare the effects of different waveforms and parameters of electrical stimulation to elicit a blink, and construct a functional electrical stimulation (FES) system to restore synchronous blink in unilateral facial nerve palsy (FNP).
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Chemical compositions, chromatographic fingerprints and antioxidant activities of andrographis herba.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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This paper describes the development of an HPLC-UV-MS method for quantitative determination of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide in Andrographis Herba and establishment of its chromatographic fingerprint. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection and quantification, inter- and intra-day precisions, repeatability, stability and recovery. All the validation results of quantitative determination and fingerprinting methods were satisfactory. The developed method was then applied to assay the contents of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide and to acquire the fingerprints of all the collected Andrographis Herba samples. Furthermore, similarity analysis and principal component analysis were used to reveal the similarities and differences between the samples on the basis of the characteristic peaks. More importantly, the DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric reducing capacities of the Andrographis Herba samples were assayed. By bivariate correlation analysis, we found that six compounds are positively correlated to DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacities, and four compounds are negatively correlated to DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacities.
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Effect of vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources on plasma ?- and ?-tocopherol concentrations in a healthy Irish adult population.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Vitamin E is believed to play a preventive role in diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aims of the present study were to quantify vitamin E intake levels and plasma concentrations and to assess dietary vitamin E adequacy in Irish adults. Intake data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey were used; plasma samples were obtained from a representative cohort of survey participants. Plasma ?- and ?-tocopherol concentrations were measured by HPLC. The main sources of vitamin E in the diet were 'butter, spreadable fats and oils' and 'vegetables and vegetable dishes'. When vitamin E intake from supplements was taken into account, supplements were found to be the main contributor, making a contribution of 29·2 % to vitamin E intake in the total population. Supplement consumers had significantly higher plasma ?-tocopherol concentrations and lower plasma ?-tocopherol concentrations when compared with non-consumers. Consumers of 'vitamin E' supplements had significantly higher vitamin E intake levels and plasma ?-tocopherol concentrations compared with consumers of other types of supplements, such as multivitamin and fish oil. Comparison with the Institute of Medicine Estimated Average Requirement of 12 mg/d indicated that when vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources was taken into account, 100 % of the study participants achieved the recommended intake levels. When vitamin E intake from food sources was taken into account, only 68·4 % of the females were found to achieve the recommended intake levels compared with 99·2 % of the males. The results of the present study show that dietary vitamin E intake has a significant effect on plasma ?- and ?-tocopherol concentrations. Furthermore, they show that the consumption of supplements is a major contributor to overall intake and has a significant effect on plasma vitamin E concentrations in the Irish population.
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New steroidal glycosides from the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Two new steroidal saponins, timosaponin X (1) and timosaponin Y (2), and one new pregnane glycoside, timopregnane B (3), were isolated from the rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides, as well as three known compounds 25S-timosaponin BII (4), protodesgalactotigonin (5), and timosaponin BII-a (6) isolated from this plant for the first time. By the detailed analysis of 1D, 2D NMR, MS spectra, and chemical evidences, the structures of new compounds were elucidated as 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5?-22-methoxy-furost-3?,26-diol 3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-l-arabinopyranoside (1), 5?-pseudo-spirost-3?,15?,23?-triol 3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-d-galactopyranoside (2), (5?,17?)-?((16)(17))-20-one-pregn-2?,3?-diol 3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-d-galactopyranoside (3).
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Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanoribbons: Graphene-Assisted Formation and Synergic Function for Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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The development of new promising metal-free catalysts is of great significance for the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, a rationally assembled three-dimensional (3D) architecture of 1D graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) nanoribbons with 2D graphene sheets has been developed by a one-step hydrothermal method. Because of the multipathway of charge and mass transport, the hierarchically structured g-C3 N4 nanoribbon-graphene hybrids lead to a high electrocatalytic ability for HER with a Tafel slope of 54 mV?decade(-1) , a low onset overpotential of 80 mV and overpotential of 207 mV to approach a current of 10 mA?cm(-2) , superior to those non-metal materials and well-developed metallic catalysts reported previously. This work presents a great advance for designing and developing highly efficient metal-free catalyst for hydrogen evolution.
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Population pharmacokinetic analysis of tacrolimus early after Chinese pediatric liver transplantation.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of tacrolimus (TAC) in 52 Chinese pediatric patients early after liver transplantation. Methods: Details of drug dose, sampling times and concentrations were collected retrospectively from routine therapeutic drug monitoring data from the first day after surgery. A total of 488 concentration data were obtained and analyzed by a nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM) method. A number of demographic and clinical variables were tested for their influence on TAC PK parameters. Results: The PK of TAC were best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Apparent clearance (CL/F) and apparent volumes of distribution (V/F) in final population model were 5.72 L/h and 131 L, respectively. The absorption rate constant (Ka) was fixed in 4.48 h-1. The inter-individual variabilities in CL/F and V/F were 13.5% and 78.1%. In the final analysis performed in all 52 patients, the post-operation day (POD) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) influenced TAC CL/F and V/F, and total protein (TP) was the only covariate retained on V/F. Conclusion: A population PK model of TAC was developed in Chinese pediatric patients early afte liver transplantation. It identified significant relationships between the PK of TAC and the characteristics of the patients. POD, ALT, and TP were identified as the main factors influencing the PK of TAC. The developed model could be useful to optimize individual pediatric TAC dosing regimen in routine clinical practice.
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Testis-specific Fank1 gene in knockdown mice produces oligospermia via apoptosis.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Fank1 is exclusively expressed in the testis from the meiosis phase to the haploid phase of spermatogenesis. In this study, we examined the function of Fank1 by establishing a Fank1-knockdown transgenic mouse model. The apoptotic statuses of the testes of the transgenic mice were tested using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. The FANK1 consensus DNA-binding sequence was identified using cyclic amplification of sequence target (CAST) analysis. Differentially expressed genes were examined using microarray analysis. A reduction in sperm number and an increase in apoptotic spermatocytes were observed in Fank1-knockdown mice, and the apoptotic cells were found to be primarily spermatogonia and spermatocytes. The CAST results demonstrated that the consensus DNA-binding sequence was AAAAAG, in which the percentage occurrence of each base at each position ranged from 55 to 86%. This sequence was present in the promoter regions of 10 differentially expressed genes that were examined using microarray analysis. In total, 17 genes were differentially expressed with changes in their expression levels greater than twofold. The abnormal expression of Fank1 target genes that were regulated directly or indirectly by Fank1 reduced the number of sperm in the knockdown mice. Thus, FANK1 may play a pivotal role in spermatogenesis as a transcription factor.
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Meteorological Parameters and the Onset of Chest Pain in Subjects with Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: an Eight-Year, Single-Center Study in China.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of weather on the occurrence of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in Chinese subjects. Methods: Weather and climate data, as well as the occurrence of STEMI, were monitored at 2 am, 8 am, 2 pm, and 8 pm between 2003 and 2010. Generalized additive Poisson models were utilized to plot the numbers of patients with STEMI within 6 hour intervals against climatological variations, after accounting for the effects of the hour and season. Results: The inclusion of meteorological conditions, including observed atmospheric pressure (hPa, hectopascal) variations during the previous three hours and temperature (°C, degrees Celsius), significantly affected the occurrence of STEMI, as measured every six hours. Compared with the 50th percentile of atmospheric pressure variations, the RRs (95% CI) for the first percentile, 10th percentile, 25th percentile, 75th percentile, 90th percentile, and 99th percentile of atmospheric pressure variation over lag 0 were 1.66 (1.36?2.03), 1.47 (1.30?1.67), 1.22 (1.12?1.33), 1.16 (1.07?1.25), 1.27 (1.13?1.43), and 1.16 (0.92?1.46), respectively. Compared to the 50th percentile of temperature, the RRs (95% CI) for the first percentile, 10th percentile, 25th percentile, 75th percentile, 90th percentile, and 99th percentile of temperature over lag 0 were 0.58 (0.40?0.83), 0.60 (0.46?0.78), 0.69 (0.57?0.83), 1.33 (1.14?1.56), 1.39 (1.13?1.71), and 1.17 (0.84?1.63), respectively. Conclusions: Based on the eight-year, single-center study, significant relationships were observed among the occurrence of STEMI and atmospheric pressure variations during the previous three hours and temperature after account for long-term time trends. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Air pollution associated hypertension and increased blood pressure may be reduced by breastfeeding in Chinese children: The Seven Northeastern Cities Chinese Children's Study.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Little is known about the association between air pollution and hypertension among children, and no studies report whether breastfeeding modifies this association in children.
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Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2?,3?,22?,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5?-furostan-3?,22?,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12?,22?,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5?-spirostan-3?,24?-diol-12-one-3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation.
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Persistent hepatitis C virus infections and hepatopathological manifestations in immune-competent humanized mice.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection develops chronic infection, which causes steatosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, understanding HCV chronicity and pathogenesis is hampered by its narrow host range, mostly restricted to human and chimpanzee. Recent endeavour to infect a variety of humanized mice has not been able to achieve persistent HCV infection unless the essential innate immune responsive genes are knocked out. Nevertheless, such immune-compromised humanized mice still lacked HCV infection-induced hepatopathogenesis. Here we report that transgenic mice in ICR background harboring both human CD81 and occludin genes (C/O(Tg)) are permissive to HCV infection at a chronicity rate comparable to humans. In this mouse model, HCV accomplishes its replication cycle, leading to sustained viremia and infectivity for more than 12 months post infection with expected fibrotic and cirrhotic progression. Host factors favorable for HCV replication, and inadequate innate immune-response may contribute to the persistence. Lastly, NS3/4 protease inhibitor telaprevir can effectively inhibit de novo RNA synthesis and acute HCV infection of C/O(Tg) mice. Thus, chronic HCV infection with complete replication cycle and hepatopathologic manifestations is recapitulated, for the first time, in immune-competent mice. This model will open a new venue to study the mechanisms of chronic hepatitis C and develop better treatments.
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Relative bioavailability of gastrodin and parishin from extract and powder of Gastrodiae rhizoma in rat.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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A rapid, sensitive and reliable UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of gastrodin and parishin in rat plasma. The LLOQ of the two analytes were 1.00×10(-1) and 8.30×10(-5)?g/mL, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision were all less than 10% of the relative standard deviation (RSD), whilst the accuracy were all within ±15% of the relative error (RE). The proposed method was successfully applied for pharmacokinetics study on the two analytes in rats after oral administration of Gastrodiae rhizoma (GR) extract and powder at low, medium and high dosages. Blood samples were collected from the suborbital vein at predetermined time points and were precipitated using methanol. Chromatographic separations were carried out on a Kinetex XB-C18 column (2.1mm×150mm, 1.7?m) with a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile-water with 0.1% formic acid as a modifier. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the two analytes in rats were obtained and the relative bioavailability of gastrodin and parishin in two formulations were calculated. The results indicated that higher bioavailability was obtained when low dosage of GR powder was used, whereas, higher bioavailability values were obtained when medium and high dosages of GR extract were used.
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Hemoglobin A1c risk score for the prediction of coronary artery disease in subjects with angiographically diagnosed coronary atherosclerosis.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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To develop a risk score by incorporating Hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c) with traditional risk factors for the prediction of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Chinese subjects.
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Armc8 expression was elevated during atypia-to-carcinoma progression and associated with cancer development of breast carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Armadillo repeat-containing protein 8 (Armc8) is a key factor to regulate cell membrane adhesion complex through promoting ?-catenin degradation. However, its expression and function in human malignant tumors are largely unknown. Here, we present our study investigating Armc8 expression in tumor and non-tumor breast tissues including 45 normal epithelia, 53 lesions of hyperplasia with or without dysplasia, 22 benign tumors, and 92 carcinomas including 28 carcinomas in situ and 64 infiltrating carcinomas using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting study. Armc8 expression was detected mainly in the cytoplasm with occasional membrane immunostaining. The positive rate of Armc8 expression in normal breast epithelia (8.9 %, four out of 45) was very low. No significant difference was found between Armc8 expression in usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH) (11.1 %, two out of 18), benign breast tumors including intraductal papilloma (10.0 %, one out of 10) and fibroadenoma (8.3 %, one out of 12), and normal breast epithelia (p?>?0.05). Elevated expression of Armc8 was found in breast epithelia with dysplasia (24.0 %, six out of 25) compared to that in normal breast epithelia, UDH, and benign breast tumors (p?
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The roles of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in transplantation.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are an important regulatory innate cell population and have significant inhibitory effect on T cell-mediated responses. In addition to their negative role in cancer development, MDSCs also exert strong regulatory effects on transplantation and autoimmunity. In many transplantation models, such as bone marrow transplant, renal transplant, heart transplant and skin transplant settings, MDSCs accumulate and have inhibitory effect on graft rejection. However, the inducing factors, detailed phenotype and functional molecular mediators of MDSCs are significantly different in various transplant models. With their strong suppressive activity, MDSCs could become a potential clinical therapy during transplantation tolerance induction and the combination of the MDSCs with other immunoregulatory cells or immunosuppressive drugs is an intriguing protocol in the future. In this review, we will summarize MDSC expansion, activation and induction in different transplantation models and discuss the effects of immunoregulatory cells and immunosuppressive drugs on MDSCs in transplant settings.
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Asthma and asthma related symptoms in 23,326 Chinese children in relation to indoor and outdoor environmental factors: the Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) Study.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Both the levels and patterns of outdoor and indoor air pollutants have changed dramatically during the last decade in China. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of the present air pollution on the health of Chinese children. This study examines the association between outdoor and indoor air pollution and respiratory diseases among children living in Liaoning, a heavy industrial province of China.
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Polymorphisms in MicroRNAs Are Associated with Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNA) play important roles in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and are involved in human carcinogenesis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in miRNA sequence may alter miRNA functions in gene regulation, which, in turn, may affect cancer risk and disease progression.
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New data on the genus Micromus Rambur, 1842 from China (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae), with a key to Chinese species.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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A review of the genus Micromus Rambur from China is presented. A new species, Micromus setulosus sp. nov., which was found in Ningxia province, is described. The male of Micromus pallidius (Yang, 1987) and the female of Micromus perelegans Tjeder, 1936 are described for the first time in China. Keys to the adult males and females of the Micromus from China are also given.   
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The S28H mutation on mNeptune generates a brighter near-infrared monomeric fluorescent protein with improved quantum yield and pH-stability.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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For living deep-tissue imaging, the optical window favorable for light penetration is in near-infrared wavelengths, which requires fluorescent proteins with emission spectra in the near-infrared region. Here, we report that a single mutant Ser28His of mNeptune with a near-infrared (?650 nm) emission maxima of 652 nm is found to improve the brightness, photostability, and pH stability when compared with its parental protein mNeptune, while it remains as a monomer, demonstrating that there is still plenty of room to improve the performance of the existing near infrared fluorescence proteins by directed evolution.
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Development and validation of an UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for determination of dehydroevodiamine, limonin, evodiamine, and rutaecarpine in Evodiae Fructus.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Evodiae Fructus (EF), one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicines, mainly consists of alkaloids, is widely used for the treatments of headache and gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, a sensitive and reliable UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for qualitative determination of dehydroevodiamine, limonin, evodiamine, and rutaecarpine.
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Simultaneous determination of esculetin, quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-? -D-glucuronopyranside methyl ester and quercetin in effective part of Polygonum Perfoliatum L. using high performace liquid chromatography.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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In the present study, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detection was developed for simultaneous quantitation of esculetin, quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-?-D- glucuronopyranoside methyl ester and quercetin in Polygonum perfoliatum L.
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The expression and significance of five types of miRNAs in breast cancer.
Med Sci Monit Basic Res
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the expression and significance of 5 types of miRNAs in breast cancer to provide a theoretical and practical foundation for using these miRNAs in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, thereby improving medical services.
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Impact of microbubble enhanced, pulsed, focused ultrasound on tumor circulation of subcutaneous VX2 cancer.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Intravascular microbubble-enhanced acoustic cavitation is capable of disrupting the vascular walls of capillaries and small vessels. This study was designed to investigate the impact of microbubble-enhanced, pulsed and focused ultrasound (MEUS) on the blood perfusion of subcutaneous VX2 tumors in rabbits.
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Integral stormwater management master plan and design in an ecological community.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Urban stormwater runoff nearly discharges directly into bodies of water through gray infrastructure in China, such as sewers, impermeable ditches, and pump stations. As urban flooding, water shortage, and other environment problems become serious, integrated water environment management is becoming increasingly complex and challenging. At more than 200ha, the Oriental Sun City community is a large retirement community located in the eastern side of Beijing. During the beginning of its construction, the project faced a series of serious water environment crises such as eutrophication, flood risk, water shortage, and high maintenance costs. To address these issues, an integral stormwater management master plan was developed based on the concept of low impact development (LID). A large number of LID and green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) approaches were designed and applied in the community to replace traditional stormwater drainage systems completely. These approaches mainly included bioretention (which captured nearly 85th percentile volume of the annual runoff in the site, nearly 5.4×10(5)m(3) annually), swales (which functioned as a substitute for traditional stormwater pipes), waterscapes, and stormwater wetlands. Finally, a stormwater system plan was proposed by integrating with the gray water system, landscape planning, an architectural master plan, and related consultations that supported the entire construction period. After more than 10years of planning, designing, construction, and operation, Oriental Sun City has become one of the earliest modern large-scale LID communities in China. Moreover, the project not only addressed the crisis efficiently and effectively, but also yielded economic and ecological benefits.
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From Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion to Alzheimer-Like Brain Pathology and Neurodegeneration.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a common consequence of various cerebral vascular disorders and hemodynamic and blood changes. Recent studies have revealed an important role of CCH in neurodegeneration and dementia, including vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This article reviews the recent advances in understanding CCH-induced neurodegeneration and AD-related brain pathology and cognitive impairment. We discuss the causes and assessment of CCH, the possible mechanisms by which CCH promotes Alzheimer-like pathology and neurodegeneration, and animal models of CCH. It appears that CCH promotes neurodegeneration and AD through multiple mechanisms, including induction of oxidative stress, A? accumulation and aggravation, tau hyperphosphorylation, synaptic dysfunction, neuronal loss, white matter lesion, and neuroinflammation. Better understanding of the mechanisms of CCH will help develop therapeutic strategies for preventing and treating neurodegeneration, including sporadic AD and vascular dementia, caused by CCH.
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PIGD: a database for intronless genes in the Poaceae.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Intronless genes are a feature of prokaryotes; however, they are widespread and unequally distributed among eukaryotes and represent an important resource to study the evolution of gene architecture. Although many databases on exons and introns exist, there is currently no cohesive database that collects intronless genes in plants into a single database.
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microRNA 490-3P enhances the drug-resistance of human ovarian cancer cells.
J Ovarian Res
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding, single-stranded small RNAs that regulate gene expression negatively, which is involved in fundamental cellular processes. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-490-3P in the development of drug resistance in ovarian cancer cells.
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iTRAQ-based proteomic study of the effects of Spiroplasma eriocheiris on Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis hemocytes.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Spiroplasma eriocheiris is as a novel pathogen of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis tremor disease. The hemocytes have been shown to be major target cells in S. eriocheiris infection. The aim of this study was to examine the hemocytes' immune response at the protein levels. The differential proteomes of the crab hemocytes were analyzed immediately prior to injection with the pathogen, and at 10 d post-injection by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantization (iTRAQ) labeling, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 1075 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS and de novo sequencing data. Using a 1.2-fold change in expression as a physiologically significant benchmark, 76 differentially expressed proteins (7.07%) were reliably quantified by iTRAQ analysis. Thirty-five (3.26%) proteins were up-regulated and 41 (3.81%) proteins were down-regulated resulting from a S. eriocheiris infection. Approximately 20 differential proteins in hemocytes were involved in the stress and immune responses. Up-regulated proteins included alpha-2-macroglobulin (?2M), prostaglandin D synthase (GST), ferritin, and heat shock protein 60. Down-regulated proteins included two lectins (mannose-binding protein and hemocytin), three kinds of serine proteinase inhibitors (two serpins and pacifastin), three different kinds of serine proteases, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK), and two thioredoxins (Trx), crustin, etc. Selected bioactive factors (?2M, GST, ferritin, tubulin, crustin, thioredoxin, clip domain serine protease and serpin) are verified by their immune roles in the S. eriocheiris infection using Real-time PCR. The variation trend of immune gene's mRNA expression is similar with the result of iTRAQ, except the tubulin. The prophenoloxidase-activating system, antimicrobial action and antioxidant system involved in the immune responses of E. sinensis is believed to be a resistance to S. eriocheiris infection. This is the first report of the proteome response of crab hemocytes against S. eriocheiris infection. These findings contribute to our understanding of tremor disease processes in crabs, and provide the first evidence to promote a search for potential biomarkers of the disease.
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1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-dione ethanol monosolvate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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In the title compound, C12H6N2O2·C2H5OH, the mol-ecule of the 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.051?(1)?Å. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by O-H?N and weak C-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming supra-molecular chains propagating along [110]. ?-? stacking inter-actions are observed between the pyridine rings of neighbouring chains, the centroid-centroid separations being 3.6226?(11) and 3.7543?(11)?Å.
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Generation of naive induced pluripotent stem cells from rhesus monkey fibroblasts.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Conventional embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from primates resemble mouse epiblast stem cells, raising an intriguing question regarding whether the naive pluripotent state resembling mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) exists in primates and how to capture it in vitro. Here we identified several specific signaling modulators that are sufficient to generate rhesus monkey fibroblast-derived iPSCs with the features of naive pluripotency in terms of growth properties, gene expression profiles, self-renewal signaling, X-reactivation, and the potential to generate cross-species chimeric embryos. Interestingly, together with recent reports of naive human pluripotent stem cells, our findings suggest several conserved signaling pathways shared with rodents and specific to primates, providing significant insights for acquiring naive pluripotency from other species. In addition, the derivation of rhesus monkey naive iPSCs also provides a valuable cell source for use in preclinical research and disease modeling.
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Likelihood ratio tests in rare variant detection for continuous phenotypes.
Ann. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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It is believed that rare variants play an important role in human phenotypes; however, the detection of rare variants is extremely challenging due to their very low minor allele frequency. In this paper, the likelihood ratio test (LRT) and restricted likelihood ratio test (ReLRT) are proposed to test the association of rare variants based on the linear mixed effects model, where a group of rare variants are treated as random effects. Like the sequence kernel association test (SKAT), a state-of-the-art method for rare variant detection, LRT and ReLRT can effectively overcome the problem of directionality of effect inherent in the burden test in practice. By taking full advantage of the spectral decomposition, exact finite sample null distributions for LRT and ReLRT are obtained by simulation. We perform extensive numerical studies to evaluate the performance of LRT and ReLRT, and compare to the burden test, SKAT and SKAT-O. The simulations have shown that LRT and ReLRT can correctly control the type I error, and the controls are robust to the weights chosen and the number of rare variants under study. LRT and ReLRT behave similarly to the burden test when all the causal rare variants share the same direction of effect, and outperform SKAT across various situations. When both positive and negative effects exist, LRT and ReLRT suffer from few power reductions compared to the other two competing methods; under this case, an additional finding from our simulations is that SKAT-O is no longer the optimal test, and its power is even lower than that of SKAT. The exome sequencing SNP data from Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 were employed to illustrate the proposed methods, and interesting results are described.
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Detection of human bocavirus in children with acute respiratory tract infections in lanzhou and nanjing, china.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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The aim of this study was to explore the prevalent characteristics of HBoV1 and its co-infection.
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Smart elasto-magneto-electric (EME) sensors for stress monitoring of steel cables: design theory and experimental validation.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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An elasto-magnetic (EM) and magneto-electric (ME) effect based elasto-magneto-electric (EME) sensor has been proposed recently by the authors for stress monitoring of steel cables with obvious superiorities over traditional elasto-magnetic sensors. For design optimization and engineering application of the EME sensor, the design theory is interpreted with a developed model taking into account the EM coupling effect and ME coupling effect. This model is able to approximate the magnetization changes that a steel structural component undergoes when subjected to excitation magnetic field and external stress, and to simulate the induced ME voltages of the ME sensing unit located in the magnetization area. A full-scale experiment is then carried out to verify the model and to calibrate the EME sensor as a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tool to monitor the cable stress. The experimental results agree well with the simulation results using the developed model. The proposed EME sensor proves to be feasible for stress monitoring of steel cables with high sensitivity, fast response, and ease of installation.
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Relationship of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system polymorphisms and phenotypes to mortality in Chinese coronary atherosclerosis patients.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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We performed a large, long-term cohort study to evaluate the association of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms and baseline phenotypes to all-cause mortality among patients with angiographically confirmed coronary atherosclerosis. The study included 1075 subjects who underwent coronary angiography. Patients were genotyped for eight polymorphisms (rs4343, rs5186, rs5182, rs5049, rs5051, rs699, rs4762, and rs1799998), and their baseline plasma angiotensin II and aldosterone levels were measured. The interval between baseline and follow-up time-points ranged from 6.39 to 9.59 years. The results of multivariate regression analysis further indicated that high baseline angiotensin II levels (1.226 (1.024-1.468), p = 0.027) were independently associated with all-cause death. Therefore, we found that an increased baseline plasma angiotensin II level was associated with higher long-term all-cause mortality, even after correcting for established cardiovascular risk factors.
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Economic and comorbidity burden among moderate-to-severe psoriasis patients with comorbid psoriatic arthritis.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Objective: To compare the prevalence of comorbidities, healthcare utilization and costs between moderate-to-severe psoriasis (PsO) patients with comorbid psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and matched controls. Methods: Adults aged 18 to 64 years with concomitant diagnoses of PsO and PsA (PsO+PsA) were identified in the OptumHealth Reporting and Insights claims database between January 2007 and March 2012. Moderate-to-severe PsO was defined based on the use of at least one systemic or phototherapy during the 12-month study period after the index date (randomly selected date after the first PsO diagnosis). Control patients without PsO and PsA were demographically matched 1:1 with PsO+PsA patients. Multivariate regressions were employed to examine PsO/PsA-related comorbidities, medications, healthcare utilization and costs between PsO+PsA patients and controls, adjusting for demographics, index year, insurance type, and non-PsO/PsA related comorbidities. Results: Among 1,230 matched pairs of PsO+PsA patients and controls, PsO+PsA patients had significantly more PsO/PsA-related comorbidities, with the top three most common in both groups being hypertension (35.8% vs. 23.5%), hyperlipidemia (34.6% vs. 28.5%), and diabetes (15.9% vs. 10.0%). Compared with controls, PsO+PsA patients had a higher number of distinct prescriptions filled (incidence rate ratio=2.3), were more likely to have inpatient admissions (odds ratio (OR)=1.6), emergency room visits (OR=1.3) and outpatient visits (OR=62.7) (all p<0.05), and incurred significantly higher total, pharmacy, and medical costs (adjusted annual cost differences per patient: $23,160, $17,696, and $5,077, respectively, all p<0.01). Conclusions: Compared with matched PsO- and PsA-free controls, moderate-to-severe PsO patients with comorbid PsA had higher comorbidity and healthcare utilization and costs. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
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The first USH2A mutation analysis of Japanese autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa patients: a totally different mutation profile with the lack of frequent mutations found in Caucasian patients.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a highly heterogeneous genetic disease. The USH2A gene, which accounts for approximately 74-90% of Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2) cases, is also one of the major autosomal recessive RP (arRP) causative genes among Caucasian populations. To identify disease-causing USH2A gene mutations in Japanese RP patients, all 73 exons were screened for mutations by direct sequencing. In total, 100 unrelated Japanese RP patients with no systemic manifestations were identified, excluding families with obvious autosomal dominant inheritance. Of these 100 patients, 82 were included in this present study after 18 RP patients with very likely pathogenic EYS (eyes shut homolog) mutations were excluded. The mutation analysis of the USH2A revealed five very likely pathogenic mutations in four patients. A patient had only one very likely pathogenic mutation and the others had two of them. Caucasian frequent mutations p.C759F in arRP and p.E767fs in USH2 were not found. All the four patients exhibited typical clinical features of RP. The observed prevalence of USH2A gene mutations was approximately 4% among Japanese arRP patients, and the profile of the USH2A gene mutations differed largely between Japanese patients and previously reported Caucasian populations.
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An integrated analysis of miRNA, lncRNA, and mRNA expression profiles.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Increasing amounts of evidence indicate that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have important roles in various biological processes. Here, miRNA, lncRNA, and mRNA expression profiles were analyzed in human HepG2 and L02 cells using high-throughput technologies. An integrative method was developed to identify possible functional relationships between different RNA molecules. The dominant deregulated miRNAs were prone to be downregulated in tumor cells, and the most abnormal mRNAs and lncRNAs were always upregulated. However, the genome-wide analysis of differentially expressed RNA species did not show significant bias between up- and downregulated populations. miRNA-mRNA interaction was performed based on their regulatory relationships, and miRNA-lncRNA and mRNA-lncRNA interactions were thoroughly surveyed and identified based on their locational distributions and sequence correlations. Aberrantly expressed miRNAs were further analyzed based on their multiple isomiRs. IsomiR repertoires and expression patterns were varied across miRNA loci. Several specific miRNA loci showed differences between tumor and normal cells, especially with respect to abnormally expressed miRNA species. These findings suggest that isomiR repertoires and expression patterns might contribute to tumorigenesis through different biological roles. Systematic and integrative analysis of different RNA molecules with potential cross-talk may make great contributions to the unveiling of the complex mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis.
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Dephasing and dissipation in a source-drain model of light-harvesting systems.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The energy transport process in natural-light-harvesting systems is investigated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a source-network-drain model incorporating the effects of dephasing and dissipation, owing to coupling with the environment. In this model, the network consists of electronically coupled chromophores, which can host energy excitations (excitons) and are connected to source channels, from which the excitons are generated, thereby simulating exciton creation from sunlight. After passing through the network, excitons are captured by the reaction centers and converted into chemical energy. In addition, excitons can reradiate in green plants as photoluminescent light or be destroyed by nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). These annihilation processes are described in the model by outgoing channels, which allow the excitons to spread to infinity. Besides the photoluminescent reflection, the NPQ processes are the main outgoing channels accompanied by energy dissipation and dephasing. From the simulation of wave-packet dynamics in a one-dimensional chain, it is found that, without dephasing, the motion remains superdiffusive or ballistic, despite the strong energy dissipation. At an increased dephasing rate, the wave-packet motion is found to switch from superdiffusive to diffusive in nature. When a steady energy flow is injected into a site of a linear chain, exciton dissipation along the chain, owing to photoluminescence and NPQ processes, is examined by using a model with coherent and incoherent outgoing channels. It is found that channel coherence leads to suppression of dissipation and multiexciton super-radiance. With this method, the effects of NPQ and dephasing on energy transfer in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex are investigated. The NPQ process and the photochemical reflection are found to significantly reduce the energy-transfer efficiency in the complex, whereas the dephasing process slightly enhances the efficiency. The calculated absorption spectrum reproduces the main features of the measured counterpart. As a comparison, the exciton dynamics are also studied in a linear chain of pigments and in a multiple-ring system of light-harvesting complexes II (LH2) from purple bacteria by using the Davydov D1 ansatz. It is found that the exciton transport shows superdiffusion characteristics in both the chain and the LH2 rings.
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Bis-(thio-cyanato-?N)[tris(pyridin-2-yl-meth-yl)amine-?(4) N]-iron(II).
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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In the title complex, [Fe(NCS)2(C18H18N4)], the Fe(II) cation is chelated by a tris-(2-pyridyl-meth-yl)amine ligand and coordin-ated by two thio-cyanate anions in a distorted N6 octa-hedral geometry. In the crystal, weak C-H?S hydrogen bonds and ?-? stacking inter-actions between parallel pyridine rings of adjacent mol-ecules [centroid-centroid distance = 3.653?(3)?Å] link the mol-ecules into a two-dimensional supra-molecular architecture. The structure contains voids of 124?(9)?Å(3), which are free of solvent molecules.
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A new 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system of facial motion: an establishment and reliability test.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aimed to establish a 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative facial motion analysis system, and then determine its accuracy and test-retest reliability. The system could automatically reconstruct the motion of the observational points. Standardized T-shaped rod and L-shaped rods were used to evaluate the static and dynamic accuracy of the system. Nineteen healthy volunteers were recruited to test the reliability of the system. The average static distance error measurement was 0.19 mm, and the average angular error was 0.29°. The measuring results decreased with the increase of distance between the cameras and objects, 80 cm of which was considered to be optimal. It took only 58 seconds to perform the full facial measurement process. The average intra-class correlation coefficient for distance measurement and angular measurement was 0.973 and 0.794 respectively. The results demonstrated that we successfully established a practical 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system that is accurate and reliable enough to meet both clinical and research needs.
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Characterization of PHB1 and Its Role in Mitochondrial Maturation and Yolk Platelet Degradation during Development of Artemia Embryos.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To cope with harsh environments, crustaceans such as Artemia produce diapause gastrula embryos (cysts) with suppressed metabolism. Metabolism and development resume during post-diapause development, but the mechanism behind these cellular events remains largely unknown.
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Combined Effects of Admission Serum Creatinine Concentration with Age and Gender on the Prognostic Significance of Subjects with Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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to explore the impact of admission serum creatinine concentration on the in-hospital mortality and its interaction with age and gender in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in China.
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Association between genetic polymorphisms in AURKA (rs2273535 and rs1047972) and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis involving 37,221 subjects.
Cancer Cell Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Published data on the association between AURKA polymorphisms and breast cancer (BC) risk are inconclusive. This meta-analysis was performed to derive a more precise estimation on the relationship between AURKA polymorphisms (rs2273535 and rs1047972) and BC risk.
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Fucoidan induces cancer cell apoptosis by modulating the endoplasmic reticulum stress cascades.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cancer metastasis is the main cause leading to disease recurrence and high mortality in cancer patients. Therefore, inhibiting metastasis process or killing metastatic cancer cells by inducing apoptosis is of clinical importance in improving cancer patient survival. Previous studies revealed that fucoidan, a fucose-rich polysaccharide isolated from marine brown alga, is a promising natural product with significant anti-cancer activity. However, little is known about the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in fucoidan-induced cell apoptosis.
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Comparison of transverse island flap onlay and tubularized incised-plate urethroplasties for primary proximal hypospadias: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This meta-analysis was conducted to compare postoperative outcomes between transverse island flap (TVIF) onlay and tubularized incised-plate (TIP) urethroplasties for primary proximal hypospadias.
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Antitumor effect of iRGD-modified liposomes containing conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel (CLA-PTX) on B16-F10 melanoma.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In the present study, we prepared a novel delivery system of iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC)-modified sterically stabilized liposomes (SSLs) containing conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel (CLA-PTX). The anti-tumor effect of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was investigated on B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro targeting effect of iRGD-modified SSLs was investigated in a real-time confocal microscopic analysis experiment. An endocytosis-inhibition assay was used to evaluate the endocytosis pathways of the iRGD-modified SSLs. In addition, the in vitro cellular uptake and in vitro cytotoxicity of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were evaluated in B16-F10 melanoma cells. In vivo biodistribution and in vivo antitumor effects of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were investigated in B16-F10 tumor-bearing mice. The induction of apoptosis by iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was evaluated in tumor-tissue sections. Real-time confocal microscopic analysis results indicated that the iRGD-modified SSLs internalized into B16-F10 cells faster than SSLs. The identified endocytosis pathway of iRGD-modified SSLs indicated that energy- and lipid raft-mediated endocytosis played a key role in the liposomes' cellular uptake. The results of the cellular uptake experiment indicated that the increased cellular uptake of CLA-PTX in the iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated group was 1.9-, 2.4-, or 2.1-fold compared with that in the CLA-PTX group after a 2-, 4-, or 6-hour incubation, respectively. In the biodistribution test, the CLA-PTX level in tumor tissues from iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice at 1 hour (1.84±0.17 ?g/g) and 4 hours (1.17±0.28 ?g/g) was 2.3- and 2.0-fold higher than that of CLA-PTX solution at 1 hour (0.79±0.06 ?g/g) and 4 hours (0.58±0.04 ?g/g). The value of the area under the curve for the first 24 hours in the tumors of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice was significantly higher than that in the SSL-CLA-PTX and CLA-PTX solution-treated groups (P<0.01). The in vivo antitumor results indicated that iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX significantly inhibited the growth of B16-F10 tumors compared with the SSL-CLA-PTX or CLA-PTX solution-treatment groups (P<0.01). The results of tumor-cell apoptosis showed that tumors from the iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated group exhibited more advanced cell apoptosis compared with the control, CLA-PTX solution-, and SSL-CLA-PTX-treated groups. In conclusion, the antitumor effect of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was confirmed on B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo.
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Identification and expression analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).
J. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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Aux/IAA is an important gene family involved in many aspects of growth and development. Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins that are induced primarily by various phytohormones. In this study, 29 Aux/IAA family genes (CsIAA01-CsIAA29) were identified and characterized in cucumber, including gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, conserved protein motifs and chromosomal locations. These genes show distinct organizational patterns of their putative motifs. The distributions of the genes vary: except for five CsIAA genes in cucumber that were not located, seven CsIAA genes were found on scaffold, while the other 17 CsIAA genes were distributed on seven other chromosomes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA protein sequences from cucumber, Arabidopsis and other plants, the Aux/IAA genes in cucumber were categorized into seven subfamilies. To investigate whether the expression of CsIAA genes is associated with auxin induction, their transcript levels were monitored in seedlings treated with IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), and their expression patterns were analysed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that 11/29 CsIAA genes were expressed in leaves whether treated with IAA or not and the time course of processing and compared with the control, five CsIAA genes showed low expression only after 60 min treatment with IAA, while 11 genes showed no expression. These results provide useful information for further functional analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber.
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Nickel-Catalyzed Regiodivergent Opening of Epoxides with Aryl Halides: Co-Catalysis Controls Regioselectivity.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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Epoxides are versatile intermediates in organic synthesis, but have rarely been employed in cross-coupling reactions. We report that bipyridine-ligated nickel can mediate the addition of functionalized aryl halides, a vinyl halide, and a vinyl triflate to epoxides under reducing conditions. For terminal epoxides, the regioselectivity of the reaction depends upon the cocatalyst employed. Iodide cocatalysis results in opening at the less hindered position via an iodohydrin intermediate. Titanocene cocatalysis results in opening at the more hindered position, presumably via Ti(III)-mediated radical generation. 1,2-Disubstituted epoxides are opened under both conditions to form predominantly the trans product.
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A wheat allene oxide cyclase gene enhances salinity tolerance via jasmonate signaling.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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One of the two branches of the ?-linolenic acid metabolism pathway is catalyzed by OPRI, and the other is involved in JA synthesis. The former is known to be active in the response to salinity tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum), but the participation of the latter in this response has not been established as yet. Here, the salinity-responsive bread wheat gene TaAOC1, which encodes an allene oxide cyclase involved in the ?-linolenic acid metabolism pathway, was constitutively expressed in both bread wheat and Arabidopsis thaliana. In both species, transgenic lines exhibited an enhanced level of tolerance to salinity. The transgenic plants accumulated a higher content of jasmonic acid (JA) and developed shorter roots. Both the shortened roots and the salinity tolerance were abolished in a background lacking a functional AtMYC2, a key component of the JA and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, but were still expressed in a background deficient with respect to ABA synthesis. We provide the first evidence suggesting that JA is also involved in the plant salinity response, and that the ?-linolenic acid metabolism pathway has a regulatory role over this response.
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A genome-wide gene-gene interaction analysis identifies an epistatic gene pair for lung cancer susceptibility in Han Chinese.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. By now, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with the risk of developing lung cancer. However, these loci account for only a small fraction of the familial lung cancer risk. We hypothesized that epistasis may contribute to the missing heritability. To test this hypothesis, we systematically evaluated the association of epistasis of genetic variants with risk of lung cancer in Han Chinese cohorts. We conducted a pair-wise genetic interaction analysis of 591,370 variants, using BOolean Operation-based Screening and Testing (BOOST), in an ongoing GWAS of lung cancer that includes 2,331 cases and 3,077 controls. Pairs of epistatic loci with PBOOST ? 1.00 × 10(-6) were further evaluated by a logistic regression model (LRM) with covariate adjustment. Four promising epistatic pairs identified at the screening stage (PLRM ? 2.86 × 10(-13)) were validated in two replication cohorts: the first from Beijing (1,534 cases and 1,489 controls), and the second from Shenyang and Guangzhou (2,512 cases and 2,449 controls). Using this combined analysis, we identified an interaction between rs2562796 and rs16832404 at 2p32.2 that was significantly associated with the risk of developing lung cancer (PLRM = 1.03 × 10(-13) in total 13,392 subjects). This study is the first investigation of epistasis for lung cancer on a genome-wide scale in Han Chinese. It addresses part of the missing heritability in lung cancer risk and provides novel insight into the multifactorial etiology of lung cancer.
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Signatures of positive selection in LY96 gene in vertebrates.
J. Biosci.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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As a secreted glycoprotein that binds to the extracellular domain of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Lymphocyte Antigen 96 (LY96), also called myeloid differentiation 2 (MD2), is required for the activation of TLR4 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and plays an important role in innate immunity, which is the first line of defence against microbial infections. Previous studies have proposed that mammalian toll-like receptors (TLRs) have evolved under diversifying selection due to their role in pathogen detection. Given the fact that LY96 is highly functionally linked to TLR4, it would be interesting to test whether LY96 is under the intense pressure of natural selection. To investigate the natural selection hypothesis, we compared the coding sequences from 13 vertebrates and evaluated the molecular evolution of LY96 gene in these species. Result shows that natural selection at exon 4 has indeed played a role in shaping the function of LY96 in the course of evolution. In addition to the study of Nakajima, we found the two branch nodes with Ka/Ks ratios greater than 1: the one leading to cow and pig and the other to rabbit and the primates.
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Codon 104 variation of p53 gene provides adaptive apoptotic responses to extreme environments in mammals of the Tibet plateau.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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Mutational changes in p53 correlate well with tumorigenesis. Remarkably, however, relatively little is known about the role that p53 variations may play in environmental adaptation. Here we report that codon asparagine-104 (104N) and glutamic acid-104 (104E), respectively, of the p53 gene in the wild zokor (Myospalax baileyi) and root vole (Microtus oeconomus) are adaptively variable, meeting the environmental stresses of the Tibetan plateau. They differ from serine-104 (104S) seen in other rodents, including the lowland subterranean zokor Myospalax cansus, and from serine 106 (106S) in humans. Based on site-directed mutational analysis in human cell lines, the codon 104N variation in M. baileyi is responsible for the adaptive balance of the transactivation of apoptotic genes under hypoxia, cold, and acidic stresses. The 104E p53 variant in Microtus oeconomus suppresses apoptotic gene transactivation and cell apoptosis. Neither 104N nor 104E affects the cell-cycle genes. We propose that these variations in p53 codon 104 are an outcome of environmental adaptation and evolutionary selection that enhance cellular strategies for surviving the environmental stresses of hypoxia and cold (in M. baileyi and M. oeconomus) and hypercapnia (in M. baileyi) in the stressful environments of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau.
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Breadth-first search approach to enumeration of tree-like chemical compounds.
J Bioinform Comput Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Molecular enumeration plays a basic role in the design of drugs, which has been studied by mathematicians, computer scientists, and chemists for quite a long time. Although many researchers are involved in developing enumeration algorithms specific to drug design systems, molecular enumeration is still a hard problem to date due to its exponentially increasing large search space with larger number of atoms. To alleviate this defect, we propose efficient algorithms, BfsSimEnum and BfsMulEnum to enumerate tree-like molecules without and with multiple bonds, respectively, where chemical compounds are represented as molecular graphs. In order to reduce the large search space, we adjust some important concepts such as left-heavy, center-rooted, and normal form to molecular tree graphs. Different from many existing approaches, BfsSimEnum and BfsMulEnum firstly enumerate tree-like compounds by breadth-first search order. Computational experiments are performed to compare with several existing methods. The results suggest that our proposed methods are exact and more efficient.
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Disorder influenced absorption line shapes of a chromophore coupled to two-level systems.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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We have carried out a theoretical and numerical study of disorder-induced changes in the absorption line shape of a chromophore embedded in a host matrix. The stochastic sudden jump model is employed wherein the host matrix molecules are treated as noninteracting two-level systems (TLSs) occupying points on a three-dimensional lattice with randomly oriented dipole moments. By systematically controlling the degree of positional disorder (?) attributed to them, a perfectly crystalline (? = 0) or a glassy environment (? = 1) or a combination of the two is obtained. The interaction between the chromophore and the TLSs is assumed to be of the dipole-dipole form. With an increase in ?, the broadening of the absorption line shape was found to follow a power-law behavior. More importantly, it is revealed in the long-time limit that the resultant line shape is Gaussian in the absence of disorder but transforms to Lorentzian for a completely disordered environment. For an arbitrarily intermediate value of ?, the resultant line shape can be approximately fitted by a linear combination of Gaussian and Lorentzian components. The Lorentzian profile for the disordered medium is attributed to the chomophore-TLS pairs with vanishingly small separation between them.
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Ultrasonic characterization of thermally grown oxide in thermal barrier coating by reflection coefficient amplitude spectrum.
Ultrasonics
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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The thermally grown oxide (TGO) growth at the interface of ceramic coating/bond coating in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was evaluated by ultrasonic reflection coefficient amplitude spectrum (URCAS). A theoretical analysis was performed about the influence of acoustic impedance match relationship between the ceramic coating and its adjacent media on URCAS. The immersion ultrasonic narrow pulse echo method was carried out on the TBC specimen before and after oxidation under 1050°C×1h for 15cycles. The resonant peaks of URCAS obtained before and after oxidation showed that TGO which generated between the ceramic coating and bond coating due to the oxidation, changed the acoustic impedance match between the ceramic coating and its adjacent media. This method is able to nondestructively characterize the generation of TGO in TBCs, and is important to practical engineering application.
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Sub-Ohmic spin-boson model with off-diagonal coupling: ground state properties.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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We have carried out analytical and numerical studies of the spin-boson model in the sub-ohmic regime with the influence of both the diagonal and the off-diagonal coupling accounted for, via the Davydov D1 variational ansatz. While a second-order phase transition is known to be exhibited by this model in the presence of diagonal coupling only, we demonstrate the emergence of a discontinuous first order phase transition upon incorporation of the off-diagonal coupling. A plot of the ground state energy versus magnetization highlights the discontinuous nature of the transition between the isotropic (zero magnetization) state and nematic (finite magnetization) phases. We have also calculated the entanglement entropy and a discontinuity found at a critical coupling strength further supports the discontinuous crossover in the spin-boson model in the presence of off-diagonal coupling. It is further revealed via a canonical transformation approach that for the special case of identical exponents for the spectral densities of the diagonal and the off-diagonal coupling, there exists a continuous crossover from a single localized phase to doubly degenerate localized phase with differing magnetizations.
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An integrated evolutionary analysis of miRNA-lncRNA in mammals.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Increasing evidence suggests that non-coding RNAs have multiple important roles in transcriptional regulation, and also contribute to the expansion of genome complexity. Here, we attempted to perform an integrative analysis of miRNA-lncRNA in mammals to reveal their potential evolutionary relationships in transcriptional regulation network. The lncRNA of H19 gene includes an internal small non-coding RNA, miR-675. The H19 gene was conserved as well as the neighbor Igf2 coding gene and internal miR-675 gene, although they were involved in various location distributions and phylogenetic relationships. Both miR-675-5p/3p have been reported as potential negative regulatory molecules, but the canonical miRNA was more conserved than the passenger strand. These results implicated that the imprinted coding and non-coding gene cluster indicated similar evolutionary patterns. The lncRNA and internal miRNAs may have versatile roles in multiple biological processes, including in tumorigenesis as potential ncRNA regulatory molecules. The phylogenetical conservation of the imprinted cluster may be also derived from the functional implications and evolutionary pressures. The study will enrich the study of potential crosstalk of miRNA-lncRNA and mRNA-ncRNA.
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Dose-dependent effect of sulfur dioxide on brain damage induced by recurrent febrile seizures in rats.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Sulfur dioxide (SO2) regulates many physiological processes. Little is known about its roles in neurological disorders. In this study, we investigated the role of endogenous SO2 in the development of febrile seizures (FS) and related brain damages. In the rat model of recurrent FS, we found that endogenous SO2 in the plasma and hippocampus was increased, accompanied by upregulation of aspartate amino-transferase 1 (AAT1) and AAT2, and neuronal apoptosis and mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) in the hippocampus. Preconditioning with low concentration of SO2 (1-10?mol/kg) alleviated the neuronal damage, and attenuated neuronal apoptosis and MFS, whereas preconditioning with high concentration of SO2 (100?mol/kg) or inhibition of AAT aggravated the neuronal damage, and promoted neuronal apoptosis and MFS in hippocampus of rats with recurrent FS. These data indicate that endogenous SO2 is involved in the development of FS and related brain damage. Preconditioning with low concentration of SO2 may protect neurons from toxicity caused by FS.
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Resection of a malignant paraganglioma located behind the retrohepatic segment of the inferior vena cava.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Resection of a retrocaval paraganglioma is technically challenging due to limited tumor accessibility and proximity to the vena cava.
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Effective Cancer Cell Killing by Hydrophobic Nanovoid-Enhanced Cavitation under Safe Low-Energy Ultrasound.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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?-Cyclodextrin (?-CD)-capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles with hydrophobic internal nanovoids were prepared and used for effective cancer cell killing in synergistic combination with low-energy ultrasound (?1.0?W?cm(-2) , 1?MHz). The water-dispersible nanoparticles with hydrophobic internal nanovoids can be taken up by cancer cells and subsequently evoke a remarkable cavitation effect under irradiation with mild low-energy ultrasound (?1.0?W?cm(-2) , 1?MHz). A significant cancer cell killing effect was observed in cancer cells and in a mouse xenograft tumor model treated with the nanoagents together with the low-energy ultrasound, showing a distinct dependence on the concentration of nanoagents and ultrasound intensity. By contrast, an antitumor effect was not observed when either low-energy ultrasound or nanoagents were applied alone. These findings are significant as the technique promises a safe, low-cost, and effective treatment for cancer therapy.
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Screening for MiRNAs related to laryngeal squamous carcinoma stem cell radiation.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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To use microarray chip technology for screening of stem cell radiation related miRNAs in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma; study and explore the relationship of miRNAs with radiosensitivity of laryngeal squamous cells.
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Wurtzite copper-zinc-tin sulfide as a superior counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Wurtzite and kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals were employed as counter electrode (CE) materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared to kesterite CZTS, the wurtzite CZTS exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity for catalyzing reduction of iodide electrolyte and better conductivity. Accordingly, the DSSC with wurtzite CZTS CE generated higher power conversion efficiency (6.89%) than that of Pt (6.23%) and kesterite CZTS (4.89%) CEs.
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Induction of apoptosis by total flavonoids from Scutellaria barbata D. Don in human hepatocarcinoma MHCC97-H cells via the mitochondrial pathway.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Scutellaria barbata D. Don, a traditional Chinese medicine, reportedly possesses antitumor activity against a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of total flavonoids from S. barbata (TF-SB) on human hepatocarcinoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms regarding the effect were explored. TF-SB treatment significantly reduced the cell viability of human HCC MHCC97-H cells in a dose-dependent manner. Further flow cytometric analysis showed that the apoptosis rate of MHCC97-H cells increased and the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) of MHCC97-H cells decreased after TF-SB treatment. DNA ladder showed that TF-SB induced a significant increase in DNA fragmentation in MHCC97-H cells. Reverse transcription PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression levels of Smac, Apaf-1, Cytochrome c, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3 were upregulated in a dose-dependent manner and after treatment with different concentrations of TF-SB for 48 h. These results suggest that TF-SB induces apoptosis in MHCC97-H cells through the mitochondrial pathway.
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[Research on vertical distribution pattern and reserve of organic carbon in paddy field soil of Qianguo, Jilin].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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Taking Qianguo paddy field of Jilin Province as investigation object, based on the soil test data of 7 different periods developed for 4 to 55 years, the vertical distribution of SOC content in the 1 m paddy field section was studied adopting the space scale method instead of time scale. The paddy soil carbon sink in last 20 years was discussed and the organic carbon storage of Qianguo paddy field soil was estimated. According to the second soil census data, the characteristics of soil SOC used in fields of different type were comparatively analyzed. The results showed that the paddy field SOC decreased from top to bottom by layer, which showed an increasing trend with the increase of development age; the organic carbon content in the surface soil layer (0-30 cm) (1 820.79 t) was 46.87% of the total organic carbon storage in deep soil (3 885.05 t), and the soil SOCD content was highly different depending on the type of field, ranked in descending order as paddy field, dry land, and saline field. The development of paddy field is a SOC accumulating carbon sink process, which is conducive to the transfer of organic carbon from the surface soil layer to the bottom soil layer.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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