Lysine acetylation is a reversible, dynamic protein modification regulated by lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Recent advances in high-throughput proteomics have greatly contributed to the success of global analysis of lysine acetylation. A large number of proteins of diverse biological functions have been shown to be acetylated in several reports in human cells, E.coli, and dicot plants. However, the extent of lysine acetylation in non-histone proteins remains largely unknown in monocots, particularly in the cereal crops. Here we report the mass spectrometric examination of lysine acetylation in rice (Oryza sativa). We identified 60 lysine acetylated sites on 44 proteins of diverse biological functions. Immunoblot studies further validated the presence of a large number of acetylated non-histone proteins. Examination of the amino acid composition revealed substantial amino acid bias around the acetylation sites and the amino acid preference is conserved among different organisms. Gene ontology analysis demonstrates that lysine acetylation occurs in diverse cytoplasmic, chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins in addition to the histone modifications. Our results suggest that lysine acetylation might constitute a regulatory mechanism for many proteins, including both histones and non-histone proteins of diverse biological functions.
Cereal endosperm represents 60% of the calories consumed by human beings worldwide. In addition, cereals also serve as the primary feedstock for livestock. However, the regulatory mechanism of cereal endosperm and seed development is largely unknown. Polycomb complex has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of endosperm development in Arabidopsis, but its role in cereal endosperm development remains obscure. Additionally, the enzyme activities of the polycomb complexes have not been demonstrated in plants. Here we purified the rice OsFIE2-polycomb complex using tandem affinity purification and demonstrated its specific H3 methyltransferase activity. We found that the OsFIE2 gene product was responsible for H3K27me3 production specifically in vivo. Genetic studies showed that a reduction of OsFIE2 expression led to smaller seeds, partially filled seeds, and partial loss of seed dormancy. Gene expression and proteomics analyses found that the starch synthesis rate limiting step enzyme and multiple storage proteins are down-regulated in OsFIE2 reduction lines. Genome wide ChIP-Seq data analysis shows that H3K27me3 is associated with many genes in the young seeds. The H3K27me3 modification and gene expression in a key helix-loop-helix transcription factor is shown to be regulated by OsFIE2. Our results suggest that OsFIE2-polycomb complex positively regulates rice endosperm development and grain filling via a mechanism highly different from that in Arabidopsis.
Plant cells are routinely exposed to various pathogens and environmental stresses that cause cell wall perturbations. Little is known of the mechanisms that plant cells use to sense these disturbances and transduce corresponding signals to regulate cellular responses to maintain cell wall integrity. Previous studies in rice have shown that removal of the cell wall leads to substantial chromatin reorganization and histone modification changes concomitant with cell wall re-synthesis. But the genes and proteins that regulate these cellular responses are still largely unknown. Here we present an examination of the nuclear proteome differential expression in response to removal of the cell wall in rice suspension cells using multiple nuclear proteome extraction methods. A total of 382 nuclear proteins were identified with two or more peptides, including 26 transcription factors. Upon removal of the cell wall, 142 nuclear proteins were up regulated and 112 were down regulated. The differentially expressed proteins included transcription factors, histones, histone domain containing proteins, and histone modification enzymes. Gene ontology analysis of the differentially expressed proteins indicates that chromatin & nucleosome assembly, protein-DNA complex assembly, and DNA packaging are tightly associated with cell wall removal. Our results indicate that removal of the cell wall imposes a tremendous challenge to the cells. Consequently, plant cells respond to the removal of the cell wall in the nucleus at every level of the regulatory hierarchy.
DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-meC) is an important epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing in many eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyases actively remove 5-meC to counteract transcriptional gene silencing in a locus-specific manner, and have been suggested to maintain the expression of transposons. However, it is unclear whether plant DNA demethylases can promote the transposition of transposons. Here we report the functional characterization of the DNA glycosylase/lyase DNG701 in rice. DNG701 encodes a large (1,812 amino acid residues) DNA glycosylase domain protein. Recombinant DNG701 protein showed 5-meC DNA glycosylase and lyase activities in vitro. Knockout or knockdown of DNG701 in rice plants led to DNA hypermethylation and reduced expression of the retrotransposon Tos17. Tos17 showed less transposition in calli derived from dng701 knockout mutant seeds compared with that in wild-type calli. Overexpression of DNG701 in both rice calli and transgenic plants substantially reduced DNA methylation levels of Tos17 and enhanced its expression. The overexpression also led to more frequent transposition of Tos17 in calli. Our results demonstrate that rice DNG701 is a 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyase responsible for the demethylation of Tos17 and this DNA demethylase plays a critical role in promoting Tos17 transposition in rice calli.
Efficient and cost-effective conversion of plant biomass to usable forms of energy requires a thorough understanding of cell wall biosynthesis, modification and degradation. To elucidate these processes, we assessed the expression dynamics during enzymatic removal and regeneration of rice cell walls in suspension cells over time. In total, 928 genes exhibited significant up-regulation during cell wall removal, whereas, 79 genes were up-regulated during cell wall regeneration. Both gene sets are enriched for kinases, transcription factors and genes predicted to be involved in cell wall-related functions. Integration of the gene expression datasets with a catalog of known and/or predicted biochemical pathways from rice, revealed metabolic and hormonal pathways involved in cell wall degradation and regeneration. Rice lines carrying Tos17 mutations in genes up-regulated during cell wall removal exhibit dwarf phenotypes. Many of the genes up-regulated during cell wall development are also up-regulated in response to infection and environmental perturbations indicating a coordinated response to diverse types of stress.
Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high throughput DNA Sequencing (ChIP-Seq) has emerged as a powerful tool for genome wide profiling of the binding sites of proteins associated with DNA such as histones and transcription factors. However, no peak calling program has gained consensus acceptance by the scientific community as the preferred tool for ChIP-Seq data analysis. Analyzing the large data sets generated by ChIP-Seq studies remains highly challenging for most molecular biology laboratories.Here we profile H3K27me3 enrichment sites in rice young endosperm using the ChIP-Seq approach and analyze the data using four peak calling algorithms (FindPeaks, PeakSeq, USeq, and MACS). Comparison of the four algorithms reveals that these programs produce very different peaks in terms of peak size, number, and position relative to genes. We verify the peak predictions using ChIP-PCR to evaluate the accuracy of peak prediction of the four algorithms. We discuss the approach of each algorithm and compare similarities and differences in the results. Despite their differences in the peaks identified, all of the programs reach similar conclusions about the effect of H3K27me3 on gene expression. Its presence either upstream or downstream of a gene is predominately associated with repression of the gene. Additionally, GO analysis finds that a substantially higher ratio of genes associated with H3K27me3 were involved in multicellular organism development, signal transduction, response to external and endogenous stimuli, and secondary metabolic pathways than the rest of the rice genome.
The cell wall is a critical extracellular structure that provides protection and structural support in plant cells. To study the biological function of the cell wall and the regulation of cell wall resynthesis, we examined cellular responses to enzymatic removal of the cell wall in rice (Oryza sativa) suspension cells using proteomic approaches. We find that removal of cell wall stimulates cell wall synthesis from multiple sites in protoplasts instead of from a single site as in cytokinesis. Nucleus DAPI stain and MNase digestion further show that removal of the cell wall is concomitant with substantial chromatin reorganization. Histone post-translational modification studies using both Western blots and isotope labeling assisted quantitative mass spectrometry analyses reveal that substantial histone modification changes, particularly H3K18(AC) and H3K23(AC), are associated with the removal and regeneration of the cell wall. Label-free quantitative proteome analyses further reveal that chromatin associated proteins undergo dramatic changes upon removal of the cell wall, along with cytoskeleton, cell wall metabolism, and stress-response proteins. This study demonstrates that cell wall removal is associated with substantial chromatin change and may lead to stimulation of cell wall synthesis using a novel mechanism.
MADS-box transcription factors are known for their roles in plant growth and development. The regulatory mechanisms of spatial and temporal specific expression of MADS-box genes and the function of MADS-box genes in other biological processes are still to be explored. Here, we report that OsMADS6 is highly expressed in flower and endosperm in Oryza sativa (rice). In addition to displaying a homeotic organ identity phenotype in all the four whorls of the flowers, the endosperm development is severely affected in its mutant. At least 32% of the seeds lacked starch filling and aborted. For seeds that have starch filling and develop to maturity, the starch content is reduced by at least 13%. In addition, the seed shape changes from elliptical to roundish, and the protein content increases from 12.1 to 15.0% (P < 0.05). Further investigation shows that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase genes, encoding the rate-limiting step enzyme in the starch synthesis pathway, are subject to the regulation of OsMADS6. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR analyses on the chromatin of the OsMADS6 gene find that H3K27 is trimethylated in tissues where OsMADS6 is silenced, and that H3K36 is trimethylated in tissues where OsMADS6 is highly activated. Point mutation analysis reveals that leucine at position 83 is critical to OsMADS6 function.
Classic plant tissue culture experiments have shown that exposure of cell culture to a high auxin to cytokinin ratio promotes root formation and a low auxin to cytokinin ratio leads to shoot regeneration. It has been widely accepted that auxin and cytokinin play an antagonistic role in the control of organ identities during organogenesis in vitro. Since the auxin level is highly elevated in the shoot meristem tissues, it is unclear how a low auxin to cytokinin ratio promotes the regeneration of shoots. To identify genes mediating the cytokinin and auxin interaction during organogenesis in vitro, three allelic mutants that display root instead of shoot regeneration in response to a low auxin to cytokinin ratio are identified using a forward genetic approach in Arabidopsis. Molecular characterization shows that the mutations disrupt the AUX1 gene, which has been reported to regulate auxin influx in plants. Meanwhile, we find that cytokinin substantially stimulates auxin accumulation and redistribution in calli and some specific tissues of Arabidopsis seedlings. In the aux1 mutants, the cytokinin regulated auxin accumulation and redistribution is substantially reduced in both calli and specific tissues of young seedlings. Our results suggest that auxin elevation and other changes stimulated by cytokinin, instead of low auxin or exogenous auxin directly applied, is essential for shoot regeneration.
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