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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Early-Stage Imaging of Nanocarrier Enhanced Chemotherapy Response in Living Subjects by Scalable Photoacoustic Microscopy.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Conventional evaluation methods of chemotherapeutic efficacy such as tissue biopsy and anatomical measurement are either invasive with potential complications or dilatory to capture the rapid pathological changes. Here, a sensitive and resolution-scalable photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) with theranostic nanoformulation was developed to noninvasively monitor the therapy response in a timely manner. Ultrasmall graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were designed as both drug loading vehicle and photoacoustic signal amplifier to the tumor. With the signal enhancement by the injected contrast agents, the subtle microvascular changes of the chemotherapy response in tumor were advantagely revealed by our PAM system, which was much earlier than the morphological measurement by standard imaging techniques. High tumor uptake of the enhanced nanodrug with Cy5.5 labeling was validated by fluorescence imaging. At different observation scales, PAM offered unprecedented sensitivity of optical absorption and high spatial resolution over optical imaging. Our studies demonstrate the PAM system with synergistic theranostic strategy to be multiplexing platforms for tumor diagnosis, drug delivery, and chemotherapy response monitoring in a very early stage and effective way.
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High-order harmonic generation from Rydberg atoms in inhomogeneous fields.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We theoretically investigate the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from Rydberg atoms considering the spatial inhomogeneity of the driving field. It is found that in the inhomogeneous field, the effect of the cutoff extension in the harmonic spectrum from Rydberg atoms can be extended to multi-cycle regime, while in the homogeneous field case, the extension of the harmonic cutoff is limited to the few-cycle regime (less than two optical cycles). The underlying physics of the cutoff extension from Rydberg atoms in the inhomogeneous field is analyzed based on the classical and quantum-mechanical models. Furthermore, by optimizing the field inhomogeneity, the electron dynamics can be well controlled to generate a smooth supercontinuum in the extended spectral region. This can support the efficient generation of isolated attosecond pulses in Rydberg atoms from multi-cycle laser fields.
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[A follow-up study of HIV long-term non-progress populations in Henan province].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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To explore the related testing indicators variation of HIV long-term non-progress populations.
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[Analysis on hepatitis C virus infection and related factors among newly reported HIV infections in Henan province].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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To study hepatitis C virus infection and related factors among newly reported HIV infections in Henan province.
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Inhibitory effect of silybin on pharmacokinetics of imatinib in vivo and in vitro.
Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of orally administered silybin on the pharmacokinetics of imatinib in rats and the metabolism of imatinib in human liver microsome and rat liver microsomes. Eighteen healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: group A (control group), group B (received multiple doses of 50 mg·kg(-1) silybin for 15 consecutive days), and group C (received a single dose of 50 mg·kg(-1) silybin). A single dose of imatinib was administered orally 30 min after administration of silybin (50 mg·kg(-1)). Imatinib plasma levels were measured by UPLC-MS/MS, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 3.0 software (Bontz Inc., Beijing, China). In addition, human and rat liver microsome were performed to determine the effects of silybin metabolism of imatinib in vitro. The multiple doses or single dose of 50 mg·kg(-1) silybin significantly decreased the area under the curve (0-t) of imatinib (p < 0.01). And the half-life (t1/2) of imatinib is significantly increased (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Also, silybin showed inhibitory effect on human and rat microsomes, the IC50 of silybin were 26.42 ?mol·L(-1) and 49.12 ?mol·L(-1) in human and rat liver microsomes, respectively. These results indicate that more attention should be paid to when imatinib is administrated combined with silybin.
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Quantum-Confined Emission and Fluorescence Blinking of Individual Exciton Complexes in CdSe Nanowires.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures combine electron mobility in length direction with the possibility of tailoring the physical properties by confinement effects in radial direction. Here we show that thin CdSe quantum nanowires exhibit low-temperature fluorescence spectra with a specific universal structure of several sharp lines. The structure strongly resembles the pattern of bulk spectra but show a diameter-dependent shift due to confinement effects. Also the fluorescence shows a pronounced complex blinking behavior with very different blinking dynamics of different emission lines in one and the same spectrum. Time- and space-resolved optical spectroscopy are combined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of the very same quantum nanowires to establish a detailed structure-property relationship. Extensive numerical simulations strongly suggest that excitonic complexes involving donor and acceptor sites are the origin of the feature-rich spectra.
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Gold nanoparticles functionalized with cresyl violet and porphyrin via hyaluronic acid for targeted cell imaging and phototherapy.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Gold nanoparticles are functionalized as a nanoprobe with cresyl violet and porphyrin via hyaluronic acid. The nanoprobe becomes highly fluorescent in the presence of hyaluronidase or under ultraviolet irradiation, and can be used to target cancer cells via the overexpressed CD44 receptor for fluorescence imaging and phototherapy.
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[Influence of Calcineurin on Apoptosis of pre-B Lymphocytes and the Leukemia Cells Derived from pre-B lymphocytes].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was aimed to compare the differential expressions of calcineurin (PP2B, PP3) in the mouse Pre-B cell lines (S9) and the tumor cell lines (S4C2) derived from pre-B lymphocytes, and to clarify its possible mechanism involving in the leukemia cell apoptosis. The quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the differential expressions of H2AX-associated phosphakinase ATM, ATR, DNA-PKs, JNK1, P38 and the ?-H2AX-related phosphatase PP1, PP2A, calcineurin, PP4, PP6, PP5 between S9 and S4C2 cell lines. CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry were used to detect the effect of imatinib (IM) and cyclosporine A (CsA) on cytotoxicity and apoptosis of 2 cell lines. The Western blot was used to detect the effects of 2 drugs on apoptosis of S9 and S4C2 cell lines. The results showed that the expression level of calcineurin gene in the leukemia cell S4C2 was about 3.5 times of that in S9 cells, while the expression of other genes in these 2 kinds of cells was not significantly different. The apoptosis and toxicity of IM and CsA on S4C2 cells was significantly stronger than that on S9 cells. The expression level of calcineurin in S4C2 cells was higher than that in S9 cells.When CsA inhibited the calcineurin activity, the expression of DNA damage marker ?-H2AX in S9 cells was significantly lower than that in S4C2 cells,while the expression level of ?-H2AX between the two cell lines was no significantly different after treatment with imatinib, the expression level of ?-H2AX in S9 cells was lower than that in S4C2 cells when the two drugs were combined. It is concluded that the calcineurin plays a role of anti-apoptosis in B leukemic cells, cyclosporine A can promote the leukemia cell apoptosis.
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Co?culture with human fetal epidermal keratinocytes promotes proliferation and migration of human fetal and adult dermal fibroblasts.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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The repair strategy for the healing of skin wounds in fetuses differs from that in adults. Proliferation and migration of dermal fibroblasts are the main mechanisms associated with skin wound healing, as well as the complex interactions between epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) and dermal fibroblasts. In order to investigate the effects of fetal skin epidermal KCs on fetal and adult human dermal fibroblasts, KCs and fibroblasts were isolated from the skin tissue of mid?gestational human fetuses and adults, and co?cultured using a Transwell® system. When fetal mid?gestational KCs were co?cultured with either fetal or adult dermal fibroblasts, the proliferative and migratory potential of the fibroblasts was significantly enhanced. Furthermore, these phenotypic changes were concomitant with the upregulation of numerous proteins including mouse double minute 2 homolog, cyclin B1, phospho?cyclin?dependent kinase 1, phospho?extracellular signal?regulated kinase, and phospho?AKT, along with C?X?C chemokine receptor 4, phospho?p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)?2 and MMP?9. Notably, no significant differences were observed between fetal and adult dermal fibroblasts in their responses to fetal mid?gestational epidermal KCs, indicating that the cells from these two developmental stages respond in a similar manner to co?culture with KCs.
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Littre's hernia in a paediatric patient.
Afr J Paediatr Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is the most common congenital abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract that is generally asymptomatic and manifests only in a specific way when complications exist. Littre's hernia is a rare complication of MD . The definition of Littre's hernia is based upon the protrusion of a MD through a potential abdominal opening accompanied in some cases by incarceration, inflammation, or necrosis. The most common site of Littre's hernia is the inguinal canal, usually on the right. It is difficult to diagnose before surgery. We report a 4-month-old boy with Littre's hernia, including join with incarcerated hernia in the left side.
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New Cytotoxic Naphthohydroquinone Dimers from Rubia alata.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Two novel naphthohydroquinone dimers with unprecedented skeletons, rubialatins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the herbal plant Rubia alata together with their precursor, mollugin (3). The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectra and crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1, a racemate, was separated by chiral column chromatography, and the absolute configurations of the enantiomers were determined by the computational methods. Cytotoxicity of 1-3 was evaluated as well as the effect on the NF-?B pathway. Compound (+)-1 showed cytotoxicity and could inhibit NF-?B pathway. Meanwhile, 2 showed cytotoxicity and a synergistic effect with TNF-? on NF-?B activation.
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Novel (19)F Activatable Probe for the Detection of Matrix Metalloprotease-2 Activity by MRI/MRS.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) have been found to be highly expressed in a variety of malignant tumor tissues. Noninvasive visualization of MMP activity may play an important role in the diagnosis of MMP associated diseases. Here we report the design and synthesis of a set of fluorine-19 dendron-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes for real-time imaging of MMP-2 activity. The probes have the following features: (a) symmetrical fluorine atoms; (b) the number of fluorine atoms can be increased through facile chemical modification; (c) readily accessible peptide sequence as the MMP-2 substrate; (d) activatable (19)F signal (off/on mode) via paramagnetic metal ion incorporation. Following optimization for water solubility, one of the probes was selected to evaluate MMP-2 activity by (19)F magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Our results showed that the fluorine signal increased by 8.5-fold in the presence of MMP-2. The specific cleavage site was verified by mass spectrometry. The selected probe was further applied to detect secreted MMP-2 activity of living SCC7 squamous cell carcinoma cells. The fluorine signal was increased by 4.8-fold by MRS analysis after 24 h incubation with SCC7 cells. This type of fluorine probe can be applied to evaluate other enzyme activities by simply tuning the substrate structures. This symmetrical fluorine dendron-based probe design extends the scope of the existing (19)F MRI agents and provides a simple but robust method for real-time (19)F MRI application.
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Hydration-dependent dynamic crossover phenomenon in protein hydration water.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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The characteristic relaxation time ? of protein hydration water exhibits a strong hydration level h dependence. The dynamic crossover is observed when h is higher than the monolayer hydration level h_{c}=0.2-0.25 and becomes more visible as h increases. When h is lower than h_{c}, ? only exhibits Arrhenius behavior in the measured temperature range. The activation energy of the Arrhenius behavior is insensitive to h, indicating a local-like motion. Moreover, the h dependence of the crossover temperature shows that the protein dynamic transition is not directly or solely induced by the dynamic crossover in the hydration water.
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A longitudinal intergenerational analysis of executive functions during early childhood.
Br J Dev Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Despite the importance of executive function (EF) in both clinical and educational contexts, the aetiology of individual differences in early childhood EF remains poorly understood. This study provides the first longitudinal intergenerational analysis of mother-child EF associations during early childhood. A group of children and their mothers (n = 62) completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Mother and child EFs were modestly correlated by 24 months of age, and this association was stable through 48 months. Importantly, maternal-child EF associations were still robust after controlling for verbal ability (potential indicator of verbal/crystallized intelligence) and maternal education (correlate of socio-economic status and verbal intelligence). Potential implications of these findings as well as underlying mechanisms of the maternal-child EF association (gene-environment interplay) are discussed.
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Vitelline membrane outer layer 1 homolog interacts with lysozyme C and promotes the stabilization of tear film.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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The aim of this study was to explore the possible interactions between vitelline membrane outer layer 1 homolog (VMO1) and other tear proteins and to determine the function of VMO1 in tear fluid.
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The effect of clopidogrel on pharmacokinetics of ivabradine and its metabolite in rats.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the effect of clopidogrel (CLO) on pharmacokinetics of ivabradine (IVA) and its metabolite in rats and develop a reliable method to determine IVA and its metabolite N-demethyl ivabradine in serum. Healthy male SD rats were randomized to be given 0.8?mg/kg IVA or IVA combined with 8?mg/kg CLO. Blood samples were collected at 0.083, 0.16, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24?h after administration. The serum concentrations of IVA and N-demethyl ivabradine were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using DASver3.0 software. The parameters of AUC(0?-?t), AUC(0?-??), and Cmax for IVA in the group of IVA?+?CLO were significantly higher than those in the group of IVA (p?
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Integrative analysis of mRNA and miRNA array data reveals the suppression of retinoic acid pathway in regulatory T cells of Graves' disease.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Context: It is well known that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are abnormal in Graves'disease (GD) and play crucial roles in the breakdown of immune tolerance and GD development. However, there are controversies about whether the quantity and/or function of Tregs is aberrant in GD. The molecular mechanism of Tregs abnormality and its effects on GD development is still unclear until now. Objective: MiRNAs play important roles in the function and development of the immune system including Tregs. To reveal the Tregs abnormality and its molecular mechanism in GD, we systematically studied the quantity and immunosuppressive function as well as the differential expression profiles of miRNA and mRNA of Tregs in newly diagnosed GD using TaqMan miRNA array and mRNA microarray. Results: Our results showed that the quantity and immunosuppressive function of Tregs in initial GD patients was significantly decreased. More importantly, the retinoic acid (RA) pathway was markedly suppressed and its agonist, all-trans retinoic acid, could notably improve the quantity and immunosuppressive function of Tregs from GD patients in vitro. In addition, many other pathways including protein ubiquitination and circadian rhythm were also significantly regulated in Tregs of GD. Conclusions: This integrative study first revealed the expression profiles of mRNA/miRNA in Tregs of initial GD and RA pathway might play important roles in GD development. Our results implied that all-trans retinoic acid which had been used for a long time in clinical, had potential value in the treatment of GD and was worthy of further study.
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Knockdown of PSF1 expression inhibits cell proliferation in lung cancer cells in vitro.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Partner of sld five 1 (PSF1) is a member of the heterotetrameric complex termed GINS. Previous studies have shown that PSF1 is unregulated in several cancer and associated with tumor malignant characters. However, the effects of PSF1 in lung cancer are still unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of PSF1 on the proliferation capacities of lung cancer. To start with, expression of PSF1 in 22 human lung cancer samples and adjacent non-tumor samples were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Our results showed that PSF1 was overexpressed in lung cancer samples compared to adjacent non-tumor samples. To achieve better insights of PSF1 functions in lung cancer cells, we used PSF1-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) successfully inhibit the expression of PSF1 in messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. In addition, we used lung cancer cell lines with different p53 gene background (p53 null and p53 wild-type). The results showed that knockdown of PSF1 inhibited cell proliferation and caused cell cycle arrest of lung cancer cells in a p53-independent manner. Our data indicated that PSF1 is functionally involved in lung cancer cell proliferation and is a potential target for lung cancer therapy.
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Plasma miRNA levels correlate with sensitivity to bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Abstract In our study, we detect the levels of three micro-RNAs (miRNAs; miR-21, miR-133a and miR-146a) in the plasma of 120 Chinese postmenopausal women who were divided into three groups (normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis) according to the T-scores. Downregulation of miR-21, as well as upregulation of miR-133a, was validated in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients versus the normal group. The difference in expression regarding the miR-146a level in plasma among the three groups was not significant (p?>?0.01). The circulating miRNA expression levels and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined during a multiple correlation analysis as a dependent variable after adjusting for age, weight and height. We have demonstrated that specific miRNAs species are significantly changed in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients and correlated with the BMD. Our study suggested a potential use of miR-21 and miR-133a as sensitive and plasma biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis.
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Application of a spectrum standardization method for carbon analysis in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).
Appl Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Measurement of coal carbon content using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is limited by its low precision and accuracy. A modified spectrum standardization method was proposed to achieve both reproducible and accurate results for the quantitative analysis of carbon content in coal using LIBS. The proposed method used the molecular emissions of diatomic carbon (C2) and cyanide (CN) to compensate for the diminution of atomic carbon emissions in high volatile content coal samples caused by matrix effect. The compensated carbon line intensities were further converted into an assumed standard state with standard plasma temperature, electron number density, and total number density of carbon, under which the carbon line intensity is proportional to its concentration in the coal samples. To obtain better compensation for fluctuations of total carbon number density, the segmental spectral area was used and an iterative algorithm was applied that is different from our previous spectrum standardization calculations. The modified spectrum standardization model was applied to the measurement of carbon content in 24 bituminous coal samples. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has superior performance over the generally applied normalization methods. The average relative standard deviation was 3.21%, the coefficient of determination was 0.90, the root mean square error of prediction was 2.24%, and the average maximum relative error for the modified model was 12.18%, showing an overall improvement over the corresponding values for the normalization with segmental spectrum area, 6.00%, 0.75, 3.77%, and 15.40%, respectively.
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A newly identified myomegalin isoform functions in Golgi microtubule organization and ER-Golgi transport.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The Golgi of mammalian cells is known to be a major microtubule-organizing site that requires microtubules for its organization and protein trafficking. However, the mechanisms underlying the microtubule organization of the Golgi remain obscure. We used immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry to identify a widely expressed isoform of the poorly characterized muscle protein myomegalin. This newly identified isoform, myomegalin variant 8 (MMG8), localized predominantly to cis-Golgi networks by interacting with AKAP450 (also known as AKAP9), and this interaction with AKAP450 was required for the stability of both proteins. Disrupting MMG8 expression affected endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi trafficking and caused Golgi fragmentation. Furthermore, MMG8 associated with ?-tubulin complexes and with the microtubule plus-end tracking protein EB1 (also known as MAPRE1), and was required for the Golgi localization of these two molecules. On the Golgi, ?-tubulin complexes mediated microtubule nucleation, whereas EB1 functioned in ER-to-Golgi trafficking. These results indicate that MMG8 participates in Golgi microtubule organization and thereby plays a crucial role in the organization and function of the Golgi.
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[(18)F]DPA-714 PET Imaging of AMD3100 Treatment in a Mouse Model of Stroke.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Chemokine receptor 4 and stromal-cell-derived factor 1 have been found to be related to the initiation of neuroinflammation in ischemic brain. Herein, we aimed to monitor the changes of neuorinflammation after AMD3100 treatment using a translocator protein (TSPO) specific PET tracer in a mouse model of stroke. The transient MCAO model was established with Balb/C mice. The success of the model was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and FDG PET. The treatment started the same day after surgery via daily intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg of AMD3100/kg for three consecutive days. [(18)F]DPA-714 was used as the TSPO imaging tracer. In vivo PET was performed at different time points after surgery in both control and treated mice. Ex vivo histological and immunofluorescence staining of brain slices was performed to confirm the lesion site and inflammatory cell activation. The TSPO level was also evaluated using Western blotting. Longitudinal PET scans revealed that the level of [(18)F]DPA-714 uptake was significantly increased in the ischemic brain area with a peak accumulation at around day 10 after surgery, and the level of uptake remained high until day 16. The in vivo PET data were consistent with those from ex vivo immunofluorescence staining. After AMD3100 treatment, the signal intensity was significantly decreased compared with that of normal saline-treated control group. In conclusion, TSPO-targeted PET imaging using [(18)F]DPA-714 can be used to monitor inflammatory response after stroke and provide a useful method for evaluating the efficacy of anti-inflammation treatment.
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[Effect of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis used for AIDS patients under anti-retroviral therapy].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To analyze the situation of survival among AIDS patients under cotrimoxazole prophylaxis as initial anti-retroviral therapy (ART), in Henan province during 2007-2011.
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Differential expression of Meis2, Mab21l2 and Tbx3 during limb development associated with diversification of limb morphology in mammals.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Bats are the only mammals capable of self-powered flight using wings. Differing from mouse or human limbs, four elongated digits within a broad wing membrane support the bat wing, and the foot of the bat has evolved a long calcar that spread the interfemoral membrane. Our recent mRNA sequencing (mRNA-Seq) study found unique expression patterns for genes at the 5' end of the Hoxd gene cluster and for Tbx3 that are associated with digit elongation and wing membrane growth in bats. In this study, we focused on two additional genes, Meis2 and Mab21l2, identified from the mRNA-Seq data. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) we validated the mRNA-Seq results for differences in the expression patterns of Meis2 and Mab21l2 between bat and mouse limbs, and further characterize the timing and location of the expression of these two genes. These analyses suggest that Meis2 may function in wing membrane growth and Mab21l2 may have a role in AP and DV axial patterning. In addition, we found that Tbx3 is uniquely expressed in the unique calcar structure found in the bat hindlimb, suggesting a role for this gene in calcar growth and elongation. Moreover, analysis of the coding sequences for Meis2, Mab21l2 and Tbx3 showed that Meis2 and Mab21l2 have high sequence identity, consistent with the functions of genes being conserved, but that Tbx3 showed accelerated evolution in bats. However, evidence for positive selection in Tbx3 was not found, which would suggest that the function of this gene has not been changed. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that the modulation of the spatiotemporal expression patterns of multiple functional conserved genes control limb morphology and drive morphological change in the diversification of mammalian limbs.
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Metastatic consequences of immune escape from NK cell cytotoxicity by human breast cancer stem cells.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Breast cancer stem-like cells (BCSC) are crucial for metastasis but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that tumor-infiltrating natural killer (NK) cells failed to limit metastasis and were not associated with improved therapeutic outcome of BCSC-rich breast cancer. Primary BCSCs were resistant to cytotoxicity mediated by autologous/allogeneic NK cells due to reduced expression of MICA and MICB, two ligands for the stimulatory NK cell receptor NKG2D. Furthermore, the downregulation of MICA/MICB in BCSCs was mediated by aberrantly expressed oncogenic miR20a, which promoted the resistance of BCSC to NK cell cytotoxicity and resultant lung metastasis. The breast cancer cell differentiation-inducing agent, all-trans retinoic acid, restored the miR20a-MICA/MICB axis and sensitized BCSC to NK cell-mediated killing, thereby reducing immune escape-associated BCSC metastasis. Together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism for immune escape of human BCSC and identify the miR20a-MICA/MICB signaling axis as a therapeutic target to limit metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Res; 74(20); 5746-57. ©2014 AACR.
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New dicyclopeptides from Dianthus chinensis.
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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One new dicyclopeptide cyclo-(L-N-methyl Glu-L-N-methyl Glu) (1), together with one new natural dicyclopeptide cyclo-(L-methyl Glu ester-L-methyl Glu ester) (2), and two known dicyclopeptides cyclo-(L-methyl Glu ester-L-Glu) (3), and cyclo-(L-Glu-L-Glu) (4), were isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus chinensis L. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods.
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Dye-loaded ferritin nanocages for multimodal imaging and photothermal therapy.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Multimodal imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT), for the therapy of cancer, based on a ferritin (FRT) nanocage loaded with the near-infrared dye IR820 (designated DFRT) is demonstrated. The dual roles of DFRT (in imaging and PTT) are successfully balanced by using two different excitation wavelengths: 550 nm for high quantum-yield fluorescence imaging on the one hand and 808 nm for photoacoustic imaging and PTT with high photothermal conversion efficiency on the other.
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HDL and cognition in neurodegenerative disorders.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are a heterogeneous group of lipoproteins composed of various lipids and proteins. HDL is formed both in the systemic circulation and in the brain. In addition to being a crucial player in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway, HDL possesses a wide range of other functions including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, pro-endothelial function, anti-thrombosis, and modulation of immune function. It has been firmly established that high plasma levels of HDL protect against cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that the beneficial role of HDL extends to many other systems including the central nervous system. Cognition is a complex brain function that includes all aspects of perception, thought, and memory. Cognitive function often declines during aging and this decline manifests as cognitive impairment/dementia in age-related and progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A growing concern is that no effective therapy is currently available to prevent or treat these devastating diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that HDL may play a pivotal role in preserving cognitive function under normal and pathological conditions. This review attempts to summarize recent genetic, clinical and experimental evidence for the impact of HDL on cognition in aging and in neurodegenerative disorders as well as the potential of HDL-enhancing approaches to improve cognitive function.
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Meta-analysis of apolipoprotein e gene polymorphism and susceptibility of myocardial infarction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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A number of case-control studies have been conducted to clarify the association between ApoE polymorphisms and myocardial infarction (MI); however, the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis was performed to clarify this issue using all the available evidence. Searching in PubMed retrieved all eligible articles. A total of 33 studies were included in this meta-analysis, including 18752 MI cases and 18963 controls. The pooled analysis based on all included studies showed that the MI patients had a decreased frequency of the ?2 allele (OR?=?0.78, 95% CI?=?0.70-0.87) and an increased frequency of the ?4 allele (OR?=?1.15, 95% CI?=?1.10-1.20); The results also showed a decreased susceptibility of MI in the ?2?3 vs. ?3?3 analysis (OR?=?0.79, 95% CI?=?0.68-0.90) and in the ?2 vs. ?3 analysis (OR?=?0.78, 95% CI?=?0.69-0.89), an increased susceptibility of MI in the ?3?4 vs. ?3?3 analysis (OR?=?1.26, 95% CI?=?1.12-1.41), in the ?4 vs. ?3 analysis (OR?=?1.22, 95% CI?=?1.12-1.32) and in the ?4?4 vs. ?3?3 analysis (OR?=?1.59, 95% CI?=?1.15-2.19). However, there were no significant associations among polymorphisms and MI for the following genetic models: frequency of the ?3 allele (OR?=?0.99, 95% CI?=?0.96-1.02); ?2?2 vs. ?3?3 analysis (OR?=?0.73, 95% CI?=?0.40-1.32); or ?2?4 vs. ?3?3 analysis (OR?=?1.10, 95% CI?=?0.99-1.21). Our results suggested that the ?4 allele of ApoE is a risk factor for the development of MI and the ?2 allele of ApoE is a protective factor in the development of MI.
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Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel Quinazoline Derivatives as Anti-inflammatory Agents against Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Quinazoline has been reported to exhibit multiple bioactivities. The aim of this study was to discover new quinazoline derivatives with preventive effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via anti-inflammatory actions. Thirty-three 4-amino quinazolin derivatives were synthesized and screened for anti-inflammatory activities in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages. The most potent four compounds, 6h, 6m, 6p, and 6q, were shown dose-dependent inhibition against lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? and IL-6 release. Then, the preliminary structure-activity relationship and quantitative structure-activity relationship analyses were conducted. To further determine the effects of quinazolines on acute lung injury treatment, lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury model was employed. Male Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 6m or 6q before instillation of lipopolysaccharide. The results showed that 6m and 6q, especially 6q, obviously alleviated lung histopathological changes, inflammatory cells infiltration, and cytokines mRNA expression initiated by lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, this work suggests that 6m and 6q suppressed the lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of the inflammatory response in vivo and in vitro, indicating that quinazolines might serve as potential agents for the treatment of acute lung injury and deserve the continuing drug development and research.
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Methane-oxygen electrochemical coupling in an ionic liquid: a robust sensor for simultaneous quantification.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Current sensor devices for the detection of methane or natural gas emission are either expensive and have high power requirements or fail to provide a rapid response. This report describes an electrochemical methane sensor utilizing a non-volatile and conductive pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte and an innovative internal standard method for methane and oxygen dual-gas detection with high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability. At a platinum electrode in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2)-based ILs, methane is electro-oxidized to produce CO2 and water when an oxygen reduction process is included. The in situ generated CO2 arising from methane oxidation was shown to provide an excellent internal standard for quantification of the electrochemical oxygen sensor signal. The simultaneous quantification of both methane and oxygen in real time strengthens the reliability of the measurements by cross-validation of two ambient gases occurring within a single sample matrix and allows for the elimination of several types of random and systematic errors in the detection. We have also validated this IL-based methane sensor employing both conventional solid macroelectrodes and flexible microfabricated electrodes using single- and double-potential step chronoamperometry.
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UPLC-MS/MS determination of thiamphenicol in human plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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A sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine thiamphenicol (TAP) in human plasma using chlorzoxazone as the internal standard (IS). Sample preparation was accomplished through a liquid-liquid extraction procedure with ethyl acetate to precipitation of plasma protein, and to a 0.1 mL plasma sample. The analyte and IS were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 ?m) with the mobile phase of acetonitrile and 1% formic acid in water with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) by multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) of the transitions at m/z 354.3?185.1 for TAP and m/z 168.1?132.1 for IS. The linearity of this method was found to be within the concentration range of 10-8000 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantification of 10 ng/mL. Only 1.5 min was needed for an analytical run. The method herein described was superior to previous methods and was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of TAP in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration.
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Engineered Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Enhanced Tropism and Paracrine Secretion of Cytokines and Growth Factors to Treat Traumatic Brain Injury.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising for the treatment of various diseases and injuries. Many strategies have been applied to attract MSCs to injury site after systemic infusion. In this study, we evidenced that the CXCR4-SDF1? axis in engineered MSCs serves not only to attract MSC migration to TBI, but also to activate Akt kinase signaling pathway in MSCs to promote paracrine secretion of cytokines and growth factors. This leads to enhanced vasculogenesis and neuroprotection at the boundary of TBI for improved blood supply, recovery of axon connectivity and behavioral ability, and results in positive feedback loop to enhance additional MSC tropism to injury. These findings indicate a new aspect of SDF1? in mediating CXCR4 engineered MSCs for brain trauma homing and recovery. This potential mechanism may be applicable to other injuries, where CXCR4-SDF1? interaction is highly associated. Stem Cells 2014.
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[Risk factors of level Ib lymphadenopathy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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To analyze the risk factors for level Ib lymph node enlargement on CT in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and provide clinical evidence for defining the indications of prophylactic level Ib irradiation.
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Poly(m-phenylenediamine)-based fluorescent nanoprobe for ultrasensitive detection of matrix metalloproteinase 2.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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A novel fluorescence nanoprobe for the detection of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) has been developed by engineering the fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled peptide onto the surface of poly(m-phenylenediamine) (PMPD) nanoparticles through covalent linkage. The nanoprobe itself displays a low background signal due to the effective fluorescence quenching by electron-rich PMPD, but its reaction with MMP2 causes 11-fold fluorescence enhancement. Compared with similar fluorescence nanosystems for MMP2 assembled through physical adsorption, the as-prepared nanoprobe is significantly more stable and displays a strikingly higher signal-to-background ratio, which leads to a high sensitivity for MMP2 assay, with a detection limit of 32 pM. Most notably, the nanoprobe has been successfully applied to determine MMP2 in human serum samples, demonstrating that the MMP2 level in serum from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is 2 times higher than that from healthy people. Moreover, the nanoprobe has also been used to monitor MMP2 secreted by CRC cells that were grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, respectively, and the results show that the cells under hypoxic conditions produce higher level of MMP2 than those under normoxic conditions. Our method is simple and can offer a highly sensitive detection of MMP2 in relevant clinical samples.
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Rho GTPase-activating protein 35 rs1052667 polymorphism and osteosarcoma risk and prognosis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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The Rho GTPase-activating protein 35 (ARHGAP35), an important Rho family GTPase-activating protein, may be associated with tumorigenesis of some tumors. Here, we investigated the relationship between an important polymorphic variant at 3'-UTR of this gene (rs1052667) and osteosarcoma risk and prognosis. This hospital-based case-control study, including 247 osteosarcoma patients and 428 age-, sex-, and race-matched healthy controls, was conducted in Guangxi population. Genotypes were tested using TaqMan PCR technique. We found a significant difference in the frequency of rs1052667 genotypes between cases and controls. Compared with the homozygote of rs1052667 C alleles (rs1052667-CC), the genotypes with rs1052667 T alleles (namely, rs1052667-CT or -TT) increased osteosarcoma risk (odds ratios: 2.41 and 7.35, resp.). Moreover, rs1052667 polymorphism was correlated with such pathological features of osteosarcoma as tumor size, tumor grade, and tumor metastasis. Additionally, this polymorphism also modified the overall survival and recurrence-free survival of osteosarcoma cases. Like tumor grade, ARHGAP35 rs1052667 polymorphism was an independent prognostic factor influencing the survival of osteosarcoma. These results suggest that ARHGAP35 rs1052667 polymorphism may be associated with osteosarcoma risk and prognosis.
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Evidence of the existence of the high-density and low-density phases in deeply-cooled confined heavy water under high pressures.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The average density of D2O confined in a nanoporous silica matrix (MCM-41-S) is studied with neutron scattering. We find that below ~210 K, the pressure-temperature plane of the system can be divided into two regions. The average density of the confined D2O in the higher-pressure region is about 16% larger than that in the lower-pressure region. These two regions could represent the so-called "low-density liquid" and "high-density liquid" phases. The dividing line of these two regions, which could represent the associated 1st order liquid-liquid transition line, is also determined.
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MICA/B expression is inhibited by unfolded protein response and associated with poor prognosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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BackgroundMICA/B are major ligands for NK cell activating receptor NKG2D and previous studies showed that the serum level of soluble MICA (sMICA) is an independent prognostic factor for advanced human hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the correlation between cellular MICA/B expression pattern and human hepatocellular carcinoma progression has not been well explored. The unfolded protein response is one of the main causes of resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in tumor cells. However, whether the UPR in HCC could regulate the expression levels of MICA/B and affect the sensitivity of HCC cells to NK cell cytolysis has not been established yet.MethodsMICA/B expression pattern was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was done to explore the relationship between MICA/B expression level and patient survival. The protein and mRNA expression levels of MICA/B in SMMC7721 and HepG2 cells treated by tunicamycin were evaluated by flow cytometry, Western Blot and RT-PCR. The cytotoxicity analysis was performed with the CytoTox 96 Non-Radioactive LDH Cytotoxicity Assay.ResultsMICA/B was highly expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma and the expression level was significantly and negatively associated with tumor-node metastasis (TNM) stages. Patients with low level of MICA/B expression showed a trend of shorter survival time. The unfolded protein response (UPR) downregulated the expression of MICA/B. This decreased protein expression occurred via post-transcriptional regulation and was associated with proteasomal degradation. Moreover, decreased expression level of MICA/B led to the attenuated sensitivity of human HCC to NK cell cytotoxicity.ConclusionThese new findings of the connection of MICA/B, UPR and NK cells may represent a new concrete theory of NK cell regulation in HCC, and suggest that targeting this novel NK cell-associated immune evasion pathway may be meaningful in treating patients with HCC.
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Left ventricular twist and shear in patients with primary mitral regurgitation.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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To evaluate the relationship between left ventricular (LV) twist, shear, and twist-per-volume and the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR). Primary MR is a valvular disorder that induces LV dysfunction. There exist several measures of LV rotational mechanics, but it remains unclear which measure of LV dysfunction best accords with the severity of MR. We hypothesized that LV systolic twist-per-volume slope would decrease with increasing severity of MR because of both decreases in rotational mechanics and increases in stroke volumes.
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Antimicrobial activity of controlled-release chlorine dioxide gas on fresh blueberries.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas on the safety and quality of blueberries was studied. In vitro studies revealed that both ClO2 gas fumigation and ClO2 direct contact in water killed food pathogen bacterium Escherichia coli and fruit decay pathogen fungus Colletotrichum acutatum. In vivo studies were conducted using noninoculated berries and berries inoculated with postharvest decay and foodborne pathogens. Berries were inoculated with either E. coli (5.2 log CFU/g) or C. acutatum (3.9 log CFU/g). Inoculated fruit were dried for 2 h at room temperature in a climate-controlled laboratory and packed in perforated commercial clamshells, with or without ClO2 pads, and stored at 10°C for up to 9 days. The effects of ClO2 on microbial populations and fruit firmness were monitored during storage. In the inoculation experiment, treatment with ClO2 reduced populations of E. coli and C. acutatum by 2.2 to 3.3 and 1.3 to 2.0 log CFU/g, respectively. For the noninoculated blueberries, the initial total aerobic bacteria count and the yeast and mold count were 4.2 and 4.1 log CFU/g, respectively. ClO2 treatment reduced total aerobic bacteria count and yeast and mold count by 1.5 to 1.8 and 1.3 to 1.7 log CFU/g, respectively. The firmness of both inoculated and noninoculated blueberries was maintained by ClO2 treatment. Thus, controlled-release ClO2 gas fumigation technology shows promise as an effective and practical antimicrobial agent in commercial clamshell packaging of blueberry and other fruits.
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Biocompatible Nanogenerators through High Piezoelectric Coefficient 0.5Ba(Zr0.2 Ti0.8 )O3 -0.5(Ba0.7 Ca0.3 )TiO3 Nanowires for In-Vivo Applications.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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The lead-free 0.5Ba(Zr0.2 Ti0.8 )O3 -0.5(Ba0.7 Ca0.3 )TiO3 (BZT-BCT) nano-wires with a high piezoelectric coefficient are synthesized and the nanogenerators (NG) composed of them are successfully developed. The studied in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of the NGs shows great potential for their application as in vivo power sources.
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An electrospun nanowire-based triboelectric nanogenerator and its application in a fully self-powered UV detector.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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A new kind of triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is developed based on electrospun PVDF and nylon nanowires. This nanogenerator exhibits the remarkable characteristics of easy fabrication, low cost and high output. Its open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density respectively reach up to 1163 V and 11.5 ?A cm(-2) driven by the vibration with a triggering frequency of 5 Hz and an amplitude of 20 mm. The peak power density is 26.6 W m(-2). It directly powered a DC motor without an energy storage system for the first time. By harvesting energy from the environment using this TENG, a fully self-powered UVR detection device is developed to show the level of UVR directly without additional components.
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Combination of cylindrical confinement and spark discharge for signal improvement using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Spark discharge has been proved to be an effective way to enhance the LIBS signal while moderate cylindrical confinement is able to increase the signal repeatability with limited signal enhancement effects. In the present work, these two methods were combined together not only to improve the pulse-to-pulse signal repeatability but also to simultaneously and significantly enhance the signal as well as SNR. Plasma images showed that the confinement stabilized the morphology of the plasma, especially for the discharge assisted process, which explained the improvement of the signal repeatability.
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Bioinformatic and proteomic analysis of bulk histones reveals PTM crosstalk and chromatin features.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Systems analysis of chromatin has been constrained by complex patterns and dynamics of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), which represent major challenges for both mass spectrometry (MS) and immuno-based approaches (e.g., chromatin immuno-precipitation, ChIP). Here we present a proof-of-concept study demonstrating that crosstalk among PTMs and their functional significance can be revealed via systematic bioinformatic and proteomic analysis of steady-state histone PTM levels from cells under various perturbations. Using high resolution tandem MS, we quantified 53 modification states from all core histones and their conserved variants in the unicellular eukaryotic model organism Tetrahymena. By correlating histone PTM patterns across 15 different conditions, including various physiological states and mutations of key histone modifying enzymes, we identified 5 specific chromatin states with characteristic covarying histone PTMs and associated them with distinctive functions in replication, transcription, and DNA repair. In addition to providing a detailed picture on histone PTM crosstalk at global levels, this work has established a novel bioinformatic and proteomic approach, which can be adapted to other organisms and readily scaled up to allow increased resolution of chromatin states.
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Boson peak in deeply cooled confined water: a possible way to explore the existence of the liquid-to-liquid transition in water.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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The boson peak in deeply cooled water confined in nanopores is studied with inelastic neutron scattering. We show that in the (P, T) plane, the locus of the emergence of the boson peak is nearly parallel to the Widom line below ? 1600 bar. Above 1600 bar, the situation is different and from this difference the end pressure of the Widom line is estimated. The frequency and width of the boson peak correlate with the density of water, which suggests a method to distinguish the hypothetical "low-density liquid" and "high-density liquid" phases in deeply cooled water.
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Effect of C/N ratio on extracellular polymeric substances of activated sludge from an anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor treating saline wastewater.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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The effect of C/N ratio on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of activated sludge was investigated in an anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating saline wastewater. The protein (PN) and protein/polysaccharide (PN/PS) ratio in the loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) increased with the decrease of C/N ratio, whereas the PS in the LB-EPS decreased. The PS, PN and PN/PS ratio in the tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) were independent of C/N ratio. Two fluorescence peaks in the LB-EPS and TB-EPS were identified at excitation/emission (Ex/Em) wavelengths of 275-280/335-340 nm and 220-225/330-340 nm by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. These peaks in LB-EPS and TB-EPS were, respectively, associated with tryptophan protein-like substances and aromatic protein-like substances. The tryptophan protein-like fluorescence peaks in LB-EPS showed blue shift along the Ex axis and red shift along the Em axis with the decrease of C/N ratio. Fourier transform infrared spectra suggested that the variation of C/N ratio had more distinct effect on the functional groups of protein in the LB-EPS than those in the TB-EPS. The sludge volume index value decreased with the increase of LB-EPS, but there was no correlation between SVI and TB-EPS.
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In vivo imaging and detection of nitroreductase in zebrafish by a new near-infrared fluorescence off-on probe.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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A new near-infrared fluorescence off-on probe is developed and applied to fluorescence imaging of nitroreductase in zebrafish in vivo. The probe is readily prepared by connecting 4-nitrobenzene as a quenching and recognizing moiety to a stable hemicyanine skeleton that can be formed via the decomposition of IR 780. The fluorescence off-on response of the probe to nitroreductase is based on the enzyme-catalyzed reduction of the 4-nitrobenzene moiety, followed by the 1,6-rearrangement-elimination and the fluorophore release. Compared with the existing nitroreductase probes, the proposed probe exhibits superior analytical performance such as near-infrared fluorescence emission over 700 nm as well as high selectivity and sensitivity, with a detection limit of 14 ng/mL. More importantly, the probe has been successfully applied to visualize the distribution of nitroreductase in living zebrafish in vivo, revealing that nitroreductase might mainly exist in zebrafish yolk sac. The superior properties of the probe make it of great potential use in other biosystems and in vivo studies.
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Morphology and functions of astrocytes cultured on water-repellent fractal tripalmitin surfaces.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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In the brain, astrocytes play an essential role with their multiple functions and sophisticated structure, as surrounded by a fractal environment which has not been available in our traditional cell culture. Water-repellent fractal tripalmitin (PPP) surfaces can imitate the fractal environment in vivo, so the morphology and biochemical characterization of astrocytes on these surfaces are examined. Water-repellent fractal PPP surface can induce astrocytes to display sophisticated morphology with smaller size of cell area, longer and finer filopodium-like processes, and higher morphological complexity. The super water-repellent fractal PPP surface with water contact angle of 150°?160° produces the maximal effects compared with other surfaces at lower water contact angles. The trends of characteristic protein expression, including that of nestin, vimentin, GFAP and glutamine synthetase, for astrocytes cultured on super water-repellent fractal PPP surfaces approximate more to in vivo pattern. The super water-repellent PPP surface also render astrocytes to perform more pronounced promotion of neurogenesis by increasing the release of nerve growth factor in a co-culture system. Altogether, our results suggest that the super water-repellent fractal PPP surface facilitates the astrocytes to mimic their in vivo performance, thus provides a closer-to-natural culture environment for experimental assessment of glial structure and functions.
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Bone morphogenetic protein Smads signaling in mesenchymal stem cells affected by osteoinductive calcium phosphate ceramics.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Porous calcium phosphate ceramics (CaP ceramics) could induce ectopic bone formation which was regulated by various signal molecules. In this work, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured on the surface of osteoinductive hydroxyapatite (HA) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics in comparison with control (culture plate) for up to 14 days to detect the signal molecules which might be affected by the CaP ceramics. Without adding osteogenic factors, MSCs cultured on HA and BCP both expressed higher Runx2, Osterix, collagen type I, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin at various stages compared with control, thus confirmed the osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs. Later study demonstrated the messenger RNA level of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and BMP4 were also significantly enhanced by HA and BCP. Furthermore, Smad1, 4, 5, and Dlx5, the main molecules in the BMP/Smads signaling pathway, were upregulated by HA and BCP. Moreover, the higher expression of Smads and BMP2, 4 in BCP over HA, corresponded to the better performance of BCP in stimulating in vitro osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs. This was in accordance with the better osteoinductivity of BCP over HA in vivo. Altogether, these results implied that the CaP ceramics may initiate the osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs by influencing the expression of molecules in BMP/Smads pathway. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014.
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UPLC-MS/MS determination of voriconazole in human plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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A sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine voriconazole in human plasma. Sample preparation was accomplished through a simple one-step protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using an isocratic mobile phase system composed of acetonitrile and water containing 1% formic acid (45:55, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.50?mL/min. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed using a QTrap5500 mass spectrometer coupled with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ion mode. The multiple reaction monitoring transitions of m/z 351.0???281.5 and m/z 237.1???194.2 were used to quantify voriconazole and carbamazepine (internal standard), respectively. The linearity of this method was found to be within the concentration range of 2.0-1000?ng/mL with a lower limit of quantification of 2.0?ng/mL. Only 1.0?min was needed for an analytical run. This fully validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of 200?mg voriconazole to 20 Chinese healthy male volunteers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Giant pelvic angiomyofibroblastoma: case report and literature review.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Angiomyofibroblastoma (AMF) is a rare, benign, soft-tissue tumor, which predominantly occurs in the vulvovaginal region of middle-aged women. It is clinically important to distinguish an AMF from other stromal cell lesions. Here, we report the case of a 32-year-old woman with a rare, giant pelvic AMF, which showed a benign clinical course. The tumor was located in the cul-de-sac of Douglas. It was well demarcated, hypocellular, edematous and composed of spindle-shaped and oval stromal cells aggregating around thin-walled blood vessels. The tumor cells had abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, and expressed estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and desmin. Mitotic figures were absent. It is important to distinguish AMFs from aggressive angiomyxomas because both occur at similar sites but show different clinical behaviors. Most AMFs and aggressive angiomyxomas have the same immunohistochemical phenotype. The well-circumscribed borders of AMF are the most important characteristic that distinguish it from aggressive angiomyxomas. AMFs rarely recur after complete surgical excision.
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Influence of soy isoflavone on lindane cumulant in sprague-dawley rats.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 60-80 g were given different dosages of soy isoflavones and/or lindane for four weeks. Soy isoflavones was added in feed and lindane was given by oral gavage. We found that soy isoflavones could reduce the level of lindane in rat's serum and brain, but might cause the uterus hyperplasia. Lindane could inhibit the effect of soy isoflavones on uterus and significantly decrease the level of estradiol and testosterone in serum. This study indicated that soy isoflavones could reduce the level of lindane in rat's body. Lindane could reduce the level of hormones and decreased the effect of soy isoflavones on rat's uterus.
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Coexistence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and surgically identified pituitary apoplexy: a case report and review of the literature.
J Med Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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A ruptured aneurysm associated with a pituitary apoplexy is rare. We present the first case report of the coexistence of a ruptured posterior communicating aneurysm with a surgically discovered pituitary apoplexy where the pituitary apoplexy had not been diagnosed by a pre-operative computerized tomography scan.
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Co-evolution of compensatory mutation K43E with mutation M41L in long-term HIV antiretroviral treatment.
Curr. HIV Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Compensatory mutations have been observed to emerge with drug resistance (DR) mutations, but their effects on virological response to treatment have not been fully examined. In this study, we characterized the emergence and depletion dynamics of a compensatory mutation K43E that correlated with primary nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drug resistance mutations in Chinese HIV patients on antiretroviral treatment.
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Biodistribution and SPECT imaging study of (99m)Tc labeling NGR peptide in nude mice bearing human HepG2 hepatoma.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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A peptide containing Asn-Gly-Arg(NGR) sequence was synthesized and directly labeled with (99m)Tc. Its radiochemical characteristics, biodistribution, and SPECT imaging were evaluated in nude mice bearing human HepG2 hepatoma. Nude mice bearing HepG2 were randomly divided into 5 groups with 5 mice in each group and injected with ~7.4 MBq (99m)Tc-NGR. The SPECT images were acquired in 1, 4, 8, and 12 h postinjection via caudal vein. The metabolism of tracers was determined in major organs at different time points, which demonstrated rapid, significant tumor uptake and slow tumor washout. The control group mice were blocked by coinjecting unlabelled NGR (20 mg/kg). Tumor uptake was (2.52 ± 0.83%) ID/g at 1 h, with the highest uptake of (3.26 ± 0.63%) ID/g at 8 h. In comparison, the uptake of the blocked control group was (1.65 ± 0.61%) ID/g at 1 h after injection. The SPECT static images and the tumor/muscle (T/NT) value were obtained. The highest T/NT value was 7.58 ± 1.92 at 8 h. The xenografted tumor became visible at 1 h and the clearest image of the tumor was observed at 8 h. In conclusion, (99m)Tc-NGR can be efficiently prepared and it exhibited good properties for the potential SPECT imaging agent of tumor.
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Ozonation degradation of microcystin-LR in aqueous solution: intermediates, byproducts and pathways.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The intermediates and byproducts formed during the ozonation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR, m/z = 995.5) and the probable degradation pathway were investigated at different initial molar ratios of ozone to MC-LR ([O3]0/[MC-LR]0). Seven reaction intermediates with m/z ? 795.4 were observed by LC/MS, and four of them (m/z = 815.4, 827.3, 853.3 and 855.3) have not been previously reported. Meanwhile, six aldehyde-based byproducts with molecular weights of 30-160 were detected for the first time. Intermediates structures demonstrated that ozone reacted with two sites of MC-LR: the diene bonds in the Adda side chain and the Mdha amino acid in the cyclic structure. The fragment from the Adda side chain oxidative cleavage could be further oxidized to an aldehyde with a molecular weight of 160 at low [O3]0/[MC-LR]0. Meanwhile, the polypeptide structure of MC-LR was difficult to be further oxidized, unless [O3]0/[MC-LR]0 > 10. After further oxidation of the intermediates, five other aldehyde-based byproducts were detected by GC/MS: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, isovaleraldehyde, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Formaldehyde, isovaleraldehyde and methylglyoxal were the dominant species. The yields of the aldehydes varied greatly, depending on the value of [O3]0/[MC-LR]0.
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Discovery and evaluation of novel anti-inflammatory derivatives of natural bioactive curcumin.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Curcumin is a natural active product that has various pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of 34 monocarbonyl curcumin analogs as novel anti-inflammatory agents. Among the analogs, the symmetrical heterocyclic type displayed the strongest inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. Analogs S1-S5 and AS29 reduced tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in a dose-dependent manner and also displayed excellent stability and low cytotoxicity in vitro. In addition, analog S1 dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Furthermore, analogs S1 and S4 displayed a significant protective effect on LPS-induced septic death in mouse models, with 40% and 50% survival rates, respectively. These data demonstrate that the heterocyclic monocarbonyl curcumin analogs have potential therapeutic effects in acute inflammatory diseases.
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The Great Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros armiger) as a Good Model for Cold-Induced Browning of Intra-Abdominal White Adipose Tissue.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Inducing beige fat from white adipose tissue (WAT) is considered to be a shortcut to weight loss and increasingly becoming a key area in research into treatments for obesity and related diseases. However, currently, animal models of beige fat are restricted to rodents, where subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT, benign WAT) is more liable to develop into the beige fat under specific activators than the intra-abdominal adipose tissue (aWAT, malignant WAT) that is the major source of obesity related diseases in humans.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel indole-2-one and 7-aza-2-oxindole derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Sepsis, a typically acute inflammatory disease, is the biggest cause of death in ICU (intensive care unit). Novel anti-inflammatory alternatives are still in urgent need. In this study, we designed and synthesized 30 indole-2-one and 7-aza-2-oxindole derivatives based on the skeleton of tenidap, and their anti-inflammatory activity was determined by evaluating the inhibitory potency against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6 release in RAW264.7 macrophages. Quantitative SAR (structure-activity relationship) analysis revealed that a high molecular polarizability and low lipid/water partition coefficient (ALogP) in indole-2-one are beneficial for anti-inflammatory activity. Moreover, compounds 7i and 8e inhibited the expression of TNF-?, IL-6, COX-2, PGES, and iNOS in LPS-stimulated macrophages, and 7i exhibited a significant protection from LPS-induced septic death in mouse models. These data present a series of new indole-2-one compounds with potential therapeutic effects in acute inflammatory diseases.
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Integrated analysis of microarray data of atherosclerotic plaques: modulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Atherosclerosis is a typical complex multi-factorial disease and many molecules at different levels and pathways were involved in its development. Some studies have investigated the dysregulation in atherosclerosis at mRNA, miRNA or DNA methylation level, respectively. However, to our knowledge, the studies that integrated these data and revealed the abnormal networks of atherosclerosis have not been reported. Using microarray technology, we analyzed the omics data in atherosclerosis at mRNA, miRNA and DNA methylation levels. Our results demonstrated that the global DNA methylation and expression of miRNA/mRNA were significantly decreased in atherosclerotic plaque than in normal vascular tissue. The interaction network constructed using the integrative data revealed many genes, cellular processes and signaling pathways which were widely considered to play crucial roles in atherosclerosis and also revealed some genes, miRNAs or signaling pathways which have not been investigated in atherosclerosis until now (e.g. miR-519d and SNTB2). Moreover, the overall protein ubiquitination in atherosclerotic plaque was significantly increased. The proteasome activity was increased early but decreased in advanced atherosclerosis. Our study revealed many classic and novel genes and miRNAs involved in atherosclerosis and indicated the effects of ubiquitin-proteasome system on atherosclerosis might be closely related to the course of atherosclerosis. However, the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors in the treatment of atherosclerosis still needs more research.
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Treatment effect and drug-resistant mutations in chinese AIDS patients switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aimed to investigate treatment effect, drug resistance changes, and their influencing factors in Chinese AIDS patients after switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy, and thus provide important information for the scale-up of second-line antiretroviral treatment in China. In Weishi county of Henan province, where second-line antiretroviral therapy was introduced early in China, 195 AIDS patients were enrolled, of which 127 patients met the switching criterion and 68 patients volunteered to switch drugs without meeting the switching criterion. CD4 cell count, viral load and in-house PCR genotyping for drug resistance were measured for all 195 subjects before drug switch, as well as 6 and 12 months after drug switch. Extensive secondary mutations to the protease inhibitor were observed, which suggested that long-term drug resistance surveillance is necessary for patients switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy. Multidrug resistance and cross-resistance were extensive in Chinese patients that experienced first-line treatment failure. Patients need timely CD4 count, viral load, and drug resistance monitoring in order to switch to second-line therapy under conditions of relatively good immunity and low viral duplication levels.
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On the facilitative effects of face motion on face recognition and its development.
Front Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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For the past century, researchers have extensively studied human face processing and its development. These studies have advanced our understanding of not only face processing, but also visual processing in general. However, most of what we know about face processing was investigated using static face images as stimuli. Therefore, an important question arises: to what extent does our understanding of static face processing generalize to face processing in real-life contexts in which faces are mostly moving? The present article addresses this question by examining recent studies on moving face processing to uncover the influence of facial movements on face processing and its development. First, we describe evidence on the facilitative effects of facial movements on face recognition and two related theoretical hypotheses: the supplementary information hypothesis and the representation enhancement hypothesis. We then highlight several recent studies suggesting that facial movements optimize face processing by activating specific face processing strategies that accommodate to task requirements. Lastly, we review the influence of facial movements on the development of face processing in the first year of life. We focus on infants' sensitivity to facial movements and explore the facilitative effects of facial movements on infants' face recognition performance. We conclude by outlining several future directions to investigate moving face processing and emphasize the importance of including dynamic aspects of facial information to further understand face processing in real-life contexts.
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D-dimer: not just an indicator of venous thrombosis but a predictor of asymptomatic hematogenous metastasis in gastric cancer patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Plasma D-dimer levels have been shown to be high in advanced tumor stage patients and can be used to predict clinical outcome in cancer patients. As most advanced tumor stage patients exhibit asymptomatic metastasis, which contributes to early tumor recurrence after surgery, we hypothesized that plasma D-dimer levels can be used to predict patients with potential metastasis.
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CCR6 is a prognostic marker for overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer, and its overexpression enhances metastasis in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The chemokine receptor CCR6 has been recently shown to be associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. However, the direct evidence for whether CCR6 in tumors is a prognostic marker for the survival of patients with CRC and whether it plays a critical role in CRC metastasis in vivo is lacking. Here we show that the levels of CCR6 were upregulated in CRC cell lines and primary CRC clinical samples. CCR6 upregulation was closely correlated with disease stages and the survival time of CRC patients. Knockdown of CCR6 inhibited the migration of CRC cells in vitro. Overexpression of CCR6 in CRC cells increased their proliferation, migration, and colony formation in vitro and promoted their metastatic potential in vivo. CCR6 activated Akt signaling, upregulated metastasis genes and downregulated metastasis suppressor genes. Selective targeting of CCR6 in tumors dramatically inhibited the growth of CRC in mice. Thus, the tumor expression of CCR6 plays a critical role in CRC metastasis, upregulated CCR6 predicts poor survival in CRC patients, and targeting CCR6 expression in tumors may be a potential therapeutic strategy for CRC.
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Identification and characterization of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF59_01B) identified among men-who-have-sex-with-men in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The HIV-1 epidemic among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) continues to expand in China. A large-scale national survey we conducted on HIV-1 strains among MSM in 11 provinces in China from 2008 to 2013 (n?=?920) identified a novel transmission cluster consisting of six strains (0.7%) that belonged to a new circulating recombinant form (designated CRF59_01B). CRF59_01B contains two subtype B segments of U.S.-European origin (in the pol and vpu-env regions) in a CRF01_AE backbone. CRF59_01B is the second CRF (after CRF55_01B) circulating primarily among MSM in China. CRF59_01B occurs at a low frequency (less than 1%), but it was detected in four different provinces/regions in China: Liaoning (northeast China) (n?=?3); Hunan (central China) (n?=?1); Guangdong (south China) (n?=?1); Yunnan (southwest China) (n?=?1). One additional recombinant strain was detected in a heterosexual individual in Liaoning province but is not the focus of this paper. Bayesian molecular clock analyses indicate that CRF59_01B emerged as a result of recombination between CRF01_AE and subtype B around the year 2001. The emergence of multiple forms of recombinants and CRFs reflects the ever-increasing contribution of homosexual transmission in China's HIV epidemic and indicates an active HIV transmission network among MSM in China.
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MicroRNA-92a inhibition attenuates hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced myocardiocyte apoptosis by targeting Smad7.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a lot of physiological and pathological processes, including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Recent studies reported that knockdown of miR-92a could attenuate ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial injury. In the present study, we examined the potential anti-apoptotic effects of miR-92a in a rat myocardiocyte cell line, and the possible role of Smad7 in such actions.
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Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers and analysis of genetic diversity in Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill, 2n = 2× = 24, Rhamnaceae) is an economically important Chinese native species. It has high nutritional value, and its medicinal properties have led to extensive use in traditional oriental medicine. The characterization of genotypes using molecular markers is important for genetic studies and plant breeding. However, few simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are available for this species. In this study, 1,488 unique SSR clones were isolated from Z. jujuba 'Dongzao' using enriched genomic libraries coupled with a three-primer colony PCR screening strategy, yielding a high enrichment rate of 73.3%. Finally, 1,188 (80.87%) primer pairs were amplified successfully in the size expected for 'Dongzao'. A total of 350 primer pairs were further selected and evaluated for their ability to detect polymorphisms across a panel of six diverse cultivars; among these, 301 primer pairs detected polymorphisms, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) value across all loci ranged from 0.15 to 0.82, with an average of 0.52. An analysis of 76 major cultivars employed in Chinese jujube production using 31 primer pairs revealed comparatively high genetic diversity among these cultivars. Within-population differences among individuals accounted for 98.2% of the observed genetic variation. Neighbor-joining clustering divided the cultivars into three main groups, none of which correspond to major geographic regions, suggesting that the genetics and geographical origin of modern Chinese jujube cultivars might not be linked. The current work firstly reports the large-scale development of Chinese jujube SSR markers. The development of these markers and their polymorphic information represent a significant improvement in the available Chinese jujube genomic resources and will facilitate both genetic and breeding applications, further accelerating the development of new cultivars.
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Comparison of physicochemical parameters during the forced-aeration composting of sewage sludge and maize straw at different initial C/N ratios.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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The composting of sewage sludge and maize straw was investigated in forced-aeration composting systems at initial C/N ratios of 14, 20, and 25, respectively. The temperatures of composting mixture with initial C/N ratios of 25 and 20 could meet the requirement of destroying pathogens. The final electrical conductivity (EC) of composting mixture with initial C/N ratios of 20 and 25 did not exceed the limit value of 3000 microS cm(-1), and the NH4(+)-N content of composting mixture with an initial C/N ratio of 14 did not meet the limit value of 400 mg kg(-1). The final NO3(-)-N and germination index (GI) of composting mixture with an initial C/N ratio of 25 were higher than those of composting mixtures with initial C/N ratios of 14 and 20. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of composting mixtures in the three composting mixtures showed the same changing pattern during the composting.
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The capability of quantum dots in crossing the placental barrier and the potential influence on erythrocytes.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Regarding the nanotoxicity, intense attention has been drawn on the capability of nanomaterials in crossing the biological barriers and their potential developmental toxicity. In the current study, the capability of quantum dots (QDs) in crossing the placental barrier and their potential biological influence on erythroid development were closely investigated. When administrated in mice, QDs tended to accumulate in liver, spleen and kidney, and revealed little capacity to cross the placental barrier. QDs had no effect on the survival of E14.5 fetal liver erythroid cells and erythropoiesis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.