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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Study on the Anti-Gout Activity of Chlorogenic Acid: Improvement on Hyperuricemia and Gouty Inflammation.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Gout is a metabolic disorder associated with hyperuricemia resulting in the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in joints and tissues. Lowering serum uric acid (Sur) levels and anti-inflammation are highly essential in treating gout. Chlorogenic acid (CA), as one of the most abundant polyphenols in the Chinese medicines, has been rarely reported to have an anti-gout effect. The model of potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemia in mice and MSU crystal-induced inflammation in rats has been established in this study. The potential beneficial effects and mechanisms of CA on hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis were elucidated. The results demonstrated that CA significantly decreased the Sur level by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity but not increasing the urinary uric acid (Uur) level. In addition, CA also exhibited the effect of suppressing paw swelling. Further investigation indicated that CA improved the symptoms of inflammation induced by MSU crystals by inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). The present study suggests that CA may have a considerable potential for development as an anti-gouty arthritis agent for clinical application.
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Downregulated expression of PTK6 is correlated with poor survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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To investigate the clinical prognostic value of protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting were utilized to measure the mRNA and protein expression levels of PTK6 in 29 and eight pairs of ESCC and peritumoral normal esophageal tissues, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of PTK6 protein in 210 ESCCs was examined with immunohistochemistry (IHC), and its clinical value was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier plots and the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The results found that the expression levels of both PTK6 mRNA and protein in ESCC tissues were significantly lower than those in peritumoral normal esophageal tissues. Regarding the IHC analysis of ESCC, the cytoplasmic expression of PTK6 was significantly correlated with tumor grade (P < 0.001). Compared with patients with low PTK6 expression, ESCC patients with overexpression of PTK6 displayed preferable disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively), especially in stage II disease (P = 0.002 and P = 0.021, respectively). PTK6 was evaluated as an independent prognostic factor for ESCC using multivariate Cox regression analysis. All data demonstrated that the expression level of PTK6 is an independent prognostic factor in ESCCs. Low expression of PTK6 is correlated with poor DFS and OS in ESCCs.
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Polyoxometalate-Based Entangled Coordination Networks Induced by an Extended Bis(triazole) Ligand.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The introduction of an extended bridging bis(triazole) ligand, that is, 4,4'-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1- ylmethyl)biphenyl (BBPTZ), into the hydrothermal reaction system containing transition metal ions and Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POMs) led to the isolation of three new organic-inorganic hybrid entangled coordination networks, [Cu(I) 2 Cu(II) (BBPTZ)6 ][SiW12 O40 ]?12?H2 O (1), [Ni(BBPTZ)2 (H2 O)][H2 SiW12 O40 ]?11?H2 O (2), and [Ni2 (BBPTZ)4 (H2 O)2 ][SiW12 O40 ]?3?H2 O (3). All three compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, TG analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 contains a 2-D POM-based metal-organic layer entangled with 1-D ladder-like metal-organic chains. The adjacent 2-D networks are parallel to each other, further stacking into a 3-D supramolecular framework with 1-D channels. Compound 2 exhibits a 1-D cantilever-type loop-containing chain. The Keggin-type POMs act as the cantilever groups, leading to the adjacent catilever-type chains interwaving together to form a 3-D supramolecular open framework with two types of channels. Compound 3 possesses a 3-D open framework based on 2-D metal-organic undulated layer and Keggin-type POM clusters. Three sets of such frameworks further interpenetrate with each other to form an interesting three-fold interpenetrating framework. The photocatalytic activities of compounds 1-3 for the decomposition of methylene blue (MB) under UV light have been investigated.
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Leaf-shape remodeling: programmed cell death in fistular leaves of Allium fistulosum.
Physiol Plant
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Some species of Allium in Liliaceae have fistular leaves. The fistular lamina of Allium fistulosum undergoes a process from solid to hollow during development. The aims were to reveal the process of fistular leaf formation involved in programmed cell death (PCD) and to compare the cytological events in the execution of cell death to those in the unusual leaf perforations or plant aerenchyma formation. In this study, light and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the development of fistular leaves and cytological events. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays and gel electrophoresis were used to determine nuclear DNA cleavage during the PCD. The cavity arises in the leaf blade by degradation of specialized cells, the designated pre-cavity cells, in the center of the leaves. Nuclei of cells within the pre-cavity site become TUNEL-positive, indicating that DNA cleavage is an early event. Gel electrophoresis revealed that DNA internucleosomal cleavage occurred resulting in a characteristic DNA ladder. Ultrastructural analysis of cells at the different stages showed disrupted vacuoles, misshapen nuclei with condensed chromatin, degraded cytoplasm and organelles and emergence of secondary vacuoles. The cell walls degraded last, and residue of degraded cell walls aggregated together. These results revealed that PCD plays a critical role in the development of A. fistulosum fistular leaves. The continuous cavity in A. fistulosum leaves resemble the aerenchyma in the pith of some gramineous plants to improve gas exchange.
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman infection of rhesus macaques of Chinese origin.
Tuberculosis (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Continuous high global tuberculosis (TB) mortality rates and variable vaccine efficacy of mycobacterium Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) emphasize the need for improved vaccines and drugs against TB, which require clinically relevant animal models for evaluation. We infected a total of 24 Chinese rhesus macaques with varying doses (CFU of 25, 100 and 500) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) Erdman strain via bronchoscopy. Regardless of the M.tb doses, all animals were infected successfully with minor differences in clinical progression; as evidenced by clinical manifestations, laboratory analyses, bacterial burden in infected tissues and histopathology evaluations. Rhesus macaques of Chinese origin are highly susceptible to infection with M.tb Erdman strain and develop acute TB disease, which is similar to that in humans. Pathologically, Chinese rhesus macaques recapitulated the complete spectrum of granulomatous lesions seen in human TB disease. These data indicate that low-dose infection of rhesus macaques of Chinese origin is a suitable model for acute M.tb infection.
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Vitamin C supplementation enhances compact morulae formation but reduces the hatching blastocyst rate of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.
Cell Reprogram
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Vitamin C, an antioxidant that reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, is capable of significantly improving the developmental competence of porcine and mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of vitamin C on the developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated. The results indicated that vitamin C (40 ?g/mL) positively affected the scavenging of intracellular ROS, cleavage rate at 24 h (76.67 vs. 68.26%, p<0.05), compact morulae formation (60.83 vs. 51.30%, p<0.05), and the blastomere apoptosis index (3.70 ± 1.41 vs. 4.43% ± 1.65, p<0.05) of bovine SCNT embryos. However, vitamin C supplementation did not significantly affect the blastocyst formation rate and proportion of inner cell mass over total cells per blastocyst on day 7. Moreover, vitamin C supplementation obviously impaired the total cell numbers per blastocyst (97.20 ± 11.35 vs. 88.57 ± 10.43, p<0.05) on day 7 and the hatching blastocysts formation rate on day 9 (26.51 vs. 50.65%, p<0.05) compared with that of the untreated group. Vitamin C supplementation preferentially improved the viability of bovine SCNT embryos prior to the blastocyst stage, but did not enhance the formation and quality of blastocysts in vitro. In conclusion, the effect of vitamin C on the development of bovine SCNT embryos is complex, and vitamin C is not a suitable antioxidant chemical for the in vitro culture of bovine SCNT embryos.
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Animal models to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV co-infection.
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection has become a public health issue worldwide. Up to now, there have been many unresolved issues either in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of M.tb/HIV co-infection or in the basic understanding of the mechanisms for the impairments to the immune system by interactions of these two pathogens. One important reason for these unsolved issues is the lack of appropriate animal models for the study of M.tb/HIV co-infection. This paper reviews the recent development of research on the animal models of M.tb/HIV co-infection, with a focus on the non-human primate models.
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Shengmai (a traditional Chinese herbal medicine) for heart failure.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Heart failure is a major public health problem worldwide. Shengmai, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has long been used as a complementary treatment for heart failure in China. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published in 2012.
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Compact light-emitting diode lighting ring for video-assisted thoracic surgery.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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In this work, a foldable ring-shaped light-emitting diode (LED) lighting assembly, designed to attach to a rubber wound retractor, is realized and tested through porcine animal experiments. Enabled by the small size and the high efficiency of LED chips, the lighting assembly is compact, flexible, and disposable while providing direct and high brightness lighting for more uniform background illumination in video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). When compared with a conventional fiber bundle coupled light source that is usually used in laparoscopy and endoscopy, the much broader solid angle of illumination enabled by the LED assembly allows greatly improved background lighting and imaging quality in VATS.
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Preoperative transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of hepatoblastoma in infants.
J Vasc Interv Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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To evaluate the effect of preoperative transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of hepatoblastoma in infants.
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Programmed cell death: a mechanism for the lysigenous formation of secretory cavities in leaves of Dictamnus dasycarpus.
Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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The formation of secretory cavities in Rutaceae has been the subject of great interest. In this study, cytological events that are involved in the lysigenous formation of the secretory cavities in the leaves of Dictamnus dasycarpus are characterized by an interesting pattern of programmed cell death (PCD). During the developmental process, clusters of cells from a single protoepidermal cell embark on different trajectories and undergo different cell death fates: the cell walls of the secretory cells have characteristics of thinning or complete breakdown, while the sheath cells present a predominantly thick-walled feature. A DAPI assay shows deformed nuclei that are further confirmed to be TUNEL-positive. Gel electrophoresis indicates that DNA cleavage is random and does not result in ladder-like DNA fragmentation. Ultrastructurally, several remarkable features of PCD have been determined, such as misshapen nuclei with condensed chromatin and a significantly diffused membrane, degenerated mitochondria and plastids with disturbed membrane systems, multivesicular bodies, plastolysomes, vacuole disruption and lysis of the center secretory cell. Cytological evidence and Nile red stains exhibit abundant essential oils accumulated in degenerated outer secretory cells after the dissolution of the center secretory cell. In addition, explanations of taxonomic importance and the relationship between PCD and oil droplet accumulation in the secretory cavities are also discussed.
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Ethoxysanguinarine Induces Inhibitory Effects and Downregulates CIP2A in Lung Cancer Cells.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is an oncoprotein that is able to stabilize c-Myc oncogenic transcription factor and promote proliferation and transformation of cells. CIP2A is overexpressed in many primary tumors, and pharmacological inactivation of CIP2A is an emerging concept for the development of novel anticancer agents. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of CIP2A predicts poor prognosis in lung cancer, and a natural compound, ethoxysanguinarine (ESG), effectively downregulates CIP2A protein and its downstream signaling molecules, c-Myc and pAkt, and induces protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. ESG inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells, and enhances the effects of cisplatin on malignant cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CIP2A is inversely associated with the clinical outcome of lung cancer, and ESG can serve as a lead compound for the development of CIP2A inhibitor for cancer therapies.
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miR-146a G>C polymorphisms and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese population.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are thought to have a role in cancer development. We investigated the association among miR-146a G>C genetic variations, hepatitis B (HBV), and C (HCV) infection, and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Unconditional logistical regression analysis suggested that the miR-146a GG genotype and G allele carried a 2.10- (95 % confidence interval (CI)=1.03-4.37) and 1.42-fold (95 % CI=1.07-1.92) increased HCC risk, respectively. HBV-positive subjects carrying the miR-146a GG genotype (odds ratio (OR)=2.95, 95 % CI=1.31-6.81) and G allele (OR=1.65, 95 % CI=1.15-2.58) had an increased risk of HCC. However, the miR-146a GG genotype and G allele did not carry a significantly enhanced risk of HCC in either hepatitis-negative or HCV-infected subjects. miR-146a G>C polymorphisms appear to influence susceptibility to HCC, especially in HBV-infected patients.
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The anticoagulant effect of PGI2S and tPA in transgenic umbilical vein endothelial cells is linked to up-regulation of PKA and PKC.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The selection of vascular grafts for coronary artery bypass surgery is crucial for a positive outcome. This study aimed to establish a novel line of vascular endothelial cells with a potent anticoagulant effect. A lentiviral vector was used to stably transfect human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with PGI2S alone (HUVEC-PGI2S) or both PGI2S and tPA (HUVEC-PGI2S-tPA). Both HUVEC-PGI2S and HUVEC-PGI2S-tPA cells over-expressing PGI2S and tPA were compared to mock-transfected cells. The enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISAs) demonstrated that the anticoagulation components, ATIII and PLG, were up-regulated and coagulation factor FVIII was down-regulated in both cell lines. QRT-PCR and western blotting demonstrated the vasodilation and platelet disaggregation proteins PKA, PKC, and PTGIR were up-regulated in both cell lines, but MAPK expression was not altered in either cell line. However, cell viability and colony formation assays and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that both cell lines had a lower rate of cell growth and induced G1 phase arrest. HUVEC-PGI2S and HUVEC-PGI2S-tPA cells have a potent anticoagulant effect and their use in vascular heterografts may decrease the risk of thrombosis.
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The lymphoscintigraphic manifestation of (99m)Tc-dextran lymphatic imaging in primary intestinal lymphangiectasia.
Nucl Med Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to analyze the imaging characteristics of (99m)Tc-dextran ((99m)Tc-DX) lymphatic imaging in the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL).
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The pharmacokinetic study of sinomenine, paeoniflorin and paeonol in rats after oral administration of a herbal product Qingfu Guanjiesu capsule by HPLC.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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An accurate and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated for determination of sinomenine (SI), paeoniflorin (PF) and paeonol (PA), which was further applied to assess the pharmacokinetics of SI, PF and PA in an anti-arthritic herbal product, Qingfu Guanjieshu (QFGJS) capsule, in rats. Successful separation was achieved with a C18 column and a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and aqueous phase (containing 0.1% formic acid, adjusted with triethylamine to pH 3.5 ± 0.2). The method was validated with excellent precision, accuracy, recovery and stability in calibration ranges from 0.06 to 11.62 µg/mL for SI, from 0.09 to 35.70 µg/mL for PF, and from 0.15 to 4.53 µg/mL for PA (with r(2) > 0.999 for all three compounds). Our results showed that absorption of PF after administration of QFGJS was similar to that after oral administration of PF alone; the absorption of SI was decreased while the absorption of PA was increased after giving QFGJS orally compared with pure compounds. We may conclude that pharmacokinetic studies of complex herbal products are not only necessary but also feasible by using representative bioactive chemicals as indicators of establishing quality control standards and of determining pharmacokinetic behavior of herbal medicines. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Lipopolysaccharide induces immune activation and SIV replication in rhesus macaques of Chinese origin.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic immune activation is a hallmark of progressive HIV infection and a key determinant of immunodeficiency in HIV-infected individuals. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the circulation has been implicated as a key factor in HIV infection-related systemic immune activation. We thus investigate the impact of LPS on systemic immune activation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques of Chinese origin.
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OPN and ?v?3 expression are predictors of disease severity and worse prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Expressions of OPN and ?v?3 are associated with a poor prognosis in many malignancies. However, their relationship in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. We systematically collected hepatocellular carcinoma tissue samples from 305 patients over 3 years, and analyzed the status of OPN and ?v?3 in hepatocellular carcinoma and correlate expression with patient disease status and survival outcome. Our study results indicated that OPN and ?v?3 are expressed at significantly higher rates in hepatocellular carcinoma compared with adjacent non-tumorous tissue (69.5% vs 18.4%, p<0.01 and 77.4% vs 21.6%, p<0.01, respectively). Both OPN and ?v?3 expression levels are associated with poor prognostic factors, including tumor size, capsular invasion, tumor thrombus of the portal vein, metastasis of the lymph node and clinical staging. Patients expressing OPN and ?v?3 had significantly shorter survival compared with patients negative for protein expression (p<0.01). Multivariate analysis also showed that both OPN and ?v?3 expression are independent prognostic factors for poorer survival in hepatocellular carcinoma. By this study, we conclude that OPN and ?v?3 are negative prognostic predictors in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The expressions of both OPN and ?v?3 are associated with worse survival outcome.
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Cancerous inhibitor of PP2A is targeted by natural compound celastrol for degradation in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
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Celastrol binds CIP2A and enhances CIP2A-CHIP interaction, leading to ubiquitination/degradation of CIP2A and inhibition of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Celastrol potentiates cisplatins efficacy by suppressing the CIP2A-Akt pathway, and therefore CIP2A inhibitors may represent novel therapeutics for cancer.
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Programmed cell death during floral nectary senescence in Ipomoea purpurea.
Protoplasma
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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The nectaries of Ipomoea purpurea wilt in the late flowering period. The senescence process of nectaries is frequently associated with cell lysis. In this paper, various techniques were used to investigate whether programmed cell death (PCD) was involved in the senescence process of nectaries in I. purpurea. Ultrastructural studies showed that nectary cells began to undergo structural distortion, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane degradation, and vacuolar-membrane dissolution and rupture after bloom. 4,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2-deoxyuridine-5-triphosphate (dUTP) nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay showed that nectary cell nuclear DNA began to degrade during the budding stage, and disappeared in the fruiting stage. DNA gel electrophoresis showed that degradation of DNA was random. Together, these results suggest that PCD participate in the senescence of the nectary in I. purpurea. PCD began during the budding period, followed by significant changes in nectary morphology and structure during the flowering period. During the fruiting stage, the PCD process is complete and the nectary degrades.
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[The analysis of the efficacy and safety of combined transarterial chemoembolization with sorafenib in patients with large hepatocellular carcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined transarterial chemoembolization with sorafenib in patients with large hepatocellular carcinoma.
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[Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by mycophenolic acid in hepatocytes].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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It is well known that cyclosporine A (CsA), a widely used immunosuppressant for clinical organ transplantation, has the ability to inhibit HCV replication. In this study, the effects of several other immunosuppressants, including mycophenolic acid (MPA), rapamycin and FK-506, on HCV replication were examined in human hepatocytes.
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Common molecular etiology of patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss in Tibetan, Tu nationality, and Mongolian patients in the northwest of China.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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In the northwest of China, the prevalence of mutations of the three prominent deafness-related genes, GJB2, SLC26A4, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 12S rRNA, among Tibetan, Tu nationality, and Mongolian subjects is high, at 19%, 28.57%, and 21.05%, respectively. Molecular genetic screening for these mutations and genetic counseling are effective methods to prevent the occurrence of hereditary hearing loss.
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Methamphetamine inhibits Toll-like receptor 9-mediated anti-HIV activity in macrophages.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is one of the key sensors that recognize viral infection/replication in the host cells. Studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH) dysregulated host cell innate immunity and facilitated HIV infection of macrophages. In this study, we present new evidence that METH suppressed TLR9-mediated anti-HIV activity in macrophages. Activation of TLR9 by its agonist CpG-ODN 2216 inhibits HIV replication, which was demonstrated by increased expression of TLR9, interferon (IFN)-?, IFN regulatory factor-7 (IRF-7), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and myxovirus resistance gene A (MxA) in macrophages. However, METH treatment of macrophages greatly compromised the TLR9 signaling-mediated anti-HIV effect and inhibited the expression of TLR9 downstream signaling factors. Dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonists (SCH23390) could block METH-mediated inhibition of anti-HIV activity of TLR9 signaling. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the METH action showed that METH treatment selectively down-regulated the expression of TLR9 on macrophages, whereas it had little effect on the expression of other TLRs. Collectively, our results provide further evidence that METH suppresses host cell innate immunity against HIV infection by down-regulating TLR9 expression and its signaling-mediated antiviral effect in macrophages.
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SIV infection of rhesus macaques of Chinese origin: a suitable model for HIV infection in humans.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Indian-origin rhesus macaques (RM) has been widely used as a well-established nonhuman primate (NHP) model for HIV/AIDS research. However, there have been a growing number of studies using Chinese RM to evaluate immunopathogenesis of SIV infection. In this paper, we have for the first time reviewed and discussed the major publications related to SIV or SHIV infection of Chinese RM in the past decades. We have compared the differences in the pathogenesis of SIV infection between Chinese RM and Indian RM with regard to viral infection, immunological response, and host genetic background. Given AIDS is a disease that affects humans of diverse origins, it is of importance to study animals with different geographical background. Therefore, to examine and compare results obtained from RM models of Indian and Chinese origins should lead to further validation and improvement of these animal models for HIV/AIDS research.
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Leptins effect on accelerated fracture healing after traumatic brain injury.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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To investigate mechanisms behind the faster rehabilitation of limb fractures when associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
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Structures of yeast Apa2 reveal catalytic insights into a canonical AP?A phosphorylase of the histidine triad superfamily.
J. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The homeostasis of intracellular diadenosine 5,5?-P(1),P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is maintained by two 60% sequence-identical paralogs of Ap4A phosphorylases (Apa1 and Apa2). Enzymatic assays show that, compared to Apa1, Apa2 has a relatively higher phosphorylase activity towards Ap3A (5,5?-P(1),P(3)-tetraphosphate), Ap4A, and Ap5A (5,5?-P(1),P(5)-tetraphosphate), and Ap4A is the favorable substrate for both enzymes. To decipher the catalytic insights, we determined the crystal structures of Apa2 in the apo-, AMP-, and Ap4A-complexed forms at 2.30, 2.80, and 2.70Å resolution, respectively. Apa2 is an ?/? protein with a core domain of a twisted eight-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet flanked by several ?-helices, similar to the galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GalT) members of the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily. However, a unique auxiliary domain enables an individual Apa2 monomer to possess an intact substrate-binding cleft, which is distinct from previously reported dimeric GalT proteins. This cleft is perfectly complementary to the favorable substrate Ap4A, the AMP and ATP moieties of which are perpendicular to each other, leaving the ?-phosphate group exposed at the sharp turn against the catalytic residue His161. Structural comparisons combined with site-directed mutagenesis and activity assays enable us to define the key residues for catalysis. Furthermore, multiple-sequence alignment reveals that Apa2 and homologs represent canonical Ap4A phosphorylases, which could be grouped as a unique branch in the GalT family.
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Attenuation of HIV-1 replication in macrophages by cannabinoid receptor 2 agonists.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Infiltrating monocytes and macrophages play a crucial role in the progression of HIV-1 infection in the CNS. Previous studies showed that activation of the CB? can attenuate inflammatory responses and affect HIV-1 infectivity in T cells and microglia. Here, we report that CB? agonists can also act as immunomodulators on HIV-1-infected macrophages. First, our findings indicated the presence of elevated levels of CB? expression on monocytes/macrophages in perivascular cuffs of postmortem HIV-1 encephalitic cases. In vitro analysis by FACS of primary human monocytes revealed a step-wise increase in CB? surface expression in monocytes, MDMs, and HIV-1-infected MDMs. We next tested the notion that up-regulation of CB? may allow for the use of synthetic CB? agonist to limit HIV-1 infection. Two commercially available CB? agonists, JWH133 and GP1a, and a resorcinol-based CB? agonist, O-1966, were evaluated. Results from measurements of HIV-1 RT activity in the culture media of 7 day-infected cells showed a significant decrease in RT activity when the CB? agonist was present. Furthermore, CB? activation also partially inhibited the expression of HIV-1 pol. CB? agonists did not modulate surface expression of CXCR4 or CCR5 detected by FACS. We speculate that these findings indicate that prevention of viral entry is not a central mechanism for CB?-mediated suppression in viral replication. However, CB? may affect the HIV-1 replication machinery. Results from a single-round infection with the pseudotyped virus revealed a marked decrease in HIV-1 LTR activation by the CB? ligands. Together, these results indicate that CB? may offer a means to limit HIV-1 infection in macrophages.
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ALDH2 protects against stroke by clearing 4-HNE.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a mitochondrial enzyme that metabolizes ethanol and toxic aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE). Using an unbiased proteomic search, we identified ALDH2 deficiency in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP) as compared with spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We concluded the causative role of ALDH2 deficiency in neuronal injury as overexpression or activation of ALDH2 conferred neuroprotection by clearing 4-HNE in in vitro studies. Further, ALDH2-knockdown rats revealed the absence of neuroprotective effects of PKC?. Moderate ethanol administration that is known to exert protection against stroke was shown to enhance the detoxification of 4-HNE, and to protect against ischemic cerebral injury through the PKC?-ALDH2 pathway. In SHR-SP, serum 4-HNE level was persistently elevated and correlated inversely with the lifespan. The role of 4-HNE in stroke in humans was also suggested by persistent elevation of its plasma levels for at least 6 months after stroke. Lastly, we observed that 21 of 1 242 subjects followed for 8 years who developed stroke had higher initial plasma 4-HNE levels than those who did not develop stroke. These findings suggest that activation of the ALDH2 pathway may serve as a useful index in the identification of stroke-prone subjects, and the ALDH2 pathway may be a potential target of therapeutic intervention in stroke.
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Effects of stresscopin on rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons in vitro.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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The effects of stresscopin (SCP) on rat paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons were examined using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and single-cell reverse-transcription multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SC-RT-mPCR) techniques. Under current-clamp conditions, bath application of SCP (100 nM) induced inhibition in 35.2% (37/105) of putative magnocellular neurons and 24.7% (20/81) of putative parvocellular neurons, and excitation in 5.7% (6/105) of putative magnocellular neurons and 18.5% (15/81) of putative parvocellular neurons. SCP-induced inhibition persisted in the presence of a mixture of TTX, a voltage-gated Na+ channel blocker, CNQX, an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist and bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, whereas SCP-induced excitation of PVN neurons was reversed by the mixture. The SCP-induced inhibition of PVN neurons was abolished by bath application of antisauvagine-30, a selective CRF receptor 2 (CRF-R2) antagonist. Under voltage-clamp conditions, SCP evoked outward currents at the holding potential (-60 mV), which reversed near the potassium equilibrium potential. The SCP-evoked membrane currents were completely blocked by bath application of tertiapin-Q, a selective blocker of G protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. SC-RT-mPCR analysis indicated that all the SCP-sensitive PVN neurons (57 SCP-inhibited neurons, 21 SCP-excited neurons) expressed CRF-R1 and CRF-R2 mRNAs. Among SCP-hyperpolarized PVN neurons, oxytocin (OT) mRNA was detected in 91.8% of putative magnocellular neurons and 45.0% of putative parvocellular neurons. OT mRNA was also detected in 26.6% of SCP-depolarized parvocellular neurons, but not in SCP-depolarized magnocellular neurons. These results indicate that SCP inhibits a subpopulation of PVN neurons, especially OTergic magnocellular neurons, by enhancing the activity of GIRK channels via CRF-R2.
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Analysis of quality of clinical practice guidelines for otorhinolaryngology in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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To evaluate the quality of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for otorhinolaryngology in China.
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Synthesis, crystal structures, and optical/electronic properties of sphere-rod shape amphiphiles based on a [60]fullerene-oligofluorene conjugate.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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A series of sphere-rod shape amphiphiles, in which a [60]fullerene (C60) sphere was connected to the center of an oligofluorene (OF) rod through a rigid linkage (OF-C60), were designed and synthesized. Alkyl chains of various lengths were attached onto the OFs on both sides of the C60 spheres. These compounds, denoted as alkyl-OF-C60, were fully characterized by (1)H?NMR, (13)C?NMR, and FTIR spectroscopy and by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The morphologies and structures of their crystals were elucidated by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and by electron diffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Butyl-OF-C60 forms a monoclinic unit cell (a=1.86, b=3.96, c=2.24?nm; ?=?=90°, ?=68°; space group P2), octyl-OF-C60 also forms a monoclinic unit cell (a=2.21, b=4.06, c=1.81?nm; ?=?=90°, ?=75.5°; space group C2m), and dodecanyl-OF-C60 forms a triclinic structure (a=1.82, b=4.35, c=2.26?nm; ?=93.1°, ?=94.5°, ?=92.7°; space group P1). The inequivalent spheres and rods were found to pack into an alternating layered structure of C60 and OF in the crystals, thus resembling a "double-cable" structure. UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy revealed an electron perturbation between the two individual chromophores (C60 and OF) in their ground states. Fluorescence spectroscopy exhibited complete fluorescence quenching of their solutions in toluene, thus suggesting an effective energy transfer from OF to C60. Cyclic voltammetry indicated that the energy-level profiles of C60 and OF remained essentially unchanged. This work has broad implications in terms of understanding the self-assembly and molecular packing of conjugated materials in crystals and has potential applications in organic field-effect transistors and bulk heterojunction solar cells.
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Overexpression of cystatin SN positively affects survival of patients with surgically resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Cystatin SN is a secreted protein and a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. It has been considered to be a tumor marker for gastrointestinal tract cancer in several functional researches. However, the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of Cystatin SN expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been elucidated.
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[Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization plus percutaneous thermal ablation in large hepatocellular carcinoma: clinical observation of efficacy and predictors of prognostic factors].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
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To explore the technical success rate, efficacy, overall survival, recurrence-free survival and prognostic factors of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus thermal ablations of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and microwave ablation (MWA) in the patients with large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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[The study of anti-tumor activities of DC vaccine loaded with multi-epotipes of survivin].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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To observe the anti-tumor activity of dendritic cell (DC)vaccine loaded with multi-epitopes of survivin.
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[Protective function of melatonin to acute lung injury and its mechanisms in rats caused by oleic acid].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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To observe the expression of P-selectin (Ps), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) in lung tissues of acute lung injury (ALI) rat model induced by oleic acid (OA) and to explore the protective effects of melatonin (MT) in lung tissues in rats.
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[Needle sticking method].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Needle sticking method, which can be combined with multiple needling techniques, has been attached with great importance in recent years by doctors in clinic. Combining with the clinical experiences, the authors expounded the needle sticking method through its unified concept, differences between needle sticking method, which was an acupuncture technique, and stuck needle which was an accident during acupuncture, selection of needles, manipulations, mechanism of treatment, range of application, attentions and advantages of popularization. It is held that the technique can be widely applied for treatment of acute and chronic diseases of various departments with filiform needles. Easy to be manipulated, understood and mastered, the technique is without side effect and valuable to be popularized.
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High expression of Y-box-binding protein-1 is associated with poor survival in resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Y-box-binding protein-1 (YB-1) is a multifunctional protein that regulates gene expression through both transcriptional and translational mechanism. Its expression has been associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis of many cancers. However, its role and clinical significance in resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still scanty. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of YB-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in a group of patients with ESCC treated with surgical resection.
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[Transcriptional targeting gene therapy of double suicide gene driven by hTERT promoter in hepatic carcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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To examine the selective killing effects of pEGFP-C1-mediated double suicide gene system driven by the hTERT promoter (hTERT-CDglyTK) on hepatic carcinoma cells.
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Opioids and HIV/HCV infection.
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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Since human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same modes of transmission and common risk factors for infection, co-infections with HIV and HCV are frequently found in injection drug users (IDUs). IDUs represent one of the largest reservoirs of HIV as well as HCV in the United States. These two pathogens are also likely to be responsible for the highest infectious disease morbidity and mortality rates among IDUs. IDUs frequently involve the abuse of heroin, the most common abused opiate. Opiates have been suggested to have a cofactor role in the immunopathogenesis of HIV disease, as they have the potential to compromise host immune responses and enhances microbial infections. Although in vitro studies have yielded relatively agreeable data that morphine, the active metabolite of heroin, exacerbate HIV infection/replication, epidemiologic studies as well as in vivo non-human primate investigations on the impact of opiate abuse on HIV disease progression have yielded the conflicting data. Given immunomodulation and immunocompromising effect as well as demonstrated impact to enhance HIV replication in vitro, it is reasonable to believe that opiate abuse is a facilitator in HIV and/or HCV disease progression. However, much remain to be learned about the mechanisms of opiate-mediated broad influence on host immunity and viral expression. Thus, more extensive studies are needed in order to determine the effects of different conditions of opiate abuse and to define the understanding of the role of opiate in modulating HIV and/or HCV disease progression.
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[Construction of the eukaryotic expression vector encoding multi-epitope fusion protein of human survivin and its expression in dendritic cells].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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To construct a eukaryotic expression vector encoding the multi-epitope fusion protein of human survivin, and express it in human dendritic cells.
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Prognosticators and risk grouping in patients with lung metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a more accurate and appropriate assessment of prognosis.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Lung metastases arising from nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) have a relatively favourable prognosis. The purpose of this study was to identify the prognostic factors and to establish a risk grouping in patients with lung metastases from NPC.
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Factors determining the survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with lung metastasis alone: does combined modality treatment benefit?
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with lung metastasis alone has been reported as a relatively favorable prognostic group, and combined modality treatment might be indicated for selected cases. However, the prognostic factors determining survival of this group and the indication of combined therapy have not been thoroughly studied.
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Marine meiobenthic and nematode community structure in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong upon recovery from sewage pollution.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Sediment quality, meiofaunal and nematode communities were monitored across six time points at two inside-harbour and three outside-harbour sites over a three-year period in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong, after the implementation of a sewage treatment project. Twenty-one meiofaunal groups comprising mainly free-living nematodes and harpacticoid copepods and 188 species of free-living nematodes were identified. The outside-harbour area had a more diverse and significantly different nematode community structure as compared to that in the inside-harbour area. Such spatial difference was highly correlated with the total Kjeldahl nitrogen content of the sediments. Over the study period, there was no significant improvement in sediment quality within the harbour. However, in the last sampling time, an increase in meiofaunal abundance and a closer similarity in nematode composition between one of the inside- and outside-harbour sites suggested signs of recovery of the meiofauna as a response to abatement of sewage pollution.
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Soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor inhibits neurotoxicity of LPS-activated macrophages.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, can activate immune cells including macrophages. Activation of macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) contributes to neuronal injury. Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), a soybean-derived protease inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we examined whether BBI has the ability to inhibit LPS-mediated macrophage activation, reducing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and subsequent neurotoxicity in primary cortical neural cultures.
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Overexpression and small molecule-triggered downregulation of CIP2A in lung cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, with a five-year overall survival rate of only 15%. Cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) is a human oncoprotein inhibiting PP2A in many human malignancies. However, whether CIP2A can be a new drug target for lung cancer is largely unclear.
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Benzyl-aminium perchlorate-18-crown-6 (1/1).
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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In the title compound, C(7)H(10)N(+)·ClO(4) (-)·C(20)H(24)O(6), the proton-ated benzyl-amine cation forms a rotator-stator complex with the 18-crown-6 (1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa-oxacyclo-octa-deca-ne) mol-ecule via N-H?O hydrogen bonds. The cations are associated via weak C-H?? inter-actions, forming chains parallel to [011], while the perclorate anions are located between these chains.
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Use of tuf gene-based primers for the PCR detection of probiotic Bifidobacterium species and enumeration of bifidobacteria in fermented milk by cultural and quantitative real-time PCR methods.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
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Due to the increasing use of bifidobacteria in probiotic products, it is essential to establish a rapid method for the qualitative and quantitative assay of the bifidobacteria in commercial products. In this study, partial sequences of the tuf gene for 18 Bifidobacterium strains belonging to 14 species were determined. Alignment of these sequences showed that the similarities among these Bifidobacterium species were 82.24% to 99.72%. Based on these tuf gene sequences, 6 primer sets were designed for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay of B. animalis subsp. animalis, B. animalis subsp. lactis, B. bifidum, B. breve, B. longum subsp. infantis, B. longum subsp. longum, and the genus of Bifidobacterium, respectively. These Bifidobacterium species are common probiotic species present in dairy and probiotic products. When each target Bifidobacterium spp. was assayed with the designed primers, PCR product with expected size was generated. In addition, for each target species, more than 70 bacterial strains other than the target species, including strains of other Bifidobacterium species, strains of Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., and other bacterial species, all generated negative results. PCR assay with primers specific to B. animalis subsp. lactis and B. longum subsp. longum confirmed the presence of these Bifidobacterium species in commercial yogurt products. In addition, for each product, enumeration of the bifidobacteria cells by culture method with BIM-25 agar and the quantitative real-time PCR showed similar cell counts. Such results indicated that within 15-d storage (4 °C) after manufacture, all the bifidobacteria cells originally present in yogurt products were viable and culturable during the storage.
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The results and prognosis of different treatment modalities for solitary metastatic lung tumor from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a retrospective study of 105 cases.
Chin J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is known for its propensity for distant metastases. Lung metastasis is one of the most important causes of death for patients with NPC. Solitary metastatic lung tumor from NPC is a distinctive group associated with a better survival. This study was to find a more effective treatment modality and prognostic factors for the group.
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The impact of transgenic papaya (TPY10-4) fruit supplementation on immune responses in ovalbumin-sensitised mice.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
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A transgenic papaya line (TPY10-4) that is resistant to both papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) has been developed in Taiwan. This study investigated the immunomodulatory properties of transgenic TPY10-4 and its native (TCK) papaya fruits using an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitised mouse model. Both green and ripe papaya fruits at low (0.2 g powder kg(-1) body weight (BW)) and high (1.6 g powder kg(-1) BW) doses were administered to experimental mice by intragastric gavage for 5 weeks. Changes in serum total immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgE, IgG and IgM levels, OVA-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a titres and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretions using splenocytes were determined.
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M. tuberculosis H37Rv infection of Chinese rhesus macaques.
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most common communicable infectious disease worldwide and the top killer of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people. Because of common dual HIV and M. tuberculosis infections, the emergence of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains, the lack of effective vaccination, the morbidity, and the mortality of M. tuberculosis infection are increasing sharply. Therefore, there is an urgent need for vaccine and drug development against M. tuberculosis infection. These require appropriate animal models that closely resemble human disease. To this end, we infected Chinese rhesus macaques with the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Bronchoscopy was used to inoculate nine monkeys with different doses of M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Regardless of the M. tuberculosis dose, all monkeys were infected successfully. This was shown by clinical, laboratory, and histopathology assessments. Among nine infected monkeys, six developed acute rapid progressive tuberculosis and the remaining animals mirrored early-stage chronic disease. These data, taken together, demonstrate that Chinese rhesus macaques are highly susceptible to M. tuberculosis infection and develop similar manifestations of disease that are seen in humans. This model affords new opportunities for studies of M. tuberculosis disease pathology and therapeutics.
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Laticiferous canal formation in fruits of Decaisnea fargesii: a programmed cell death process?
Protoplasma
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2010
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Programmed cell death (PCD), a topic of abiding interest, remodels plants at the cell, tissue, and organ levels involving various developmental processes of plants. The aim of this study is to provide a morphological characterization of evidence of PCD involvement in the laticiferous canal formation in fruit of Decaisnea fargesii. Several ultrastructural features of PCD have been observed including disintegration of vacuole and plasma membranes, cell wall degeneration, degenerated cytoplasm, abundant membrane structures and flocculent material, mitochondria and misshapen nuclei coupled with degraded plastids in vacuoles, and nuclei enveloped by rubber granule. In D. fargesii, the nuclei of the secretory epidermal cells become TUNEL-positive from the sunken stage to the late expanding stage, then DAPI-negative during the mature stage, indicating an early event of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) cleavage and a late event of complete DNA degeneration. Gel electrophoresis indicates that DNA cleavage is random and does not result in the laddering pattern indicating multiples of internucleosomal units. During the PCD of secretory epidermal cells, the rubber granules continue to be synthesized and accumulated in the secretory epidermal cells despite nuclear degradation. The PCDs role in laticiferous canal formation suggests that PCD may play important roles in gland development of plants.
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Response of meiofaunal community with special reference to nematodes upon deployment of artificial reefs and cessation of bottom trawling in subtropical waters, Hong Kong.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2010
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The response of meiofaunal communities, especially nematodes, upon the deployment of artificial reefs and cessation of bottom trawling at a designated Marine Protected Area (MPA) in Hong Kong was studied through comparison of meiofaunal samples collected inside and outside the MPA. Total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus (TP), water content and silt-clay fraction in sediments were also analyzed. The level of TOC and TKN, and total meiofaunal and nematode abundance were significantly lower inside than that outside the MPA. Multivariate analysis also indicated differences in community structure. Biological traits analysis revealed that the proportions of nematodes with a clavate tail shape, longer adult length, stout body shape and k-strategy life history were higher inside than that outside the MPA. Such changes in nematode community structure could be a result of the presence of the artificial reefs and closure of the MPA from bottom trawling.
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Drugs of abuse and HIV infection/replication: implications for mother-fetus transmission.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) can be modulated by a number of cofactors, including drugs of abuse. Opioids, cocaine, cannabinoids, methamphetamine (METH), alcohol, and other substances of abuse have been implicated as risk factors for HIV infection, as they all have the potential to compromise host immunity and facilitate viral replication. Although epidemiologic evidence regarding the impact of drugs of abuse on HIV disease progression is mixed, in vitro studies as well as studies using in vivo animal models have indicated that drugs of abuse have the ability to enhance HIV infection/replication. Drugs of abuse may also be a risk factor for perinatal transmission of HIV. Because high levels of viral load in maternal blood are associated with increased risk of HIV vertical transmission, it is likely that drugs of abuse play an important role in promoting mother-fetus transmission. Furthermore, because the neonatal immune system differs qualitatively from the adult system, it is possible that maternal exposure to drugs of abuse would exacerbate neonatal immunity defects, facilitating HIV infection of neonate immune cells and promoting HIV vertical transmission. The availability and use of antiretroviral therapy for women infected with HIV increase, there is an increasing interest in determining the impact of drug abuse on efficacy of AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG)-standardized treatment regimens for woman infected with HIV in the context of HIV vertical transmission.
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Survival analysis of 220 patients with completely resected stage-II non-small cell lung cancer.
Chin J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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Surgery is the main therapy for patients with stage II non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but patients still have an unsatisfactory prognosis even though complete resection is usually possible. Adjuvant chemotherapy provides low rates of clinical benefit as well. We retrospectively analyzed prognostic factors of patients with completely resected stage II NSCLC to find patients with unfavorable factors for proper management.
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Inhibition of anti-HIV microRNA expression: a mechanism for opioid-mediated enhancement of HIV infection of monocytes.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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Several micro RNAs (miRNAs) have the ability to inhibit HIV replication in target cells. Thus, we investigated the impact of opioids (morphine and heroin), widely abused drugs among people infected with HIV, on the expression of cellular anti-HIV miRNAs in monocytes. We found that morphine-treated monocytes expressed lower levels of cellular anti-HIV miRNAs than untreated cells. In addition, morphine treatment of monocytes compromised type I interferon (IFN)-induced anti-HIV miRNA expression. These findings paralleled the observation that morphine treatment of monocytes enhanced HIV replication. These morphine-mediated actions on the anti-HIV miRNAs and HIV could be antagonized by the opioid receptor antagonists (naltrexone or Cys2, Tyr3, Arg5, Pen7-amide). Furthermore, the in vitro impact of morphine on miRNA expression was confirmed by the in vivo observation that heroin-dependent subjects had significantly lower levels of anti-HIV miRNAs (miRNA-28, 125b, 150, and 382) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than the healthy subjects. These in vitro and in vivo findings indicate that opioid use impairs intracellular innate anti-HIV mechanism(s) in monocytes, contributing to cell susceptibility to HIV infection.
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Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis for multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Schwarzengrund isolates collected in six years (2000-2005) from retail chicken meat in Taiwan.
Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Salmonella Schwarzengrund is one of the causative agents of human salmonellosis and animal infections. High prevalence of multidrug resistant strains of S. Schwarzengrund from chicken meat has been recently reported in Taiwan. With an attempt to see if such prevalence in chicken meat was due to the recirculation of S. Schwarzengrund strains in traditional marketplaces, a total of 173 S. Schwarzengrund strains isolated between 2000 and 2005 from 417 retail chicken meat samples purchased from Taipei, Taiwan were analyzed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. For XbaI and AvrII digested DNA, a total of 23 and 16 PFGE patterns, respectively, were obtained. When these patterns were combined, a total of 47 subtypes were obtained and the major subtypes were X3A2, X1A2 and X2A1. Since it was found that these major subtypes were repeatedly found for multidrug resistant strains collected from 2000 to 2005, we then collected the chicken meat isolates from central and southern Taiwan in 2006. These strains did not show similar major subtypes as those found in Taipei. Such results might also suggest that the repeated appearance of some major subtypes for S. Schwarzengrund strains isolated each year in Taipei was due to the recirculation of these strains in retail marketplace during these years.
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[Experimental study of the effect of chitosan on the capsule inside the expanded flap].
Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2009
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To investigate the effect of chitosan on the capsule inside the expanded flap.
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[Dynamic changes of content of salvianolic acid in vegetative organs of Salvia miltiorrhiza].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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To determine the content of total salvianolic acid in different vegetative organs of Salvia miltiorrhiza and discover the dynamic change rules of tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, caffeic acid and total salvianolic acid during the whole process of grwth.
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[The apoptosis of mouse macrophage J774A.1 induced by oxysterol depend on NF-kappaB activation].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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Investigated the relationship between NF-kappaB activation and cell apoptosis in mouse macrophages treated with 7-ketochesterol (7-KC).
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[Short and long-term outcomes of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced esophageal carcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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This study was to compare the 5-year survival rate, the surgical resection rate, the post-operative complications and mortality of patients who underwent surgical resection for carcinoma of esophagus with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. To evaluate neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of esophageal carcinoma.
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Antagonistic activity of spent culture supernatants of lactic acid bacteria against Helicobacter pylori growth and infection in human gastric epithelial AGS cells.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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We investigated the bactericidal activity and exclusion effect of 10 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from different commercial food products and infant feces against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in human gastric epithelial AGS cells. Antagonistic activity of spent culture supernatants (SCS) from LAB (LAB-SCS) was tested, and the content of organic acids in SCS was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, the bactericidal activities of LAB-SCS were estimated by a time-kill assay and by measuring the exclusion effect of LAB-SCS against H. pylori in AGS cells. The results showed that SCS from certain strains with higher concentrations of organic acids dramatically decreased the viability of H. pylori. We also proved that the organic acids could inhibit H. pylori adhesion and invasion of AGS cells. Furthermore, the concentration and speciation of organic acids in SCS after fermentation of LAB are important factors in the inhibition of H. pylori infection. In addition, the in vitro methods used in this study might provide for the rapid screening of potential probiotics with anti-H. pylori activity in the dairy industry.
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Stability of a rat model of prehepatic portal hypertension caused by partial ligation of the portal vein.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2009
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To study the stability of portal hypertension (PHT) caused by partial ligation of the portal vein ligation (PVL) in a rat model.
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An Algorithm for Cold Patch Detection in the Sea off Northeast Taiwan Using Multi-Sensor Data.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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Multi-sensor data from different satellites are used to identify an upwelling area in the sea off northeast Taiwan. Sea surface temperature (SST) data derived from infrared and microwave, as well as sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) data derived from satellite altimeters are used for this study. An integration filtering algorithm based on SST data is developed for detecting the cold patch induced by the upwelling. The center of the cold patch is identified by the maximum negative deviation relative to the spatial mean of a SST image within the study area and its climatological mean of each pixel. The boundary of the cold patch is found by the largest SST gradient. The along track SSHA data derived from satellite altimeters are then used to verify the detected cold patch. Applying the detecting algorithm, spatial and temporal characteristics and variations of the cold patch are revealed. The cold patch has an average area of 1.92 × 10(4) km(2). Its occurrence frequencies are high from June to October and reach a peak in July. The mean SST of the cold patch is 23.8 °C. In addition to the annual and the intraseasonal fluctuation with main peak centered at 60 days, the cold patch also has a variation period of about 4.7 years in the interannual timescale. This implies that the Kuroshio variations and long-term and large scale processes playing roles in modifying the cold patch occurrence frequency.
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Expression and regulation of antiviral protein APOBEC3G in human neuronal cells.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) has recently been identified as a potent antiviral protein. Here, we examined the expression and regulation of APOBEC3G in human brain tissues and the cells of central nervous system (CNS). Similar to the immune cells, human brain tissue and the CNS cells expressed APOBEC3G at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression of APOBEC3G could be up-regulated in human neuronal cells (NT2-N) and astrocytes (U87-MG) by interferons (IFN-alpha, beta and gamma), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and tumor necrosis factor. Other cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 and transforming growth factor beta1) and CC-chemokines (CCL3, 4 and 5), however, had little impact on the expression of APOBEC3G. In addition, pseudotyped HIV-1 infection and cytokine/chemokine-enriched supernatants from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage cultures induced APOBEC3G expression in NT2-N cells. APOBEC3G expressed in the neuronal cells and astrocytes was biologically functional, as the suppression of APOBEC3G expression by the specific siRNA led to increase of pseudotyped HIV-1 replication in these cells. These findings provide direct and compelling evidence that there is intracellular expression and regulation of functional APOBEC3G in the neuronal cells, which may be one of innate defense mechanisms involved in the neuronal protection in the CNS.
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[Localization and dynamic change of saponin in root tuber of cultivated Pseudostellaria heterophylla].
Fen Zi Xi Bao Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical methods were used to investigate the structure, the localization and content changes of total saponin of the root tuber of Pseudostellaria heterophylla on different developmental stages. Results showed that the primary structure and secondary structure of P. heterophylla adventitious root were similar to that of other herbaceous dicotyledons. 80% of mature root tuber were secondary xylem which consisted of most parenchyma cells and less vessels. The secondary phloem were composed of parenchyma cells too. The results of histochemical methods showed that saponin distributed in pericycle and parenchyma cells of primary phloem in the primary structure of root. In secondary structure and mature root tuber, saponin distributed in periderm and secondary vascular structure except cork layer and vessel. Besides, the colors of the secondary phloem were darker. The results of phytochemical test showed that the content of saponin in skin areas was higher than that in xylems in February and July. The result was consistent with that of histochemistry. The content of saponin in the head of the root was higher than that in the end of the root which was in turn higher than that in the middle part of the root. In the developmental process of root tuber, the content of saponin showed a dynamic tendency of high-low-high. This characteristics were related to the development of root system.
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Cellular microRNA expression correlates with susceptibility of monocytes/macrophages to HIV-1 infection.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Although both monocytes and macrophages possess essential requirements for HIV-1 entry, peripheral blood monocytes are infrequently infected with HIV-1 in vivo and in vitro. In contrast, tissue macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro are highly susceptible to infection with HIV-1 R5 tropic strains. We investigated intracellular anti-HIV-1 factors that contribute to differential susceptibility of monocytes/macrophages to HIV-1 infection. Freshly isolated monocytes from peripheral blood had significantly higher levels of the anti-HIV-1 microRNAs (miRNA, miRNA-28, miRNA-150, miRNA-223, and miRNA-382) than monocyte-derived macrophages. The suppression of these anti-HIV-1 miRNAs in monocytes facilitates HIV-1 infectivity, whereas increase of the anti-HIV-1 miRNA expression in macrophages inhibited HIV-1 replication. These findings provide compelling and direct evidence at the molecular level to support the notion that intracellular anti-HIV-1 miRNA-mediated innate immunity may have a key role in protecting monocytes/macrophages from HIV-1 infection.
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Development and use of tuf gene-based primers for the multiplex PCR detection of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei group, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Bifidobacterium longum in commercial dairy products.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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PCR primers specific for the detection of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei group, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Bifidobacterium longum were designed based on the elongation factor Tu gene (tuf). The specificity of these four primer sets were confirmed by PCR with 88 bacterial strains of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Bifidobacterium, and other bacterial species. Results indicated that these primer sets generated predicted PCR products of 397, 230, 202, and 161 bp for L. acidophilus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei group, and B. longum, respectively. Bacterial species other than the target organisms tested did not generate false-positive results. When these four primer sets were combined for the simultaneous detection of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented milk products including yogurt, the LAB species listed on the labels of these products could be identified without the preenrichment step. The identification limit for each LAB strain with this multiplex PCR method was N X 10(3) CFU/ml in milk samples. The results of our multiplex PCR method were confirmed by PCR assay using primers based on the 16S rDNA or the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and by biochemical tests using the API 50 CHL kit. When this multiplex PCR method was used with the determination of counts of total viable LAB and bifidobacteria, the quality of commercial fermented milk products could be assured.
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Alpinia katsumadai Hayata prevents mouse sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture through promoting bacterial clearance and downregulating systemic inflammation.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Sepsis continues to be a challenge in clinic. Therapeutic strategies focus on local host defenses and the inhibition of overwhelming inflammation response. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of the ethanol extract of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata seeds (EAKH) on polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice. It was shown that oral administration of EAKH at 1 h before and 2 h after CLP significantly elevated the survival rate and the mean arterial pressure of mice. Histological examination and serum ALT/AST assessment demonstrated that EAKH protected the animals from lung and liver tissue injury and dysfunction. Although EAKH was devoid of direct bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal activities, it facilitated peritoneal bacteria clearance and increased leukocyte migration into peritoneal cavity of septic mice. Furthermore, EAKH remarkably decreased serum pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and NO) levels in septic mice. These findings demonstrated that EAKH has preventive effects on mouse sepsis induced by CLP, which may be attributed to elevating local defense via promoting leukocyte migration to infection focus and attenuating systemic inflammation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.