JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We present the first demonstration of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SSPDs) which are free of afterpulses unlike the avalanche photodiode (APD). Multimode-fiber-coupled SSPDs with high system detection efficiency for visible wavelengths were developed and implemented in the FCS system. We performed FCS measurements for Rhodamine B and 6G as fluorescent samples, and found that autocorrelation functions obtained by the SSPDs showed a noise-free curve in the short correlation time region of sub microseconds where the afterpulse effect was dominant using the APD. The obtained results clearly indicate the advantage of SSPDs for the FCS system.
Related JoVE Video
The Role of Chemotherapy for Metastatic, Relapsed and Refractory Osteosarcoma.
Paediatr Drugs
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite a large number of publications on outcomes of second-line chemotherapy for osteosarcoma, there is little consensus on efficacy of the therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Activation of D4 Dopamine Receptor Decreases Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Expression in Rat Renal Proximal Tubule Cells.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The dopaminergic and renin-angiotensin systems interact to regulate blood pressure. Disruption of the D4 dopamine receptor gene in mice produces hypertension that is associated with increased renal angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor expression. We hypothesize that the D4 receptor can inhibit AT1 receptor expression and function in renal proximal tubule cells from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, but the D4 receptor regulation of AT1 receptor is aberrant in renal proximal tubule cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The D4 receptor agonist, PD168077, decreased AT1 receptor protein expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in WKY cells. By contrast, in SHR cells, PD168077 increased AT1 receptor protein expression. The inhibitory effect of D4 receptor on AT1 receptor expression in WKY cells was blocked by a calcium channel blocker, nicardipine, or calcium-free medium, indicating that calcium is involved in the D4 receptor-mediated signaling pathway. Angiotensin II increased Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity in WKY cells. Pretreatment with PD168077 decreased the stimulatory effect of angiotensin II on Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity in WKY cells. In SHR cells, the inhibitory effect of D4 receptor on angiotensin II-mediated stimulation of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity was aberrant; pretreatment with PD168077 augmented the stimulatory effect of AT1 receptor on Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity in SHR cells. This was confirmed in vivo; pretreatment with PD128077 for 1 week augmented the antihypertensive and natriuretic effect of losartan in SHRs but not in WKY rats. We suggest that an aberrant interaction between D4 and AT1 receptors may play a role in the abnormal regulation of sodium excretion in hypertension.
Related JoVE Video
Surgical interventions and medical treatments in treatment-naïve patients with acromegaly: systematic review and meta-analysis.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acromegaly is usually treated with surgery as a first-line treatment, although medical therapy has also been used as an alternative primary treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacologic Targeting of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Improves the Renal Microcirculation during Sepsis in the Mouse.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microvascular failure is hallmark of sepsis in humans and is recognized as a strong predictor of mortality. In the mouse subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce a clinically relevant sepsis, renal microvascular permeability increases and peritubular capillary perfusion declines rapidly in the kidney leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a key regulator of microvascular endothelial function. To investigate the role of S1P in the development of microvascular permeability and peritubular capillary hypoperfusion in the kidney during CLP-induced AKI, we used a pharmacologic approach and a clinically relevant delayed dosing paradigm. Evans blue dye was used to measure renal microvascular permeability and intravital video microscopy was used to quantitate renal cortical capillary perfusion. The S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) agonist SEW2871 [5-[4-phenyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-thienyl]-3-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazole] and S1P2 antagonist JTE-013 [N-(2,6-dichloro-4-pyridinyl)-2-[1,3-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-6-yl]-hydrazinecarboxamide] were administered at the time of CLP and produced a dose-dependent but partial reduction in renal microvascular permeability at 6 hours after CLP. However, neither agent improved capillary perfusion at 6 hours. With delayed administration at 6 hours after CLP, only SEW2871 reversed microvascular permeability when measured at 18 hours. Importantly, SEW2871 also restored capillary perfusion and improved renal function. These data suggest that S1P1 and S1P2 do not regulate the early decline in renal capillary perfusion. However, later in the course of sepsis, pharmacologic stimulation of S1P1, even when delaying therapy until after injury has occurred, improves capillary and renal function, suggesting this approach should be evaluated as an adjunct therapy during sepsis.
Related JoVE Video
Multimode fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 70% system efficiency at visible wavelength.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the development of the multimode fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with high system detection efficiency at visible wavelength. The detector consists of a 10.5-nm-thick and 150-nm-wide NbN nanowire meander fabricated on a Si substrate with a multilayer dielectric mirror and a quarter wavelength cavity for obtaining high optical absorptance. The meander area was 35 µm in diameter and coupled with the GRIN-lensed multimode optical fiber with a core diameter of 50 µm. The system reached detection efficiency of 70% with dark count rate of 100 Hz at the wavelength of 635 nm, 3 dB roll-off response counting rate of 8.5 Mcps, and timing jitter of 76 ps.
Related JoVE Video
Double-Line Hammett Relationship Revealed through Precise Acidity Measurement of Benzenethiols in Neat Ionic Media: A Typical "Ionic Liquid Effect"?
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Equilibrium acidities (pKa) of 14 aromatic thiols in four pure room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) were precisely determined and the corresponding acidity scales were established for the first time. Regression analyses show a distinct double-line Hammett relationship with similar slopes and excellent linearity (R(2) of 0.996-0.999) in all four ILs. This could be rationalized by a resonance enhanced effect of the IL cation to solvate the para substituent of feasible electronic structure (CSAR effect), revealing a typical and rarely seen "ionic liquid effect".
Related JoVE Video
Double input capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector with phase shift.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A double input capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (DIC(4)D) device which gets higher sensitivity has been described in this paper. The detector consists of two input electrodes and one output electrode. When two alternating current (AC) voltages with the same amplitude and different phases are imposed on each input electrode, the equivalent resistance of the output electrode is reduced because of the interference of the two signals with different phase angles. For a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D), the ratio of the response of KCl solution to that of distilled water is 1.6. However, for DIC(4)D, the ratio is 1.55 at a phase difference of 0° and increases to 1.8 at the phase difference of 170°, respectively. For C(4)D, the response of KCl solution is a linear function of the logarithm of concentrations from 10(-5) M to 10(-2) M, and the slope is 5.58. However, the slope of the response increases to 7.13 in DIC(4)D, and the limit of detection (LOD) of DIC(4)D is estimated to be 5 × 10(-8) M. The slope of the three-way DIC(4)D is increased to 69.78. A flow injection device is employed for the evaluation of the applicability of DIC(4)D with the same range, and good reproducibility is confirmed through flow injection of the same solution 10 times. The relative standard deviation (RSD) is 0.7%, which demonstrates a promising application to capillary electrophoresis (CE).
Related JoVE Video
Clinical review: The benefits and harms of systemic dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in postmenopausal women with normal adrenal function: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Exogenous dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) therapy has been proposed to replenish the depletion of endogenous DHEA and its sulfate form, which occurs with advancing age and is thought to be associated with loss of libido and menopausal symptoms.
Related JoVE Video
[Comparison of the stapled suture with the manual suture in the application of minimally invasive esophagectomy].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the associated anastomotic complication of cervical esophagogastric anastomosis between stapled and hand-sewn anastomosis in minimally invasive esophagectomy(MIE).
Related JoVE Video
Combined neurolytic block of celiac and superior hypogastric plexuses for incapacitating upper abdominal cancer pain.
J BUON
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the efficacy of a combined neurolytic block of the celiac and superior hypogastric plexuses for incapacitating upper abdominal cancer pain.
Related JoVE Video
[Characterization of a recombinant goatpox virus expressing Orfv F1L gene].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to establish the vaccine against the contagious ecthyma, we constructed and characterized recombinant goatpox virus expressing F1L protein of Orf virus.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of Hepatocellular Carcinoma-Related Genes with a Machine Learning and Network Analysis.
J. Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main type of liver cancer. We applied a machine learning approach with maximum-relevance-minimum-redundancy (mRMR) algorithm followed by incremental feature selection (IFS) to a set of microarray data generated from 43 tumor and 52 nontumor samples. With the machine learning approach, we identified 117 gene probes that could optimally separate tumor and nontumor samples. These genes not only include known HCC-relevant genes such as MT1X, BMI1, and CAP2, but also include cancer genes that were not found previously to be closely related to HCC, such as TACSTD2. Then, we constructed a molecular interaction network based on the protein-protein interaction (PPI) data from the STRING database and identified 187 genes on the shortest paths among the genes identified with the machine learning approach. Network analysis reveals new potential roles of ubiquitin C in the pathogenesis of HCC. Based on gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis, we showed that the identified subnetwork is significantly enriched in biological processes related to cell death. These results bring new insights of understanding the process of HCC.
Related JoVE Video
[UPLC-MS/MS determination of content of three iridoids of xingnaojing oral preparation in rat brains and study on their brain pharmacokinetics].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To establish a UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of geniposide, genipin 1-O-beta-D-gentiobioside and geniposidic acid in rat brains and study the brain pharmacokinetics of the three iridoid glycosides in stroke rat after the oral administration of Xingnaojing. In this experiment, brain samples were precipitated with protein for twice. Acquity BEH C18 column was adopted, with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid-water as the mobile phase for gradient elution. ESI source was adopted for mass spectra; multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was conducted to detect negative ions. The time for sample analysis was 3.5 min. the results showed good linear relations among the three iridoid glycosides, with the extraction recovery between 99.6% and 114.3%, good intra- and inter-day precisions and accuracies and stability in line with the requirements. The t1/2 and MRT in the three components were similar in brains of stroke rats. Geniposide and genipin 1-O-beta-D-gentiobioside showed double peaks; where as geniposidic acid showed a single peak. In conclusion, the method is so specific, sensitive, accurate and reliable that it can be used to study the brain pharmacokinetics of Xingnaojing oral preparation.
Related JoVE Video
Different perceptions of social dilemmas: Evolutionary multigames in structured populations.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Motivated by the fact that the same social dilemma can be perceived differently by different players, we here study evolutionary multigames in structured populations. While the core game is the weak prisoner's dilemma, a fraction of the population adopts either a positive or a negative value of the sucker's payoff, thus playing either the traditional prisoner's dilemma or the snowdrift game. We show that the higher the fraction of the population adopting a different payoff matrix the more the evolution of cooperation is promoted. The microscopic mechanism responsible for this outcome is unique to structured populations, and it is due to the payoff heterogeneity, which spontaneously introduces strong cooperative leaders that give rise to an asymmetric strategy imitation flow in favor of cooperation. We demonstrate that the reported evolutionary outcomes are robust against variations of the interaction network, and they also remain valid if players are allowed to vary which game they play over time. These results corroborate existing evidence in favor of heterogeneity-enhanced network reciprocity, and they reveal how different perceptions of social dilemmas may contribute to their resolution.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacological targeting of GSK3? confers protection against podocytopathy and proteinuria via desensitizing mitochondrial permeability transition.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitochondria dysfunction, triggered by mitochondria permeability transition (MPT), has been centrally implicated in the pathogenesis of podocytopathy and involves a multitude of cell signaling mechanisms, among which, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3? has emerged as the integration point and plays a crucial role. This study aimed to examine the role of GSK3? in podocyte MPT and mitochondria dysfunction.
Related JoVE Video
Lung cancer treatment disparities in china: a question in need of an answer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of malignancies in the People's Republic of China in recent years. The goal of this study was to identify the extent to which national treatment guidelines are being used to customize patient care in lung cancer and to analyze the reasons for treatment disparities.
Related JoVE Video
Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain A2, an Isolate with High Antioxidative Activity from Arctic Seawater.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Here we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas strain A2, isolated from Arctic seawater in the pack-ice zone, which has high antioxidative activity against H2O2. The genomics information of this strain will facilitate the study of antioxidative mechanisms, cold adaptation properties, and evolution of this genus.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnostic Performance of Magnetic Resonance Elastography in Staging Liver Fibrosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a non-invasive tool for staging liver fibrosis. We conducted a meta-analysis of individual participant data collected from published studies to assess the diagnostic accuracy of MRE and for staging liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD).
Related JoVE Video
Comparing Computational Methods for Identification of Allele-Specific Expression based on Next Generation Sequencing Data.
Genet. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Allele-specific expression (ASE) studies have wide-ranging implications for genome biology and medicine. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has emerged as a genome-wide tool for identifying ASE, but suffers from mapping bias favoring reference alleles. Two categories of methods are adopted nowadays, to reduce the effect of mapping bias on ASE identification-normalizing RNA allelic ratio with the parallel genomic allelic ratio (pDNAar) and modifying reference genome to make reads carrying both alleles with the same chance to be mapped (mREF). We compared the sensitivity and specificity of both methods with simulated data, and demonstrated that the pDNAar, though ideally practical, was lower in sensitivity, because of its lower mapping rate of reads carrying nonreference (alternative) alleles, although mREF achieved higher sensitivity and specificity for its efficiency in mapping reads carrying both alleles. Application of these two methods in real sequencing data showed that mREF were able to identify more ASE loci because of its higher mapping efficiency, and able to correcting some seemly incorrect ASE loci identified by pDNAar due to the inefficiency in mapping reads carrying alternative alleles of pDNAar. Our study provides useful information for RNA sequencing data processing in the identification of ASE.
Related JoVE Video
Copper-mediated direct C(sp3)-H and C(sp2)-H acetoxylation.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A copper-mediated terminal position-selective C(sp(3))-H acetoxylation using a bidentate directing group and AgOAc as an oxidant was achieved. This reaction has high functional group tolerance and is not affected by steric hindrance. The reaction proceeds in excellent yield, even in gram scale, and the directing group can be removed after the reaction. Aromatic C(sp(2))-H acetoxylation also proceeded under similar reaction conditions.
Related JoVE Video
A Bayesian framework to identify methylcytosines from high-throughput bisulfite sequencing data.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-throughput bisulfite sequencing technologies have provided a comprehensive and well-fitted way to investigate DNA methylation at single-base resolution. However, there are substantial bioinformatic challenges to distinguish precisely methylcytosines from unconverted cytosines based on bisulfite sequencing data. The challenges arise, at least in part, from cell heterozygosis caused by multicellular sequencing and the still limited number of statistical methods that are available for methylcytosine calling based on bisulfite sequencing data. Here, we present an algorithm, termed Bycom, a new Bayesian model that can perform methylcytosine calling with high accuracy. Bycom considers cell heterozygosis along with sequencing errors and bisulfite conversion efficiency to improve calling accuracy. Bycom performance was compared with the performance of Lister, the method most widely used to identify methylcytosines from bisulfite sequencing data. The results showed that the performance of Bycom was better than that of Lister for data with high methylation levels. Bycom also showed higher sensitivity and specificity for low methylation level samples (<1%) than Lister. A validation experiment based on reduced representation bisulfite sequencing data suggested that Bycom had a false positive rate of about 4% while maintaining an accuracy of close to 94%. This study demonstrated that Bycom had a low false calling rate at any methylation level and accurate methylcytosine calling at high methylation levels. Bycom will contribute significantly to studies aimed at recalibrating the methylation level of genomic regions based on the presence of methylcytosines.
Related JoVE Video
Can we predict temperature-dependent chemical toxicity to marine organisms and set appropriate water quality guidelines for protecting marine ecosystems under different thermal scenarios?
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Temperature changes due to climate change and seasonal fluctuation can have profound implications on chemical toxicity to marine organisms. Through a comprehensive meta-analysis by comparing median lethal or effect concentration data of six chemicals for various saltwater species obtained at different temperatures, we reveal that the chemical toxicity generally follows two different models: (1) it increases with increasing temperature and (2) it is the lowest at an optimal temperature and increases with increasing or decreasing temperature from the optimal temperature. Such observations are further supported by temperature-dependent hazardous concentration 10% (HC10) values derived from species sensitivity distributions which are constructed using the acute toxicity data generated at different temperatures. Considering these two models and natural variations of seawater temperature, we can scientifically assess whether applying an assessment factor (e.g. 10) to modify water quality guidelines of the chemicals can adequately protect marine ecosystems in tropics, subtropics and temperate regions, respectively.
Related JoVE Video
Venous thromboembolism risk factors in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Certain clinicopathological factors contribute to the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in lung cancer. The aim of the current study was to assess the incidence of and the potential risk factors associated with the development of VTE in Chinese lung cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic and Functional Characterization of the Hyaluronate Lyase HylB and the Beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase HylZ in Streptococcus zooepidemicus.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan) is a high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan composed of repeating disaccharides of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine. The molecular weight of hyaluronan is important for its rheological property, biological function, and application. However, genes important for regulation of hyaluronan production or molecular weight remain poorly understood. Here, we address the roles of two predicated hyaluronate lyase-encoding genes, hylB and hylZ in Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that hylZ was constitutively expressed while the expression level of hylB was growth-phase dependent. Using recombinantly expressed 6His-HylB and -HylZ protein, enzyme assays revealed that HylB was a hyaluronate lyase, and its K m and V max were 0.57 ?M and 1.43 mM min(-1), respectively. 6His-HylZ showed no activity against hyaluronan while it hydrolyzed pNp-?-GlcNAc suggesting that HylZ was a beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase. Under the optimal conditions (pH 6.0 and 50 °C), the K m and V max for 6His-HylZ to degrade pNp-?-GlcNA were 1.16 mM and 26.18 ?mol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. Characterization of ?hylB and ?hylZ demonstrated that loss of hylB or/and hylZ had no significant effects on cell growth, lactic acid, and hyaluronan yields. Significantly, as compared to the wild type, ?hylB produced hyaluronan with an 18 % increase in molecular weight. Our results strongly suggest that hylB encodes a hyaluronate lyase while hylZ encodes a ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase. hylB-deficient strain has the potential to produce high molecular weight hyaluronan.
Related JoVE Video
[Pathogenic analysis of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the pediatric intensive care unit in high-altitude areas].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the pathogens of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and their drug resistance in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in high-altitude areas and to provide a clinical basis for the prevention and treatment of VAP.
Related JoVE Video
A genome-wide scan for selection signatures in Yorkshire and Landrace pigs based on sequencing data.
Anim. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pigs have experienced dramatic selection due to domestication, which has led to many different phenotypes when compared to their wild counterparts, especially in the last several decades. Currently, genome-wide scans in both cattle and humans showing positive selection footprints have been investigated. However, few studies have focused on porcine selection footprints, particularly on a genome-wide scale. Surveying for selection footprints across porcine genomes can be quite valuable for revealing the genetic mechanisms of phenotypic diversity. Here, we employed a medium sequencing depth (5-20x/site per individual, on average) approach called genotyping by genome reducing and sequencing (GGRS) to detect genome-wide selection signatures of two domestic pig breeds (Yorkshire and Landrace) that have been under intensive selection for traits of muscle development, growth and behavior. The relative extended haplotype homozygosity test, which identifies selection signatures by measuring the characteristics of haplotypes' frequency distribution within a single population, was also applied to identify potential positively selected regions. As a result, signatures of positive selection were found in each breed. However, most selection signatures were population specific and related to genomic regions containing genes for biological categories including brain development, metabolism, growth and olfaction. Furthermore, the result of the gene set enrichment analysis indicated that selected regions of the two breeds presented a different over-representation of genes in the Gene Ontology annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Our results revealed a genome-wide map of selection footprints in pigs and may help us better understand the mechanisms of selection in pig breeding.
Related JoVE Video
DNA methylation aberrations rather than polymorphisms of FZD3 gene increase the risk of spina bifida in a high-risk region for neural tube defects.
Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Animal models of neural tube defects (NTDs) have indicated roles for the Fzd3 gene and the planar cell polarity signaling pathway in convergent extension. We investigated the involvement of FZD3 in genetic and epigenetic mechanisms associated with human NTDs, especially spina bifida. We explored the effects of variants spanning the FZD3 gene in NTDs and examined the role of aberrant methylation of the FZD3 promoter on gene expression in brain tissue in spina bifida.
Related JoVE Video
The effects of curcumin on depressive-like behavior in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current evidence supports that inflammation and increased cytokine levels are associated with depression-like symptoms and neuropsychological disturbances in humans. Curcumin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-depressant-like properties. Here, we examined the effects of curcumin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressive-like behavior and inflammation in male mice. A single administration of LPS (0.83mg/kg, i.p.) increased the immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), reduced sucrose consumption without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity. Pretreatment with curcumin (50mg/kg, i.p.) for 7 consecutive days reversed LPS-induced alterations in the FST, TST, and sucrose preference test. Moreover, pre-treatment with curcumin attenuated LPS-induced microglial activation and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?), as well as the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). In addition, curcumin ameliorated LPS-induced NF-?B activation in the hippocampus and PFC. The results demonstrate that curcumin may be an effective therapeutic agent for LPS-induced depressive-like behavior, partially due to its anti-inflammatory aptitude.
Related JoVE Video
Stem cell therapy for intervertebral disk regeneration.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intervertebral disk degeneration has been considered an irreversible process characterized by a decrease in cell viability, attenuation of proteoglycan and type II collagen synthesis, and dehydration of nucleus pulposus. Stem cell therapy specifically addresses the degenerative process and offers a potentially effective treatment modality. Current preclinical studies show that mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to repair degenerative disks by differentiation toward chondrocyte-like cells, which produce proteoglycans and type II collagen. There has been evidence that mesenchymal stem cell transplantation into the intervertebral disk increases the intradiskal magnetic resonance imaging T2 signal intensity, increases the disk height, and decreases the degenerative grade in animal models. Appropriate selection of cell carriers/matrix is important because it may prevent cell leakage into the spinal canal and provide an environment that facilitates cell proliferation and differentiation. Although human cell therapy trials for degenerative disk disease are on the horizon, potential issues might arise. The authors hereby review the current state of regenerative cell therapy in degenerative disk disease, with emphasis in cell source, techniques for cellular expansion, induction, transplantation, potential benefit, and risks of the use of this novel medical armamentarium in the treatment of degenerative disk disease.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal or rapeseed meal.
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal (CSM) or rapeseed meal (RSM). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 550 g kg(-1) CSM or 450 g kg(-1) RSM with or without 9 g kg(-1) supplemental cholesterol. Growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with 450 g kg(-1) RSM were inferior to fish fed diets with 550 g kg(-1) CSM regardless of cholesterol level. Dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the growth rate of fish fed diets with RSM, and growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with CSM. Similarly, dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triiodothyronine levels, but decreased the plasma triglycerides and cortisol levels of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. In addition, supplemental cholesterol increased the free cholesterol and TC levels in intestinal contents, but decreased the hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activity of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. These results indicate that 9 g kg(-1) cholesterol supplementation seems to improve the growth of rainbow trout fed diets with CSM or RSM, and the growth-promoting action may be related to the alleviation of the negative effects caused by antinutritional factors and/or make up for the deficiency of endogenous cholesterol in rainbow trout.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of immunoglobulin light chain restriction in cutaneous B-cell lymphomas by ultrasensitive bright-field mRNA in-situ hybridization.
J. Cutan. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Detection of immunoglobulin light-chain restriction is important in the diagnosis of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Flow-cytometry, commonly used to evaluate light-chain restriction, is impractical for cutaneous specimens. Immunohistochemistry and conventional chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH) on formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue lack sufficient sensitivity to detect low-level light-chain expression in B-NHL without plasmacytic differentiation. We assessed ultrasensitive bright-field mRNA-ISH (BRISH) for in-situ light-chain detection in cutaneous B-NHL.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on osmotic responses of pig iliac endothelial cells.
Cryobiology
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to fully explore the potential applications of nanoparticles in biopreservation, it is necessary to study the effect of nanoparticles on cell membrane permeabilities. The aim of this study is therefore to comparatively evaluate the osmotic responses of pig iliac endothelial cells in the absence and presence of commercially available hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The results indicate that, after the introduction of 0.0 1 wt% hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, the dependence of cell membrane hydraulic conductivity (Lp) on temperature still obeys the Arrhenius relationship, while the reference value of the hydraulic conductivity of the cell membrane at 273.15K (Lpg) and the activation energy for water transport across cell membrane (ELp) change from 0.77 × 10(-14)m/Pa/s and 15.65 kJ/mol to 0.65 × 10(-14)m/Pa/s and 26.14 kJ/mol. That is to say, the reference value of the hydraulic conductivity of the cell membrane has been slightly decreased while the activation energy for water transport across cell membrane has been greatly enhanced, and thus it implies that the hydraulic conductivity of cell membrane are more sensitive to temperature in the presence of nanoparticles. These findings are of potential significance to the optimization of nanoparticles-aided cryopreservation.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancement of Autophagy by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Trichostatin A Ameliorates Neuronal Apoptosis After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trichostatin A (TSA), a pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, exerts multiple neuroprotective properties. This study aims to examine whether TSA could enhance autophagy, thereby reduce neuronal apoptosis and ultimately attenuate early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH was performed through endovascular perforation method, and mortality, neurological score, and brain water content were evaluated at 24 h after surgery. Western blot were used for quantification of acetylated histone H3, LC3-II, LC3-I, Beclin-1, cytochrome c, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Immunofluorescence was performed for colocalization of Beclin-1 and neuronal nuclei (NeuN). Apoptotic cell death of neurons was quantified with double staining of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and NeuN. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used to manipulate the proposed pathway. Our results demonstrated that TSA reduced brain edema and alleviated neurological deficits at 24 h after SAH. TSA significantly increased acetylated histone H3, the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and Beclin-1 while decreased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in the cortex. Beclin-1 and NeuN, TUNEL, and NeuN, respectively, were colocalized in cortical cells. Neuronal apoptosis in the ipsilateral basal cortex was significantly inhibited after TSA treatment. Conversely, 3-MA reversed the beneficial effects of TSA. These results proposed that TSA administration enhanced autophagy, which contributes to alleviation of neuronal apoptosis, improvement of neurological function, and attenuation of EBI following SAH.
Related JoVE Video
Discovery of diamine-linked 17-aroylamido-17-demethoxygeldanamycins as potent Hsp90 inhibitors.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an attractive target for the development of antitumor agents. Geldanamycin (GA), the first Hsp90 inhibitor, has potent antitumor activity, but showed significant hepatotoxicity. To get rid of the hepatotoxicity of GA, in this study we incorporated aroyl groups via three types of linkers (4-aminomethylpiperidine, 1,4-butanediamine, and 1,6-hexanediamine) to the 17-position of GA and synthesized fifty-three 17-diamine-linked 17-aroylamido-17-demethoxygeldanamycins. All the derivatives were evaluated by MTT assay for their inhibitory activities against human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Among these compounds, 17-(6-(3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamamido)hexylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (7h29) showed the most potent cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 = 0.19 ± 0.02 ?M) with the lowest hepatotoxicity (AST = 181.0 ± 23.6 U/L, ALT = 40.4 ± 11.8 U/L). Compared to tanespimycin (17-AAG), 7h29 exhibited lower hepatotoxicity in mice, higher Hsp90 inhibitory activity in vitro and antitumor activity in human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) xenograft nude mice.
Related JoVE Video
Investigation of nonfouling polypeptides of poly(glutamic acid) with lysine side chains synthesized by EDC·HCl/HOBt chemistry.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nonfouling polypeptides with homogenous alternating charges draw peoples' attentions for their potential capability in biodegradation. Homogenous glutamic acid (E) and lysine (K) polypeptides were proposed and synthesized before. In this work, a new polypeptide formed by poly(glutamic acid) with lysine side chains (poly(E)-K) was synthesized by facile EDC·HCl/HOBt chemistry and investigated. Results show that these polypeptides also have good nonspecific protein resistance determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The lowest nonspecific adsorption of the model proteins, anti-IgG and fibrinogen (Fg), on the self-assembling monolayers (SAMs) surface of poly(E)-K was only 3.3?±?1.8 and 4.4?±?1.6%, respectively, when protein adsorption on tissue culture polystyrene surface was set as 100%. And, the relative nonspecific protein adsorption increases when the polypeptide molecular weight increases due to the repression of low density polymer brushes. Moreover, almost no obvious cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity in vitro were detected. This work suggests that polypeptides with various formats of homogenous balanced charges could achieve excellent nonspecific protein resistance, which might be the intrinsic reason for the coexistence of high concentration serum proteins in blood.
Related JoVE Video
COX-2 Inhibitors and Gastric Cancer.
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The evidence that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is upregulated and plays an important role in carcinogenesis of gastric cancer has triggered the topic of COX-2 inhibitors as chemopreventive agents for gastric cancer. Studies find that COX-2 inhibitors are associated not only with chemoprophylactic effects, but also with chemotherapeutic potentials in gastric cancer. Both COX-dependent and COX-independent pathways have a role in the anticancer efficiency of COX-2 inhibitors. However, enthusiasm is thwarted by the potential toxicity, that is, gastrointestinal toxicity of nonselective COX-2 inhibitors and cardiovascular risk of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Therefore, more studies are needed to develop new targeted antitumor agents (such as prostaglandin E receptor antagonist) and to define fundamental questions such as optimal treatment regimens, integration of cotherapy, and careful selection of candidates.
Related JoVE Video
The oncoprotein HBXIP enhances migration of breast cancer cells through increasing filopodia formation involving MEKK2/ERK1/2/Capn4 signaling.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have reported that the oncoprotein hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) plays a crucial role in the promotion of migration of breast cancer cells. Lamellipodia and filopodia protrusions play fundamental roles, involving dynamic cytoskeleton reorganization in the metastasis of cancer. Here, we observed that the expression levels of both HBXIP and Calpain small subunit 1 (Capn4) were very high in clinical metastatic lymph nodes of breast tumor. Then, we found that HBXIP was able to up-regulate Capn4 at the levels of promoter, mRNA and protein in breast cancer cells through activation of ERK1/2. Moreover, we showed that HBXIP activated ERK1/2 through up-regulating MEKK2. In function, we revealed that HBXIP increased the filopodia formation through Capn4, resulting in cell migration. Thus, we conclude that the oncoprotein HBXIP enhances the migration of breast cancer through increasing filopodia formation involving MEKK2/ERK1/2/Capn4 signaling. Therapeutically, HBXIP may serve as a novel target in breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of TAZ expression and its effect on tumor invasion and metastasis in human glioma.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the expression of TAZ and its role in tumor invasion and metastasis in human glioma.
Related JoVE Video
The harmful effects of subarachnoid hemorrhage on extracerebral organs.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating neurological disorder. Patients with aneurysmal SAH develop secondary complications that are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Aside from secondary neurological injuries, SAH has been associated with nonneurologic medical complications, such as neurocardiogenic injury, neurogenic pulmonary edema, hyperglycemia, and electrolyte imbalance, of which cardiac and pulmonary complications are most common. The related mechanisms include activation of the sympathetic nervous system, release of catecholamines and other hormones, and inflammatory responses. Extracerebral complications are directly related to the severity of SAH-induced brain injury and indicate the clinical outcome in patients. This review provides an overview of the extracerebral complications after SAH. We also aim to describe the manifestations, underlying mechanisms, and the effects of those extracerebral complications on outcome following SAH.
Related JoVE Video
CyberKnife Treatment for Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma of the Ilium in an adult: case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a rare vascular neoplasm that mainly affects infants. KHE rarely develops in adolescents and adults. These tumors tend to be locally invasive, but are not known to produce distant metastases. Numerous treatment modalities are available for KHE, but the optimal therapy is unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Thymosin alpha1 enhanced cytotoxicity of iNKT cells against colon cancer via upregulating CD1d expression.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increasing evidence showed invariant NKT cells (iNKT cell) are an attractive candidate for cancer immunotherapy, but its role in colorectal cancer treatment was still unclear. Here we reported iNKT cells exerted moderate cytotoxic effect against colorectal cancer cells (CRC cells) with the stimulation of ?-Galcer, and the mutual recognition between CRC and iNKT cells could be greatly enhanced by Thymosin?1 (TA), which resulted in stronger killing efficiency both in vitro and in vivo. TA is widely used as an immune adjuvant for cancer therapy, but how it works on cancer cells still remains unclear. We found TA could upregulate CD80, B7H2 and CD1d expression on CRC cells. However, neutralization assay revealed iNKT cells' activation depended on CD1d expression rather than CD80 or B7H2. Moreover, colon cancer stem cells expressed higher CD1d level, which accounted for their greater sensitization to iNKT cells. Mechanistically, inhibition of Erk/MAPK pathway greatly attenuated the upregulation of CD1d by TA. Taken together, depending on Erk/MAPK pathway, TA promoted the activation and cytotoxicity of iNKT cells via upregulating CD1d expression on CRC cells, which indicated a novel immunotherapeutic strategy of iNKT cells against CRC.
Related JoVE Video
The multi-herbal formula Chong-Myung-Tang improves spatial memory and increases cell genesis in the dentate gyrus of aged mice.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chong-Myung-Tang (CMT) is a multi-herbal formula that has been used to improve memory. However, the potential mechanism remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of CMT (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) on spatial memory of aged mice. The behavioral training tests indicated that 200 mg/kg CMT treatment can significantly improve spatial memory of aged mice in the Morris water maze. Moreover, cell survival was examined by injecting bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) on the first three days. The result showed that 200 mg/kg CMT treatment significantly increased cell survival in the dentate gyrus. Cell proliferation was determined by injecting BrdU 2 h before the mice were killed. The result suggested that CMT treatments had no influence on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. Thus, an increase in cell survival in the dentate gyrus stimulated by CMT may be involved in the effect of CMT on spatial memory improvement.
Related JoVE Video
Brain distribution pharmacokinetics and integrated pharmacokinetics of Panax Notoginsenoside R1, Ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Re and Rd in rats after intranasal administration of Panax Notoginseng Saponins assessed by UPLC/MS/MS.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) constitute the main active components of a traditional Chinese medicine, Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Sanqi). To investigate brain distribution of Panax Notoginsenoside R1, Ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Re, and Rd, and the integrated PNS in rats, their contents in cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, hippocampus and olfactory bulb were simultaneously measured by UPLC-MS/MS. Sample preparation was carried out by the protein precipitation technique with an internal Digoxin standard. The method described here was highly efficient, with short run time, excellent specificity and sensitivity, and successfully applied for pharmacokinetics studies. NGR1, GRg1, GRb1, GRe and GRd from PNS have been detected in all six brain regions studied and quantified accurately. These findings provide more insight for further understanding of the main ways from the nasal cavity to brain as well as the migration of nasally applied drugs into the CNS parenchyma.
Related JoVE Video
Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 1, 3-disubstituted-pyrazole derivatives as new class I and IIb histone deacetylase inhibitors.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel series of HDAC inhibitors demonstrating class I and IIb subtype selectivity have been identified using a scaffold-hopping strategy. Several designed compounds showed better selectivity for class I and IIb over class IIa HDAC isoforms comparing to the FDA approved HDAC targeting drug SAHA. A representative lead compound 22 bearing a biphenyl moiety demonstrated promising class I and IIb HDAC isoforms selectivity and in vitro anticancer activities against several cancer cell lines. This work could serve as a fundamental platform for further exploration of selective HDAC inhibitors using designed molecular scaffold.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison between double-guidewire technique and transpancreatic sphincterotomy technique for difficult biliary cannulation.
Dig Endosc
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness and complications of the double-guidewire technique (DWT) with the transpancreatic sphincterotomy (TPS) technique.
Related JoVE Video
Three basic modes for patients' clinical decision-making in China.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In China, there are three basic clinical decision-making modes for patients, namely patients' autonomous decision-making mode, family decision-making mode and patient and family codetermination. They were produced under the unique background of Chinese medicine, Confucian philosophy and law in China. In this paper, the concepts, advantages and disadvantages of these three decision-making modes were analyzed. In addition, some suggestions were put forward for the improvement. The first is that we suggest to establish standards for choosing decision-making modes; the second is to further learn and publicize relevant laws; thirdly, the legal system needs to be further refined; and the last one is to carry out ethical ward round.
Related JoVE Video
Dual computer monitors to increase efficiency of conducting systematic reviews.
J Clin Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Systematic reviews (SRs) are the cornerstone of evidence-based medicine. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of using two computer screens on the efficiency of conducting SRs.
Related JoVE Video
Degree mixing in multilayer networks impedes the evolution of cooperation.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Traditionally, the evolution of cooperation has been studied on single, isolated networks. Yet a player, especially in human societies, will typically be a member of many different networks, and those networks will play different roles in the evolutionary process. Multilayer networks are therefore rapidly gaining on popularity as the more apt description of a networked society. With this motivation, we here consider two-layer scale-free networks with all possible combinations of degree mixing, wherein one network layer is used for the accumulation of payoffs and the other is used for strategy updating. We find that breaking the symmetry through assortative mixing in one layer and/or disassortative mixing in the other layer, as well as preserving the symmetry by means of assortative mixing in both layers, impedes the evolution of cooperation. We use degree-dependent distributions of strategies and cluster-size analysis to explain these results, which highlight the importance of hubs and the preservation of symmetry between multilayer networks for the successful resolution of social dilemmas.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of iodinated trihalomethanes formation during aqueous chlor(am)ination of different iodinated X-ray contrast media compounds in the presence of natural organic matter.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) formation during chlorination and chloramination of five iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) compounds (iopamidol, iopromide, iodixanol, histodenz, and diatrizoate) in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) was evaluated and compared. Chlorination and chloramination of ICM in the absence of NOM yielded only a trace amount of I-THMs, while levels of I-THMs were enhanced substantially in raw water samples. With the presence of NOM, the order with respect to the maximum yield of I-THMs observed during chlorination was iopamidol > histodenz > iodixanol > diatrizoate > iopromide. During chloramination, I-THM formation was enhanced for hisodenz, iodixanol, diatrizoate, and iopromide. The order with respect to the maximum yield of I-THMs observed during chloramination was iopamidol > diatrizoate > iodixanol > histodenz > iopromide. With the exception of iopamidol, I-THM formation was favored at relatively low chlorine doses (?100 ?M) during ICM chlorination, and significant suppression was observed with high chlorine doses applied (?100 ?M). However, during chloramination, increasing monochloramine dose monotonously increased the yield of I-THMs for the five ICM. During chlorination of iodixanol, histodenz, and diatrizoate, the yields of I-THMs exhibited three distinct trends as the pH increased from 5 to 9, while peak I-THM formation was found at circumneutral pH for chloramination. Increasing bromide concentration not only considerably enhanced the yield of I-THMs but also shifted the I-THMs towards bromine-containing ones and increased the formation of higher bromine-incorporated species (e.g., CHBrClI and CHBr2I), especially in chloramination. These results are of particular interest to understand I-THM formation mechanisms during chlorination and chloramination of waters containing ICM.
Related JoVE Video
A novel centrosome and microtubules associated subcellular localization of Nogo-A: Implications for neuronal development.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oligodendrocyte-derived neurite-outgrowth inhibitor Nogo-A and its restriction mechanism are well-known. Recently, Nogo-A is reported to be abundantly expressed in neurons, however, the concrete link between neuronal Nogo-A and neuronal development is poorly understood. In the present study, we used Neuro2A and COS7 cell lines to clarify that Nogo-A largely distributed in the centrosome and microtubules-rich regions. When endogenous Nogo-A was down-regulated with RNA interference, the percentage of cell differentiation and the total neurite length of Neuro2A exposed to valproic acid (VPA) were decreased sharply. Furthermore, in primary neurons, acetylated ?-tubulin decreased at the tips of neurites where endogenous Nogo-A was still highly expressed. In HEK293FT cell lines, Nogo-A overexpression could redistribute acetylated ?-tubulin but not change the level of ?-tubulin. Together, our data discovered that centrosome- and microtubules-localized Nogo-A positively regulates neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth of Neuro2A cell lines, implicating the essential roles of subcellular Nogo-A in neuronal development.
Related JoVE Video
Bioinspired materials: from low to high dimensional structure.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The surprising properties of biomaterials are the results of billions of years of evolution. Generally, biomaterials are assembled under mild conditions with very limited supply of constituents available for living organism, and their amazing properties largely result from the sophisticated hierarchical structures. Following the biomimetic principles to prepare manmade materials has drawn great research interests in materials science and engineering. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in fabricating bioinspired materials with the emphasis on mimicking the structure from one to three dimensions. Selected examples are described with a focus on the relationship between the structural characters and the corresponding functions. For one-dimensional materials, spider fibers, polar bear hair, multichannel plant roots and so on have been involved. Natural structure color and color shifting surfaces, and the antifouling, antireflective coatings of biomaterials are chosen as the typical examples of the two-dimensional biomimicking. The outstanding protection performance, and the stimuli responsive and self-healing functions of biomaterials based on the sophisticated hierarchical bulk structures are the emphases of the three-dimensional mimicking. Finally, a summary and outlook are given.
Related JoVE Video
Cytoprotective effect of melatonin against hypoxia/serum deprivation-induced cell death of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown great potential for cardiac regeneratio therapeutic efficiency has become a major obstacle due to the poor survival of transplanted MSCs in ischemic cardiac tissue. Previous studies reported that melatonin could protect many different types of cells from apoptosis under various pathological conditions. In the present study, we demonstrated that melatonin, an endogenously secreted indoleamine had cytoprotection from hypoxia/serum deprivation (Hy/SD)-induced cell death in MSCs. We further investigated the possible mechanism and found out that melatonin attenuated (Hy/SD)-induced cell death could be via effectively reducing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and then activation of caspase-3 in MSCs in response to Hy/SD exposure. Furthermore, melatonin pretreatment significantly modulated the expression of phospho-P38MAPK and phospho-ERK1/2 in Hy/SD-induced MSCs and the protective effects of melatonin were partially reversed by ERK1/2 inhibitor but not p38 inhibitor, suggesting that melatonin inhibited Hy/SD-induced MSCs cell death through the MAPK signaling pathway in part. Taken together, the findings imply that melatonin could improve the survival of engrafted MSCs under hypoxia and serum deprivation condition. Our findings indicate that combination therapy with melatonin may provide therapeutic benefit for improving myocardial function after infarction.
Related JoVE Video
Effectiveness of exchange nailing and augmentation plating for femoral shaft nonunion after nailing.
Int Orthop
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We assessed indications and outcomes of exchange nailing and augmentation plating for femoral shaft nonunion following femoral nail failure.
Related JoVE Video
P300-dependent STAT3 acetylation is necessary for angiotensin II-induced pro-fibrotic responses in renal tubular epithelial cells.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway, especially STAT3 acetylation, in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced pro-fibrotic responses in renal tubular epithelial cells.
Related JoVE Video
Optimization of storage condition for maintaining long-term viability of nematophagous fungus Esteya vermicola as biocontrol agent against pinewood nematode.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The fungus, Esteya vermicola has been proposed as biocontrol agent against pine wilting disease caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. In this study, we reported the effects of temperature and different additives on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of E. vermicola formulated by alginate-clay. The viability of the E. vermicola formulation was determined for six consecutive months at temperature ranged from -70 to 25 °C. The fresh conidia without any treatment were used as control. Under the optimal storage conditions with E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation, the results suggested that E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation with a long shelf life could be a non-vacuum-packed formulation that contains 2 % sodium alginate and 5 % clay at 4 °C. Three conidial formulations prepared with additives of 15 % glycerol, 0.5 % yeast extract and 0.5 % herbal extraction, respectively significantly improved the shelf life. In addition, these tested formulations retained the same biocontrol efficacy as the fresh conidial against pinewood nematode. This study provided a tractable and low-cost method to preserve the shelf life of E. vermicola.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative Efficacy of Pharmacological Interventions in Preventing Relapse of Crohn's Disease after Surgery: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are several drugs that might decrease the risk of relapse of Crohn's disease (CD) after surgery, but it is unclear whether one is superior to others. We estimated the comparative efficacy of different pharmacologic interventions for post-operative prophylaxis of CD, through a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Related JoVE Video
Highly hemocompatible zwitterionic micelles stabilized by reversible cross-linkage for anti-cancer drug delivery.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Both blood stability and intelligent-responsiveness after reaching the drug-targeting site are very important features to make desirable nano-drug vehicles (NDVs). Here, a highly nonfouling cross-linked micelle based on a copolymer composed of carboxybetaine methacrylate (CBMA) as hydrophilic segment and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl lipoate (MAEL) as hydrophobic and cross-linked segment is reported. Furthermore, a simple method to evaluate the hemocompatibility of NDVs through examining the activation of a blood-clotting protein (fibrinogen) was introduced. The micelles can encapsulate anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) conveniently and release DOX quickly in response to an intracellular reductive environment. With the advantages of excellent stability in fibrinogen (1 mg/mL) PBS solution and 50% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and accelerated intracellular drug release, the biocompatible zwitterionic micelles stabilized by reversible cross-linkage might be a promising drug carrier for cancer chemotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Lactoferrin suppresses the Epstein-Barr virus-induced inflammatory response by interfering with pattern recognition of TLR2 and TLR9.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection contributes to tumorigenesis of various human malignancies including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). EBV triggers innate immune and inflammatory responses partly through Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Lactoferrin (LF), with its anti-inflammatory properties, is an important component of the innate immune system. We previously reported that LF protects human B lymphocytes from EBV infection by its ability to bind to the EBV receptor CD21, but whether LF can suppress EBV-induced inflammation is unclear. Here, we report that LF reduced synthesis of IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) induced by EBV in macrophages via its suppression of NF-?B activity. LF interacted with TLR2 and interfered with EBV-triggered TLR2-NF-?B activation. LF inhibited the ability of TLR9 to recognize dsDNA by binding to its co-receptor CD14, which blocked the interaction between CD14 and TLR9. EBV-induced inflammation was thus aggravated in the presence of CD14. In addition, LF expression levels were significantly downregulated in NPC specimens, and correlated inversely with IL-8 and MCP-1 expression. These findings suggest that LF may suppress the EBV-induced inflammatory response through interfering with the activation of TLR2 and TLR9.
Related JoVE Video
Salvianolic acid B attenuates spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion-induced neuronal injury and oxidative stress by activating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in rats.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Salvianolic acid B (SalB), the main bioactive compound isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb broad Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae exerts a spectrum of pharmacologic activities. We investigated the effects of SalB treatment in a rat model of spinal cord ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury and the underlying mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
Immunization of epidemics in multiplex networks.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Up to now, immunization of disease propagation has attracted great attention in both theoretical and experimental researches. However, vast majority of existing achievements are limited to the simple assumption of single layer networked population, which seems obviously inconsistent with recent development of complex network theory: each node could possess multiple roles in different topology connections. Inspired by this fact, we here propose the immunization strategies on multiplex networks, including multiplex node-based random (targeted) immunization and layer node-based random (targeted) immunization. With the theory of generating function, theoretical analysis is developed to calculate the immunization threshold, which is regarded as the most critical index for the effectiveness of addressed immunization strategies. Interestingly, both types of random immunization strategies show more efficiency in controlling disease spreading on multiplex Erdös-Rényi (ER) random networks; while targeted immunization strategies provide better protection on multiplex scale-free (SF) networks.
Related JoVE Video
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase Is Activated by Lysine 254 Acetylation in Response to Glucose Signal.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The altered metabolism in most tumor cells consists of elevated glucose uptake and increased glycolysis even in the presence of high oxygen tension. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an obligatory enzyme in glycolysis. Here, we report that acetylation at lysine 254 (K254) increases GAPDH activity in response to glucose. Furthermore, acetylation of GAPDH (K254) is reversibly regulated by the acetyltransferase PCAF and the deacetylase HDAC5. Substitution of K254 to glutamine compromises the ability of GAPDH to support cell proliferation and tumor growth. Our study reveals a mechanism of GAPDH enzyme activity regulation by acetylation and its critical role in cellular regulation.
Related JoVE Video
Hypomethylation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 in peripheral mononuclear cells of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients in China.
Int J Rheum Dis
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Methylation abnormalities in T lymphocytes have been reported to correlate with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Previous studies identified hypomethylation in the promoter of several genes linked to SLE. Long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) constitutes 17-25% of the human genome, and LINE-1 hypomethylation has been reported in SLE. Limited information is available regarding LINE-1 methylation in juvenile SLE (JSLE).
Related JoVE Video
Standard and Absolute pKa Scales of Substituted Benzoic Acids in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Equilibrium acidity (pKa) scales of 15 substituted benzoic acids in four room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), BmimOTf, BmimNTf2, BmpyNTf2, and Bm2imNTf2, were established under standard conditions using a modified indicator overlapping method. The effect of homo hydrogen bonding on equilibrium acidity was calibrated, and the derived pKa values were evidenced to be free from ion-paring complication. Regression analyses demonstrated that all of the pKa scales obtained in four RTILs are linearly correlated to each other with an R value better than 0.996. These scales are also correlated well with the pKa values in DMSO and with the corresponding gas-phase acidities with regression coefficients of 0.993 and 0.992, respectively. In addition, both the cation and anion of the ionic liquids were found to play a role in affecting the acidity of carboxylic acid.
Related JoVE Video
Managing hypercholesterolemia and preventing cardiovascular events in elderly and younger Chinese adults: focus on rosuvastatin.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The efficacy and safety of statins in primary and secondary prevention of CHD is confirmed in several large studies, and rosuvastatin is the latest statin on market. We review the published literature on rosuvastatin in Chinese people. The pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in Chinese is somewhat different from that in Caucasians, but this does not influence the linear relationship between dosage and efficacy and with no drug accumulation. Rosuvastatin 5-20 mg/day is effective and safe in decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both younger and elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia, even in very elderly patients. Rosuvastatin also shows anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerosis features, such as reducing carotid intima-media thickness and plaque area. Rosuvastatin can also improve the prognosis of Chinese CHD patients, such as in the case of acute myocardial infarction. Its adverse-event rate is low and comparable to other statins. In conclusion, rosuvastatin is effective and safe for younger or elderly Chinese patients.
Related JoVE Video
Association of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms with osteosarcoma susceptibility in a Chinese population.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone malignancy worldwide. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of OS. The objective of this study aimed to detect the potential association between VEGF genetic polymorphisms and OS susceptibility in Chinese Han population. We recruited 330 OS patients and 342 cancer-free controls in this case-control study. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (-634 G?>?C, +936 C?>?T, and +1612 G?>?A) of the VEGF gene were investigated by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Among these SNPs, we found that the genotypes/alleles of +936 C?>?T were statistically associated with the increased risk of OS (TT versus (vs.) CC: OR?=?2.70, 95 % CI 1.34-5.45, ?(2)?=?8.2271, p?=?0.0041; T vs. C: OR?=?1.31, 95 % CI 1.02-1.68, ?(2)?=?4.3861, p?=?0.0362). The T allele and TT genotype of +936 C?>?T could be factors that increase the risk for susceptibility to OS. The results from this study suggest that VEGF genetic variants are potentially related to OS susceptibility in Chinese Han population and might be used as molecular markers for assessing OS susceptibility.
Related JoVE Video
Research Progress in Live Attenuated Brucella Vaccine Development.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, which is a globally occurring zoonotic disease that is characterized by abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever, arthritis, endocarditis, and meningitis in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines for brucellosis for human use, and only a few licensed live Brucella vaccines are available for use in animals. However, the available animal vaccines may cause abortion and are associated with lower protection rates in animals and higher virulence in humans. Much research has been performed recently to develop novel Brucella vaccines for the prevention and control of animal brucellosis. This article discusses the approaches and strategies for novel live attenuated vaccine development.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.