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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Indium segregation measured in InGaN quantum well layer.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The indium segregation in InGaN well layer is confirmed by a nondestructive combined method of experiment and numerical simulation, which is beyond the traditional method. The pre-deposited indium atoms before InGaN well layer growth are first carried out to prevent indium atoms exchange between the subsurface layer and the surface layer, which results from the indium segregation. The uniform spatial distribution of indium content is achieved in each InGaN well layer, as long as indium pre-deposition is sufficient. According to the consistency of the experiment and numerical simulation, the indium content increases from 16% along the growth direction and saturates at 19% in the upper interface, which cannot be determined precisely by the traditional method.
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A meta-analysis comparing the efficacy of entecavir and tenofovir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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The efficacy of entecavir and tenofovir in patients with chronic hepatitis B (HBV) is inconsistent. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis based on a current review of the literature addressing the efficacy and safety of entecavir and tenofovir. Electronic databases were searched through June 2014 for relevant clinical trials. We included two randomized controlled trials, two prospective cohort studies,and seven case-control studies that included 1656 patients. In the entecavir group, 842 of 992 were nucleos(t)ide-naïve chronic HBV patients, and in the tenofovir group 481 of 664 were nucleos(t)ide-naïve. The virological response to tenofovir was superior to entecavir (RR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.72 to 0.93), especially in nucleos(t)ide-naïve chronic HBV patients at 48 weeks (RR: 0.78; 95%CI: 0.65 to 0.92). Additionally, there was no difference between entecavir and tenofovir for virological response at 24 weeks(RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.05). The alanine aminotransferase normalization rate, serological response, and adverse event rate was also not significantly different between entecavir and tenofovir at 24 or 48 weeks after treatment. These results suggest that tenofovir is a better choice to treat chronic HBV patients than entecavir as it is better able to suppress HBV viral load and has a similar safety profile.
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Neuroprotective Effects of ?-Asarone Against 6-Hydroxy Dopamine-Induced Parkinsonism via JNK/Bcl-2/Beclin-1 Pathway.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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?-asarone, a major component of Acorus tatarinowii Schott, has positive effects in neurodegeneration disease, however, its effect on the Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear. In this study, the effects of ?-asarone on behavioral tests, neurotransmitters, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and ?-synuclein (?-syn) were investigated in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced rats. Furthermore, the JNK/Bcl-2/Beclin-1 autophagy pathway was also studied. The results showed that ?-asarone improved the behavioral symptoms of rats in the open field, rotarod test, initiation time, and stepping time. And it increased the HVA, Dopacl, and 5-HIAA levels in striatum but not the DA and 5-HT levels. After administration of ?-asarone, the TH level was elevated but the ?-syn was declined in rats. It inhibited the expressions of LC3-II, but increased the p62 expression in SN4741 cells. Moreover, it affected the expressions of Beclin-1, Bcl-2, JNK, and p-JNK in vivo. We deduced that ?-asarone may firstly downregulate expressions of JNK and p-JNK, and then indirectly increase the expression of Bcl-2. And the function of Beclin-1 could be inhibited, which could inhibit autophagy activation. Collectively, all data indicated that ?-asarone may be explored as a potential therapeutic agent in PD therapy.
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A CT reconstruction algorithm based on non-aliasing Contourlet transform and compressive sensing.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Compressive sensing (CS) theory has great potential for reconstructing CT images from sparse-views projection data. Currently, total variation (TV-) based CT reconstruction method is a hot research point in medical CT field, which uses the gradient operator as the sparse representation approach during the iteration process. However, the images reconstructed by this method often suffer the smoothing problem; to improve the quality of reconstructed images, this paper proposed a hybrid reconstruction method combining TV and non-aliasing Contourlet transform (NACT) and using the Split-Bregman method to solve the optimization problem. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can reconstruct high-quality CT images from few-views projection using less iteration numbers, which is more effective in suppressing noise and artefacts than algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and TV-based reconstruction method.
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Is posterior tibial slope associated with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury?
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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This study aimed to: (1) examine whether the association between posterior tibial slope and noncontact ACL injury exists in Chinese population; (2) compare the reliability and consistency of the three methods (longitudinal axis, posterior and anterior tibial cortex axis) in lateral radiograph.
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Bilateral pulmonary artery aneurysms, coronary artery aneurysm, and ventricular pseudoaneurysm in Behçet disease.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Massive hemoptysis in Behçet disease (BD) is rare but often fatal. This report presents a 28-year-old man with recurrent massive hemoptysis. He was diagnosed with bilateral multiple pulmonary artery aneurysms (PAAs), coronary artery aneurysm, and ventricular pseudoaneurysm from BD. The patient underwent emergency right lower lobectomy with no obvious complications. No hemoptysis recurred during an 18-month follow-up. This report also reviews the occurrence of PAAs in BD, with an emphasis on the treatment approaches.
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Plasmakinetic Enucleation of the Prostate Compared with Open Prostatectomy for Prostates Larger Than 100 Grams: A Randomized Noninferiority Controlled Trial with Long-term Results at 6 Years.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Studies have demonstrated that plasmakinetic enucleation of the prostate (PKEP) and open prostatectomy (OP) have equivalent short-term efficacy for large prostates, but no comparison concerning their long-term results was reported.
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Neonatal E. coli infection causes neuro-behavioral deficits associated with hypomyelination and neuronal sequestration of iron.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Recent evidence indicates that inflammatory insults in neonates significantly influenced white matter development and caused behavioral deficits that manifest in young adulthood. The mechanisms underlying these developmental and behavioral complications, however, are not well understood. We hypothesize that acute brain inflammation caused by neonatal infection reduces the bioavailability of iron required for oligodendrocyte maturation and white matter development. Here, we confirm that peripheral Escherichia coli infection in neonates at postnatal day 3 (P3) caused acute brain inflammation that was resolved within 72 h. Nonetheless, transient early life infection (ELI) profoundly influenced behavior, white matter development, and iron homeostasis in the brain. For instance, mice exposed to E. coli as neonates had increased locomotor activity and impaired motor coordination as juveniles (P35) and young adults (P60). In addition, these behavioral deficits were associated with marked hypomyelination and a reduction of oligodendrocytes in subcortical white matter and motor cortex. Moreover, ELI altered transcripts related to cellular sequestration of iron in the brain including hepcidin, ferroportin, and L-ferritin. For example, ELI increased hepcidin mRNA and decreased ferroportin mRNA and protein in the brain at P4, which preceded increased L-ferritin mRNA at P12. Consistent with the mRNA results, L-ferritin protein was robustly increased at P12 specifically in neurons of E. coli infected mice. We interpret these data to indicate that neonatal infection causes significant neuronal sequestration of iron at a time point before myelination. Together, these data indicate a possible role for aberrant neuronal iron storage in neonatal infection-induced disturbances in myelination and behavior.
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Effects of epidermal growth factor receptor and phosphatase and tensin homologue gene expression on the inhibition of U87MG glioblastoma cell proliferation induced by protein kinase inhibitors.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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The aim of the present study was to analyse the antiproliferative effects and mechanisms of action of protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells with different epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) status. The GBM cell models were established by transfection of plasmids carrying wild-type EGFR, mutated EGFRvIII or PTEN and clonal selection in U87MG cells. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/AKT pathway-focused gene profiles were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assays, protein expression was evaluated by western blotting and the antiproliferative effects of PKI treatment were determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in GBM cells. The cell model with intact PTEN and low EGFR levels was the most sensitive to treatment with the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib, whereas the model with EGFRvIII was the most resistant to treatment with the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor U0126. The dual PI3-K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor PI103 had the most potent antiproliferative effects against all GBM cells tested. Following simultaneous stimulation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, rapamycin concentrations > 0.5 nmol/L failed to exhibit a further growth inhibitory effect. Concurrent inhibition of mTOR and ribosomal protein s6 activity may underlie the inhibition of GBM proliferation by PKI. In conclusion, overexpression of EGFR or EGFRvIII, accompanied by a loss of PTEN, contributed to the activation of multiple intracellular signalling pathways in GBM cells. Rigorous examination of biomarkers in tumour tissues before and after treatment may be necessary to determine the efficacy of PKI therapy in patients with GBM.
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A novel wavelength-adjusting method in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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The pursuit of high internal quantum efficiency (IQE) for green emission spectral regime is referred as "green gap" challenge. Now researchers place their hope on the InGaN-based materials to develop high-brightness green light-emitting diodes. However, IQE drops fast when emission wavelength of InGaN LED increases by changing growth temperature or well thickness. In this paper, a new wavelength-adjusting method is proposed and the optical properties of LED are investigated. By additional process of indium pre-deposition before InGaN well layer growth, the indium distribution along growth direction becomes more uniform, which leads to the increase of average indium content in InGaN well layer and results in a redshift of peak-wavelength. We also find that the IQE of LED with indium pre-deposition increases with the wavelength redshift. Such dependence is opposite to the IQE-wavelength behavior in conventional InGaN LEDs. The relations among the IQE, wavelength and the indium pre-deposition process are discussed.
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Atg24-assisted mitophagy in the foot cells is necessary for proper asexual differentiation in Magnaporthe oryzae.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Macroautophagy-mediated glycogen catabolism is required for asexual differentiation in the blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. However, the function(s) of selective subtypes of autophagy has not been studied therein. Here, we report that mitophagy, selective autophagic delivery of mitochondria to the vacuoles for degradation, occurs during early stages of Magnaporthe conidiation. Specifically, mitophagy was evident in the foot cells while being undetectable in aerial hyphae and/or conidiophores. We show that loss of MoAtg24, a sorting nexin related to yeast Snx4, disrupts mitophagy and consequently leads to highly reduced conidiation, suggesting that mitophagy in the foot cells plays an important role during asexual development in Magnaporthe. Ectopic expression of yeast ScATG32 partially suppressed the conidiation initiation defects associated with MoATG24 deletion. MoAtg24 was neither required for pexophagy nor for macroautophagy, or for MoAtg8 localization per se, but directly associated with and likely recruited mitochondria to the autophagic structures during mitophagy. Lastly, MoAtg24 was also required for oxidative stress response in Magnaporthe.
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RACK1 modulates NF-?B activation by interfering with the interaction between TRAF2 and the IKK complex.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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The transcription factor NF-?B plays a pivotal role in innate immunity in response to a variety of stimuli, and the coordinated regulation of this pathway determines the proper host responses to extracellular signals. In this study, we identified RACK1 as a novel negative regulator of NF-?B signaling, NF-?B-mediated cytokine induction and inflammatory reactions. RACK1 physically associates with the IKK complex in a TNF-triggered manner. This interaction interferes with the recruitment of the IKK complex to TRAF2, which is a critical step for IKK phosphorylation and subsequent activation triggered by TNF. By modulating the interaction between TRAF2 and IKK, RACK1 regulates the levels of NF-?B activation in response to different intensities of stimuli. Our findings suggest that RACK1 plays an important role in controlling the sensitivity of TNF-triggered NF-?B signaling by regulating IKK activation and provide new insight into the negative regulation of inflammatory reactions.Cell Research advance online publication 10 December 2013; doi:10.1038/cr.2013.162.
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[Skeletal age estimation by pelvic X-ray of Han teenagers in Sichuan].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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To estimate the chronological age of Han teenagers in Sichuan by the epiphyses development characteristics of iliac crest and ischial tuberosity in X-ray digital images.
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[Changes in serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3, and their significance in children with left-to-right shunt congenital heart disease associated with heart failure].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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To investigate changes in serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and their significance in children with left-to-right shunt congenital heart disease (CHD) associated with heart failure (HF).
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A method for fast automated microscope image stitching.
Micron
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Image stitching is an important technology to produce a panorama or larger image by combining several images with overlapped areas. In many biomedical researches, image stitching is highly desirable to acquire a panoramic image which represents large areas of certain structures or whole sections, while retaining microscopic resolution. In this study, we develop a fast normal light microscope image stitching algorithm based on feature extraction. At first, an algorithm of scale-space reconstruction of speeded-up robust features (SURF) was proposed to extract features from the images to be stitched with a short time and higher repeatability. Then, the histogram equalization (HE) method was employed to preprocess the images to enhance their contrast for extracting more features. Thirdly, the rough overlapping zones of the images preprocessed were calculated by phase correlation, and the improved SURF was used to extract the image features in the rough overlapping areas. Fourthly, the features were corresponded by matching algorithm and the transformation parameters were estimated, then the images were blended seamlessly. Finally, this procedure was applied to stitch normal light microscope images to verify its validity. Our experimental results demonstrate that the improved SURF algorithm is very robust to viewpoint, illumination, blur, rotation and zoom of the images and our method is able to stitch microscope images automatically with high precision and high speed. Also, the method proposed in this paper is applicable to registration and stitching of common images as well as stitching the microscope images in the field of virtual microscope for the purpose of observing, exchanging, saving, and establishing a database of microscope images.
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Methicillin/per-6-(4-methoxylbenzyl)-amino-6-deoxy-?-cyclodextrin 1:1 complex and its potentiation in vitro against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
J. Antibiot.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Some of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) derivatives as host compounds can form specific inclusion complexes with guest drugs in defined shapes and conformations. In observing one of the known mechanisms of action of ?-lactam antibiotic-resistances, a unique ?-CD derivative/antibiotic complex may act in accommodating the antibiotic to increase affinity for the resistant target such as the altered penicillin-binding protein PBP2a, which results in recovering and potentiating its antibacterial activities against resistant strains. A designed ?-CD derivative, per-6-(4-methoxylbenzyl)-amino-6-deoxy-?-CD HCl salt (1), was synthesized from starting material ?-CD. The formation and the conformation of 1:1 (molar ratio) methicillin/compound 1 complex was determined through (1)H NMR and NOESY experiments. The in vitro MIC of the methicillin in combination of 1, along with methicillin alone, and 1:1 hydroxypropyl-?-CD (HP-?-CD, a commercially available product)/methicillin were assayed against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. The MIC values of methicillin combined with 1 against MRSA COL and MRSA USA300 were significantly decreased with 30- to 60-fold, compared with those for the antibiotic alone, and 1:1 HP-?-CD/methicillin in this assay. This revealed that compound 1 recovered/potentiated methicillin against MRSA COL and MRSA USA300 in vitro combined with methicillin at 1:1 compound 1/methicillin in the aqueous solution.
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Colonization and plant growth promoting characterization of endophytic Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain Zong1 isolated from Sophora alopecuroides root nodules.
Braz. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The endophytic strain Zong1 isolated from root nodules of the legume Sophora alopecuroides was characterized by conducting physiological and biochemical tests employing gfp-marking, observing their plant growth promoting characteristics (PGPC) and detecting plant growth parameters of inoculation assays under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that strain Zong1 had an effective growth at 28 ºC after placed at 4-60 ºC for 15 min, had a wide range pH tolerance of 6.0-11.0 and salt tolerance up to 5% of NaCl. Zong1 was resistant to the following antibiotics (?g/mL): Phosphonomycin (100), Penicillin (100) and Ampicillin (100). It could grow in the medium supplemented with 1.2 mmol/L Cu, 0.1% (w/v) methylene blue and 0.1-0.2% (w/v) methyl red, respectively. Zong1 is closely related to Pseudomonas chlororaphis based on analysis the sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Its expression of the gfp gene indicated that strain Zong1 may colonize in root or root nodules and verified by microscopic observation. Furthermore, co-inoculation with Zong1 and SQ1 (Mesorhizobium sp.) showed significant effects compared to single inoculation for the following PGPC parameters: siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, organic acid production, IAA production and antifungal activity in vitro. These results suggest strains P. chlororaphi Zong1 and Mesorhizobium sp. SQ1 have better synergistic or addictive effect. It was noteworthy that each growth index of co-inoculated Zong1+SQ1 in growth assays under greenhouse conditions is higher than those of single inoculation, and showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared to a negative control. Therefore, as an endophyte P. chlororaphis Zong1 may play important roles as a potential plant-growth promoting agent.
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[Skeletal age estimation of sternal end of clavicle in Sichuan Han nationality youth using thin-section computed tomography].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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To explore the growth status of epiphysis of sternal end of clavicle using thin-section computed tomography (CT) and to study the relationship between the status and the chronological age of Sichuan Han nationality youth.
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[Clinical features and experience of diagnosis and treatment of thyroid neoplasm in children].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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To study the clinical features, diagnosis and therapy of thyroid neoplasm in children.
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[Stature estimation of teenagers by limb long bones with computerized radiography].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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Relative parameters of upper limb bones, tibia and fibula were measured with computed radiography and used to establish the mathematical models for stature estimation of teenagers (from 14 to 18 years old) of Han population in Sichuan Province.
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[Forensic identification by coding of frontal sinus characteristics of CT].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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To explore observing parameters of frontal sinus using reconstructive coronal nose bone sections of the head CT images and to establish the special identification codes.
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[Effect of rubrene position on the EL performance of the device and analysis of the exciton recombination zone].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2011
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By using an ultrathin 5, 6, 11, 12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) layer deposited on the top of host materials, the influence of rubrene layer position on the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) was stud ied. When the rubrene layer is located at the interface between N,N-diphenyl-N,N-bis(1-naphthyl)-(1,18-biphenyl)-4,4-di-amine (NPB) and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (AlQ) layer, EL luminescence of the device is nearly coming from rubrene emission. From the analysis of the EL spectra of the devices with different rubrene layer position, the solely contribution of rubrene and AlQ, respectively, to the luminescence of the devices is determined by spectra unmixing. Based on the analysis, the exciton length in AlQ layer is determined to be about 15-20 nm. The exciton transport and recombination characteristics are also discussed in this work.
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Rhizobium helanshanense sp. nov., a bacterium that nodulates Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC. in China.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Studying rhizobia in the root nodules of Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC in the northwest of China, we obtained five strains classified as genus Rhizobium on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The sequence similarity of strain CCNWQTX14(T) with the most related species was 99.0%. Further phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes (recA and atpD) suggested the five strains comprised a novel lineage within Rhizobium. The nifH and nodD gene sequences of CCNWQTX14(T) were phylogenetically closely related with those of Sinorhizobium kummerowiae and R. sphaerophysae, respectively. The five strains isolated from different places were also distinct from related Rhizobium species using ERIC fingerprint profiles. The DNA-DNA hybridization value was 41.8% between CCNWQTX14(T) and Rhizobium sphaerophysae CCNWGS0238(T). Our novel strains were only able to form effective nodules on its original host Sphaerophysa salsula. Our data showed that the five Rhizobium strains formed a unique genomic species, for which a novel species Rhizobium helanshanense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CCNWQTX14(T) (=ACCC 16237(T) =HAMBI 3083(T)).
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Diversity of endophytic bacteria within nodules of the Sphaerophysa salsula in different regions of Loess Plateau in China.
FEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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A total of 115 endophytic bacteria were isolated from root nodules of the wild legume Sphaerophysa salsula grown in two ecological regions of Loess Plateau in China. The genetic diversity and phylogeny of the strains were revealed by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR. Their symbiotic capacity was checked by nodulation tests and analysis of nifH gene sequence. This is the first systematic study on endophytic bacteria associated with S. salsula root nodules. Fifty of the strains found were symbiotic bacteria belonging to eight putative species in the genera Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium, harboring similar nifH genes; Mesorhizobium gobiense was the main group and 65 strains were nonsymbiotic bacteria related to 17 species in the genera Paracoccus, Sphingomonas, Inquilinus, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Staphylococcus, Lysinibacillus and Bacillus, which were universally coexistent with symbiotic bacteria in the nodules. Differing from other similar studies, the present study is the first time that symbiotic and nonsymbiotic bacteria have been simultaneously isolated from the same root nodules, offering the possibility to accurately reveal the correlation between these two kinds of bacteria. These results provide valuable information about the interactions among the symbiotic bacteria, nonsymbiotic bacteria and their habitats.
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Sorafenib suppresses postsurgical recurrence and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in an orthotopic mouse model.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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Surgical resection is the first-line treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with well-preserved liver function. Nevertheless, the rate of postoperative recurrence at 5 years is as high as 70%, and this gravely jeopardizes the therapeutic outcome. Clearly, new approaches are needed for preventing the relapse of this deadly disease. Taking advantage of a luciferase-labeled orthotopic xenograft model of HCC, we examined the role of sorafenib, the first systemic drug approved for advanced HCC patients, in the prevention of HCC recurrence. We found that sorafenib suppressed the development of postsurgical intrahepatic recurrence and abdominal metastasis and consequently led to prolonged postoperative survival of mice in this model. Furthermore, hyperactivity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling caused by elevated levels of growth factors associated with postoperative liver regeneration enhanced the sensitivity of HCC cells to sorafenib; this provides a plausible explanation for the observation that recurrent tumors are more responsive to growth inhibition by sorafenib.
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EphB3 is overexpressed in non-small-cell lung cancer and promotes tumor metastasis by enhancing cell survival and migration.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Eph receptors, the largest subfamily of transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors, have been increasingly implicated in various physiologic and pathologic processes, and the roles of the Eph family members during tumorigenesis have recently attracted growing attention. Until now, research on EphB3 function in cancer is limited to focusing on tumor suppression by EphB receptors in colorectal cancer. However, its function in other types of cancer remains poorly investigated. In this study, we explored the function of EphB3 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We found that the expression of EphB3 was significantly upregulated in clinical samples and cell lines, and the expression level correlated with the patient pathologic characteristics, including tumor size, differentiation, and metastasis. Overexpression of EphB3 in NSCLC cell lines accelerated cell growth and migration and promoted tumorigenicity in xenografts in a kinase-independent manner. In contrast, downregulation of EphB3 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and suppressed in vivo tumor growth and metastasis. Furthermore, we showed that silencing of EphB3 inhibited cell growth by reducing DNA synthesis and caspase-8-mediated apoptosis and suppressed cell migration by increasing accumulation of focal adhesion formation. Taken together, our findings suggest that EphB3 provides critical support to the development and progression of NSCLC by stimulating cell growth, migration, and survival, thereby implicating EphB3 as a potential therapeutic target in NSCLC.
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Vascular PPAR? protects against stroke-induced brain injury.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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To investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? in the cerebral vasculature following stroke-induced brain injury.
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[Effects of climate warming and drying on millet yield in Gansu Province and related countermeasures].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
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Based on the data of air temperature, precipitation, and millet yield from Ganzhou, Anding, and Xifeng, the representative stations in Hexi moderate arid oasis irrigation area, moderate sub-arid dry area in middle Gansu, and moderate sub-humid dry area in eastern Gansu, respectively, this paper calculated the regional active accumulated temperature of > or = 0 degrees C, > or =5 degrees C, > or =10 degrees C, > or =15 degrees C, and > or =20 degrees C in millet growth period, and the average temperature and precipitation in millet key growth stages. The millet climatic yield was isolated by orthogonal polynomial, and the change characteristics of climate and millet climatic yield as well as the effects of climate change on millet yield were analyzed by statistical methods of linear tendency, cumulative anomaly, and Mann-Kendall. The results showed that warming and drying were the main regional features in the modern climatic change of Gansu. The regional temperature had a significant upward trend since the early 1990s, while the precipitation was significantly reduced from the late 1980s. There were significant correlations between millet yield and climatic factors. The millet yield in dry areas increased with the increasing temperature and precipitation in millet key growth stages, and that in Hexi Corridor area increased with increasing temperature. Warming and drying affected millet yield prominently. The weather fluctuation index of regional millet yield in Xifeng, Anding, and Ganzhou accounted for 73%, 72%, and 54% of real output coefficient variation, respectively, and the percentages increased significantly after warming. Warming was conducive to the increase of millet production, and the annual increment of millet climatic yield in Xifeng, Anding, and Ganzhou after warming was 30.6, 43.1, and 121.1 kg x hm(-2), respectively. Aiming at the warming and drying trend in Gansu Province in the future, the millet planting area in the Province should be further expanded, and the millet planting structure should be adjusted. At the same time, according to the different regional and yearly climatic types, different varieties should be selected, and various planting measures should be taken.
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[Morphological classification of frontal sinuses on digital X-ray films and its forensic identification indexes].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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To explore morphological classification of the Caldwell view of frontal sinuses in computer radiography (CR) for forensic identification and to construct a forensic identification system with digital X-ray films with assistance of identification indexes coding.
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MEKC determination of IgG in human serum via a pH-mediated acid stacking method.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
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An on-column preconcentration technique, pH-mediated acid stacking, was used in this study to improve the sensitivity of MEKC-UV analysis of IgG in human serum. Various parameters affecting pH-mediated acid stacking were optimized systematically. To eliminate the matrix interferences of human serum and to combine the sample pretreatment procedure with the detection methodology, silica-coated Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles modified with N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane were prepared and employed as solid phase extraction adsorbent to remove the abundant HSA from human serum. HSA was quantitatively removed by silica-coated Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles modified with N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilanes without retaining IgG at pH 9.3. Under the optimum conditions, the sensitivity of IgG was improved 40.3-fold using a 100?s electrokinetic injection as compared with a 6?s hydrodynamic injection. The detection limit of IgG was found to be 0.1?mg/L, and the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of IgG in human serum with satisfactory results.
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A vacuolar glucoamylase, Sga1, participates in glycogen autophagy for proper asexual differentiation in Magnaporthe oryzae.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2010
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Nutrient limitation acts as a trigger for the synthesis of glycogen, which serves as a carbon and energy reserve during starvation. Recently, we reported that an autophagy-deficient mutant (atg8?) shows severe reduction in aerial hyphal growth and conidiation in the rice-blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, and proposed that autophagy plays an important role in facilitating glycogen homeostasis to ensure proper asexual differentiation in Magnaporthe. Here, we identify and characterize a vacuolar glucoamylase function (Sga1) that hydrolyses glycogen to meet the energy requirements during asexual development in Magnaporthe. Loss of SGA1 resulted in significant reduction in conidiation compared to the wild-type Magnaporthe strain. More importantly, an sga1? atg8? double deletion mutant showed further reduction in conidiation compared to the atg8? mutant in Magnaporthe. Forced localization of GFP-Sga1 to the cytoplasm (through removal of the predicted signal peptide) led to increased conidiation in wild type and the sga1?, but more interestingly, significantly restored conidiation in the atg8? mutant. Our results indicate that autophagy and Sga1 act cooperatively in vacuolar glycogen breakdown, which is essential for conidia formation but dispensable for pathogenicity in Magnaporthe.
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[Effects of climate change on potato growth in semi-arid region of Loess Plateau, China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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Based on the 1988-2008 located observation and 2007-2008 encrypted observation of potato growth and the 1957-2008 meteorological observation in semi-arid region of Loess Plateau, this paper studied the effects of climate change on the potato growth in this region. In 1957-2008, the annual precipitation in this region had a descending trend, with a linear fitting rate of the annual precipitation change curves being - 13.359 mm x (10 a)(-1), while the annual mean temperature displayed an ascending trend, with a linear fitting rate of the annual mean temperature change curves being 0.239 degrees C x (10 a)(-1). During potato growth period, the aridity index displayed a marked ascending trend, and the linear fitting rate of the aridity index change curves was 0.102 x (10 a)(-1). The growth rate of potato tuber became faster from the 96th day after sowing, reached the maximum on the 110th day, and turned slower from the 124th day. The interval from sowing to seedling emergence was shortened by 1-2 d x (10 a)(-1), and that from inflorescence formation to reaping and of whole growth period was lengthened by 9-10 d x (10 a) (-1). In the study region, climate warming shortened the vegetative growth stage, but lengthened the reproductive growth stage and whole growth period of potato.
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta regulation of miR-15a in ischemia-induced cerebral vascular endothelial injury.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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Cerebral vascular endothelial cell (CEC) degeneration significantly contributes to blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and neuronal loss after cerebral ischemia. Recently, emerging data suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) activation has a potential neuroprotective role in ischemic stroke. Here we report for the first time that PPARdelta is significantly reduced in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced mouse CEC death. Interestingly, PPARdelta overexpression can suppress OGD-induced caspase-3 activity, Golgi fragmentation, and CEC death through an increase of bcl-2 protein levels without change of bcl-2 mRNA levels. To explore the molecular mechanisms, we have identified that upregulation of PPARdelta can alleviate ODG-activated microRNA-15a (miR-15a) expression in CECs. Moreover, we have demonstrated that bcl-2 is a translationally repressed target of miR-15a. Intriguingly, gain- or loss-of-miR-15a function can significantly reduce or increase OGD-induced CEC death, respectively. Furthermore, we have identified that miR-15a is a transcriptional target of PPARdelta. Consistent with the in vitro findings, we found that intracerebroventricular infusion of a specific PPARdelta agonist, GW 501516 (2-[2-methyl-4-[[4-methyl-2-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1,3-thiazol-5-yl]methylsulfanyl]phenoxy]acetic acid), significantly reduced ischemia-induced miR-15a expression, increased bcl-2 protein levels, and attenuated caspase-3 activity and subsequent DNA fragmentation in isolated cerebral microvessels, leading to decreased BBB disruption and reduced cerebral infarction in mice after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Together, these results suggest that PPARdelta plays a vascular-protective role in ischemia-like insults via transcriptional repression of miR-15a, resulting in subsequent release of its posttranscriptional inhibition of bcl-2. Thus, regulation of PPARdelta-mediated miR-15a inhibition of bcl-2 could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of stroke-related vascular dysfunction.
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Paracoccus sphaerophysae sp. nov., a siderophore-producing, endophytic bacterium isolated from root nodules of Sphaerophysa salsula.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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An aerobic, brown-pigmented, non-spore-forming, endophytic bacterium, designated strain Zy-3(T), was isolated from root nodules of Sphaerophysa salsula, a native leguminous herb belonging to the family Leguminosae growing in north-western China. Cells of strain Zy-3(T) were non-motile, Gram-negative rods. Strain Zy-3(T) produced siderophores and showed antifungal activity. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the closest relative of this organism was Paracoccus halophilus HN-182(T) (96.6?% sequence similarity). On the basis of genotype, fatty acid patterns and physiological characteristics, a novel species Paracoccus sphaerophysae sp. nov. is proposed, with Zy-3(T) (=ACCC 05413(T) =HAMBI 3106(T)) as the type strain.
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[Analysis of alcohol mass concentration in corpse blood].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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The blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is an important evidence to determine the alcohol level at the time of death. But due to the postmortem synthesis and diffusion of alcohol, the cadaveric BAC can not always represent the original BAC at the time of death. It is a crucial problem to determine the original level in corpse. The article reviewed the following points: the distribution in corpse, and how to sample, the influences on the diffusion of alcohol and putrefaction, the discussion about alcohol mass concentration measure methods.
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miR-497 regulates neuronal death in mouse brain after transient focal cerebral ischemia.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Dysfunction of the microRNA (miR) network has been emerging as a major regulator in neurological diseases. However, little is known about the functional significance of unique miRs in ischemic brain damage. Here, we found that miR-497 is induced in mouse brain after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and mouse N2A neuroblastoma (N2A) cells after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Loss-of-miR-497 function significantly suppresses OGD-induced N2A cell death, whereas gain-of-miR-497 function aggravates OGD-induced neuronal loss. Moreover, miR-497 directly binds to the predicted 3-UTR target sites of bcl-2/-w genes. Furthermore, knockdown of cerebral miR-497 effectively enhances bcl-2/-w protein levels in the ischemic region, attenuates ischemic brain infarction, and improves neurological outcomes in mice after focal cerebral ischemia. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-497 promotes ischemic neuronal death by negatively regulating antiapoptotic proteins, bcl-2 and bcl-w. We raise the possibility that this pathway may contribute to the pathogenesis of the ischemic brain injury in stroke.
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Characteristics of smokers and predictors of quitting in a smoking cessation clinic in Guangzhou, China.
J Public Health (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2009
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Smoking cessation programs are well established in the West, but reports on smoking cessation clinics (SCCs) from China are lacking. On the basis of the Hong Kong experience and with strong support from Guangzhou Health Bureau, we established the first SCC in Guangzhou, China. The objective was to describe the characteristics of smokers, measure quit rates and examine predictors of successful quitting.
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The stimulatory effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralisation of osteoblastic cells from Holstein cattle.
Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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This study investigated the effect of exogenous insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells from Chinese Holstein cattle and the resultant bone nodule formation and mineralisation in vitro. The osteoblastic cells were isolated and cultured, then identified using Giemsa and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining methods. The effect of different concentrations of IGF-1 on cell growth was assessed by MTT assay. The ALP activity and osteocalcin (OC) concentration in the osteoblastic cells were measured by a colorimetric assay and a radioimmmunoassay, respectively. Calcium nodules were observed using alizarin red S stain, while the content of matrix calcium was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cell proliferation in the cultures was stimulated by IGF-1 at concentrations ranging from 1 to 200ng/mL, with the maximum effect observed at 100ng/mL. This effect was observed from day 1 and peaked at day 5, but decreased at day 7. At concentrations of 10ng/mL and 100ng/mL, IGF-1 significantly induced ALP activity, OC level, matrix calcium content, and nodule formation of the osteoblastic cells by 20-180% (P<0.05 or P<0.01), compared to controls. The results suggested that IGF-1 is an anabolic agent for the proliferation, differentiation, mineralisation and calcium content of dairy cow osteoblasts, and could therefore act as a potential treatment for the metabolic bone diseases in these animals.
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[Analysis of 82 forensic expertise cases on medical disputes in obstetrics and gynecology].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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To study the rules of forensic expertise on medical disputes in obstetrics and gynecology, and the characteristics of medical faults in order to provide theoretical supports for forensic expertise.
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Elevated CA125 in primary peritoneal serous psammocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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Psammocarcinoma is a rare form of serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum, and it is characterised by extensive psammoma body formation and invasion of surrounding structures. This report describes the case of a 42-year-old woman who presented with large ascites and raised CA125 level. Following a full staging laparotomy, she was made stable in stage IIIC. Despite the limited number of cases reported, the clinical prognosis of carcinomas resembling the serous borderline lesions seems much more favourable than the common serous carcinomas. A summary of all the reported cases is provided to highlight the clinical and prognostic features of this scarce tumour.
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The pollination of a self-incompatible, food-mimic orchid, Coelogyne fimbriata (Orchidaceae), by female Vespula wasps.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2009
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The study of specialized interactions between species is crucial to our understanding of processes in evolutionary ecology due to their profound effect on life cycles and diversification. Obligate pollination by a single wasp species is rare in Orchidaceae except in species with sexually deceptive flowers that are pollinated exclusively by male insects. The object of this study was to document pollination of the food-deceptive flowers of Coelogyne fimbriata, a species pollinated exclusively by female wasps.
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Autophagy-assisted glycogen catabolism regulates asexual differentiation in Magnaporthe oryzae.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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Autophagy, a conserved pathway for bulk cellular degradation and recycling in eukaryotes, regulates proper turnover of organelles, membranes and certain proteins. Such regulated degradation is important for cell growth and development particularly during environmental stress conditions, which act as key inducers of autophagy. We found that autophagy and MoATG8 were significantly induced during asexual development in Magnaporthe oryzae. An RFP-tagged MoAtg8 showed specific localization and enrichment in aerial hyphae, conidiophores and conidia. We confirmed that loss of MoATG8 results in dramatically reduced ability to form conidia, the asexual spores that propagate rice-blast disease. Exogenous supply of glucose or sucrose significantly suppressed the conidiation defects in a MoATG8-deletion mutant. Comparative proteomics based identification and characterization of Gph1, a glycogen phosphorylase that catalyzes glycogen breakdown, indicated that autophagy-assisted glycogen homeostasis is likely important for proper aerial growth and conidiation in Magnaporthe. Loss of Gph1, or addition of G6P significantly restored conidiation in the Moatg8Delta mutant. Overproduction of Gph1 led to reduced conidiation in wild-type Magnaporthe strain. We propose that glycogen autophagy actively responds to and regulates carbon utilization required for cell growth and differentiation during asexual development in Magnaporthe.
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Stature estimation based on the length of tibia and fibula measured by digital X-ray in Chinese Han teenagers.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
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To derive regression formulae for stature estimation using forensic radiography from the tibia and fibula of Chinese Han teenagers in Sichuan Province.
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Neural protein gamma-synuclein interacting with androgen receptor promotes human prostate cancer progression.
BMC Cancer
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Gamma-synuclein (SNCG) has previously been demonstrated to be significantly correlated with metastatic malignancies; however, in-depth investigation of SNCG in prostate cancer is still lacking. In the present study, we evaluated the role of SNCG in prostate cancer progression and explored the underlying mechanisms.
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[Effect of dendrobium mixture on hypoglycemic and the apoptosis of islet in rats with type 2 diabetic mellitus].
Zhong Yao Cai
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To study the effect of Dendrobium mixture on hypoglycemic and the apoptosis of islet in rats with type 2 diabetic mellitus.
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[Research on spectral response of CdSe quantum dots dopted polymer solar cell].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
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In the present paper, bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM and P3HT:PCBM:QDs active layer were fabricated and measured respectively. The experimental result showed that the addition of QDs can broaden the spectral response and enhance photoinduced electron transfer. The conversion efficiency of device with QDs is about 25% higher than that without QDs.
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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Daniel J Klionsky, Fábio C Abdalla, Hagai Abeliovich, Robert T Abraham, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena, Khosrow Adeli, Lotta Agholme, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Hyung Jun Ahn, Ouardia Ait-Mohamed, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Shizuo Akira, Hesham M Al-Younes, Munir A Al-Zeer, Matthew L Albert, Roger L Albin, Javier Alegre-Abarrategui, Maria Francesca Aleo, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Becerril, Atsuo Amano, Ravi Amaravadi, Shoba Amarnath, Amal O Amer, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Vellareddy Anantharam, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Giuseppe Arancia, John P Aris, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Nana Y O Asare, Hisashi Ashida, Valerie Askanas, David S Askew, Patrick Auberger, Misuzu Baba, Steven K Backues, Eric H Baehrecke, Ben A Bahr, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Robert Baiocchi, Giulia Baldini, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Bruce A Bamber, Edward T W Bampton, Gábor Bánhegyi, Clinton R Bartholomew, Diane C Bassham, Robert C Bast, Henri Batoko, Boon-Huat Bay, Isabelle Beau, Daniel M Béchet, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Soumeya Bekri, Bryan Bellaire, Linda J Bendall, Luca Benetti, Laura Berliocchi, Henri Bernardi, Francesca Bernassola, Sébastien Besteiro, Ingrid Bhatia-Kiššová, Xiaoning Bi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Janice S Blum, Lawrence H Boise, Paolo Bonaldo, David L Boone, Beat C Bornhauser, Karina R Bortoluci, Ioannis Bossis, Fréderic Bost, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan R Brady, Claudio Brancolini, Andreas Brech, Jay E Brenman, Ana Brennand, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Molly L Bristol, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Ulf T Brunk, Dennis E Bulman, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Lena F Burbulla, Wilfried Bursch, Jonathan P Butchar, Wanda Buzgariu, Sérgio P Bydlowski, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jiyang Cai, Qian Cai, Bruno Calabretta, Javier Calvo-Garrido, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Jenny Campos-Salinas, Eleonora Candi, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Simon R Carding, Sandra M Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Cathleen R Carlin, Virginie Carmignac, Leticia A M Carneiro, Serena Carra, Rosario A Caruso, Giorgio Casari, Caty Casas, Roberta Castino, Eduardo Cebollero, Francesco Cecconi, Jean Celli, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Chee-Yin Chai, David C Chan, Edmond Y Chan, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Chi-Ming Che, Ching-Chow Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen, Min Chen, Quan Chen, Steve S-L Chen, WenLi Chen, Xi Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Xiequn Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongqiang Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher H K Cheng, Yan Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Jae-Ho Cheong, Sara Cherry, Russ Chess-Williams, Zelda H Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Tomoki Chiba, Lih-Shen Chin, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Francis V Chisari, Chi Hin Cho, Dong-Hyung Cho, Augustine M K Choi, DooSeok Choi, Kyeong Sook Choi, Mary E Choi, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Sheau-Huei Chueh, Taehoon Chun, Yong-Joon Chwae, Mee-Len Chye, Roberto Ciarcia, Maria R Ciriolo, Michael J Clague, Robert S B Clark, Peter G H Clarke, Robert Clarke, Patrice Codogno, Hilary A Coller, María I Colombo, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Fabrizio Condorelli, Mark R Cookson, Graham H Coombs, Isabelle Coppens, Ramón Corbalán, Pascale Cossart, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Ana Coto-Montes, Eduardo Couve, Fraser P Coxon, James M Cregg, José L Crespo, Marianne J Cronjé, Ana Maria Cuervo, Joseph J Cullen, Mark J Czaja, Marcello D'Amelio, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Lester M Davids, Faith E Davies, Massimo De Felici, John F de Groot, Cornelis A M de Haan, Luisa De Martino, Angelo De Milito, Vincenzo De Tata, Jayanta Debnath, Alexei Degterev, Benjamin Dehay, Lea M D Delbridge, Francesca Demarchi, Yi Zhen Deng, Jörn Dengjel, Paul Dent, Donna Denton, Vojo Deretic, Shyamal D Desai, Rodney J Devenish, Mario Di Gioacchino, Gilbert Di Paolo, Chiara Di Pietro, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Inés Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Ivan Dikic, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar, Wen-Xing Ding, Clark W Distelhorst, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Zheng Dong, Frank C Dorsey, Victor Dosenko, James J Dowling, Stephen Doxsey, Marlène Dreux, Mark E Drew, Qiuhong Duan, Michel A Duchosal, Karen Duff, Isabelle Dugail, Madeleine Durbeej, Michael Duszenko, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Gustavo Egea, Ludwig Eichinger, N Tony Eissa, Suhendan Ekmekcioglu, Wafik S El-Deiry, Zvulun Elazar, Mohamed Elgendy, Lisa M Ellerby, Kai Er Eng, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Ricardo Escalante, Audrey Esclatine, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Virginia Espina, Huizhou Fan, Jia Fan, Qi-Wen Fan, Zhen Fan, Shengyun Fang, Yongqi Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Jean-Claude Farré, Mathias Faure, Marcus Fechheimer, Carl G Feng, Jian Feng, Qili Feng, Youji Feng, László Fésüs, Ralph Feuer, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Gian Maria Fimia, Diane C Fingar, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Kim D Finley, Filomena Fiorito, Edward A Fisher, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Maria L Florez-McClure, Salvatore Florio, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Rati Fotedar, Daniel H Fowler, Howard S Fox, Rodrigo Franco, Lisa B Frankel, Marc Fransen, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Jun Fujii, Kozo Fujisaki, Eriko Fujita, Mitsunori Fukuda, Ruth H Furukawa, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Brigitte Galliot, Vincent Galy, Subramaniam Ganesh, Barry Ganetzky, Ian G Ganley, Fen-Biao Gao, George F Gao, Jinming Gao, Lorena Garcia, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Mikel Garcia-Marcos, Marjan Garmyn, Andrei L Gartel, Evelina Gatti, Mathias Gautel, Thomas R Gawriluk, Matthew E Gegg, Jiefei Geng, Marc Germain, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Pradipta Ghosh, Anna M Giammarioli, Alexandra N Giatromanolaki, Spencer B Gibson, Robert W Gilkerson, Michael L Ginger, Henry N Ginsberg, Jakub Golab, Michael S Goligorsky, Pierre Golstein, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Ebru Goncu, Céline Gongora, Claudio D Gonzalez, Ramon Gonzalez, Cristina González-Estévez, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Sharon Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Roberta A Gottlieb, Devrim Gozuacik, Giovanna Elvira Granato, Gary D Grant, Kim N Green, Aleš Gregorc, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Thomas W Grunt, Philippe Gual, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Sylvie M Guichard, Anna S Gukovskaya, Ilya Gukovsky, Jan Gunst, Asa B Gustafsson, Andrew J Halayko, Amber N Hale, Sandra K Halonen, Maho Hamasaki, Feng Han, Ting Han, Michael K Hancock, Malene Hansen, Hisashi Harada, Masaru Harada, Stefan E Hardt, J Wade Harper, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Steven D Harris, Makoto Hashimoto, Jeffrey A Haspel, Shin-Ichiro Hayashi, Lori A Hazelhurst, Congcong He, You-Wen He, Marie-Josee Hebert, Kim A Heidenreich, Miep H Helfrich, Gudmundur V Helgason, Elizabeth P Henske, Brian Herman, Paul K Herman, Claudio Hetz, Sabine Hilfiker, Joseph A Hill, Lynne J Hocking, Paul Hofman, Thomas G Hofmann, Jörg Höhfeld, Tessa L Holyoake, Ming-Huang Hong, David A Hood, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Ewout J Houwerzijl, Maria Høyer-Hansen, Bingren Hu, Chien-An A Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Ju Huang, Shengbing Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Tobias B Huber, Won-Ki Huh, Tai-Ho Hung, Ted R Hupp, Gang Min Hur, James B Hurley, Sabah N A Hussain, Patrick J Hussey, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Shirin Ilkhanizadeh, Ken Inoki, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Nancy Y Ip, Yoshitaka Isaka, Hiroyuki Ishida, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Akiko Iwasaki, Marta Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Panu M Jaakkola, Marja Jäättelä, George R Jackson, William T Jackson, Bassam Janji, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Eui-Bae Jeung, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Jean X Jiang, Ming Jiang, Qing Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Cheol O Joe, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail V W Johnson, Nicola L Jones, Bertrand Joseph, Suresh K Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Gábor Juhász, Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret, Chang Hwa Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Motoni Kadowaki, Katarina Kågedal, Yoshiaki Kamada, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Chanhee Kang, Khong Bee Kang, Kwang Il Kang, Rui Kang, Yoon-A Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy, Vassiliki Karantza, Gur P Kaushal, Susmita Kaushik, Yoshinori Kawazoe, Po-Yuan Ke, John H Kehrl, Ameeta Kelekar, Claus Kerkhoff, David H Kessel, Hany Khalil, Jan A K W Kiel, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hou Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, John K Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Jason S King, Timothy J Kinsella, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Kaio Kitazato, Ludger Klein, Walter T Klimecki, Jochen Klucken, Erwin Knecht, Ben C B Ko, Jan C Koch, Hiroshi Koga, Jae-Young Koh, Young Ho Koh, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Hee Jeong Kong, Wei-jia Kong, Viktor I Korolchuk, Yaichiro Kotake, Michael I Koukourakis, Juan B Kouri Flores, Attila L Kovács, Claudine Kraft, Dimitri Krainc, Helmut Krämer, Carole Kretz-Remy, Anna M Krichevsky, Guido Kroemer, Rejko Krüger, Oleg Krut, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Chia-Yi Kuan, Róza Kucharczyk, Ashok Kumar, Raj Kumar, Sharad Kumar, Mondira Kundu, Hsing-Jien Kung, Tino Kurz, Ho Jeong Kwon, Albert R La Spada, Frank Lafont, Trond Lamark, Jacques Landry, Jon D Lane, Pierre Lapaquette, Jocelyn F Laporte, Lajos László, Sergio Lavandero, Josée N Lavoie, Robert Layfield, Pedro A Lazo, Weidong Le, Laurent Le Cam, Daniel J Ledbetter, Alvin J X Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Gyun Min Lee, Jongdae Lee, Ju-Hyun Lee, Michael Lee, Myung-Shik Lee, Sug Hyung Lee, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Patrick Legembre, Renaud Legouis, Michael Lehmann, Huan-Yao Lei, Qun-Ying Lei, David A Leib, José Leiro, John J Lemasters, Antoinette Lemoine, Maciej S Lesniak, Dina Lev, Victor V Levenson, Beth Levine, Efrat Levy, Faqiang Li, Jun-lin Li, Lian Li, Sheng Li, Weijie Li, Xue-Jun Li, Yan-Bo Li, Yi-Ping Li, Chengyu Liang, Qiangrong Liang, Yung-Feng Liao, Pawel P Liberski, Andrew Lieberman, Hyunjung J Lim, Kah-Leong Lim, Kyu Lim, Chiou-Feng Lin, Fu-Cheng Lin, Jian Lin, Jiandie D Lin, Kui Lin, Wan-Wan Lin, Weei-Chin Lin, Yi-Ling Lin, Rafael Linden, Paul Lingor, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Michael P Lisanti, Paloma B Liton, Bo Liu, Chun-Feng Liu, Kaiyu Liu, Leyuan Liu, Qiong A Liu, Wei Liu, Young-Chau Liu, Yule Liu, Richard A Lockshin, Chun-Nam Lok, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin Loos, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Laura Lossi, Michael T Lotze, Péter Low, Binfeng Lu, Bingwei Lu, Bo Lu, Zhen Lu, Fredéric Luciano, Nicholas W Lukacs, Anders H Lund, Melinda A Lynch-Day, Yong Ma, Fernando Macian, Jeff P MacKeigan, Kay F Macleod, Frank Madeo, Luigi Maiuri, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Davide Malagoli, May Christine V Malicdan, Walter Malorni, Na Man, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Stéphen Manon, Irena Manov, Kai Mao, Xiang Mao, Zixu Mao, Philippe Marambaud, Daniela Marazziti, Yves L Marcel, Katie Marchbank, Piero Marchetti, Stefan J Marciniak, Mateus Marcondes, Mohsen Mardi, Gabriella Marfè, Guillermo Mariño, Maria Markaki, Mark R Marten, Seamus J Martin, Camille Martinand-Mari, Wim Martinet, Marta Martinez-Vicente, Matilde Masini, Paola Matarrese, Saburo Matsuo, Raffaele Matteoni, Andreas Mayer, Nathalie M Mazure, David J McConkey, Melanie J McConnell, Catherine McDermott, Christine McDonald, Gerald M McInerney, Sharon L McKenna, BethAnn McLaughlin, Pamela J McLean, Christopher R McMaster, G Angus McQuibban, Alfred J Meijer, Miriam H Meisler, Alicia Meléndez, Thomas J Melia, Gerry Melino, Maria A Mena, Javier A Menendez, Rubem F S Menna-Barreto, Manoj B Menon, Fiona M Menzies, Carol A Mercer, Adalberto Merighi, Diane E Merry, Stefania Meschini, Christian G Meyer, Thomas F Meyer, Chao-Yu Miao, Jun-Ying Miao, Paul A M Michels, Carine Michiels, Dalibor Mijaljica, Ana Milojkovic, Saverio Minucci, Clelia Miracco, Cindy K Miranti, Ioannis Mitroulis, Keisuke Miyazawa, Noboru Mizushima, Baharia Mograbi, Simin Mohseni, Xavier Molero, Bertrand Mollereau, Faustino Mollinedo, Takashi Momoi, Iryna Monastyrska, Martha M Monick, Mervyn J Monteiro, Michael N Moore, Rodrigo Mora, Kevin Moreau, Paula I Moreira, Yuji Moriyasu, Jorge Moscat, Serge Mostowy, Jeremy C Mottram, Tomasz Motyl, Charbel E-H Moussa, Sylke Müller, Sylviane Muller, Karl Münger, Christian Münz, Leon O Murphy, Maureen E Murphy, Antonio Musarò, Indira Mysorekar, Eiichiro Nagata, Kazuhiro Nagata, Aimable Nahimana, Usha Nair, Toshiyuki Nakagawa, Kiichi Nakahira, Hiroyasu Nakano, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Meera Nanjundan, Naweed I Naqvi, Derek P Narendra, Masashi Narita, Miguel Navarro, Steffan T Nawrocki, Taras Y Nazarko, Andriy Nemchenko, Mihai G Netea, Thomas P Neufeld, Paul A Ney, Ioannis P Nezis, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Daotai Nie, Ichizo Nishino, Corey Nislow, Ralph A Nixon, Takeshi Noda, Angelika A Noegel, Anna Nogalska, Satoru Noguchi, Lucia Notterpek, Ivana Novak, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Nobuyuki Nukina, Thorsten Nürnberger, Beat Nyfeler, Keisuke Obara, Terry D Oberley, Salvatore Oddo, Michinaga Ogawa, Toya Ohashi, Koji Okamoto, Nancy L Oleinick, F Javier Oliver, Laura J Olsen, Stefan Olsson, Onya Opota, Timothy F Osborne, Gary K Ostrander, Kinya Otsu, Jing-hsiung James Ou, Mireille Ouimet, Michael Overholtzer, Bulent Ozpolat, Paolo Paganetti, Ugo Pagnini, Nicolas Pallet, Glen E Palmer, Camilla Palumbo, Tianhong Pan, Theocharis Panaretakis, Udai Bhan Pandey, Zuzana Papackova, Issidora Papassideri, Irmgard Paris, Junsoo Park, Ohkmae K Park, Jan B Parys, Katherine R Parzych, Susann Patschan, Cam Patterson, Sophie Pattingre, John M Pawelek, Jianxin Peng, David H Perlmutter, Ida Perrotta, George Perry, Shazib Pervaiz, Matthias Peter, Godefridus J Peters, Morten Petersen, Goran Petrovski, James M Phang, Mauro Piacentini, Philippe Pierre, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Gérard Pierron, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Antonio Piras, Natik Piri, Leonidas C Platanias, Stefanie Pöggeler, Marc Poirot, Angelo Poletti, Christian Poüs, Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio, Mette Prætorius-Ibba, Anil Prasad, Mark Prescott, Muriel Priault, Nathalie Produit-Zengaffinen, Ann Progulske-Fox, Tassula Proikas-Cezanne, Serge Przedborski, Karin Przyklenk, Rosa Puertollano, Julien Puyal, Shu-Bing Qian, Liang Qin, Zheng-Hong Qin, Susan E Quaggin, Nina Raben, Hannah Rabinowich, Simon W Rabkin, Irfan Rahman, Abdelhaq Rami, Georg Ramm, Glenn Randall, Felix Randow, V Ashutosh Rao, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Brinda Ravikumar, Swapan K Ray, Bruce H Reed, John C Reed, Fulvio Reggiori, Anne Regnier-Vigouroux, Andreas S Reichert, John J Reiners, Russel J Reiter, Jun Ren, Jose L Revuelta, Christopher J Rhodes, Konstantinos Ritis, Elizete Rizzo, Jeffrey Robbins, Michel Roberge, Hernan Roca, Maria C Roccheri, Stéphane Rocchi, H Peter Rodemann, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, Bärbel Rohrer, Igor B Roninson, Kirill Rosen, Magdalena M Rost-Roszkowska, Mustapha Rouis, Kasper M A Rouschop, Francesca Rovetta, Brian P Rubin, David C Rubinsztein, Klaus Ruckdeschel, Edmund B Rucker, Assaf Rudich, Emil Rudolf, Nelson Ruiz-Opazo, Rossella Russo, Tor Erik Rusten, Kevin M Ryan, Stefan W Ryter, David M Sabatini, Junichi Sadoshima, Tapas Saha, Tatsuya Saitoh, Hiroshi Sakagami, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Ghasem Hoseini Salekdeh, Paolo Salomoni, Paul M Salvaterra, Guy Salvesen, Rosa Salvioli, Anthony M J Sanchez, José A Sánchez-Alcázar, Ricardo Sánchez-Prieto, Marco Sandri, Uma Sankar, Poonam Sansanwal, Laura Santambrogio, Shweta Saran, Sovan Sarkar, Minnie Sarwal, Chihiro Sasakawa, Ausra Sasnauskiene, Miklós Sass, Ken Sato, Miyuki Sato, Anthony H V Schapira, Michael Scharl, Hermann M Schätzl, Wiep Scheper, Stefano Schiaffino, Claudio Schneider, Marion E Schneider, Regine Schneider-Stock, Patricia V Schoenlein, Daniel F Schorderet, Christoph Schüller, Gary K Schwartz, Luca Scorrano, Linda Sealy, Per O Seglen, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Iban Seiliez, Oleksandr Seleverstov, Christian Sell, Jong Bok Seo, Duska Separovic, Vijayasaradhi Setaluri, Takao Setoguchi, Carmine Settembre, John J Shacka, Mala Shanmugam, Irving M Shapiro, Eitan Shaulian, Reuben J Shaw, James H Shelhamer, Han-Ming Shen, Wei-Chiang Shen, Zu-Hang Sheng, Yang Shi, Kenichi Shibuya, Yoshihiro Shidoji, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yohta Shimada, Shigeomi Shimizu, Takahiro Shintani, Orian S Shirihai, Gordon C Shore, Andriy A Sibirny, Stan B Sidhu, Beata Sikorska, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Alison Simmons, Anna Katharina Simon, Hans-Uwe Simon, Cristiano Simone, Anne Simonsen, David A Sinclair, Rajat Singh, Debasish Sinha, Frank A Sinicrope, Agnieszka Sirko, Parco M Siu, Efthimios Sivridis, Vojtech Skop, Vladimir P Skulachev, Ruth S Slack, Soraya S Smaili, Duncan R Smith, María S Soengas, Thierry Soldati, Xueqin Song, Anil K Sood, Tuck Wah Soong, Federica Sotgia, Stephen A Spector, Claudia D Spies, Wolfdieter Springer, Srinivasa M Srinivasula, Leonidas Stefanis, Joan S Steffan, Ruediger Stendel, Harald Stenmark, Anastasis Stephanou, Stephan T Stern, Cinthya Sternberg, Björn Stork, Peter Stralfors, Carlos S Subauste, Xinbing Sui, David Sulzer, Jiaren Sun, Shi-Yong Sun, Zhi-Jun Sun, Joseph J Y Sung, Kuninori Suzuki, Toshihiko Suzuki, Michele S Swanson, Charles Swanton, Sean T Sweeney, Lai-King Sy, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Ira Tabas, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Marco Tafani, Krisztina Takács-Vellai, Yoshitaka Takano, Kaoru Takegawa, Genzou Takemura, Fumihiko Takeshita, Nicholas J Talbot, Kevin S W Tan, Keiji Tanaka, Kozo Tanaka, Daolin Tang, Dingzhong Tang, Isei Tanida, Bakhos A Tannous, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Graham S Taylor, Gregory A Taylor, J Paul Taylor, Lance S Terada, Alexei Terman, Gianluca Tettamanti, Karin Thevissen, Craig B Thompson, Andrew Thorburn, Michael Thumm, Fengfeng Tian, Yuan Tian, Glauco Tocchini-Valentini, Aviva M Tolkovsky, Yasuhiko Tomino, Lars Tönges, Sharon A Tooze, Cathy Tournier, John Tower, Roberto Towns, Vladimir Trajkovic, Leonardo H Travassos, Ting-Fen Tsai, Mario P Tschan, Takeshi Tsubata, Allan Tsung, Boris Turk, Lorianne S Turner, Suresh C Tyagi, Yasuo Uchiyama, Takashi Ueno, Midori Umekawa, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Vivek K Unni, Maria I Vaccaro, Enza Maria Valente, Greet Van den Berghe, Ida J van der Klei, Wouter van Doorn, Linda F van Dyk, Marjolein van Egmond, Leo A van Grunsven, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim P Vandenberghe, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Eva C Vaquero, Guillermo Velasco, Tibor Vellai, Jose Miguel Vicencio, Richard D Vierstra, Miquel Vila, Cécile Vindis, Giampietro Viola, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja, Clarissa von Haefen, Marcela Votruba, Keiji Wada, Richard Wade-Martins, Cheryl L Walker, Craig M Walsh, Jochen Walter, Xiang-Bo Wan, Aimin Wang, Chenguang Wang, Dawei Wang, Fan Wang, Fen Wang, Guanghui Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jin Wang, Ke Wang, Mei Wang, Richard C Wang, Xinglong Wang, Xuejun Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Zhen Wang, Zhigang Charles Wang, Zhinong Wang, Derick G Wansink, Diane M Ward, Hirotaka Watada, Sarah L Waters, Paul Webster, Lixin Wei, Conrad C Weihl, William A Weiss, Scott M Welford, Long-Ping Wen, Caroline A Whitehouse, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Tom Wileman, John W Wiley, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Roger L Williams, Peter R Williamson, Bradly G Wouters, Chenghan Wu, Dao-Cheng Wu, William K K Wu, Andreas Wyttenbach, Ramnik J Xavier, Zhijun Xi, Pu Xia, Gengfu Xiao, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Da-zhi Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Ai Yamamoto, Akitsugu Yamamoto, Shunhei Yamashina, Michiaki Yamashita, Xianghua Yan, Mitsuhiro Yanagida, Dun-Sheng Yang, Elizabeth Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Shi Yu Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Zhifen Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Tso-Pang Yao, Behzad Yeganeh, Wei-Lien Yen, Jia-Jing Yin, Xiao-Ming Yin, Ook-Joon Yoo, Gyesoon Yoon, Seung-Yong Yoon, Tomohiro Yorimitsu, Yuko Yoshikawa, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Kohki Yoshimoto, Ho Jin You, Richard J Youle, Anas Younes, Li Yu, Long Yu, Seong-Woon Yu, Wai Haung Yu, Zhi-Min Yuan, Zhenyu Yue, Cheol-Heui Yun, Michisuke Yuzaki, Olga Zabirnyk, Elaine Silva-Zacarin, David Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Zahra Zakeri, Herbert J Zeh, Scott O Zeitlin, Hong Zhang, Hui-Ling Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Mantong Zhao, Yi-Fang Zhao, Ying Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Changlian Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xiao-feng Zhu, Xiongwei Zhu, Yuangang Zhu, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Jürgen Zschocke, Brian Zuckerbraun.
Autophagy
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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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Slope on proximal tibiofibular articular surface with 3-D reconstruction by 64-slice computed tomography on human.
Orthop Surg
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Using 64-slice spiral CT to reconstruct virtual knee joints of adults, we measured the gradient of proximal tibia-fibular joint and compared this result with bare joint measurement. We then discuss the accuracy of these measurements using a 64-slice spiral CT.
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Sorting nexin Snx41 is essential for conidiation and mediates glutathione-based antioxidant defense during invasive growth in Magnaporthe oryzae.
Autophagy
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The sorting nexins Atg20/Snx42 and Snx41 regulate membrane traffic and endosomal protein sorting and are essential for Cvt and/or pexophagy in yeast. Previously, we showed that macroautophagy is necessary for conidiation in the rice-blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Here, we analyzed the physiological function(s) of selective autophagy in Magnaporthe through targeted deletion of MGG_12832, an ortholog of yeast SNX41 and ATG20/SNX42. Loss of MGG_12832 (hereafter SNX41) abolished conidia formation and pathogenesis in M. oryzae. Snx41-GFP localized as dynamic puncta or short tubules that are partially associated with autophagosomes and/or autophagic vacuoles. PX domain, but not macroautophagy per se, was required for such localization of Snx41-GFP in Magnaporthe. Although not required for nonselective autophagy, Snx41 was essential for pexophagy in Magnaporthe. We identified Oxp1, an ATP-dependent oxoprolinase in the gamma-glutamyl cycle, as a binding partner and potential retrieval target of Snx41-dependent protein sorting. The substrate of Oxp1, 5-oxoproline, could partially restore conidiation in the snx41?. Exogenous glutathione, a product of the gamma-glutamyl cycle, significantly restored pathogenicity in the snx41? mutant, likely through counteracting the oxidative stress imposed by the host. We propose that the gamma-glutamyl cycle and glutathione biosynthesis are subject to regulation by Snx41-dependent vesicular trafficking, and mediate antioxidant defense crucial for in planta growth and pathogenic differentiation of Magnaporthe at the onset of blast disease in rice.
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Analyses of 2-DEG characteristics in GaN HEMT with AlN/GaN super-lattice as barrier layer grown by MOCVD.
Nanoscale Res Lett
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GaN-based high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with AlN/GaN super-lattices (SLs) (4 to 10 periods) as barriers were prepared on (0001) sapphire substrates. An innovative method of calculating the concentration of two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) was brought up when AlN/GaN SLs were used as barriers. With this method, the energy band structure of AlN/GaN SLs was analyzed, and it was found that the concentration of 2-DEG is related to the thickness of AlN barrier and the thickness of the period; however, it is independent of the total thickness of the AlN/GaN SLs. In addition, we consider that the sheet carrier concentration in every SL period is equivalent and the 2-DEG concentration measured by Hall effect is the average value in one SL period. The calculation result fitted well with the experimental data. So, we proposed that our method can be conveniently applied to calculate the 2-DEG concentration of HEMT with the AlN/GaN SL barrier.
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EphB3 suppresses non-small-cell lung cancer metastasis via a PP2A/RACK1/Akt signalling complex.
Nat Commun
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Eph receptors are implicated in regulating the malignant progression of cancer. Here we find that despite overexpression of EphB3 in human non-small-cell lung cancer, as reported previously, the expression of its cognate ligands, either ephrin-B1 or ephrin-B2, is significantly downregulated, leading to reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of EphB3. Forced activation of EphB3 kinase in EphB3-overexpressing non-small-cell lung cancer cells inhibits cell migratory capability in vitro as well as metastatic seeding in vivo. Furthermore, we identify a novel EphB3-binding protein, the receptor for activated C-kinase 1, which mediates the assembly of a ternary signal complex comprising protein phosphatase 2A, Akt and itself in response to EphB3 activation, leading to reduced Akt phosphorylation and subsequent inhibition of cell migration. Our study reveals a novel tumour-suppressive signalling pathway associated with kinase-activated EphB3 in non-small-cell lung cancer, and provides a potential therapeutic strategy by activating EphB3 signalling, thus inhibiting tumour metastasis.
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RACK1 promotes non-small-cell lung cancer tumorigenicity through activating sonic hedgehog signaling pathway.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a deadly disease due to lack of effective diagnosis biomarker and therapeutic target. Much effort has been made in defining gene defects in NSCLC, but its full molecular pathogenesis remains unexplored. Here, we found RACK1 (receptor of activated kinase 1) was elevated in most NSCLC, and its expression level correlated with key pathological characteristics including tumor differentiation, stage, and metastasis. In addition, RACK1 activated sonic hedgehog signaling pathway by interacting with and activating Smoothened to mediate Gli1-dependent transcription in NSCLC cells. And silencing RACK1 dramatically inhibited in vivo tumor growth and metastasis by blocking the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. These results suggest that RACK1 represents a new promising diagnosis biomarker and therapeutic target for NSCLC.
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RACK1 suppresses gastric tumorigenesis by stabilizing the ?-catenin destruction complex.
Gastroenterology
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Dysregulation of Wnt signaling has been involved in gastric tumorigenesis by mechanisms that are not fully understood. The receptor for activated protein kinase C (RACK1, GNB2L1) is involved in development of different tumor types, but its expression and function have not been investigated in gastric tumors.
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MicroRNA-663 Induces Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Transformation and Predicts Clinical Recurrence.
J. Cell. Physiol.
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Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and its treatment are challenging issues in prostate cancer management. Here, we report that miR-663 is upregulated in CRPC tissues. Overexpression of miR-663 in prostate LNCaP cells promotes cell proliferation and invasion, neuroendocrine differentiation, and reduction in dihydrotestosterone-induced upregulation of prostate-specific antigen expression. Furthermore, results of in situ hybridization show that miR-663 expression is correlated with Gleason score and TNM stage and is an independent prognostic predictor of clinical recurrence. Together, these findings suggest that miR-663 is a potential oncomiR for CRPC and may serve as a tumor biomarker for the early diagnosis of CRPC. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.